Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Atrial Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.Atrial Pressure: The pressure within the CARDIAC ATRIUM. It can be measured directly by using a pressure catheter (see HEART CATHETERIZATION). It can be also estimated using various imaging techniques or other pressure readings such as PULMONARY CAPILLARY WEDGE PRESSURE (an estimate of left atrial pressure) and CENTRAL VENOUS PRESSURE (an estimate of right atrial pressure).Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Atrial Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Heart, Artificial: A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Catheterization, Swan-Ganz: Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Valsalva Maneuver: Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Mitral Valve Stenosis: Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the RIGHT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the TRICUSPID VALVE.Assisted Circulation: Pumping that aids the natural activity of the heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.Mitral Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Ventricular Dysfunction, Right: A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.Urocortins: Neuropeptides of about 40 amino acids which are structurally similar to CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR. Unlike CRF acting primarily through type 1 CRF RECEPTORS, urocortins signal preferentially through type 2 CRF receptors. Urocortins have wide tissue distribution from fish to mammals, and diverse functions. In mammals, urocortins can suppress food intake, delays gastric emptying, and decreases heat-induced edema.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Pericarditis, Constrictive: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Adrenomedullin: A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Portal Pressure: The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Tricuspid Valve: The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Lower Body Negative Pressure: External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure: A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Sphygmomanometers: Instruments for measuring arterial blood pressure consisting of an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb, and a gauge showing the blood pressure. (Stedman, 26th ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.

Left atrial myxoma-influence of tumour size on electrocardiographic findings. (1/8)

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Hemodynamic, hormonal, and renal effects of (pro)renin receptor blockade in experimental heart failure. (2/8)

BACKGROUND: The (pro)renin receptor (P)RR is implicated in blood pressure regulation and the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). The effects of (P)RR blockade in HF have not been previously investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight sheep received on 2 separate days a vehicle control and incremental intravenous boluses of a (P)RR antagonist, ovine handle region peptide (HRP) (1, 5, and 25 mg at 90-minute intervals), both before (normal) and after induction of HF by rapid left ventricular pacing. In normal sheep, HRP reduced heart rate (P<0.001) and hematocrit (P=0.019) compared with time-matched control data, without significantly affecting any other hemodynamic, hormonal, or renal variables. In sheep with HF, HRP treatment induced progressive falls in mean arterial pressure (P<0.001) in association with decreases in left atrial pressure (P<0.001), peripheral resistance (P=0.014), and hematocrit (P<0.001). Cardiac contractility tended to decline (P=0.096), whereas cardiac output was unaltered. HRP administration produced a dose-dependent decrease in plasma renin activity (P=0.004), with similar trends observed for plasma angiotensin II and aldosterone (P=0.093 and P=0.088, respectively). Circulating natriuretic peptides, endothelin-1, and catecholamine levels were unchanged. HRP also induced a reduction in plasma sodium concentrations relative to control (P=0.024), a natriuresis (P=0.046), and a tendency for creatinine excretion and clearance to improve. CONCLUSIONS: (P)RR antagonism in experimental HF resulted in cardiovascular and renal benefits in association with inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. These findings suggest that (P)RR contributes to pressure/volume regulation in HF and identifies the receptor as a potential therapeutic target in this disease.  (+info)

An angiographic technique for coronary fractional flow reserve measurement: in vivo validation. (3/8)

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Pulmonary circulation at exercise. (4/8)

The pulmonary circulation is a high-flow and low-pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg/min/L in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg/min/L over four to six decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20 to 25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40 to 50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease.  (+info)

Relationship of right- to left-sided ventricular filling pressures in advanced heart failure: insights from the ESCAPE trial. (5/8)

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Myocardial infarction and atrial fibrillation: importance of atrial ischemia. (6/8)

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A porcine model for acute ischaemic right ventricular dysfunction. (7/8)

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Echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary artery systolic pressure and outcomes in ambulatory heart failure patients. (8/8)

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Poster: ECR 2018 / C-2950 / Thrombus length measured by NECT and angiographic techniques (CTA, DSA) and its relationship to recanalization rate and neurological outcome in patients showing MCA occlussion treated with mechanical thrombectomy with stent retrievers. by: J. Escartín López1, Y. Cepeda2, A. Royuela3, G. Martinelli2, C. DE LA ROSA2, L. Esteban3, A. Vega3, P. J. Ruiz3, J. carneado3; 1Majadahonda, Madrid/ES, 2Majadahonda/ES, 3Madrid/ES
The radius of the pulmonary arteries and of the descending thoracic aorta in man was measured by angiographic techniques. Simultaneously with angiocardiography, pressure measurements were carried out, permitting calculation of radius-pressure (ΔR/ΔP) relationships. The results obtained by this method are similar to those obtained by other methods in which the vessel radius was measured more directly.. ...
Therefore we expect some symptoms since. No studies indication that will be closed or not, if there were no previous symptoms must be must be chosen with precision PFOS, the coordination between neurologists and cardiologists to confirm a a contrast event created with this level of PFO. In this sense, to pay great attention ahs to the most vulnerable, such as divers, since the presence of this defect can cause serious problems for the pursuit of such activities lead.. SuitabilityThere are a number of methods in the percutaneous treatment of congenital heart defects used. Specifically, a number of years, the cardiac intervention unit is the Amplatzer occluder system for closure of the patent included duct This involves a very simple process with angiographic techniques performed, ie no ecographer or anaestheticians required.. Male cells male cells the enzyme phospholipase D is less active than in the female is. Interestingly, the activity of the enzyme with testosterone with testosterone ...
Noninvasive pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) is calculated by summing the right ventricular systolic pressure obtained from Doppler velocity of regurgitant flow through the tricuspid valve and the right atrial (RA) pressure. The RA pressure is generally assumed from different formulas. An accurate KA pressure estimation will add precision to PASP calculation. One of the methods to estimate RA pressure is the inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVCCI). In 45 patients referred for right heart catheterization, the authors tested a formula for the calculation of PASP based on the estimation of RA pressure from IVCCI and compared this method with two other formulas. ...
by PWeekly , Aug 9, 2012. New research was presented at ASE 2012, the American Society of Echocardiographys 23rd Annual Scientific Sessions, from June 30 to July 3 in Maryland. The features below highlight just some of the studies that emerged from the conference. Echocardiograms for Diagnosing Pulmonary Hypertension The Particulars: Patients with stable heart failure who have high pulmonary artery systolic pressure are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. A reliable method is needed for measuring pulmonary artery systolic pressure in this patient population. Data Breakdown: Emory University researchers used echocardiography to diagnose pulmonary hypertension- defined as pulmonary artery systolic pressure higher than 45 mm Hg-in stable outpatients with heart failure. Echocardiography was found to strongly predict higher risk of clinical events. The testing also helped determine which patients would have higher hospitalization rates. Take Home Pearl: Pulmonary artery systolic pressure as ...
We read with great interest the article by MacDonald and Struthers (1) in a recent issue of the Journal.The article reports that potassium depletion is important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and sudden cardiac death. The authors suggest that avoiding hypokalemia is beneficial in several cardiovascular disease states, including acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and hypertension. The data linking hypokalemia with arrhythmia and cardiac arrest in acute myocardial infarction are fairly strong (2-4).. We want to add atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardiac surgery to the list of cardiovascular diseases where electrolyte imbalance may play an important pathogenetic role. Although the etiology of AF after heart surgery is incompletely understood, stimuli and triggers such as pre-existing structural changes of the atria related to hypertension, mechanical damage, volume overload, age, intraoperative atrial ischemia, and pericardial lesions are thought to play a role in the ...
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Solid phase sandwich ELISA for the determination of soluble (Pro)renin receptor in human serum, EDTA-plasma, and urine. This kit can also be used for the determination of soluble (Pro)renin receptor in mouse and rat serum, EDTA-plasma, and cell culture.
Indoxyl sulfate-induced activation of (pro)renin receptor is involved in expression of TGF-β1 and α-smooth muscle actin in proximal tubular cells.: Activation o
Pressures[edit]. Partial Wiggers diagram.. Red = aortic pressure. Blue = left ventricular pressure. Yellow = left atrial ... An elevated pressure difference between the aortic pressure and the left ventricular pressure may be indicative of aortic ... Right ventricular pressure demonstrates a different pressure-volume loop than left ventricular pressure.[11] ... ventricular pressure is less than the pressure in the aorta, but during systole, the ventricular pressure rapidly increases, ...
Atrial pressure is a surrogate for preload. Quantitatively, preload can be calculated as L V E D P ⋅ L V E D R 2 h {\ ... Preload is measured in pressure units (mm Hg). Preload is affected by venous blood pressure and the rate of venous return. ... Intrathoracic pressure decreases during inspiration and abdominal pressure increases, squeezing local abdominal veins, allowing ... Parameters such as ventricular end diastolic volume or pressure are used to measure preload since the ideal length of the ...
So called "high normal blood pressure" increases risk of cardiovascular disease (high normal blood pressure is called ... Some genes increase risk of atrial fibrillation. Risk of poor memory is increased in middle aged men and women if the parents ... it is defined as a systolic pressure of 120-139 mm Hg and/or a diastolic pressure of 80-89 mm Hg). Lifetime risk of developing ... Elevated blood pressure increases risk of stroke. In women who are postmenopausal, risk of heart disease is increased, compared ...
"Comparison of the Microlife blood pressure monitor with the Omron blood pressure monitor for detecing atrial fibrilation". ... "Comparison of the Microlife Blood Pressure Monitor With the Omron Blood Pressure Monitor for Detecting Atrial Fibrillation". ... One study indicated that the Microlife blood pressure monitor had a sensitivity for detecting atrial fibrillation of 100%, a ... "Diagnostic accuracy of a home blood pressure monitor to detect atrial fibrillation". Journal of Human Hypertension. 23: 654-658 ...
An irregular pulse may be due to sinus arrhythmia, ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, atrial ... Diastolic blood pressure is non-palpable and unobservable by tactile methods, occurring between heartbeats. Pressure waves ... It is a rough measure of systolic blood pressure. It corresponds to diastolic blood pressure. A low tension pulse (pulsus ... This has a reason: the finger closest to the heart is used to occlude the pulse pressure, the middle finger is used get a crude ...
Hypertension, or abnormally high blood pressure, often signifies an elevated level of both psychological and physiological ... Premature atrial contractions (PACs), also known as atrial premature complexes (APC) or atrial premature beats (APB), are a ... Often, hypertension goes hand in hand with various atrial fibrillations including premature atrial contractions (PACs).[5] ... PACs can trigger a more serious arrhythmia such as atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation.[7] In otherwise healthy people, PACs ...
These effects directly act together to increase blood pressure and are opposed by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). ... This in turn leads to a decreased hydrostatic pressure and increased oncotic pressure (due to unfiltered plasma proteins) in ... The effect of decreased hydrostatic pressure and increased oncotic pressure in the peritubular capillaries will facilitate ... The system can be activated when there is a loss of blood volume or a drop in blood pressure (such as in hemorrhage or ...
With support from collagen, atrial fibrillation should never deteriorate to ventricular fibrillation. Collagen is layered in ... Individual cardiac valvular leaflets are folded into shape by specialized collagen under variable pressure. Gradual calcium ... of cardiac performance summarily represents a continuous torsional force opposed to the fluid mechanics of blood pressure ...
Warfarin is used if atrial fibrillation is present. Other medications may be necessary in order to suppress high blood pressure ... and increases or decreases in the patients average blood pressure. It is the clinical manifestation resulting from occlusion of ...
"The relationship between pulmonary artery wedge pressure and left atrial pressure in man". Circ. Res. 2 (5): 434-440. doi: ... and calculated by subtracting pulmonary capillary wedge pressure from the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and dividing by the ... The effect of anti-blackout suits on blood pressure changes produced on the human centrifuge. Fed Proc. 1946;5(1 Pt 2):115. ... Wood, EH; Leusen, IR; Warner, HR; Wright, JL (July 1954). "Measurement of pressures in man by cardiac catheters". Circ Res. 2 ( ...
A left atrial myxoma will cause an increase in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. The differential diagnosis include other ... An atrial myxoma may create an extra heart sound, audible to auscultation just after S2 It is most seen on echocardiography, as ... Atrial myxoma Cutaneous myxoma Odontogenic myxoma Myxomas are usually located in either the left or right atrium of the heart; ... The surgeon removes the myxoma, along with at least 5 surrounding millimeters of atrial septum. The septum is then repaired, ...
Nicotine can cause high blood pressure and abnormal heart rhythms. Vapers that get a higher amount of blood nicotine are ... A 2012 case report found a correlation between paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and vaping. Comparable to a traditional cigarette ... Prenatal exposure has been associated with obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure in minors. Prenatal ... More serious effects were bradycardia, hypotension, nausea, respiratory paralysis, atrial fibrillation and dyspnea. The exact ...
The pressures where there is a steep relationship lie within the normal range of right atrial pressure (RAP) found in the ... At low right atrial pressures this graph serves as a graphic demonstration of the Frank-Starling mechanism, that is as more ... This allows the heart to cope with the required cardiac output at a relatively low right atrial pressure. We get what is known ... A cardiac function curve is a graph showing the relationship between right atrial pressure (x-axis) and cardiac output (y-axis ...
"Measurement of pulmonary pressures and pulmonary resistance: is Doppler ready for prime time?". J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 26: 1178 ... Kelly, Natalie F; Walters, Darren; Hourigan, Lisa; Burstow, Darryl J; Scalia, Gregory M (2010). "The Relative Atrial Index (RAI ... Via the modified Bernoulli equation, velocity is routinely converted to pressure gradient for use in clinical cardiology ... Diasatolic dysfunction algorithms use complex combinations of these numeric models to estimate intra-cardiac filling pressures ...
Drinking more than this amount; however, increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and ...
... the atrial volume receptors). The low-pressure baroreceptors are involved with the regulation of blood volume. The blood volume ... They sense the blood pressure and relay the information to the brain, so that a proper blood pressure can be maintained. ... The baroreceptors can identify the changes in both the average blood pressure or the rate of change in pressure with each ... When baroreceptors are not working, blood pressure continues to increase, but, within an hour, the blood pressure returns to ...
In the hospital, the victim was found to have a fast, irregular heartbeat with a blood pressure of 111/63. A subsequent ECG ... The victim in this case study was given an oral dose of propafenone (150 mg) and his atrial fibrillation resolved. Hornet ... "A rare cause of atrial fibrillation: a European hornet sting". Anatolian Journal of Cardiology. 11 (6): 559-560. doi:10.5152/ ... demonstrated atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response. V. crabro venom contains neurotransmitters such as dopamine ...
Atrial natriuretic peptide is released by the heart in response to high blood pressure and high salinity of the blood. It is an ... In addition, it inhibits pathways such as the renin-aldostrone-angiotensin pathway which raise blood pressure.[5] ... This region is important in cardiovascular, blood pressure, and blood composition regulation, and receives inputs from the ... The median preoptic nucleus is highly involved in cardiovascular regulation, including the release of atrial natriuretic ...
One of Microlife's technologies is the atrial fibrillation detection incorporated into their blood pressure monitors. Their ... "Validation of the Microlife BP W200-1 wrist device for blood pressure measurement". Blood Pressure Monitoring. 13 (5). doi: ... "產業新鮮事/醫材 百略血壓機獲獎 (Industry novelty medical material Palladium blood pressure machine winners" (in Chinese). UDN.com. Retrieved ... "CRADLE (Community blood pressure monitoring in Rural Africa: Detection of underLying pre-Eclampsia)". Pre-Empt. Retrieved 23 ...
This change in pressure pushes the septum primum against the atrial septum, closing the foramen. The septum primum and atrial ... As a result, pressure in the left atrium is higher than that of the right, and the increased pressure holds the interatrial ... With enough pressure, blood may travel from the right atrium to the left. If there is a clot in the right side of the heart, it ... If the atrial septum does not close properly, it leads to a patent foramen ovale (PFO). This type of defect generally works ...
During atrial systole, blood flows from the atria to the ventricles down the pressure gradient. Chordae tendineae are relaxed ... Since the blood pressure in atria is much lower than that in the ventricles, the flaps attempt to evert to the low pressure ... When the ventricles of the heart contract in ventricular systole, the increased blood pressures in both chambers push the AV ...
absence of left atrial (LA) hypertension *pulmonary artery wedge pressure , 18 mmHg (obtained by pulmonary artery ... Positive end-expiratory pressure[edit]. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is used in mechanically ventilated people with ... Recent research has shown that the LIP-point pressure is no better than any pressure above it, as recruitment of collapsed ... if no measured LA pressure available, there must be no other clinical evidence to suggest elevated left heart pressure. ...
An analog of GLP-1 has been shown to exert a blood pressure-lowering effect by stimulation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) ... "GLP-1 receptor activation and Epac2 link atrial natriuretic peptide secretion to control of blood pressure". Nature Medicine. ... Epac2 also is involved in GLP-1-stimulated atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion from heart. As Epac2 is involved in many ...
This holds true even during atrial diastole, when the pressure is significantly less than atrial systole. The septum primum is ... Foramen secundum atrial septal defects are the most common atrial septal defects. This defect can arise as a result of defects ... The repair can be made by suturing the atrial septum or, if the foramen secundum is large in size, a patch can be made from the ... Operative closure of atrial septal defects after age 40, and the ability to diminish symptoms at all remains controversial. ...
These are rise in pulse rate, fall in systolic blood pressure and ST-T changes in the electrocardiogram. The other rare E.C.G. ... changes include deformity of QRS complexes, prolongation of PR interval, atrial premature beats, and atrial tachycardia. In ... Patients receiving emetine should be monitored for changes in pulse, blood pressure and electrocardiography. Absolute bed rest ...
Since no blood can get out to the rest of the body, the person's blood pressure drops and they can go into shock. A saddle ... A type of abnormal heart rhythm called atrial fibrillation ("A-fib"). *Recent surgery (after surgery, the body's blood clotting ...
Device: Left Atrial Pressure Monitoring System Left atrial lead is placed for ambulatory monitoring of left atrial pressure ... Left Atrial Pressure Monitoring to Optimize Heart Failure Therapy. Official Title ICMJE Left Atrial Pressure Monitoring to ... Experimental: Left Atrial Pressure Monitoring System Left Atrial Pressure (LAP) Monitoring System ... Left Atrial Pressure Monitoring to Optimize Heart Failure Therapy (LAPTOP-HF). This study has been completed. ...
The Effects of Atrial Fibrillation on Atrial Pressure- Volume and Flow Relationships Cached. * ... atrial fibrillation atrial pressure volume flow relationship circulation research copyright clearance center published article ... title = {The Effects of Atrial Fibrillation on Atrial Pressure- Volume and Flow Relationships},. year = {}. }. ...
Heart Implant Measures Left Atrial Pressure to Monitor Heart Failure. February 8th, 2019 Medgadget Editors Cardiac Surgery, ... Left atrial pressure (LAP) is an an important parameter for evaluating heart health, particularly when trying to detect ... The V-LAP monitoring device allows patients to take measurements of the left atrial pressure at any time, which is done with ... The V-LAP system is probably the only product available to provide left atrial pressure monitoring as needed and outside the ...
Atrial Pressure-Flow Dynamics in Atrial Septal Defects (Secundum Type). AARON R. LEVIN, MADISON S. SPACH, JOHN P. BOINEAU, ... Atrial Pressure-Flow Dynamics in Atrial Septal Defects (Secundum Type). AARON R. LEVIN, MADISON S. SPACH, JOHN P. BOINEAU, ... Atrial Pressure-Flow Dynamics in Atrial Septal Defects (Secundum Type). AARON R. LEVIN, MADISON S. SPACH, JOHN P. BOINEAU, ... Simultaneous right and left atrial pressures and the pressure difference (determined with an analog computer) were recorded ...
Many common drugs can affect blood pressure and increase aFib risk, which Sharecares chief doctor Darria Long-Gillespie, MD, ... High blood pressure is a major risk factor for atrial fibrillation, a racing, irregular heartbeat. ... With Atrial Fibrillation, Watch Your Blood Pressure (1:19) High blood pressure is a major risk factor for atrial fibrillation, ... Video / Heart Health / Atrial Fibrillation / With Atrial Fibrillation, Watch Your Blood Pressure ...
Right atrial pressure (RAP) is the blood pressure in the right atrium of the heart. RAP reflects the amount of blood returning ... where central venous pressure increases, but right atrial pressure stays the same; VR = CVP − RAP). Factors that increase RAP ... This can be graphically depicted as changes in the slope of the venous return plotted against right atrial pressure ( ... Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts Cardiovascular Physiology Right Atrial Pressure at the US National Library of Medicine ...
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... atrial fibrillation, aspirin - Answer: Yes, this could be used for both high blood ... ... high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, aspirin, atenolol, prevention of thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation, blood ... Hi, Is Atenolol used for High Blood Pressure and Atrial Fibrillation?? I have been on Atenolol?. Asked. 3 Aug 2012 by ... Prevention of Thromboembolism in Atrial Fibrillation - I have atrial fib and have been placed on?. Posted 22 Sep 2009 • 1 ...
This study was conducted to correlate deceleration time of pulmonary venous diastolic wave, DT(D), and left atrial pressure ( ... As a predictor of left atrial pressure.. Reddy BG1, Singh NG1, Nagaraja PS1, Subhash S2, Prabhushankar CG1, Manjunatha N1, ... time of the pulmonary venous diastolic flow has been well-correlated with invasive pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in ...
As left atrial pressure rises to maintain adequate left ventricular diastolic filling, increased atrial wall tension tends to ... Left Atrial Distensibility and Left Ventricular Filling Pressure in Acute Myocardial Infarction. The safety and scientific ... Left atrial distensibility. left ventricular filling pressure. tissue Doppler. prognosis. acute myocardial infarction. ... Usefulness of Left Atrial Distensibility to Assess Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and to Predict Prognosis in Acute ...
... mounting a new push to overturn the UK National Screening Committees decision to rule out a GP screening programme for atrial ... Last year Pulse revealed that GP practices could be offered incentives through QOF to screen elderly people for atrial ... The evidence review also highlighted concerns over the available test and the quality of current treatment pathways for atrial ... The white paper, Screening for Atrial Fibrillation, A Report of the AF-SCREEN International Collaboration, has 60 contributing ...
The right atrial pressure bore no constant relationship to the left atrial pressure in 61% of the patients and there was no ... Left and right atrial pressures were monitored in 100 patients undergoing open heart surgery for acquired valvular disease of ... We believe that it is imperative to measure both right and left atrial pressures if post-operative management after cardiac ... The necessity for measurement of left atrial pressure after cardiac valve surgery ...
To investigate the hypothesis that higher levels of blood pressure would further promote the hypercoagulable state in atrial ... 8365376 - Atrial stretch induces rapid increase in brain natriuretic peptide but not in atrial na.... 1340436 - Atrial ... Atrial Fibrillation / blood, physiopathology*. Blood Coagulation / physiology*. Blood Pressure / physiology*. Chronic Disease. ... To investigate the hypothesis that higher levels of blood pressure would further promote the hypercoagulable state in atrial ...
Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured by AO and beat-to-beat BP using a validated ... The primary aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of automated oscillometry (AO) in outpatients with atrial fibrillation ... AF). The secondary aim was to explore whether AO accuracy is influenced by beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) variability or ...
Left atrial pressure is associated with iatrogenic atrial septal defect after mitral valve clip ... Left atrial pressure is associated with iatrogenic atrial septal defect after mitral valve clip ... Results TTE at 1 month showed persistent iASD in 57% (1M-iASD). Mean LA pressure after clip was significantly higher in ... Logistic regression analysis, however, showed that mean LA pressure after clip was significantly associated with persistent ...
Consequently, forward systolic venous flow is reduced in atrial fibrillation regardless of the atrial pressure. This is true ... Furthermore, mean pulmonary occlusive pressure is an index of mean left atrial pressure and is therefore clinically important ... Pressure Measurements. Pressures and echocardiographic/Doppler recordings were made simultaneously. All pressures were measured ... beat variability in transmitral velocity is greater when the mean left atrial pressure is normal and less when the pressure is ...
Left atrial distensibility and left ventricular filling pressure in acute versus chronic severe mitral regurgitation. Am J ... Left Atrial Distensibility to Predict Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Prognosis in Patients With Severe Mitral ... Left Atrial Distensibility to Predict Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Prognosis in Patients With Severe Mitral ... Left atrial distensibility. Left ventricular filling pressure. Severe mitral regurgitation. Prognosis. Post-operation (mitral ...
... in young patients with isolated atrial septal defect (ASD) or ventricular septal defect (VSD). An abnormal RVPR ,50 mm Hg ... Our study investigated the abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response (RVPR) ... Blood Pressure*. Case-Control Studies. Echocardiography. Exercise Test*. Female. Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / physiopathology ... Our study investigated the abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response (RVPR) in young patients with isolated atrial ...
Detection of atrial fibrillation using a modified Microlife blood pressure monitor. Am J Hypertens 2009;22:848-52. doi:10.1038/ ... Diagnostic accuracy of a home blood pressure monitor to detect atrial fibrillation. J Hum Hypertens 2009;23:654-8. doi:10.1038/ ... A blood pressure (BP) monitor with an atrial fibrillation (AF) detecting algorithm was tested in an unselected population ... Screening for asymptomatic atrial fibrillation while monitoring the blood pressure at home: trial of regular versus irregular ...
Keywords: diagnostic performance; left atrial pressure; NT-pro BNP; persistent atrial fibrillation ... Diagnostic performance of the N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide to detect an increased left atrial pressure in patients ... Diagnostic performance of the N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide to detect an increased left atrial pressure in patients ... Diagnostic performance of the N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide to detect an increased left atrial pressure in patients ...
Abstract 703: Usefulness of Dual Doppler System in Estimating Left Ventricular Filling Pressure in Patients with Atrial ... Abstract 703: Usefulness of Dual Doppler System in Estimating Left Ventricular Filling Pressure in Patients with Atrial ... Abstract 703: Usefulness of Dual Doppler System in Estimating Left Ventricular Filling Pressure in Patients with Atrial ... Abstract 703: Usefulness of Dual Doppler System in Estimating Left Ventricular Filling Pressure in Patients with Atrial ...
Blood Pressure Control and Risk of Stroke or Systemic Embolism in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Results From the Apixaban ... BACKGROUND: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and hypertension are at high risk for stroke. Previous studies have shown ... elevated risk of stroke in patients with AF who have a history of hypertension (regardless of blood pressure [BP] control) and ... for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) Trial. Rao, Meena P ...
... enlargement to elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in patients with WHO Group II pulmonary hypertension (PH) has ... Background The contribution of progressive left atrial (LA) ... Left atrium/left atrial (LA) Atrial myopathy Heart failure (HF ... Association of echocardiographic atrial size and atrial fibrosis in a sequential model of congestive heart failure and atrial ... Is the left atrial v. wave the determinant of peak pulmonary artery pressure in patients with pure mitral stenosis? Am J ...
Femoral vein hemostasis after cryoballoon ablation for AF is routinely achieved with manual pressure (MP) after reversal of ... AbstractIntroductionCryoballoon ablation is commonly used to treat atrial fibrillation (AF). ... Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion in the Management of Stroke in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation ... A randomized comparison of manual pressure versus figure ‐of‐eight suture for hemostasis after cryoballoon ablation for atrial ...
An Analysis of Normal and Abnormal Left Atrial Pressure Pulse in Man. JAY L. ANKENEY, ALFRED P. FISHMAN, HARRY W. FRITTS ... An Analysis of Normal and Abnormal Left Atrial Pressure Pulse in Man ... An Analysis of Normal and Abnormal Left Atrial Pressure Pulse in Man ... An Analysis of Normal and Abnormal Left Atrial Pressure Pulse in Man ...
  • Many common drugs can affect blood pressure and increase aFib risk, which Sharecare's chief doctor Darria Long-Gillespie, MD, discusses in this video. (sharecare.com)
  • The message for high-blood-pressure patients is that by preventing or reversing enlarged heart, there is an added benefit, over and above any reduction in blood pressure, of lowering risk for afib,' says the study's principal investigator, Dr. Peter Okin, director of clinical affairs and professor of medicine in the Greenberg Division of Cardiology at Weill Cornell Medical College and attending physician at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell. (nyp.org)
  • These findings underline the importance of using the ECG with Cornell product criteria to assess risk of developing afib in patients with high blood pressure,' adds Dr. Okin. (nyp.org)
  • Eat foods low in sugar and salt and watch your weight to lower your blood sugar and blood pressure -- and your risk of AFib complications. (webmd.com)
  • BPM Core is a revolutionary smart blood pressure monitor that, for the first time, integrates an electrocardiogram and a digital stethoscope to detect Afib and valvular heart disease risk-and does all three measurements in just 90 seconds. (withings.com)
  • Is it safe to take Mucinex DM if a 94 year old woman with high blood pressure and Afib? (drugs.com)
  • High blood pressure, the risk for which also increases with advancing age, accounts for about 1 in 5 cases of AFib. (cdc.gov)
  • Femoral vein hemostasis after cryoballoon ablation for AF is routinely achieved with manual pressure (MP) after reversal of heparin and reassessment of the activated clotting time, or with a figure ‐of‐eight suture (F8). (medworm.com)
  • A team of doctors and mechanical engineers from North Carolina State and Duke universities have been working on a computer controlled atrial ablation catheter that can provide greater articulation with increased precision. (medgadget.com)