Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor: Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.Natriuretic Agents: Endogenous or exogenous chemicals that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body. They consist of peptides and non-peptide compounds.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type: A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Neprilysin: Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.PurinonesRats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Protein PrecursorsNorepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Rh Isoimmunization: The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.Desoxycorticosterone: A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease in which the ventricular walls are excessively rigid, impeding ventricular filling. It is marked by reduced diastolic volume of either or both ventricles but normal or nearly normal systolic function. It may be idiopathic or associated with other diseases (ENDOMYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS or AMYLOIDOSIS) causing interstitial fibrosis.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Sympathectomy, Chemical: Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Enalaprilat: The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESHydrops Fetalis: Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.

A low-affinity serum response element allows other transcription factors to activate inducible gene expression in cardiac myocytes. (1/2854)

Hypertrophic growth of cardiac muscle cells is induced by a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli and is associated with a number of changes, including activation of genes such as atrial natriuretic factor. We found that two serum response element (SRE)-like DNA elements, one of which does not meet the consensus sequence and binds serum response factor (SRF) with low affinity, regulate the activity of this promoter. Surprisingly, the ability to induce the promoter by two different physiologic stimuli, as well as various activated transcription factors, including SRF-VP16, was primarily dependent upon the nonconsensus rather than the consensus SRE. This SRE controls the induction of gene expression via an unusual mechanism in that it is required to allow some, but not all, active transcription factors at unrelated sites on the promoter to stimulate gene expression. Thus, in addition to regulation of SRF activity by growth stimuli, regulation of a low-affinity SRE element controls inducible gene expression by modulating the ability of other transcription factors to stimulate the transcription machinery.  (+info)

Low calorie diet enhances renal, hemodynamic, and humoral effects of exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in obese hypertensives. (2/2854)

The expression of the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor is abundant in human and rat adipose tissue, where it is specifically inhibited by fasting. In obese hypertensives, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were found to be lower than in obese normotensives. Therefore, the increased adipose mass might influence ANP levels and/or its biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the humoral, hemodynamic, and renal effects of exogenous ANP in obese hypertensives might be enhanced by a very low calorie diet. Eight obese hypertensives received a bolus injection of ANP (0.6 mg/kg) after 2 weeks of a normal calorie/normal sodium diet, and blood pressure (BP), heart rate, ANP, cGMP, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone were evaluated for 2 hours before and after the injection. Diuresis and natriuresis were measured every 30 minutes. The patients then started a low calorie/normal sodium diet (510 kcal/150 mmol/d) for 4 days, and then the ANP injection protocol was repeated. The low calorie diet induced a slight weight loss (from 90.6+/-1.1 to 87. 7+/-1.2 kg; P<0.01), which was accompanied by increase of cGMP excretion (from 146.0+/-10.1 to 154.5+/-9.5 nmol/24 h; P<0.05) together with a reduction of BP (P<0.01 versus basal levels). ANP injection after diet was followed by an increase of ANP levels similar to that observed before diet, but plasma cGMP, diuresis, and natriuresis increased significantly only after diet. Similarly, the decrease of BP after ANP administration was significantly higher after diet (change in mean arterial pressure, -6.4+/-0.7 versus -4. 0+/-0.6 mm Hg; P<0.05) as well as that of aldosterone (P<0.01). These data show that a low calorie diet enhances the humoral, renal, and hemodynamic effects of ANP in obese hypertensives and confirm the importance of caloric intake in modulating the biological activity of ANP, suggesting that the natriuretic peptide system can play a role in the acute changes of natriuresis and diuresis associated with caloric restriction.  (+info)

Peri-operative changes in echocardiographic measurements and plasma atrial and brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in 3 dogs with patent ductus arteriosus. (3/2854)

Peri-operative changes in echocardiographic measurements and plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were investigated for 1 month in 3 dogs with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Post-operative left ventricular end-diastolic dimention and fractional shortening decreased in all cases. Pre-operatively increased plasma ANP concentrations reduced dramatically after the operation. Peri-operative changes in plasma BNP levels had slightly S-shaped curves in all cases. These observations suggest that post-operative responsiveness of ANP and cardiac function are rapid in comparison with cardiac morphological changes, and BNP has a different pathophysiological significance from ANP in dogs with PDA.  (+info)

Sperm chemotaxis. (4/2854)

Communication between spermatozoa and egg before contact by chemotaxis appears to be prevalent throughout the animal kingdom. In non-mammalian species, sperm chemotaxis to factors secreted from the egg is well documented. In mammals, sperm chemotaxis to follicular factors in vitro has been established in humans and mice. The attractants of female origin in non-mammalian species are heat-stable peptides or proteins of various sizes, or other small molecules, depending on the species. Species specificity of the attractants in non-mammalian species may vary from high species specificity, through specificity to families with no specificity within a family, to absence of specificity. The mammalian sperm attractants have not been identified but they appear to be heat-stable peptides. The claim that progesterone is the attractant for human spermatozoa has failed to be substantiated, neither have claims for other mammalian sperm attractants been verified. The molecular mechanism of sperm chemotaxis is not known. Models involving modulation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration have been proposed for both mammalian and non-mammalian sperm chemotaxis. The physiological role of sperm chemotaxis in non-mammalian species appears to differ from that in mammals. In non-mammalian species, sperm chemotaxis strives to bring as many spermatozoa as possible to the egg. However, in mammals, the role appears to be recruitment of a selective population of capacitated ('ripe') spermatozoa to fertilize the egg.  (+info)

Physiological variability of fluid-regulation hormones in young women. (5/2854)

We tested the physiological reliability of plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (P[AVP]), aldosterone (P[ALD]), and atrial natriuretic peptide (P[ANP]) in the early follicular phase and midluteal phases over the course of two menstrual cycles (n = 9 women, ages 25 +/- 1 yr). The reliability (Cronbach's alpha >/=0.80) of these hormones within a given phase of the cycle was tested 1) at rest, 2) after 2.5 h of dehydrating exercise, and 3) during a rehydration period. The mean hormone concentrations were similar within both the early follicular and midluteal phase tests; and the mean concentrations of P[ALD] and PRA for the three test conditions were significantly greater during the midluteal compared with the early follicular phase. Although Cronbach's alpha for resting and recovery P[ANP] were high (0.80 and 0.87, respectively), the resting and rehydration values for P[AVP], P[ALD], and PRA were variable between trials for the follicular (alpha from 0.49 to 0.55) and the luteal phase (alpha from 0.25 to 0. 66). Physiological reliability was better after dehydration for P[AVP] and PRA but remained low for P[ALD]. Although resting and recovery P[AVP], P[ALD], and PRA were not consistent within a given menstrual phase, the differences in the concentrations of these hormones between the different menstrual phases far exceeded the variability within the phases, indicating that the low within-phase reliability does not prevent the detection of menstrual phase-related differences in these hormonal variables.  (+info)

Cardiovascular, endocrine, and renal effects of urodilatin in normal humans. (6/2854)

Effects of urodilatin (5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1) infused over 2 h on separate study days were studied in eight normal subjects with use of a randomized, double-blind protocol. All doses decreased renal plasma flow (hippurate clearance, 13-37%) and increased fractional Li+ clearance (7-22%) and urinary Na+ excretion (by 30, 76, 136, and 99% at 5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1, respectively). Glomerular filtration rate did not increase significantly with any dose. The two lowest doses decreased cardiac output (7 and 16%) and stroke volume (10 and 20%) without changing mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The two highest doses elicited larger decreases in stroke volume (17 and 21%) but also decreased blood pressure (6 and 14%) and increased heart rate (15 and 38%), such that cardiac output remained unchanged. Hematocrit and plasma protein concentration increased with the three highest doses. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was inhibited by the three lowest doses but activated by the hypotensive dose of 40 ng. kg-1. min-1. Plasma vasopressin increased by factors of up to 5 during infusion of the three highest doses. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity (including urodilatin) and plasma cGMP increased dose dependently. The urinary excretion rate of albumin was elevated up to 15-fold (37 +/- 17 micrograms/min). Use of a newly developed assay revealed that baseline urinary urodilatin excretion rate was low (<10 pg/min) and that fractional excretion of urodilatin remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate, and that filtered urodilatin is almost completely removed by the renal tubules.  (+info)

Second messenger production in avian medullary nephron segments in response to peptide hormones. (7/2854)

We examined the sites of peptide hormone activation within medullary nephron segments of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) kidney by measuring rates of hormone-induced generation of cyclic nucleotide second messenger. Thin descending limbs, thick ascending limbs, and collecting ducts had baseline activity of adenylyl cyclase that resulted in cAMP accumulation of 207 +/- 56, 147 +/- 31, and 151 +/- 41 fmol. mm-1. 30 min-1, respectively. In all segments, this activity increased 10- to 20-fold in response to forskolin. Activity of adenylyl cyclase in the thin descending limb was stimulated approximately twofold by parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not by any of the other hormones tested [arginine vasotocin (AVT), glucagon, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), or isoproterenol, each at 10(-6) M]. Thick ascending limb was stimulated two- to threefold by both AVT and PTH; however, glucagon and isoproterenol had no effect, and ANP stimulated neither cAMP nor cGMP accumulation. Adenylyl cyclase activity in the collecting duct was stimulated fourfold by AVT but not by the other hormones; likewise, ANP did not stimulate cGMP accumulation in this segment. These data support a tubular action of AVT and PTH in the avian renal medulla.  (+info)

cGMP-dependent and -independent inhibition of a K+ conductance by natriuretic peptides: molecular and functional studies in human proximal tubule cells. (8/2854)

In immortalized human kidney epithelial (IHKE-1) cells derived from proximal tubules, two natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR) were identified. In addition to NPR-A, which is bound by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and urodilatin (URO), a novel form of NPR-B that might be bound by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) was identified using PCR. This novel splice variant of NPR-B (NPR-Bi) was also found in human kidney. Whereas ANP, BNP, and URO increased intracellular cGMP levels in IHKE-1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, CNP had no effect on cGMP levels. To determine the physiologic responses to these agonists in IHKE-1 cells, the membrane voltage (Vm) was monitored using the slow whole-cell patch-clamp technique. ANP (10 nM), BNP (10 nM), and URO (16 nM) depolarized these cells by 3 to 4 mV (n = 47, 7, and 16, respectively), an effect that could be mimicked by 0.1 mM 8-Br-cGMP (n = 15). The effects of ANP and 8-Br-cGMP were not additive (n = 4). CNP (10 nM) also depolarized these cells, by 3+/-1 mV (n = 28), despite the absence of an increase in cellular cGMP levels, indicating a cGMP-independent mechanism. In the presence of CNP, 8-Br-cGMP further depolarized Vm significantly, by 1.6+/-0.3 mV (n = 5). The depolarizations by ANP were completely abolished in the presence of Ba2+ (1 mM, n = 4) and thus can be related to inhibition of a K+ conductance in the luminal membrane of IHKE-1 cells. The depolarizations attributable to CNP were completely blocked when genistein (10 microM, n = 6), an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, was present. These findings indicate that natriuretic peptides regulate electrogenic transport processes via cGMP-dependent and -independent pathways that influence the Vm of IHKE-1 cells.  (+info)

1. The effect of a α-human atrial natriuretic peptide (1-28) (ANP) on human vasculature was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Possible involvement of vascular dopamine receptors and the renin-angiotensin system in the response to ANP was also studied in vivo.. 2. Forearm blood blow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Isolated human blood vessels were studied using conventional organ bath techniques.. 3. ANP (0.1-1 μg/min, intra-arterially) produced a dose-dependent increase in forearm blood flow, corresponding to a 163% increase in net forearm blood flow in the study arm. This action of ANP was not antagonized by (R)-sulpiride (100 μg/min, intra-arterially), a selective vascular dopamine receptor antagonist, or 50 mg of oral captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme.. 4. ANP (1 nmol/l-1 μmol/l) produced concentration-dependent relaxation of isolated human arteries, including brachial artery, but was without effect on isolated human saphenous vein.. 5. ANP ...
alpha-Human atrial natriuretic peptide, a 28-amino-acid-residue peptide, was rapidly hydrolysed by pig kidney microvillar membranes in vitro, with a t1/2 of 8 min, comparable with the rate observed with angiotensins II and III. The products of hydrolysis were analysed by h.p.l.c., the pattern obtained with membranes being similar to that with purified endopeptidase-24.11 (EC 3.4.24.11). No hydrolysis by peptidyl dipeptidase A (angiotensin I converting enzyme, EC 3.4.15.1) was observed. The contribution of the various microvillar membrane peptidases was assessed by including specific inhibitors. Phosphoramidon, an inhibitor of endopeptidase-24.11, caused 80-100% suppression of the products. Captopril and amastatin (inhibitors of peptidyl dipeptidase A and aminopeptidases respectively) had no significant effect. Hydrolysis at an undefined site within the disulphide-linked ring occurred rapidly, followed by hydrolysis at other sites, including the Ser25--Phe26 bond. ...
Elevated plasma natriuretic peptide levels after AMI (acute myocardial infarction) are associated with adverse outcome. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of plasma N-ANP (N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide) and N-BNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) with mortality and heart failure following AMI. We studied 403 patients with AMI. Blood was sampled for measurement of N-ANP and N-BNP on a single occasion between 72 and 96 h after symptom onset. Natriuretic peptide levels were related to all-cause mortality and heart failure episodes. During follow up (median, 462 days; range 5-764), 43 (10.7%), 25 (6.2%) and 49 (12.2%) patients suffered death, heart failure hospitalization and outpatient heart failure respectively. Only N-BNP (P,0.0005), N-ANP (P=0.005) and previous AMI (P=0.016) were independently predictive of death. N-BNP, but not N-ANP, predicted 30-day mortality. N-ANP, but not N-BNP, predicted mortality after 30 days. N-BNP was the better ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) in human ventricle increased gene expression of ANP in dilated cardiomyopathy. AU - Saito, Yoshihiko. AU - Nakao, Kazuwa. AU - Arai, Hiroshi. AU - Sugawara, Akira. AU - Morii, Narito. AU - Yamada, Takayuki. AU - Itoh, Hiroshi. AU - Shiono, Shozo. AU - Mukoyama, Masashi. AU - Obata, Kenji. AU - Yasue, Hirofumi. AU - Ohkubo, Hiroaki. AU - Nakanishi, Shigetada. AU - Imura, Hiroo. PY - 1987/10/14. Y1 - 1987/10/14. N2 - Tissue levels of atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) messenger RNA (ANPmRNA) and ANP in the human atrium and ventricle were measured simultaneously by the blot hybridization technique and the specific radioimmunoassay for ANP. Hearts were obtained from two patients without cardiac complications and from a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) at autopsy. Total RNA extracted from ventricles contained a hydridizing RNA band of the same size as atrial ANPmRNA in both control and DCM hearts. The ANPmRNA level in the control ...
Previous studies have shown that atrial natriuretic factor, a powerful vasorelaxant of precontracted vessels, inhibits the secretion of aldosterone stimulated by angiotensin II, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and potassium. We now report the presence of specific binding sites for atrial natriuretic factor in rat blood vessels (mesenteric and renal arteries) and adrenal capsules. Radioiodinated synthetic atrial natriuretic factor bound to a single class of high-affinity (KD = 0.1 nM) low-capacity receptors in a particulate fraction from blood vessels and adrenals. Unrelated peptides did not displace atrial natriuretic factor. Fragments of atrial natriuretic factor displaced the labeled ligand with decreasing potency after cleavage at the N-terminal. The cleavage of the C-terminal tyrosine did not decrease the potency of atrial natriuretic factor, but further cleavage at the C-terminal dramatically reduced the affinity of the resulting peptides. The potency of the atrial natriuretic factor fragments ...
1. The effects of the infusion of a low dose (2 pmol min−1 kg−1 for 3 h) of human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) were studied in seven healthy volunteers undergoing a water diuresis. Lithium clearance was used to monitor proximal tubular function.. 2. hANP increased urine flow rate, sodium, calcium and magnesium excretion without significant changes in potassium and phosphate excretion, heart rate or blood pressure.. 3. hANP caused a small change in fractional lithium clearance, and larger changes in distal nephron handling of sodium and water.. 4. Plasma renin activity tended to decrease during the infusion of hANP, while plasma aldosterone concentration decreased during and increased after stopping the infusion of hANP.. 5. The data suggest that hANP inhibits the reabsorption of sodium and water by an action on distal segments of the nephron and perhaps the proximal tubule. Inhibition of renin and aldosterone secretion may contribute to the natriuresis. ...
Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide in essential hypertension: effects of changes in dietary sodium. Sagnella, Giuseppe A.; Markandu, Nirmala D.; Buckley, Martin G.; Singer, Donald R.J.; Sugden, A. Louise; Shore, Angela C.; MacGregor, Graham A. // British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition);8/15/1987, Vol. 295 Issue 6595, p417 Examines the plasma atrial natriuretic peptide in essential hypertension. Effects of changes in dietary intake on plasma atrial peptides; Occurrence of change in plasma concentration of atrial peptide values during the transfer from normal to high sodium diet; Correlation between the fall in... ...
[Effects of female sex hormones on atrial natriuretic factor gene expression in rats].: To clarify the effects of female sex hormones on ANF gene expression, em
We investigated the hemodynamic effect of synthetic atrial natriuretic factor Auriculin A (ANF) and its influence on arterial baroreflex control of heart rate, systemic blood pressure, and perfusion pressure in the hind limb (perfused at constant flow) in rabbits anesthetized with alpha-chloralose and urethane. The neural mechanisms underlying these effects were also studied. In the intact animal, a 45-minute constant infusion of ANF (2 micrograms/kg prime, 0.2 microgram/kg/min) significantly reduced mean blood pressure and increased mean perfusion pressure, while heart rate did not change. Comparable data were obtained with lower (0.5 microgram/kg + 0.05 microgram/kg/min; 1 microgram/kg + 0.1 microgram/kg/min) or higher (4 micrograms/kg + 0.4 microgram/kg/min; 8 micrograms/kg + 0.8 microgram/kg/min) doses of ANF. In addition, ANF enhanced bradycardic reflex responses to phenylephrine i.v. bolus administration, while it did not change baroreflex-mediated responses to nitroglycerin i.v. bolus ...
Definition of atrial natriuretic factor in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is atrial natriuretic factor? Meaning of atrial natriuretic factor as a finance term. What does atrial natriuretic factor mean in finance?
To explore whether pathophysiological plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) actually involve sodium excretion in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we examined the in vivo and ex vivo effects of ANP and an endopeptidase inhibitor, thiorphan, on urinary sodium excretion and the elimination rate of ANP. We found the following: 1) The basal plasma ANP level was higher in 16-week-old SHR than in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats (109 +/- 10 [SEM] versus 63 +/- 4 pg/ml, p less than 0.001). Thiorphan (30 mg/kg i.v.) significantly increased plasma ANP by 60% in both SHR and WKY rats. However, increases in urinary sodium excretion (+290% versus +130%, p less than 0.05) and cyclic GMP (+160% versus +60%, p less than 0.05) were greater in SHR than in WKY rats. Urinary excretion of ANP was markedly increased by thiorphan, and its increase was greater in SHR than in WKY rats. 2) The thiorphan-induced natriuresis was substantially attenuated by antiserum for ANP but not by a bradykinin receptor ...
Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and a frequent occurrence in critically ill patients. Renal IRI releases proinflammatory cytokines within the kidney that induce crosstalk between the kidney and other organ systems. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has anti-inflammatory as well as natriuretic effects and serves important functions as a regulator of blood pressure, fluid homeostasis, and inflammation. The objective of the present study was to elucidate whether ANP post-treatment attenuates kidney-lung-heart crosstalk in a rat model of renal IRI. In experiment I, a rat model of unilateral renal IRI with mechanical ventilation was prepared by clamping the left renal pedicle for 30 min. Five minutes after clamping, saline or ANP (0.2 μg/kg/min) was infused. The hemodynamics, arterial blood gases, and plasma concentrations of lactate and potassium were measured at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 h after declamping. The mRNA expression and localization of tumor
METHODS AND RESULTS Twenty patients with acute right ventricular infarction were examined who underwent reperfusion therapy on admission. These patients had proximal occlusion of the dominant right coronary artery involving the right atrial branches: 9 patients with successful reperfusion (SRP group) and the remaining 11 patients with unsuccessful reperfusion (URP group). Within 24 hours after the onset of infarction, a volume loading test was performed after reperfusion therapy with measurements for plasma ANP levels and hemodynamics. Before the volume loading test, the plasma ANP level and mean right atrial pressure were similar between these two groups. However, in the URP group, percent increase in ANP in response to volume loading was strikingly smaller (URP, 45 +/- 18% versus SRP, 133 +/- 25%; P , .01) despite similar percent increase in mean right atrial pressure (URP, 100 +/- 46% versus SRP, 86 +/- 23%). The peak ANP level occurred significantly later in the URP group (69 +/- 16 hours) ...
A 75-year-old Japanese man was hospitalized for hypokalemia. Levels of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and free cortisol in urine were elevated to 220 pg/mL (normal, 9 to 52 pg/mL) and 793 mg/d (normal, 30 to 100 mg/d), respectively. Blood concentration of corticotropin-releasing factor was 13.8 pg/mL (normal, ,40 pg/mL). Chest radiographs and computed tomographic examinations showed an enlarged thymic gland and normal-sized adrenal glands. Venous samplings in the superior and inferior vena cava at several levels showed markedly increased plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations near the thymic tumor (from 120 to 620 pg/mL). By contrast, plasma ACTH concentrations were constant at all sites sampled. Pathologic study results were compatible with carcinoid. Immunohistochemical staining for atrial natriuretic peptides and ACTH in the dissected tumor tissue showed several cells to be positively stained for the peptides. No ACTH-containing cells were detected. After the tumor was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Salt intake and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and nitric oxide in hypertension. AU - Campese, Vito M.. AU - Tawadrous, Medhat. AU - Bigazzi, Roberto. AU - Bianchi, Stefano. AU - Mann, Amardeep S.. AU - Oparil, Suzanne. AU - Raij, Leopoldo. PY - 1996/9. Y1 - 1996/9. N2 - In response to a high salt intake, salt-sensitive hypertensive individuals retain more sodium and manifest a rise in blood pressure greater than that in salt-resistant individuals. In this study, we tested whether salt sensitivity might be related at least in part to reduced secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or to abnormal nitric oxide production. We measured plasma ANP and NO2+NO3 in 7 normotensive individuals and 13 salt- sensitive and 14 salt-resistant blacks with essential hypertension under conditions of low (10 mEq/d) and high (250 mEq/d) salt intake. To evaluate possible racial differences in ANP secretion, we also measured plasma ANP in 6 salt-sensitive and 8 salt-resistant hypertensive ...
The aim of the present study was to determine whether left atrial size--a likely indicator of atrial stretching--correlates with the plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide and whether this relation is different in patients in sinus rhythm and in those with atrial fibrillation. Arterial plasma concentrations of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ir-ANP), adrenaline, noradrenaline, aldosterone, and vasopressin were measured in 13 patients in sinus rhythm without apparent heart failure and in 13 patients in atrial fibrillation. The two groups were matched for left atrial diameter and the ratio of the left atrial diameter to the diameter of the aortic root (assessed by echocardiography). There were no significant differences in age, heart rate, blood pressure, or left ventricular end diastolic diameter between the two groups. Left atrial diameters varied from 33 to 60 mm. The mean (SD) plasma concentration of ir-ANP was significantly higher (35 (21) pmol/l) in the patients with ...
The influence of physiological cardiac hypertrophy on the concentration of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide was studied in six male athletes and six normally active, matched control men. They were examined by echocardiography during a graded exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide was measured at rest, at each workload until exhaustion, and 15 and 30 minutes after the exercise test. Echocardiography showed that the athletes had a significantly larger left atrium, left ventricular end diastolic diameter, left ventricular posterior wall, interventricular septum, left ventricular ejection fraction, and left ventricular mass than the controls. The athletes performed significantly more work than the control group--325 W v 277 W. The plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide rose by a mean factor of 2.76 (range 1.78-4.28) in all men from rest to maximum exercise. There were no differences between the athletes and the controls in the concentrations of plasma ...
Synonyms for Atrial natriuretic peptide in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Atrial natriuretic peptide. 4 words related to peptide: amide, fibrinopeptide, polypeptide, endorphin. What are synonyms for Atrial natriuretic peptide?
The effects of acute volume expansion and acute salt loading on the plasma levels of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptides (ir-ANPs) were investigated in conscious adult (16 weeks) Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Basal plasma concentrations of ir-ANPs were similar (108 +/- 9 pg/ml and 105 +/- 8 pg/ml, respectively) in hypertensive and normotensive rats. In both strains mean arterial pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines were unaltered by acute volume expansion but significantly elevated by acute salt loading. However, both acute volume expansion and acute salt loading increased plasma concentrations of ir-ANPs similarily in SHR and WKY rats, independent of blood pressure or plasma catecholamine levels. Our findings show that chronic hypertension in SHR does not result in changes in basal or VOL- and SAL-stimulated levels of circulating ir-ANPs.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The clinical significance of cardiac Natriuretic Peptides (cNP) plasma levels has been shown to differ in obese and non-obese subjects. Recent lines of evidence suggest important metabolic effects of the cNP system, which has been shown to activate lipolysis, enhance lipid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration. Clinically, these properties lead to browning of white adipose tissue and to increased muscular oxidative capacity. In patients without heart disease higher cNP concentrations were observed in lean, insulin-sensitive subjects, while obese and type-2 diabetics may display reduced cNP levels.
Occurrence of a novel cardiac natriuretic peptide in rats.: We established a specific radioimmunoassay for the ring structure of iso-ANP and detected iso-ANP[
TY - JOUR. T1 - Atrial natriuretic factor modulates whole kidney tubuloglomerular feedback. AU - Margulies, K. B.. AU - Burnett, John C Jr.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Increases in sodium delivery to the distal nephron reduce glomerular filtration rate (GFR) via tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). Central volume expansion and pharmacological concentrations of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) are known to attenuate this response. To test the hypothesis that whole kidney TGF is attenuated by pathophysiological concentrations of ANF, hypertonic saline was given intrarenally in five dogs receiving an intravenous infusion of synthetic ANF at 20 ng·kg-1·min-1. To examine whole kidney TGF responses in heart failure, six additional dogs with acute congestive heart failure induced by rapid ventricular pacing also received intrarenal hypertonic saline. Seven sham-paced dogs served as controls. An isolated increase in circulating ANF from 26 ± 3 to 342 ± 23 pg/ml abolished the whole kidney GFR response to ...
BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are currently used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF). However, it is unknown whether there are different influences of age on atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)/N-terminal-ANP (NT-ANP) or B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)/N-terminal-proBNP (NT-proBNP). AIMS: To compare the influence of age and gender on plasma levels of ANP/NT-ANP and BNP/NT-proBNP in CHF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Natriuretic peptides were measured in 311 CHF patients (68+/-8 years, 76% males, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 0.23+/-0.08). All natriuretic peptides were significantly related to age (p,0.05) on multivariate regression analysis, with partial correlation coefficients of 0.18, 0.29, 0.28 and 0.25 for ANP, NT-ANP, BNP and NT-proBNP, respectively. The relative increase of both BNP/NT-proBNP were more pronounced than of ANP/NT-ANP (p,0.01). Furthermore, the relative increase of BNP with age was markedly larger than of NT-proBNP ...
The role of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in modulating volume and circulatory homeostasis remains uncertain, and there has been as yet no systematic analysis of the factors promoting ANF release in humans. Since immersion in water to the neck provides a volume stimulus identical to that induced by 2 litres of saline, without plasma compositional change, immersion to the neck was used to assess the ANF response to acute central blood-volume expansion. Using a radio-immunoassay that reliably detected ANF in human plasma extracts, more than 80% of plasma immunoreactive (ir) ANF was shown to elute as a single peak on reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, with a retention time identical to that of the synthetic 28-residue alpha-human (alpha-h) ANF. The response of plasma irANF to 3 h of immersion in water to the neck was evaluated in four sodium-replete normal subjects; the immersion produced a prompt and marked increase in irANF in each subject, and recovery was associated with a prompt
BACKGROUND--Plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are elevated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may have a role in preventing oedema formation in these patients. METHODS--Plasma ANP levels were measured in 60 patients with COPD and these measurements were related to pulmonary haemodynamics, response to treatment during exacerbations, and clinical patterns of the stable disease. RESULTS--Plasma ANP levels did not correlate significantly with right atrial or pulmonary arterial pressures but did correlate significantly with both the right ventricular end diastolic volume and right ventricular wall volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Oxygen (2 1/min by nasal prongs for 30 minutes) did not change the mean pulmonary arterial pressure or the level of plasma ANP. In 20 patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD plasma ANP levels were higher in those with oedema (302 (185) pg/ml) than in those without oedema (87 (43) pg/ml). Oxygen given for one ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardio-renal-endocrine dynamics during stepwise infusion of physiologic and pharmacologic concentrations of atrial natriuretic factor in the dog. AU - Zimmerman, R. S.. AU - Schirger, J. A.. AU - Edwards, B. S.. AU - Schwab, T. R.. AU - Heublein, D. M.. AU - Burnett, J. C.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - Infusion of α-human-atrial natriuretic factor (α-h-ANF) into pentobarbitol anesthesized dogs (n = 10) at 0.0025, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 μg/kg/min was performed to differentiate the physiologic actions of atrial natriuretic factor from its pharmacologic actions. The lowest doses of atrial natriuretic factor infusion resulted in circulating levels that were previously produced by 0-10% saline volume expansion. At the lowest infusion rate, circulating ANF increased 31 ± 3 pg/ml, resulting in a significant increase in absolute sodium excretion, fractional excretion of sodium, and fractional excretion of lithium, and a significant decrease in urine osmolality. A greater change ...
DRJ Singer, ND Markandu, MG Buckley, AC Shore, AL Sugden, M Jeeves, GA Sagnella, GA Macgregor; Infusion of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Essential Hypertension: Antihypertensive Effects are Dissociated from Plasma Anp Levels and Urinary Sodium Excretion. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1988; 74 (s18): 65P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs074065Pb. Download citation file:. ...
The physiological actions of the atrial peptide system are discussed in relation to its potential role in the aetiology and treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure (CHF). Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) exerts marked natriuretic, diure
To evaluate the role of calcium in volume-induced secretion of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), effects of verapamil and endothelin-1 (ET-1), both known to influence free intracellular calcium, were studied during saline infusion in seven conscious instrumented dogs. Fifteen minutes after intravenous injection of placebo or verapamil (0.25 mg/kg) or during continuous ET-1 infusion (at 5 ng.kg-1.min-1), saline (10% body wt) was infused during 40 min. Saline produced a rise (P less than 0.001) of plasma ANF from 28.1 +/- 6.3 to 50.4 +/- 12.9 pM after placebo, from 30.2 +/- 6.1 to 51.1 +/- 8.5 pM after verapamil, and from 31.2 +/- 6.1 to 81.0 +/- 12.9 pM with ET-1. This increase was comparable after placebo and verapamil, but was 80% greater with ET-1 (P less than 0.02). Plasma ET-1, unchanged after placebo, rose (P less than 0.001) from 1.7 +/- 0.5 to 38.3 +/- 9.2 pM with ET-1. In the three experiments, heart rate and left atrial pressure (LAP) increased (P less than 0.001) similarly. The linear ...
Learn in-depth information on Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Blood Test, on why the laboratory test is performed, specimen collected, the significance of the results, and its use in diagnosing medical conditions.
Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a hormone with the physiological characteristics of a regulator of body fluid volume. It is potent, has a short duration of action, and responds to a physiologically relevant stimulus in a negative feedback-controlled system. It can act directly or indirectly (via inhibition of aldosterone biosynthesis) on the kidney to alter sodium transport and may regulate fluid distribution within the extracellular space. The peptide circulates at low (nanomolar) levels, and recent studies with renal inner medullary cells document relevant receptor binding and second messenger activation in this concentration range. In vivo data support a direct action on the kidney to enhance natriuresis, and blockade of a primary catabolic pathway for ANF within the kidney results in augmented natriuresis at concurrent endogenous peptide concentrations. Long-term, low dose infusion directly into the renal artery of conscious dogs supports a physiological action of ANF to promote urinary ...
View Notes - Ch. 44 study guide from BIOL 50755 at University of Texas-Tyler. apparatus, angiotensin II, aldosterone, renin, atrial natriuretic factor. Knowledge goals: List an example of an
Background-The endocrine balance between atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is critical for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure and volume homeostasis. This study investigated whether a cardiac imbalance between ANP and aldosterone, towards increased mineralcorticoid receptor (MR) signaling, contributes to adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in response to pressure overload. Methods and Results-We used the MR-selective antagonist eplerenone to test the role of MRs in mediating pressure overload-induced dilatative cardiomyopathy of mice with abolished local, cardiac ANP activity. In response to 21-days of transverse aortic constriction (TAC), mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted inactivation (KO) of the ANP receptor (guanylyl cyclase (GC)-A) or the downstream cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) developed enhanced LV hypertrophy and fibrosis together with contractile dysfunction. Treatment with eplerenone (100 mg/kg/day) attenuated LV ...
Tonolo, G., Fraser, R., Connell, J. and Kenyon, C. (1988) Chronic Low-Dose Infusions of Dexamethasone in Rats - Effects on Blood-Pressure, Body-Weight and Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide. Journal of Hypertension, 6(1), pp. 25-31 ...
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a hormone considered to be an important regulator of intravascular fluid volume, has been shown to bind specifically to receptors on endothelial cells. In this study, the role of ANP-specific binding was investigated by examining the effect of ANP on the morphology and macromolecular permeability of monolayer cultures of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). ANP alone (10-9 -10-6 M) had no observable effect on the morphology of the monolayers. However, incubation of the endothelial monolayers with ANP (10-8 -10-6 M) antagonized the characteristic thrombin-induced (1 unit/ml) cell shape changes and the formation of intercellular gaps. Since chemically and enzymatically generated oxidants have also been shown to alter endothelial cell shape and increase macromolecular permeability, the effect of ANP on oxidant-induced injuries was investigated. Treatment of endothelial monolayers with glucose oxidase (1.4 unit/ml) elicited changes in cell shape characterized by ...
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a peptide hormone which reduces an expanded extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by increasing renal sodium excretion. ANP is synthesized, and secreted by cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the atria in the heart. These cells contain volume receptors which respond to increased stretching of the atrial wall due to increased atrial blood volume. ANP is one of a family of nine natriuretic peptides: seven are atrial in origin. ANP acts on the kidney to increase sodium and water excretion (natriuresis) in the following ways: 1) it dilates the glomerular afferent and constrict efferent arterioles, and relaxes the mesangial cells. This increases pressure in the glomerular capillaries, increasing the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), resulting in an increased amount of sodium and water being filtered and excreted. 2) It increases blood flow through the vasa recta, which washes the solutes sodium chloride (NaCl) and urea out of the medullary interstitium - the lower ...
In this urban, multiethnic, population-based sample, procalcitonin, a marker of bacterial infection, and MR-proANP, a marker for cardiac dysfunction, were each independently associated with 2 measures of subclinical cerebrovascular damage, SBI and WMHV. However, the association of MR-proANP concentrations with WMHV was less pronounced compared with the association with SBI.. Silent brain infarction serves as an imaging biomarker of vascular brain health. SBI has been associated with traditional vascular risk factors, as well as with future clinical stroke,20 cognitive decline, and dementia.3,21 The independent association of SBI with future stroke, however, after adjusting for vascular risk factors suggest that SBIs reflect either an overall effect of uncontrolled vascular risk factors better than the presence or absence of each individual factor or that other, yet unknown, factors play a role in the association with stroke and dementia. These unknown factors may include underlying chronic ...
It has been suggested that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) may play a role in the metabolism of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and that ANP may interfere with angiotensin-induced vasoconstriction. This has been investigated within the forearm
Peptides , Natriuretic Peptides , Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (1-28), rat; SLRRSSCFGGRIDRIGAQSGLGCNSFRY (Disulfide bridge: 7-23); H-Ser-Leu-Arg-Arg-Ser-Ser-Cys-Phe-Gly-Gly-Arg-Ile-Asp-Arg-Ile-Gly-Ala-Gln-Ser-Gly-Leu-Gly-Cys-Asn-Ser-Phe-Arg-Tyr-OH (Disulfide bridge: 7-23)
the myoendocrine cellsin the atria of the mammalian heart synthesize and secrete a hormone called atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), which causes natriuresis and diuresis. Pharmacological studies in...
Angiotensin II (ANG II) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) play important roles in the regulation of cardiovascular function and fluid balance (1,2). Circulating ANG II stimulates specific...
Severn Biotech, Limited : Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) - Electrophoresis Products PBS & Saline Solutions Hybridisation Reagents Biological Buffers & SDS Sodium Azide Solutions General Bio-chemical Products Fingerprinting Chemical Product Forensic Dyes & Chemicals HPLC Laboratory Solvents DNA / RNA Extraction Specialist Pure Water Products Protein Linker Conjugates Peptide Synthesis Reagents Alcohol Sprays Hand Sanitiser Products Customised Services Comet Assay Products Protein Antibody Reagents Scientific Plastics Catalogue Peptides Affinity Purification Materials Cytology Screening Antibodies Specials severn, biotech
British Atherosclerosis Society. Research Profile. Papers. Cockcroft JR, Ritter JM, Allison DJ, Causon R, Brown MJ. Localisation of extra adrenal catecholamine secreting tumours by selective venous sampling and nuclear magnetic resonance scanning. Postgrad Med J 1987;63:451-453.. Barrow SE, Cockcroft JR, Dollery CT, Hickling NE, Ritter JM. Identification of 13, 14-dihydro-15-oxo-prostaglandin F2 in the circulation during infusions of bradykinin and prostaglandin E2 in man. Br J Pharmacol 1987;81:245-250.. Webb DJ, Benjamin N, Allen MJ, Brown J, OFlynn M, Cockcroft JR. Vascular responses to local atrial natriuretic peptide infusion in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1988;26:245-251.. Benjamin N, Cockcroft JR, Collier J, Dollery CT, Ritter JM, Webb DJ. The effect of local converting enzyme inhibition on the vascular responses to angiotensin and bradykinin in the forearm resistance vessels in man. J Physiol 1989;412:543-555.. Cockcroft JR, Allen MJ, Benjamin N, Webb DJ. The effect of local angiotensin ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , FabGennix \ Pro Atrial natriuretic peptide, Host species: Rabbit, Polyclonal antibody \ PANP-101AP for more molecular products just contact us
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Ray Biotech \ Rabbit Anti-Human Atrial Natriuretic Peptide \ 130-00017-200 for more molecular products just contact us
TY - JOUR. T1 - The albuminuric sction of atrial natriuretic peptide is not increased by hyperglycaemia. AU - Moore, KB. AU - McKenna, K. AU - McDonald, D. AU - Tormey, William. AU - Thompson, CJ. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. M3 - Article. VL - 51. SP - A516-A516. JO - Diabetes. JF - Diabetes. SN - 0012-1797. ER - ...
Distribution of human ANP32A transcripts in brain. Human MTE array was probed with a 750 bp human ANP32A radiolabeled probe as described under
In this issue of Diabetes, Miyashita et al. (1) provide compelling new evidence that natriuretic peptides (NPs) play a key role in the regulation of body weight and energy metabolism. In a series of complementary experiments, the investigators show that the NP-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling system increases the capacity for fat oxidation, activates mitochondrial biogenesis, and prevents the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet (HFD).. NPs are not new players in metabolic regulation. Since the discovery of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in 1980 (2), a large body of work has highlighted the multifaceted roles of NPs in the regulation of blood volume and arterial pressure. NPs are members of a family of structurally similar but genetically distinct endogenous peptide hormones. The NP family consists of at least three mammalian peptides: atrial-, brain-, and C-type (ANP, BNP, and CNP, respectively) (3). ANP and BNP preferentially bind to a particulate guanylyl cyclase (GC) ...
In many edematous disease states, ANP-induced signaling components may be improperly regulated and thereby prevent the natriuretic action of ANP. In fact, ANP resistance is a hallmark of diseases such as CHF (22), liver cirrhosis (68, 77), and nephrotic syndrome (87, 107, 108), which are commonly associated with sodium retention. In these diseases, cumulative sodium retention often leads to edema and ascites. As an underlying mechanism, a maladaptive renal response to compensate for edematous disorders has been identified, and reduced ANP response and dysregulated ANP-induced signaling were found (25, 65, 81, 91, 95).. In animal models of and patients with CHF, liver cirrhosis, and proteinuric kidney disease, attenuated or reduced urine flow rate and decreased urinary sodium excretion are common (12, 22, 31, 32, 46, 57, 58, 61, 69, 73, 113). Increased circulating ANP levels often correlated with the severity of the disease (16, 68, 87, 100). Under these pathological conditions, the renal ...
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) acts acutely to reduce plasma volume by at least 3 mechanisms: increased renal excretion of salt and water, vasodilation, and increased vascular permeability. Authors of a study in this issue of the JCI performed a knockout of the receptor for ANP in vascular endothelia in order to distinguish the effects of ANP-dependent increases in vascular permeability from those of other endocrine actions of ANP in the regulation of plasma volume. The knockout mice exhibited reduced vascular permeability to plasma protein, resulting in chronically increased plasma volume, arterial hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. Renal excretion and vasodilation did not account for these changes. Thus ANP-induced increases in endothelial permeability may be critical to the ability of ANP to lower arterial blood pressure.. ...
BJECTIVE: Plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are markedly increased in congestive heart failure. ANP has been shown to be released by cardiomyocytes during atrial (and thereby cardiomyocytical) stretch. Several factors that are activated in heart failure as well enhance ANP release through the interaction with G(alpha-q)-coupled receptors and the consequent activation of proteinkinase C (PKC). The goal of this study was to analyse stretch induced ANP secretion and to investigate the involvement of PKC in the regulation of ANP release in heart failure compared to normal hearts. METHODS: Volume overload induced heart failure was produced by an infrarenal aortocaval shunt (4 weeks) in Wistar rats. ANP release was analysed in an isolated retrogradly perfused heart preparation. Atrial stretch was induced by switching to anterograd perfusion (perfusion pressure: 10mmHg). For PKC activation PMA (phorbol 12 myristate 13 acetate) was added to the perfusate and compar! ed to vehicle ...
The tissue-restricted GATA-4 transcription factor and Nkx2-5 homeodomain protein are two early markers of precardiac cells. Both are essential for heart formation, but neither can initiate cardiogenesis. Overexpression of GATA-4 or Nkx2-5 enhances cardiac development in committed precursors, suggesting each interacts with a cardiac cofactor. We tested whether GATA-4 and Nkx2-5 are cofactors for each other by using transcription and binding assays with the cardiac atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) promoter_the only known target for Nkx2-5. Co-expression of GATA-4 and Nkx2-5 resulted in synergistic activation of the ANF promoter in heterologous cells. The synergy involves physical Nkx2-5-GATA-4 interaction, seen in vitro and in vivo, which maps to the C-terminal zinc finger of GATA-4 and a C-terminus extension; similarly, a C-terminally extended homeodomain of Nkx2-5 is required for GATA-4 binding. Structure/function studies suggest that binding of GATA-4 to the C-terminus autorepressive domain of ...
Referências. 1. Morrow DA, de Lemos JA. Benchmarks for the assessment of novel cardiovascular biomarkers. Circulation 2007;115:949-52. 2. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2014 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2014;129:e28-292. 3. Takei Y. Exploring novel hormones essential for seawater adaptation in teleost fish. Gen Comp Endocrinol 2008;157:3-13. 4. de Bold AJ, Borenstein HB, Veress AT, Sonnenberg H. A rapid and potent natriuretic response to intravenous injection of atrial myocardial extract in rats. Life Sci 1981;28:89-94. 5. Sudoh T, Kangawa K, Minamino N, Matsuo H. A new natriuretic peptide in porcine brain. Nature 1988;332:78-81. 6. Kinnunen P, Vuolteenaho O, Ruskoaho H. Mechanisms of atrial and brain natriuretic peptide release from rat ventricular myocardium: effect of stretching. Endocrinology 1993;132:1961-70. 7. Munagala VK, Burnett JC Jr, Redfield MM. The natriuretic peptides in cardiovascular medicine. Curr ...
SCH 39370 (N-[N-[1-(S)-carboxyl-3-phenylpropyl]-(S)-phenyl-alanyl]-(S)-isoserin e) is a potent and specific inhibitor of neutral metalloendopeptidase (NEP) from rabbit kidney (IC50 = 11.2 +/- 1.9 nM) and is devoid of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity at 1 microM. We evaluated the effect of NEP inhibition with SCH 39370 on the inactivation of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and on cardiovascular function in rats. SCH 39370 effectively prevented in vitro degradation of ANF (99-126) by a purified rabbit kidney NEP. SCH 39370 (30 mg/kg s.c) significantly delayed the disappearance of immunoreactive (ir) ANF from plasma in rats after an i.v. infusion of ANF (1 microgram/kg/min for 30 min): the plasma ir ANF level at 15 min postinfusion was 1.5 +/- 0.3 ng/ml vs. 0.3 +/- 0.04 ng/ml in the control. SCH 39370 also delayed the disappearance of ir ANF after infusion of the peptide (0.1 microgram/kg/min for 30 min) which increased plasma levels to those observed during volume expansion. This ...
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) influences glucose homeostasis and possibly acts as a link between the cardiovascular system and metabolism, especially in metabolic disorders like diabetes. The current study evaluated effects of ANP on β-cell function by the use of a β-cell-specific knockout of the ANP receptor with guanylate cyclase activity (βGC-A-KO). ANP augmented insulin secretion at the threshold glucose concentration of 6 mmol/L and decreased KATP single-channel activity in β-cells of control mice but not of βGC-A-KO mice. In wild-type β-cells but not β-cells lacking functional KATP channels (SUR1-KO), ANP increased electrical activity, suggesting no involvement of other ion channels. At 6 mmol/L glucose, ANP readily elicited Ca2+ influx in control β-cells. This effect was blunted in β-cells of βGC-A-KO mice, and the maximal cytosolic Ca2+ concentration was lower. Experiments with inhibitors of protein kinase G (PKG), protein kinase A (PKA), phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B), and a ...
b.心房的肌纖維較細較短3直徑6。8μm3長20。30μm3橫小管很少》電鏡下可見有些心房肌纖維含電子密度較大的顆粒3有膜包裹3直徑0.3。0.4μm3稱心房特殊顆粒(specific atrial granule(》含心房特殊顆粒的肌纖維以右心房較多3左心房較少3心室和心臟傳導系統的肌纖維內也有少許心房特殊顆粒》這些顆粒中含肽類物質3稱心房利鈉肽(atrial natriuretic peptide, ANP)3簡稱心鈉素3有很強的利尿 排鈉 擴張血管和降血壓作用 抑制平滑肌收縮》近年研究還證明3心肌還能分泌其它多種生物活性物質3如與心鈉素作用相似的腦鈉素(brain natriuretic polypeptide, BNP) 抗心律失常肽和內源性洋地黃素(又稱內洋地黃素(》心肌細胞還具有合成腎素和血管緊張素的能力3對促進心肌細胞生長3增強心肌收縮力等有重要作用 ...
Background Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) and Brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) stimulate fat cell plasma membrane receptors. They are potent lipolytic agents on isolated fat cells from subcutaneous...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of one lung ventilation on atrial naturetic peptide release. AU - Lackner, Rudy P.. AU - Sisson, J. H.. AU - Roy, S. K.. AU - Hill, G. E.. PY - 1996/10/1. Y1 - 1996/10/1. N2 - Purpose: The response in arterial oxygen tensions to one lung ventilation (OLV) during thoracotomy is not predictable in humans. The major response of the human lung to OLV is hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), which increases pulmonary vascular resistance and subsequent right ventricular (RV) afterload. RV afterload may cause right heart dilation, which is a potent stimulus for atrial naturetic peptide (ANP) release. Since ANP is known to be a potent pulmonary vasodilator, right heart ANP release may inhibit HPV, increasing intrapulmonaiy shunt (QS/QT) fraction and result in systemic reduction in arterial oxygen tension. We investigated the relationship of ANP release with Qs/Qt prior to and after the institution of OLV in humans. Methods: After IRB approval and patient consent, 10 patients ...
We have shown that RhoA signaling plays a critical role in stretch-induced expression of β-MHC. In addition, the demonstration that inhibition of RhoA/ROCK signaling markedly attenuated stretch-induced FAK activation and that FAK antisense oligonucleotide induced a comparable reduction of stretch-induced expression of β-MHC supports the idea that FAK mediates the influence of RhoA on stretch-induced gene expression in NRVMs. Previous studies showed that RhoA (1, 20, 25, 43) and FAK (22, 38, 39) control expression of the fetal gene atrial natriuretic factor in cardiac myocytes in response to hypertrophic agonists and mechanical stress. Collectively, these data are consistent with a critical role for RhoA/ROCK and FAK signaling in promoting expression of the hypertrophic genetic program by mechanical stress in cardiac myocytes.. The present results also outline a pathway involving RhoA/ROCK and FAK as upstream mediators of stretch-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Additionally, we have ...
Ätherisches Hanföl aus Blüten. CBDNOL Hanf Terpene Öl wird durch Wasserdampf-Destillation frischer Blütenspitzen unseres naturbelassenen Hanf Produziert.
antiarrhythmic peptide: atrial peptide from bovine atria; hexapeptide composed of hydroxyproline(1), proline(1), glycine(3) & alanine(1); both N-terminal & carboxy-terminal residues are glycine
购买我们的人proANP肽。ab42275可作为ab14443的封闭肽并经过Blocking实验验证。Abcam提供免费的实验方案,操作技巧及专业的支持。中国80%以上现货。
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingprepilin-type N-terminal cleavage/methylation domain (TIGR02532; HMM-score: 20.1) ...
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingouter membrane assembly lipoprotein YfgL (TIGR03300; HMM-score: 11.1) ...
Bnp - MedHelps Bnp Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Bnp. Find Bnp information, treatments for Bnp and Bnp symptoms.
ANP小鼠单克隆抗体[M622709](ab2093)可与人样本反应并经IHC, RIA, Flow Cyt实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
DID YOU KNOW THAT Teetrinker viel anfälliger für Prostatakrebs, Micron Associates Ansprüche Eine neue Studie aus Schottland hat festgestellt, dass Männer, die…
Top Domain Names wwwnatriuretic peptide.com ww.natriuretic peptide.com 333.natriuretic peptide.com 2ww.natriuretic peptide.com qww.natriuretic peptide.com wqwnatriuretic peptide.com wwa.natriuretic peptide.com mail.natriuretic peptide.com pop.natriuretic peptide.com vebmail.natriuretic peptide.com http:natriuretic peptide.com htp://natriuretic peptide.com http::/natriuretic peptide.com rttp://natriuretic peptide.com hftp://natriuretic peptide.com htgp://natriuretic peptide.com htt[://natriuretic peptide.com https:/natriuretic peptide.com https/.natriuretic peptide.com htttp/natriuretic peptide.com vvv.natriuretic peptide.com membersnatriuretic peptide.com www.webmail.natriuretic peptide.com www .natriuretic peptide.com htp://www.natriuretic peptide.com http::/www.natriuretic peptide.com rttp://www.natriuretic peptide.com hftp://www.natriuretic peptide.com htgp://www.natriuretic peptide.com htt[://www.natriuretic peptide.com https:/www.natriuretic peptide.com https//.www.natriuretic peptide.com ...
BACKGROUND: The natriuretic peptides are counterregulatory hormones involved in volume homeostasis and cardiovascular remodeling. The prognostic significance of plasma natriuretic peptide levels in apparently asymptomatic persons has not been established.. METHODS: We prospectively studied 3346 persons without heart failure. Using proportional-hazards regression, we examined the relations of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to the risk of death from any cause, a first major cardiovascular event, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke or transient ischemic attack, and coronary heart disease.. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 119 participants died and 79 had a first cardiovascular event. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, each increment of 1 SD in log B-type natriuretic peptide levels was associated with a 27 percent increase in the risk of death (P=0.009), a 28 percent increase in the risk of a first cardiovascular ...
Natriuretic peptide precursor C, also known as NPPC, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NPPC gene. The precursor NPPC protein is cleaved to the 22 amino acid peptide C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Natriuretic peptides comprise a family of 3 structurally related molecules: atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), encoded by a gene symbolized NPPC. These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasodilating activities and are implicated in body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure control. Unlike ANP and BNP, CNP does not have direct natriuretic activity. This is because CNP is a selective agonist for the B-type natriuretic receptor (NPRB) whereas ANP and BNP are selective for the A-type natriuretic receptor (NPRA). GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163273 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000026241 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: ...
Frossard et al. (1997) studied an insertion/deletion (I/D) dimorphism located in the second intron of the human atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) gene among 232 UAE nationals (112 normotensives and 120 hypertensives) from the Abu Dhabi Emirate, with a view to evaluating the value of this marker in relation to hypertension. Results reveal that genotype frequencies of this I/D marker occur in Hardy-Weinberg proportions (respective genotype frequencies in the overall sample population are: II, 51%; ID, 42%; DD, 7%). No association, however, was evidenced between this dimorphic site and clinical diagnosis of essential hypertension. This suggests that: 1) this I/D dimorphism is not a useful marker to study the relationship between the ANF gene and hypertension in the UAE; and 2) variations of the ANF gene that may be in linkage disequilibrium with this marker do not play a major role in the determination of hypertension in this Arab population. Obineche et al. (2002) carried out a case-controlled study ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - C-type natriuretic peptide/guanylate cyclase B system in ATDC5 cells, a chondrogenic cell line. AU - Suda, Michio. AU - Tanaka, Kiyoshi. AU - Yasoda, Akihiro. AU - Komatsu, Yasato. AU - Chusho, Hideki. AU - Miura, Masako. AU - Tamura, Naohisa. AU - Ogawa, Yoshihiro. AU - Nakao, Kazuwa. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Natriuretic peptides constitute a family of three structurally related peptides: atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Particulate guanylate cyclases, GC-A, and GC-B, are the receptors for these peptides to mediate their action. ANP and BNP possess high affinities for GC-A, and CNP is the preferred ligand for GC-B. In this article, we report our study of the expression and possible role(s) of natriuretic peptides in ATDC5 cells, which represent a chondrogenic cell line. ATDC5 cells produced cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in response to natriuretic peptides. CNP was far more potent than ANP ...
Receptor for the natriuretic peptide hormones, binding with similar affinities atrial natriuretic peptide NPPA/ANP, brain natriuretic peptide NPPB/BNP, and C-type natriuretic peptide NPPC/CNP. May function as a clearance receptor for NPPA, NPPB and NPPC, regulating their local concentrations and effects. May regulate diuresis, blood pressure and skeletal development. Does not have guanylate cyclase activity.
The measurement of natriuretic peptides for the diagnosis of heart failure has been a major breakthrough in cardiology (1)(2). B-Type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is synthesized as preproBNP mainly in the ventricular myocardium. On ventricular myocyte stretch, preproBNP is enzymatically cleaved to proBNP and released in the form of the hormonally active BNP and the inactive N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP). Both BNP and NT-proBNP have been shown to reflect heart failure severity (1), but studies on their sensitivity and specificity for different degrees of heart failure produced conflicting results (3)(4)(5)(6). Both BNP and NT-proBNP can be used for the diagnosis of heart failure, but there are important differences between the two tests, particularly regarding influence of age and renal function (1). In addition to glomerular filtration, BNP is eliminated from plasma mainly through natriuretic peptide receptors and degraded by neutral endopeptidases (7)(8)(9). In contrast, NT-proBNP possibly is ...
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was originally identified in extracts of porcine brain. However, in humans, it is produced mainly in the cardiac ventricles in response to excessive stretching of heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes); high concentrations of BNP in the blood are a marker of heart failure. BNP is also known as natriuretic peptide B, gamma-brain natriuretic peptide, and GC-B. The release of BNP is controlled by calcium ions. BNP binds to and activates the atrial natriuretic factor receptors NPRA and NPRB, similar to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) but with much lower affinity. Both BNP and ANP cause a net decrease in blood volume, which lowers the bodys blood pressure. Recombinant BNP is used to treat decompensated heart failure.. ...
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was originally identified in extracts of porcine brain. However, in humans, it is produced mainly in the cardiac ventricles in response to excessive stretching of heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes); high concentrations of BNP in the blood are a marker of heart failure. BNP is also known as natriuretic peptide B, gamma-brain natriuretic peptide, and GC-B. The release of BNP is controlled by calcium ions. BNP binds to and activates the atrial natriuretic factor receptors NPRA and NPRB, similar to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) but with much lower affinity. Both BNP and ANP cause a net decrease in blood volume, which lowers the bodys blood pressure. Recombinant BNP is used to treat decompensated heart failure.. ...
BACKGROUND: In mammalian follicles, oocytes are arrested at the diplotene stage of prophase I until meiotic resumption following the LH surge. Recently, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), encoded by natriuretic peptide precursor type C (NPPC) was found to suppress mouse oocyte maturation by promoting cyclic guanosine 5-monophospate (cGMP) production in cumulus cells. However, regulation of NPPC/CNP expression during the pre-ovulatory period and their regulation by the LH surge have not been investigated.. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on genome-wide analysis of DNA microarray data sets using samples from periovulatory ovaries, we found increases in NPPC transcripts in granulosa cells during pre-ovulatory follicle growth in mice and a rapid decline induced by the pre-ovulatory LH/hCG stimulation. Treatment of pre-ovulatory animals with hCG decreased ovarian CNP content. In isolated ovarian cells, NPPC mRNA was predominantly expressed in mural granulosa cells exhibiting similar regulation following ...
Receptor for the atrial natriuretic peptide NPPA/ANP and the brain natriuretic peptide NPPB/BNP which are potent vasoactive hormones playing a key role in cardiovascular homeostasis. Has guanylate cyclase activity upon binding of the ligand.
Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury at birth is associated with 1-3/1000 cases of moderate to severe encephalopathy. Previously, we have shown that connexin 43 hemichannel blockade, with a specific mimetic peptide, reduced the occurrence of seizures, improved recovery of EEG power and sleep state cycling, and improved cell survival following global cerebral ischaemia. In the present study, we examined the dose response for intracerebroventricular mimetic peptide infusion (50 µmol/kg/h for 1 h, followed by 50 µmol/kg/24 h (low dose) or 50 µmol/kg/h for 25 h (high dose) or vehicle only (control group), starting 90 min after the end of ischaemia), following global cerebral ischaemia, induced by 30 min bilateral carotid artery occlusion, in near-term fetal sheep (128 ± 1 days gestation). Both peptide infusion groups were associated with a transient significant increase in EEG power between 2-12 h after ischaemia. The ischaemia-low dose group showed a significant recovery of EEG power from day five compared
Previous studies have shown that natriuretic peptide levels correlate inversely with GFR in chronic kidney disease (16,17). Investigators have postulated that higher filling pressures and wall stress play an important role in this cardiorenal link. However, in our patients with renal failure (75% acute), natriuretic peptide levels were massively elevated and could not be explained on the basis of higher filling pressures, wall stress, or depressed cardiac function. Moreover, natriuretic peptide levels ,1,000 pg/ml (BNP) and 10,000 pg/ml (NT-proBNP) were more specific for a GFR ,60 (BNP, 92%; NT-proBNP, 100%) than for a PCWP ,18 mm Hg (BNP, 42%; NT-proBNP, 60%).. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document such natriuretic peptide-hemodynamic dissociations in the setting of renal failure and suggests that renal function has a more direct effect on circulating natriuretic peptide levels than previously recognized. Moreover, the present study highlights the important limitations of these ...
Background Measurement of plasma concentration of natriuretic peptides (NPs) is suggested to be of value in diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs, but many factors other than cardiac status may influence their concentrations. Dog breed potentially is 1 such factor. Objective To investigate breed variation in plasma concentrations of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide 31-67 (proANP 31-67) and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in healthy dogs. Animals 535 healthy, privately owned dogs of 9 breeds were examined at 5 centers as part of the European Union (EU) LUPA project. Methods Absence of cardiovascular disease or other clinically relevant organ-related or systemic disease was ensured by thorough clinical investigation. Plasma concentrations of proANP 31-67 and NT-proBNP were measured by commercially available ELISA assays. Results Overall significant breed differences were found in proANP 31-67 (P,.0001) and NT-proBNP (P,.0001) concentrations. Pair-wise comparisons between breeds ...
Cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) modulate blood pressure and volume by activation of the receptor guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) and subsequent intracellular cGMP formation. Here we report what we believe to be a novel function of these peptides as paracrine regulators of vascular regeneration. In mice with systemic deletion of the GC-A gene, vascular regeneration in response to critical hind limb ischemia was severely impaired. Similar attenuation of ischemic angiogenesis was observed in mice with conditional, endothelial cell-restricted GC-A deletion (here termed EC GC-A KO mice). In contrast, smooth muscle cell-restricted GC-A ablation did not affect ischemic neovascularization. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR revealed BNP expression in activated satellite cells within the ischemic muscle, suggesting that local BNP elicits protective endothelial effects. Since within the heart, BNP is mainly induced in cardiomyocytes by mechanical load, we investigated ...
We have shown by Boydens chamber method that FCS and PDGF-BB potently stimulate the migration of SMCs. It appears reasonable that FCS induces SMC migration, since blood serum contains numerous growth and migration factors for vascular cells.29 30 Among these factors in serum, PDGF is known to have important roles in the development of atherosclerosis not only as a mitogen but also as a chemoattractant.2 We have confirmed the previous reports3 31 that PDGF-BB, as well as FCS, potently stimulates the migration of SMCs.. Second, we have shown that the natriuretic peptide family, especially CNP, inhibits the migration of SMCs stimulated with FCS and PDGF-BB in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, when PDGF-BB-induced migration was separated into chemotactic and chemokinetic activities,32 natriuretic peptides strongly suppressed the chemotactic effect of PDGF-BB and modestly suppressed the chemokinetic effect of PDGF-BB. The suppression of the chemotactic effect of PDGF-BB by CNP-22 was ...
Because the thymus expresses the natriuretic peptides (NP) as well as their respective receptors, an involvement of NP in the physiology of this organ has been suggested. To evaluate functional aspects of NP in the thymus, we looked for thymic cells bearing NP receptors (Npr). Furthermore, the regulation of Npr expression by activation of cells and the influence of NP on the proliferation of thymocytes was studied. Expression of receptor messenger RNAs CmRNAs) was examined by PCR and Northern blot. Existence of functional Npr was confirmed by measurement of cGMP, the second messenger of NP. Proliferation of thymocytes upon concanavalin A (Con A) stimulation was analyzed by incorporation of ["Hlthymidine. We report here that thymocytes express mRNAs for the three Npr, namely Npra, Nprb, and Nprc and that activation of Npra and Nprb increases cGMP levels. Stimulation of thymocytes with Con A (1 pg/ml, 48 h) resulted in an increase of mRNA coding for Npra, the receptor specific for atria1 ...
Medical term atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) 心房钠尿因子; 心房利尿钠因子 and its variants in English, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese and Pinyin with audio pronunciation. 规范医学术语词汇
Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) have recently been identified in both heart and CNS. These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities, and are all apparently derived from a single prohormone. Specific ANP binding sites have been characterized in the adrenal zona glomerulosa and kidney cortex, and one study reported ANP binding sites in the CNS. However, a detailed examination of the localization of ANP binding sites throughout the brain has not been reported. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was employed to examine the distribution of ANP receptors in the rat CNS. The binding of (3-125I-iodotyrosyl28) rat ANP-28 to binding sites in the rat CNS was saturable, specific for ANP-related peptides, and displayed high affinity (Kd = 600 pM). When the relative concentrations of ANP binding sites were determined throughout the rat brain, the highest levels of ANP binding were localized to the circumventricular organs, including the area postrema and ...
Mark A. Oyama, Adrian Boswood, David J. Connolly, Stephen J. Ettinger, Philip R. Fox, Sonya G. Gordon, John E. Rush, D. David Sisson, Rebecca L. Stepien, Gerhard Wess, Faiez Zannad, Clinical usefulness of an assay for measurement of circulating N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentration in dogs and cats with heart disease, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2013, 243, 1, ...
Results With EA TEA, plasma proANP decreased following induction of anesthesia to the end of surgery (13%; 113±68 to 99±49 pmol/L; p=0.026), but that was not the case in the LA group (3%; 97±44 to 94±49 pmol/L; p=0.565) despite equal fluid balance (+1584±582 vs +1560±563 mL; p=0.888). Accordingly, the EA group required excessive treatment with vasopressors to maintain MAP ,60 mm Hg during surgery (2.7±2 vs 1.6±1.4 ephedrine boluses; p=0.033 and infusion of phenylephrine for 216±86 vs 58±91 min; p,0.001). Plasma proANP and fluid balance were correlated only for EA patients (r=0.44; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.91; p=0.033). ...
Principal Investigator:YAMAMOTO Tadashi, Project Period (FY):1991 - 1992, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Experimental pathology
In the present study, blood samples were obtained at a single standardized time point, ie, in the morning on the third day of hospitalization. Because of the differences in release and metabolic clearance patterns of the natriuretic peptides, the timing of blood sampling is a crucial issue that may have affected the results of the study. Whether the relative prognostic value of the natriuretic peptides would have differed from the present results had another day of blood collection been selected remains speculative. Until larger studies have been conducted that compare the prognostic value of the natriuretic peptides in blood samples collected at multiple time points in the acute and subacute phase, our data should not be extrapolated to other time points of blood collection. However, the choice of day 3 was based on the following rationale. First, we wanted to choose a time point, based on available data in the literature, that would provide optimal reproducibility. In agreement with the ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of the type II transmembrane serine protease class of the trypsin superfamily. Members of this family are composed of multiple structurally distinct domains. The encoded protein converts pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to biologically active atrial natriuretic peptide, a cardiac hormone that regulates blood volume and pressure. This protein may also function as a pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide convertase. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013 ...
Figure 1: Bradykinin metabolism and its relationship with two other vasoactive mediators: angiotensin and natriuretic peptides. ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; AI, angiotensin I; AII, angiotensin II; ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; APP, aminopeptidase P; AT1, angiotensin II type I receptor; AT2, angiotensin II type II receptor; BK, bradykinin; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; CNP, C-natruretic peptide; NEP, neutral endopeptidase 24.11; NPR-A, natriuretic peptide receptor type A; NPR-B, natriuretic peptide receptor type B ...
Salt-sensitive hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Humans and mice with glucocorticoid receptor haploinsufficiency (GR+/−) are hypertensive, which in mice reflects activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Furthermore, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene polymorphisms associate with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Here we investigated the effect of dietary salt intake on blood pressure, heart and kidney in GR+/− mice. Adult male GR+/− mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were fed a sodium-enriched (3%Na+) or standard chow diet (0.3%Na+) for one week, after which mice were anaesthetised for measurement of blood pressure and sodium excretion. Separate cohorts were killed by decapitation and kidneys and hearts taken for histology and mRNA quantification. Cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) mRNA levels were elevated in GR+/− mice and were markedly augmented following sodium-enriched diet [Chow:WT 100±7%, GR+/−146±8%; Sodium:WT 157±7%, ...
CONTEXT: Prior studies have demonstrated conflicting results regarding how much information novel biomarkers add to cardiovascular risk assessment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of contemporary biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular risk when added to conventional risk factors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cohort study of 5067 participants (mean age, 58 years; 60% women) without cardiovascular disease from Malmö, Sweden, who attended a baseline examination between 1991 and 1994. Participants underwent measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP), cystatin C, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase 2, midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (N-BNP) and underwent follow-up until 2006 using the Swedish national hospital discharge and cause-of-death registers and the Stroke in Malmö register for first cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary death). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ...
Brain natriuretic peptide, also called B-type natriuretic peptide or BNP, is a protein released by the lower chambers of the heart in response to higher pressure levels that occur during heart...
Editor-In-Chief: Kristin Newby, M.D., Duke Univeristy {{Alpha globulins}} {{Albumins}} {{Coagulation}} {{cytokines}} {{Acute phase proteins}} {{Serpins}} ==Cardiac Biomarkers== [[Creatine Kinase]] [[Cytokines and their receptors]] Cytokines and their receptors [e.g., interleukin (IL)-1R, T1/ST2 (a member of the IL-1R family) [[Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2)]] [[Metalloproteinases (MMPs)]]: MMP-3, MMP-9, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA), and stromelysin-1 [[Natriuretic peptides‎]]: Natriuretic peptides including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), pro-ANP, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and pro-BNP [[Prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2)]] [[Prothrombin time (PT)]] [[Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L)]] [[Thrombus precursor protein (TpP)]] [[Von Willebrand factor (vWF)]] [[White blood cell (WBC) count]] [[Category:Cardiology]] [[Category:Biomarkers]] {{WikiDoc Help Menu}} {{WikiDoc Sources ...
The primary endpoint of infarct size as assessed by area under the curve of creatine kinase (CK) was 14.7% lower with carperitide compared with control (p = 0.016), but there was no difference between nicorandil and control (p = NS). Likewise, the co-primary endpoint of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was increased 5.1% with carperitide compared with control, but there was no difference between nicorandil and control (p = NS). Results were consistent in key subgroups. Among the secondary endpoints, reperfusion injury was reduced 25.9% with carperitide compared with control, but did not differ between nicorandil and control. There was no difference in mortality or the composite clinical endpoint between active treatment and control in either trial. The composite of cardiac death or heart failure was lower with carperitide than control (hazard ratio [HR] 0.27, p = 0.011), but did not differ for nicorandil versus control (HR 0.78, p = 0.60). ...
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers reflecting diverse pathophysiological pathways may play an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (aortic diameter ≥30 mm, AAA), levels of many biomarkers are elevated and correlated to aortic diameter among 65-year-old men undergoing ultrasound (US) screening for AAA.. PROBANDS AND METHODS: To evaluate potential relationships between biomarkers and aortic dilatation after long-term follow-up, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), proneurotensin (PNT), copeptin (CPT), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase 2 (Lp-PLA2), cystatin C (Cyst C), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), and midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) were measured in 117 subjects (114 [97 %] men) aged 47-49 in a prospective population-based cohort study, and related to aortic diameter at US examination of the aorta after 14-19 years of follow-up.. RESULTS: Biomarker levels at baseline did not correlate with aortic diameter after 14-19 years of follow up (CRP [r ...
Hynynen, M.; Ilmarinen, R., Tikkanen, I., Fyhrquist, F. (1993). "Plasma atrial natriuretic factor during cold-induced diuresis ...
Effects on renal hemodynamics and atrial natriuretic factor". Gastroenterology. 101 (4): 1060-7. PMID 1832407. Moore K, Ward PS ... including atrial natriuretic factor, prostacyclin, thromboxane A2, and endotoxin. In addition to this, it has been observed ... Three independent risk factors for the development of HRS in cirrhotics have been identified: liver size, plasma renin activity ... 1993). "Incidence, predictive factors, and prognosis of the hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis with ascites". Gastroenterology. ...
March 1994). "Atrial natriuretic factor in hypertensive and normotensive diabetic patients". Diabetes Care. 17 (3): 195-200. ... there are no changes in perfusion or in atrial natriuretic peptide levels up until the very late stages of the disease, when ... Abordo EA, Thornalley PJ (August 1997). "Synthesis and secretion of tumour necrosis factor-alpha by human monocytic THP-1 cells ... several factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Etiologically, four main causes are responsible for ...
1985) Atrial natriuretic factor: a hormone produced by the heart. Science 230: 767-770 (doi:10.1126/science.2932797 PMID ... In 1980, this work led to his co-discovery and isolation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a polypeptide hormone secreted by ... 1983) The amino acid sequence of an atrial peptide with potent diuretic and natriuretic properties. Biochem Biophys Res Commun ... best known for his discovery of atrial natriuretic peptide, a polypeptide hormone secreted by heart muscle cells. Born in ...
Wyss, DF; Lahm, HW; Manneberg, M; Labhardt, AM (February 1991). "Anantin--a peptide antagonist of the atrial natriuretic factor ... a peptide antagonist of the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). II. Determination of the primary sequence by NMR on the basis of ...
Kim TG, Chen J, Sadoshima J, Lee Y (2005). "Jumonji represses atrial natriuretic factor gene expression by inhibiting ... "Nitric oxide induces gene expression of jumonji and retinoblastoma 2 protein while reducing expression of atrial natriuretic ... Jarid2 (jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2) is a protein coding gene that functions as a putative transcription factor. ... a critical factor for cardiac development, functions as a transcriptional repressor". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (43): 42247-55. doi: ...
"Insulin sensitivity and atrial natriuretic factor during beta-receptor modulation with celiprolol in normal subjects". J ... Fra-1 is part of the same Fos family of transcription factors as c-Fos, with the findings featuring in Genes & Development. The ...
2004). "ZAK re-programs atrial natriuretic factor expression and induces hypertrophic growth in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells". ... 2004). "Transforming growth factor-beta induces the expression of ANF and hypertrophic growth in cultured cardiomyoblast cells ...
... "p300 protein as a coactivator of GATA-5 in the transcription of cardiac-restricted atrial natriuretic factor gene". The Journal ... Transcription factor GATA-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GATA5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... The encoded protein is known to bind to hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha), and this interaction is essential for ... Gata5 is a transcription factor. Gata5 regulates the proper development of the heart. Early in embryo development, Gata5 helps ...
... which encodes the precursor of cardiodilatin-related peptide and atrial natriuretic factor. NPPA-AS1 is alternatively spliced. ... Long noncoding RNA Annilo T, Kepp K, Laan M (2009). "Natural antisense transcript of natriuretic peptide precursor A (NPPA): ...
Silencer Element-Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor System Regulates Basal and Endothelin 1-Inducible Atrial Natriuretic ... See also: Atrial natriuretic peptide. REST/NRSF in conjunction with RE1/NRSE also acts outside the nervous system as regulators ... Current research has linked RE1/NRSE activity with the regulation of the expression of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) ... "Widespread disruption of repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor occupancy at its ...
... for natriuretic factors such as atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). GC-C (GUCY2C): for guanylin and uroguanylin. GC-D (GUCY2D) GC- ...
"Left atrial function and atrial natriuretic factor/cyclic guanosine monophosphate changes in DDD and VVI pacing modes". Am. J. ... "Total sympathetic activity and atrial natriuretic factor levels in VVI and DDD pacing with different atrioventricular delays ... and decreased left atrial total emptying fraction associated with ventricular pacing. The loss of physiologic timing of atrial ... Atrial contraction against a closed tricuspid valve can cause pulsation in the neck and abdomen, headache, cough, and jaw pain ...
Peptide hormones such as the atrial natriuretic factor activate membrane-bound GC, while soluble GC (sGC) is typically ...
A stimulant, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) increases cGMP production in the kidneys, which increases function of the ... and also suggests that additional research be conducted to identify the upstream and downstream factors in CNGC-mediated signal ...
Examples are Aβ, IAPP, Atrial natriuretic factor (in isolated atrial amyloidosis), and Calcitonin (in medullary carcinoma of ... Historical classification systems were based on clinical factors. Until the early 1970s, the idea of a single amyloid substance ... caused by amyloid deposition in the blood vessels and a reduced activity of thrombin and factor X, two clotting proteins that ...
... agonist taurine atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). While neurotransmission is defined as ... The definition of a gliotransmitters is not only defined by its presence in glial cells, but is determined by other factors, ... Rivera, EJ; Goldin, A; Fulmer, N; Tavares, R; Wands, JR; de la Monte, SM (2005). "Insulin and insulin-like growth factor ...
... atrial natriuretic factor - atrial natriuretic factor receptor - Avogadro's number - axon - B cell - bacteria - bacterial ... transforming growth factor - transforming growth factor alpha - transforming growth factor beta - transforming growth factor ... peptide elongation factor - peptide elongation factor tu - peptide fragment - peptide initiation factor - peptide receptor - ... nerve growth factor - nerve growth factor receptor - nerve tissue protein - nerve tissue protein S 100 - nervous system - ...
... and atrial natriuretic factor. Some are intended to treat heart failure. Sacubitril/valsartan (Entresto/LCZ696), which has been ... and atrial natriuretic factor. Associations have been observed between neprilysin expression and various types of cancer; ... Declining neprilysin activity with increasing age may also be explained by oxidative damage, known to be a causative factor in ... Venugopal J (2003). "Pharmacological modulation of the natriuretic peptide system". Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 13 ( ...
... atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)) and pancreas (glucagon, insulin and somatostatin), the ... Some peptide/protein hormones (angiotensin II, basic fibroblast growth factor-2, parathyroid hormone-related protein) also ...
Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase, as in bone morphogenetic protein Guanylate cyclase, as in atrial natriuretic factor ... Examples of the enzymatic activity include: Receptor tyrosine kinase, as in fibroblast growth factor receptor. Most enzyme- ... Alexander SP, Mathie A, Peters JA (February 2007). "Catalytic receptors: Natriuretic peptide family". Br. J. Pharmacol. 150 ...
... such as atrial natriuretic factor eventually leading to left ventricular hypertrophy which often progresses to heart failure. ... Krüppel-like factor 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLF15 gene in the Krüppel-like factor family. Its former ... "The Kruppel-like factor KLF15 inhibits connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in cardiac fibroblasts". J. Mol. Cell ... Zhou J, Tan T, Tian Y, Zheng B, Ou JH, Huang EJ, Yen TS (July 2011). "Krüppel-like factor 15 activates hepatitis B virus gene ...
... natriuretic peptides MeSH D06.472.699.584.500 --- atrial natriuretic factor MeSH D06.472.699.584.625 --- natriuretic peptide, ... epidermal growth factor MeSH D06.472.317.400 --- gastric inhibitory polypeptide MeSH D06.472.317.410 --- gastrin-releasing ... thymic factor, circulating MeSH D06.472.910.800 --- thymopoietins MeSH D06.472.910.800.850 --- thymopentin MeSH D06.472.910.850 ... brain MeSH D06.472.699.584.750 --- natriuretic peptide, c-type MeSH D06.472.699.587 --- pancreatic polypeptide MeSH D06.472. ...
... atrial natriuretic factor MeSH D08.811.520.650.800 --- phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase MeSH D08.811.600.075 --- ... factor ixa MeSH D08.811.277.656.300.760.315 --- factor xa MeSH D08.811.277.656.300.760.320 --- factor xia MeSH D08.811.277.656. ... peptide elongation factor g MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.100.700 --- peptide elongation factor tu MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300. ... fibroblast growth factor, type 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.725.400.037 --- receptor, fibroblast growth factor, type 2 MeSH ...
It is associated with accumulation of atrial natriuretic factor. It may cause arrythmias. Eric J. Topol; Robert M. Califf (2007 ... Isolated atrial amyloidosis is a form of amyloidosis affecting the atria of the heart. ...
This causes heart muscle cells to secrete the hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) into the blood. This acts on the kidneys ... The partial pressure of carbon dioxide is more of a deciding factor in the monitoring of pH.[37] However, at high altitude ( ... However, the compensating mechanisms eventually wear out or are disrupted by a new complicating factor (such as the advent of a ... However, warming has exacerbated droughts, making water the actual limiting factor on land. When sunlight is plentiful and the ...
What is atrial natriuretic factor? Meaning of atrial natriuretic factor as a finance term. What does atrial natriuretic factor ... Definition of atrial natriuretic factor in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Atrial natriuretic factor financial definition of atrial natriuretic factor https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ... factor. (redirected from atrial natriuretic factor). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Acronyms, ...
Unrelated peptides did not displace atrial natriuretic factor. Fragments of atrial natriuretic factor displaced the labeled ... Vascular and adrenal receptors for atrial natriuretic factor in the rat.. E L Schiffrin, L Chartier, G Thibault, J St-Louis, M ... Vascular and adrenal receptors for atrial natriuretic factor in the rat.. E L Schiffrin, L Chartier, G Thibault, J St-Louis, M ... Vascular and adrenal receptors for atrial natriuretic factor in the rat.. E L Schiffrin, L Chartier, G Thibault, J St-Louis, M ...
Atrial Natriuretic Factor Content of Brain Nuclei in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt Hypertension in the Rat. Helmut Geiger, ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor Content of Brain Nuclei in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt Hypertension in the Rat ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor Content of Brain Nuclei in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt Hypertension in the Rat ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor Content of Brain Nuclei in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt Hypertension in the Rat ...
Vagal mediation of the effects of atrial natriuretic factor on blood pressure and arterial baroreflexes in the rabbit.. M Volpe ... Vagal mediation of the effects of atrial natriuretic factor on blood pressure and arterial baroreflexes in the rabbit. ... We investigated the hemodynamic effect of synthetic atrial natriuretic factor Auriculin A (ANF) and its influence on arterial ... Vagal mediation of the effects of atrial natriuretic factor on blood pressure and arterial baroreflexes in the rabbit. ...
Effects of female sex hormones on atrial natriuretic factor gene expression in rats].: To clarify the effects of female sex ... Effects of female sex hormones on atrial natriuretic factor gene expression in rats].. Authors * Hong, M1 ...
Release of atrial natriuretic factor after pericardiocentesis for malignant pericardial effusion. Northridge, D.B.; McMurray, J ... Investigates the atrial natriuretic peptide in the fetal circulation. Properties of atrial natriuretic peptide; Measurement of ... Examines the release of atrial natriuretic factor after pericardiocentesis for malignant pericardial infusion. Increase of ... Examines the plasma atrial natriuretic peptide in essential hypertension. Effects of changes in dietary intake on plasma atrial ...
Attenuated forearm vasodilator response to atrial natriuretic factor in the elderly.. T L Jansen, P Smits, A C Tan, T Thien ... Attenuated forearm vasodilator response to atrial natriuretic factor in the elderly.. T L Jansen, P Smits, A C Tan and T Thien ... Attenuated forearm vasodilator response to atrial natriuretic factor in the elderly.. T L Jansen, P Smits, A C Tan and T Thien ... Atrial natriuretic factor was infused at six increasing dose steps into the brachial artery from 0.001 up to 0.3 microgram/min/ ...
Atrial natriuretic factor plays a significant role in body fluid homeostasis.. E H Blaine ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a hormone with the physiological characteristics of a regulator of body fluid volume. It is ... Apparently other factors such as renal perfusion pressure, volume status, and renal nerve activity are important in determining ... the natriuretic response to a given level of peptide. We hypothesize that the role played by ANF in volume regulation is highly ...
Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) exerts marked natriuretic, diure ... The physiological actions of the atrial peptide system are ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) exerts marked natriuretic, diuretic and vasodilatory effects and has been demonstrated to ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor / metabolism, physiology*. Heart Failure / metabolism, physiopathology*. Humans. Hypertension / ... Cardiovascular and neurohormonal effects of atrial natriuretic peptide in conscious dog.... 2533478 - Response to atrial ...
The effects of synthetic atrial natriuretic factor on renin secretion were examined in anesthetized dogs with either a single ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor / pharmacology*. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Creatinine / metabolism. Denervation. Dogs. Female. ... In dogs with a single filtering kidney (Series 1, n = 6), a priming dose of atrial natriuretic factor (2 micrograms/kg, i.v.) ... The effects of synthetic atrial natriuretic factor on renin secretion were examined in anesthetized dogs with either a single ...
Changes in atrial natriuretic factor and plasma renin activity in dogs infected with Trypanosoma brucei.. Ndungu JM1, Wright ... a marked reduction in the plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) occurred in the terminal stage of the disease ...
atrial natriuretic factor endothelin atrial natriuretic factor receptor guanylate cyclase endothelin receptor protein kinase C ... Inagami T: Atrial natriuretic factor. J Biol Chem 264: 3043-3046, 1989Google Scholar ... Rosenzweig A, Seidman CE: Atrial natriuretic factor and related hormones. Annu Rev Biochem 60: 229-255, 1991Google Scholar ... Interaction of atrial natriuretic factor and endothelin-1 signals through receptor guanylate cyclase in pulmonary artery ...
Browsing by Subject "Atrial Natriuretic Factor". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y ...
... for C-terminal atrial natriuretic factor (42% ± 6%) than for N-terminal atrial natriuretic factor (28% ± 4%), there were no ... N-terminal atrial natriuretic factor plasma levels in these vessels were 3031 ± 756 fmol/ml, 2264 ± 661 fmol/ml and 1618 ± 496 ... Plasma concentrations (mean ± S.E.M.) of C-terminal atrial natriuretic factor were 55.0 ± 6.1 fmol/ml, 31.2 ± 4.0 fmol/ml and ... Mesenteric, hepatic and splanchnic extraction of C-terminal and N-terminal atrial natriuretic factor was investigated in male ...
Effect of Atrial Natriuretic Factor on Bronchomotor Tone in the Normal Human Airway G. Hulks; G. Hulks ... G. Hulks, A. G. Jardine, J. M. C. Connell, N. C. Thomson; Effect of Atrial Natriuretic Factor on Bronchomotor Tone in the ... 1. Asthmatic patients bronchodilate in response to infused atrial natriuretic factor. We wished to determine whether the ... 5. It is concluded that pharmacological, but not pathophysiological, elevations of plasma atrial natriuretic factor may ...
Atrial Natriuretic Factor Guanylate Cyclase and C Type Receptor Mrnas in the Rat Heart. DJ Nunez, MJ Brown ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor Guanylate Cyclase and C Type Receptor Mrnas in the Rat Heart ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor Guanylate Cyclase and C Type Receptor Mrnas in the Rat Heart ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor Guanylate Cyclase and C Type Receptor Mrnas in the Rat Heart ...
... Ganga, M ; ... We report here that the atrial natriuretic factor ( ANF) promoter is a target of PITX2. PITX2A, PITX2B, and PITX2C isoforms ... We report here that the atrial natriuretic factor ( ANF) promoter is a target of PITX2. PITX2A, PITX2B, and PITX2C isoforms ... We report here that the atrial natriuretic factor ( ANF) promoter is a target of PITX2. PITX2A, PITX2B, and PITX2C isoforms ...
What is atrial natriuretic factor? Meaning of atrial natriuretic factor medical term. What does atrial natriuretic factor mean? ... Looking for online definition of atrial natriuretic factor in the Medical Dictionary? atrial natriuretic factor explanation ... Atrial Natriuretic Peptide. Synonym/acronym: Atrial natriuretic hormone, atrial natriuretic factor, ANF, ANH, APN. ... stable factor factor VII, one of the coagulation factors.. Stuart factor (Stuart-Prower factor) factor X, one of the ...
Contrasting plasma atrial natriuretic factor concentrations during comparable natriuresis with infusions of atrial natriuretic ... The presence of atrial-natriuretic-factor receptors of ANF-R2 subtype in rat platelets. Coupling to adenylate cyclase/cyclic ... The effect of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) on adenylate cyclase activity was studied in rat platelet membranes. ANF-(99-126 ... Differential internalization and processing of atrial-natriuretic-factor B and C receptor in PC12 cells Biochem J (June, 1991) ...
We evaluated the effect of NEP inhibition with SCH 39370 on the inactivation of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and on ... SCH 39370, a neutral metalloendopeptidase inhibitor, potentiates biological responses to atrial natriuretic factor and lowers ... SCH 39370, a neutral metalloendopeptidase inhibitor, potentiates biological responses to atrial natriuretic factor and lowers ... SCH 39370, a neutral metalloendopeptidase inhibitor, potentiates biological responses to atrial natriuretic factor and lowers ...
Contrasting plasma atrial natriuretic factor concentrations during comparable natriuresis with infusions of atrial natriuretic ... The presence of atrial-natriuretic-factor receptors of ANF-R2 subtype in rat platelets. Coupling to adenylate cyclase/cyclic ... Differential internalization and processing of atrial-natriuretic-factor B and C receptor in PC12 cells Biochem J (June, 1991) ... Atrial natriuretic factor and sodium nitroprusside increase cyclic GMP in cultured rat lung fibroblasts by activating different ...
The atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) receptor has been solubilized from bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa membranes with the ... Molecular characterization of the solubilized atrial natriuretic factor receptor from bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa.. S ... Molecular characterization of the solubilized atrial natriuretic factor receptor from bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa.. S ... Molecular characterization of the solubilized atrial natriuretic factor receptor from bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa.. S ...
Abstract 023: Development Of Molecular Beacons Targeting Atrial Natriuretic Factor Mrna For Live Cell Sorting. Brian Wile, ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is expressed significantly more in working cardiomyocytes than nodal cardiomyocytes. We ... Abstract 023: Development Of Molecular Beacons Targeting Atrial Natriuretic Factor Mrna For Live Cell Sorting ... Abstract 023: Development Of Molecular Beacons Targeting Atrial Natriuretic Factor Mrna For Live Cell Sorting ...
... has been proposed to be a site of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) action. We carried out experiments in isolated perfused ... The inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) has been proposed to be a site of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) action. We carried ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor Inhibits Vasopressin-Stimulated Osmotic Water Permeability in Rat Inner Medullary Collecting Duct ... Atrial Natriuretic Factor Inhibits Vasopressin-Stimulated Osmotic Water Permeability in Rat Inner Medullary Collecting Duct ...
  • Margulies, KB & Burnett, JCJ 1990, ' Atrial natriuretic factor modulates whole kidney tubuloglomerular feedback ', American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology , vol. 259, no. 1 28-1. (elsevier.com)
  • Infusion of α-human-atrial natriuretic factor (α-h-ANF) into pentobarbitol anesthesized dogs (n = 10) at 0.0025, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 μg/kg/min was performed to differentiate the physiologic actions of atrial natriuretic factor from its pharmacologic actions. (elsevier.com)
  • Release of atriopeptin in the rat by vasoconstrictors or water immersion correlates with changes in right atrial pressure. (springer.com)
  • This is particularly important in the vasculature, where vascular smooth muscle will bind ANP released as a result of increasing right atrial pressure and will cause the walls of the vasculature to relax. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the natriuretic peptide family. (novusbio.com)
  • We propose that the NKE and proximal GATA elements serve as crucial binding sites for assembly of a repressor complex that is required for atrial-specific expression of the ANF gene. (elsevier.com)
  • The mRNA levels of β-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic factor were determined by real-time PCR to evaluate the presence of fetal phenotypes of gene expression. (scielo.br)
  • The gene is expressed primarily in atrial myocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jarid2 (jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2) is a protein coding gene that functions as a putative transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factor GATA-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GATA5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that contains two GATA-type zinc fingers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Krüppel-like factor 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLF15 gene in the Krüppel-like factor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • In classical silencers, the gene is actively repressed by the silencer element, mostly by interfering with general transcription factor (GTF) assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best example of this is the Neuronal-Restrictive Silencer Factor (NRSF) that is produced by the REST gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF11 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF11 gene expression and protein abundance decreases with age, and it shows differential abundance between young and old mice in parabiosis procedures, causing youthful regeneration of cardiomyocytes, a reduction in the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and in the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 4 (RAPGEF4), also known as exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 2 (EPAC2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAPGEF4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Isolated rat kidneys were perfused at a constant perfusion pressure of 90 mmHg to study the natriuretic effects of atriopeptin III (AP-III) and to compare these effects with those of frusemide. (clinsci.org)
  • The endothelial cell has a unique intrinsic feature: it produces a most potent vasopressor peptide hormone, endothelin (ET-1), yet it also contains a signaling system of an equally potent hypotensive hormone, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). (springer.com)
  • Changes in atrial natriuretic factor and plasma renin activity in dogs infected with Trypanosoma brucei. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) on adenylate cyclase activity was studied in rat platelet membranes. (portlandpress.com)
  • McMurray, J. , Seidelin, P. H. , Howey, J. E.A. , Balfour, D. J. and Struthers, A. D. (1988) The effect of atrial natriuretic factor on urinary albumin and β2-microglobulin excretion in man. (gla.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that endogenous atrial natriuretic factor is involved in the maintenance of arterial pressure and urinary excretion in the ovine fetus. (elsevier.com)
  • When beagle dogs were infected with Trypanosoma brucei, a marked reduction in the plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) occurred in the terminal stage of the disease during weeks 3 and 4. (nih.gov)
  • SIADH due to taking ecstasy was cited as a factor in the deaths of Anna Wood and Leah Betts) Oxytocin Vincristine Morphine Amitriptyline Transient causes Endurance exercise General anesthesia Hereditary causes Sarcoidosis Normally there are homeostatic processes in the body which maintain the concentration of body solutes within a narrow range, both inside and outside cells. (wikipedia.org)