Myosin type II isoforms specifically found in the atrial muscle of the heart.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in neuronal tissue.
Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
A subclass of myosins originally found in the photoreceptor of DROSOPHILA. The heavy chains can occur as two alternatively spliced isoforms of 132 and 174 KDa. The amino terminal of myosin type III is highly unusual in that it contains a protein kinase domain which may be an important component of the visual process.
Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).
Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.
Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
Heart enlargement and other remodeling in cardiac morphology and electrical circutry found in individuals who participate in intense repeated exercises.
An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
A mediator complex subunit that is believed to play a key role in the coactivation of nuclear receptor-activated transcription by the mediator complex. It interacts with a variety of nuclear receptors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; VITAMIN D RECEPTORS; PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; and GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
A large protein complex which acts as a signaling adaptor protein that allows communication between the various regulatory and functional components of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION including DNA POLYMERASE II; GENERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are bound to upstream ENHANCER ELEMENTS. The mediator complex was originally studied in YEAST where at least 21 subunits were identified. Many of the yeast subunits are homologs to proteins in higher organisms that are found associated with specific nuclear receptors such as THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS and VITAMIN D RECEPTORS.
A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.

Regulation of chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart by Irx4. (1/12)

The vertebrate heart consists of two types of chambers, the atria and the ventricles, which differ in their contractile and electrophysiological properties. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms by which these chambers are specified during embryogenesis. Here a chicken iroquois-related homeobox gene, Irx4, was identified that has a ventricle-restricted expression pattern at all stages of heart development. Irx4 protein was shown to regulate the chamber-specific expression of myosin isoforms by activating the expression of the ventricle myosin heavy chain-1 (VMHC1) and suppressing the expression of the atrial myosin heavy chain-1 (AMHC1) in the ventricles. Thus, Irx4 may play a critical role in establishing chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart.  (+info)

Sequential programs of retinoic acid synthesis in the myocardial and epicardial layers of the developing avian heart. (2/12)

Endogenous patterns of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in avian cardiac morphogenesis were characterized by localized expression of a key RA-synthetic enzyme, RALDH2, which displayed a biphasic pattern during heart development. RALDH2 immunoreactivity was initially apparent posterior to Hensen's node of stage 5-6 embryos and subsequently in somites and unsegmented paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm overlapping atrial precursors in the cardiogenic plate of stage 9- embryos. Initial RALDH2 synthesis in the posterior myocardium coincided with activation of the AMHC1 gene, a RA-responsive marker of inflow heart segments. A wave of RALDH2 synthesis then swept the myocardium in a posterior-to-anterior direction, reaching the outflow tract by stage 13, then fading from the myocardial layer. The second phase of RALDH2 expression, initiated at stage 18 in the proepicardial organ, persisted in migratory epicardial cells that completely enveloped the heart by stage 24. Early restriction of RALDH2 expression to the posterior cardiogenic plate, overlapping RA-inducible gene activation, provides evidence for commitment of posterior avian heart segments by localized production of RA, whereas subsequent RALDH2 expression exclusively in the migratory epicardium suggests a role for the morphogen in ventricular expansion and morphogenesis of underlying myocardial tissues.  (+info)

Ventricular expression of tbx5 inhibits normal heart chamber development. (3/12)

The T-box gene tbx5 is expressed in the developing heart, forelimb, eye, and liver in vertebrate embryos during critical stages of morphogenesis and patterning. In humans, mutations in the TBX5 gene have been associated with Holt-Oram syndrome, which is characterized by developmental anomalies in the heart and forelimbs. In chicken and mouse embryos, tbx5 expression is initiated at the earliest stages of heart formation throughout the heart primordia and is colocalized with other cardiac transcription factors such as nkx-2.5 and GATA4. As the heart differentiates, tbx5 expression is restricted to the posterior sinoatrial segments of the heart, consistent with the timing of atrial chamber determination. The correlation between tbx5 expression and atrial lineage determination was examined in retinoic acid (RA)-treated chicken embryos. tbx5 expression is maintained throughout the hearts of RA-treated embryos under conditions that also expand atrial-specific gene expression. The downstream effects of persistent tbx5 expression in the ventricles were examined directly in transgenic mice. Embryos that express tbx5 driven by a beta-myosin heavy chain promoter throughout the primitive heart tube were generated. Loss of ventricular-specific gene expression and retardation of ventricular chamber morphogenesis were observed in these embryos. These studies provide direct evidence for an essential role for tbx5 in early heart morphogenesis and chamber-specific gene expression.  (+info)

Irx4 forms an inhibitory complex with the vitamin D and retinoic X receptors to regulate cardiac chamber-specific slow MyHC3 expression. (4/12)

The slow myosin heavy chain 3 gene (slow MyHC3) is restricted in its expression to the atrial chambers of the heart. Understanding its regulation provides a basis for determination of the mechanisms controlling chamber-specific gene expression in heart development. The observed chamber distribution results from repression of slow MyHC3 gene expression in the ventricles. A binding site, the vitamin D response element (VDRE), for a heterodimer of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic X receptor alpha (RXR alpha) within the slow MyHC3 promoter mediates chamber-specific expression of the gene. Irx4, an Iroquois family homeobox gene whose expression is restricted to the ventricular chambers at all stages of development, inhibits AMHC1, the chick homolog of quail slow MyHC3, gene expression within developing ventricles. Repression of the slow MyHC3 gene in ventricular cardiomyocytes by Irx4 requires the VDRE. Unlike VDR and RXR alpha, Irx4 does not bind directly to the VDRE. Instead two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays show that Irx4 interacts with the RXR alpha component of the VDR/RXR alpha heterodimer and that the amino terminus of the Irx4 protein is required for its inhibitory action. These observations indicate that the mechanism of atrial chamber-specific expression requires the formation of an inhibitory protein complex composed of VDR, RXR alpha, and Irx4 that binds at the VDRE inhibiting slow MyHC3 expression in the ventricles.  (+info)

Microarray expression analysis of effects of exercise training: increase in atrial MLC-1 in rat ventricles. (5/12)

Previous studies have shown that endurance exercise training increases myocardial contractility. We have previously described training-induced alterations in myocardial contractile function at the cellular level, including an increase in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of tension. To determine the molecular mechanism(s) of these changes, oligonucleotide microarrays were used to analyze the gene expression profile in ventricles from endurance-trained rats. We used an 11-wk treadmill training protocol that we have previously shown results in increased contractility in cardiac myocytes. After the training, the hearts were removed and RNA was isolated from the ventricles of nine trained and nine control rats. With the use of an Affymetrix Rat Genome U34A Array, we detected altered expression of 27 genes. Several genes previously found to have increased expression in hypertrophied myocardium, such as atrial natriuretic factor and skeletal alpha-actin, were decreased with training in this study. From the standpoint of altered contractile performance, the most significant finding was an increase in the expression of atrial myosin light chain 1 (aMLC-1) in the trained ventricular tissue. We confirmed microarray results for aMLC-1 using RT-PCR and also confirmed a training-induced increase in aMLC-1 protein using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. aMLC-1 content has been previously shown to be increased in human cardiac hypertrophy and has been associated with increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of tension and increased power output. These results suggest that increased expression of aMLC-1 in response to training may be responsible, at least in part, for previously observed training-induced enhancement of contractile function.  (+info)

Increased Ca2+-sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in end-stage human heart failure results from altered phosphorylation of contractile proteins. (6/12)

OBJECTIVE: The alterations in contractile proteins underlying enhanced Ca(2+)-sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in end-stage failing human myocardium are still not resolved. In the present study an attempt was made to reveal to what extent protein alterations contribute to the increased Ca(2+)-responsiveness in human heart failure. METHODS: Isometric force and its Ca(2+)-sensitivity were studied in single left ventricular myocytes from non-failing donor (n=6) and end-stage failing (n=10) hearts. To elucidate which protein alterations contribute to the increased Ca(2+)-responsiveness isoform composition and phosphorylation status of contractile proteins were analysed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western immunoblotting. RESULTS: Maximal tension did not differ between myocytes obtained from donor and failing hearts, while Ca(2+)-sensitivity of the contractile apparatus (pCa(50)) was significantly higher in failing myocardium (deltapCa(50)=0.17). Protein analysis indicated that neither re-expression of atrial light chain 1 and fetal troponin T (TnT) nor degradation of myosin light chains and troponin I (TnI) are responsible for the observed increase in Ca(2+)-responsiveness. An inverse correlation was found between pCa(50) and percentage of phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 (MLC-2), while phosphorylation of MLC-1 and TnT did not differ between donor and failing hearts. Incubation of myocytes with protein kinase A decreased Ca(2+)-sensitivity to a larger extent in failing (deltapCa(50)=0.20) than in donor (deltapCa(50)=0.03) myocytes, abolishing the difference in Ca(2+)-responsiveness. An increased percentage of dephosphorylated TnI was found in failing hearts, which significantly correlated with the enhanced Ca(2+)-responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The increased Ca(2+)-responsiveness of the contractile apparatus in end-stage failing human hearts cannot be explained by a shift in contractile protein isoforms, but results from the complex interplay between changes in the phosphorylation status of MLC-2 and TnI.  (+info)

Mutation of weak atrium/atrial myosin heavy chain disrupts atrial function and influences ventricular morphogenesis in zebrafish. (7/12)

The embryonic vertebrate heart is composed of two major chambers, a ventricle and an atrium, each of which has a characteristic size, shape and functional capacity that contributes to efficient circulation. Chamber-specific gene expression programs are likely to regulate key aspects of chamber formation. Here, we demonstrate that epigenetic factors also have a significant influence on chamber morphogenesis. Specifically, we show that an atrium-specific contractility defect has a profound impact on ventricular development. We find that the zebrafish locus weak atrium encodes an atrium-specific myosin heavy chain that is required for atrial myofibrillar organization and contraction. Despite their atrial defects, weak atrium mutants can maintain circulation through ventricular contraction. However, the weak atrium mutant ventricle becomes unusually compact, exhibiting a thickened myocardial wall, a narrow lumen and changes in myocardial gene expression. As weak atrium/atrial myosin heavy chain is expressed only in the atrium, the ventricular phenotypes in weak atrium mutants represent a secondary response to atrial dysfunction. Thus, not only is cardiac form essential for cardiac function, but there also exists a reciprocal relationship in which function can influence form. These findings are relevant to our understanding of congenital defects in cardiac chamber morphogenesis.  (+info)

Tyrosine hydroxylase is expressed during early heart development and is required for cardiac chamber formation. (8/12)

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Apollo Master Health Check (AMHC) - One Day Package is recommended for persons between 30-60 years of age.It is especially recommended for individuals who have risk factors such as Hypertension,Diabetes Mellitus,History of smoking ,Obesity and those with a stressful Lifestyle.
Apollo Master Health Check (AMHC) - One Day Package is recommended for persons between 30-60 years of age.It is especially recommended for individuals who have risk factors such as Hypertension,Diabetes Mellitus,History of smoking ,Obesity and those with a stressful Lifestyle.
Primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic cardiac disease characterized by thickening (hypertrophy) of the left ventricular (LV) wall, dyspnea and/or fatigue in the setting of a normal or supra-normal LV ejection fraction. The specific mechanisms underlying heart failure-related symptomatology in non-obstructive HCM are poorly defined, but as the vast majority of HCM patients with heart failure have apparently preserved LV contractile function, their symptoms of dyspnea and fatigue are presumed due to perturbations of the relaxation/filling phase (diastole) of the cardiac cycle, which has been termed diastolic dysfunction. In fact, diastole is mechanistically complex and involves LV pressure decay (relaxation), chamber compliance and atrial contractile function. LV end-diastolic volume, which represents fiber stretch, governs LV contractile function and stroke volume via the Frank-Starling mechanism. End-diastolic fiber stretch is, in turn, dependent on late diastolic filling due ...
Hall, Cynthia Ann, The role of left atrial chamber size as assessed by echocardiography in determining thromboembolic complications of atrial fibrillation (1986). Yale Medicine Thesis Digital Library. 2684 ...
We are aware that the COVID-19 pandemic is having an unprecedented impact on researchers worldwide. The Editors of all The Company of Biologists journals have been considering ways in which we can alleviate concerns that members of our community may have around publishing activities during this time. Read about the actions we are taking at this time.. Please dont hesitate to contact the Editorial Office if you have any questions or concerns.. ...
Acadia Pharmaceuticals treatment for Parkinsons disease-related psychosis failed a Phase 3 trial that was studying use of the drug for schizophrenia
I am the author of SIX books on Reichian Natural Health and Healing. Beyond Natural Cures Beyond Natural Skincare & Weightloss Til Love Do Us Part; Jesus Yoga Witchcraft and The AMHC Music and Foreign Language Program for Children and first and foremost I am a Waldorf mom! After healing my son of autism, I spend time each day reaching out to heal the world. I have written a chapter on homeschooling in Melisa Nielsons book A Journey Through Waldorf Homeschooling Grade Two and was also interviewed for the book Bilingual By Choice: The Family Guide for Raising Kids in Two (or More!) Languages by Virginie Raguenaud. Check out my website bodymindayurveda. ...
In the uncommon anatomic variation of the course of the RCA, the mid and distal segments course through the atrial chamber. The clinical consequence is minimal except during any procedure where a wire is passed into or through the right atrium, w...
An implantable cardiac stimulation device and associated method to verify capture of a stimulated atrial site by detecting a conducted depolarization at another atrial site or in the opposite atrial chamber. A signal received during an atrial capture detection window is compared to a depolarization signal threshold or to a depolarization signal template in order to verify detection of a conducted depolarization signal as evidence of capture at the stimulated site. By sensing depolarization signal away from the stimulated site, the negative effects of lead polarization normally encountered when detecting an evoked response are avoided.
Merck said first-quarter profit rose on gains from a deal with longtime partner AstraZeneca, although the companys sales rose only 1 percent as negative results of a clinical trial slowed growth of its Vytorin and Zetia cholesterol drugs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human eHAND, but not dHAND, is down-regulated in cardiomyopathies. AU - Natarajan, Aruna. AU - Yamagishi, Hiroyuki. AU - Ahmad, Ferhaan. AU - Li, Duanxiang. AU - Roberts, Robert. AU - Matsuoka, Rumiko. AU - Hill, Sandra. AU - Srivastava, Deepak. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The progression of cardiomyopathy to congestive heart failure is often associated with the expression of fetal cardiac-specific genes. In mice, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, dHAND and eHAND, are expressed in a cardiac chamber-specific fashion and are essential for fetal cardiac development, but are down-regulated in the adult. Their expression in specific chambers of healthy and diseased human hearts has not been studied previously. Human dHAND and eHAND were mapped to human chromosomes 4q33 and 5q33, respectively, by fluorescent in situ hybridization, RNA from the four chambers of healthy human adult hearts, and from hearts of patients with several forms of cardiomyopathy, was obtained and ...
The search for the heart fields dates to mapping studies carried out on embryos in the 1940s was the beginning of identifying lateral plate mesoderm that gives rise to cardiogenic cells and has the potential to for myocardium [7]. The heart field regions lie laterally to the primitive streak, with the subpharyngeal mesodermal progenitor cells of the secondary heart field (SHF) located medially and ventrally to the primary heart field (PHF) cells that give rise to the primary linear heart tube. The PHF and the SHF are adjacent within the heart field region of the lateral plate mesoderm and cardiac crescent (refer to student figure 2). It is understood that in the pharyngeal mesoderm the cardiac regions are prepatterned in the progenitor cell population [8], hence being termed specified but undifferentiated. It is the patterning of cells within the soon to become myocardium, that is responsible differentiation into chamber-specific myocytes (atrial and ventricular) and conduction cells [9]. ...
The basic technique for IART mapping involves collection of electrograms from one or both atria during sustained tachycardia, incorporating enough data points to establish the activation sequence over the entirety of the IART cycle length. This pattern can then be viewed in the context of surgical scars and natural conduction barriers to arrive at a rational model for macroreentry. Entrainment pacing with analysis of postpacing intervals can be used to decipher complex circuits when uncertainty exists.56. Ablation can be attempted once the route for propagation has been established with reasonable certainty, but even when tachycardia location is firm, the task of creating an effective line of conduction block in CHD patients with thickened and dilated atrial chambers is demanding. Quite often, the target area is wider than the average lesion dimension of a single RF application, so multiple contiguous lesions have to be placed to establish permanent block in the target area. This leaves open the ...
The anterior mitral leaflet (aml) is well seen, as well as the left ventricular and atrial chambers. The inferobasal portion of the left ventricle is particularly well seen in this view - perhaps the major justification for this particular part of the TOE examination! (The inferobasal part is that part of the LV in the upper portion of the image, close to the probe). Remember that in the visible human from which these anatomical sections were taken, the left side is particularly poorly filled, and thus the LV cavity appears much plumper in the echo image. Compare the above with the two-chamber mid-oesophageal view. ...
Intramuscular triacylglycerols measured by Oil Red O staining combined with an immunofluorescence staining against slow myosin heavy chain (sMHC), to determine
Recommendations for Cardiac Chamber Quantification by Echocardiography in Adults [document url="http://asecho.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/201...
Mutations of a heart muscle protein, α-myosin heavy chain (MYH6) are associated with atrial septal defects. Several proteins ... Cells in part of the septum primum die creating a hole while muscle cells, the "septum secundum", grow along the right atrial ... Mutations of all these proteins are associated with both atrial and ventricular septal defects; In addition, NKX2-5 is ... Ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot are the most common congenital heart defects ...
This is typically due to sarcoidosis but may also be due to autoimmune disorders that create autoantibodies against myosin ... Valvular atrial fibrillation refers to atrial fibrillation attributable to moderate to severe mitral valve stenosis or atrial ... 193,300 with atrial flutter (2015)[10]. Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) ... Left atrial appendage occlusion[edit]. There is tentative evidence that left atrial appendage occlusion therapy may reduce the ...
... within atrial myocytes is affected by ageing in large animal models, elevating sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ... In cardiac muscle cells, the most important buffers within the cytoplasm include troponin C, SERCA, calmodulin, and myosin, ... Clarke JD, Caldwell JL, Pearman CM, Eisner DA, Trafford AW, Dibb KM (October 2017). "2+ handling in old sheep atrial myocytes ... content, which could potentially contribute towards a tendency to atrial fibrillation. Calcium channel Cellular communication ( ...
... atrial natriuretic peptide receptor A). This stimulates the synthesis of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) which then ... eventually resulting in the dephosphorylation of the myosin light chain of the smooth muscle fiber. The subsequent ...
In non-muscle cells, to be a track for cargo transport myosins (nonconventional myosins) such as myosin V and VI. ... Certain defects of the atrial septum have been described recently that could also be related to these mutations.[170][171] ... This arrangement allows myosin V to be an effective motor for the export of cargos, and myosin VI to be an effective motor for ... Myosin V walks towards the barbed end of actin filaments, while myosin VI walks toward the pointed end. Most actin filaments ...
... reducing atrial contractility and potentially contributing to atrial fibrillation.[25] Structural changes in T-tubules can lead ... In skeletal muscle cells, T-tubules are between 20 and 40 nm in diameter and are typically located either side of the myosin ... T-tubules are found in both atrial and ventricular cardiac muscle cells (cardiomyocytes), in which they develop in the first ... in 2009 an extensive T-tubule network in atrial cardiac muscle cells was observed.[25] Ongoing research focusses on the ...
Robaei, D; Ford, T; Ooi, SY (February 2015). "Ankyrin-B syndrome: a case of sinus node dysfunction, atrial fibrillation and ... atrial fibrillation, conduction block, arrhythmia and risk of sudden cardiac death.[24][25][26] Intense investigation is ... Additional mechanistic studies have shown that atrial cardiomyocytes lacking ankyrin-B have shortened action potentials, which ... "Atrial fibrillation and sinus node dysfunction in human ankyrin-B syndrome: a computational analysis". American Journal of ...
pulmonary veins) → left atrium (atrial appendage) → mitral valve → left ventricle → aortic valve (aortic sinus) → (aorta and ... myosin, tropomyosin, and troponin. They include MYH6, ACTC1, TNNI3, CDH2 and PKP2. Other proteins expressed are MYH7 and LDB3 ... venae cavae, coronary sinus) → right atrium (atrial appendage, fossa ovalis, limbus of fossa ovalis, crista terminalis, valve ... A fourth heart sound S4 is referred to as an atrial gallop and is produced by the sound of blood being forced into a stiff ...
Mióisin Myosin. N[cuir in eagar , athraigh foinse]. O[cuir in eagar , athraigh foinse]. *Ócratocsain A Ochratoxin A ... Atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP). *Áicsin Auxin. *Azadirachtin A - C35H44O16 ...
Although the mechanism by which this is done has not been thoroughly explained, adhesion complexes and the actin-myosin ... Extracellular matrix coming from pig small intestine submucosa are being used to repair "atrial septal defects" (ASD), "patent ... Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II blocks most of these effects,[23][21][20] indicating that they are indeed tied to sensing the ...
... coming from pig small intestine submucosa are being used to repair "atrial septal defects" (ASD), "patent ... Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II blocks most of these effects,[23][21][20] indicating that they are indeed tied to sensing the ... myosin cytoskeleton, whose contractile forces are transmitted through transcellular structures are thought to play key roles in ...
Athletic heart syndrome,[1] Ventricular hypertrophy, Atrial enlargement. Causes. Dilated Cardiomyopathy,[2][3][4][5] ... If there is less overlap of the protein filaments actin and myosin within the sarcomeres of muscle fibers, they will not be ... As the heart works harder the actin and myosin filaments experience less overlap which increases the size of the myocardial ...
The x-axis often describes end-diastolic volume, right atrial pressure, or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. The three curves ... myosin cross-bridges to form within the muscle fibers. Specifically, the sensitivity of troponin for binding Ca2+ increases and ...
This is due to reduced ability to cross-link actin and myosin filaments in over-stretched heart muscle.[29] ... It is now used in only a small number of people with refractory symptoms, who are in atrial fibrillation and/or who have ... atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause.[2][3] These ... people with coexisting atrial fibrillation, a prior embolic event, or conditions which increase the risk of an embolic event ...
The rise in intracellular calcium complexes with calmodulin, which in turn activates myosin light-chain kinase. This enzyme is ... responsible for phosphorylating the light chain of myosin to stimulate cross-bridge cycling. ...
Expression of the atrial-specific myosin heavy chain AMHC1 and the establishment of anteroposterior polarity in the developing ... Expression of the atrial-specific myosin heavy chain AMHC1 and the establishment of anteroposterior polarity in the developing ... Expression of the atrial-specific myosin heavy chain AMHC1 and the establishment of anteroposterior polarity in the developing ... Expression of the atrial-specific myosin heavy chain AMHC1 and the establishment of anteroposterior polarity in the developing ...
... and the atrial muscle isoform MLC1A (equivalent to the fetal isoform MLC1emb) using a panel of 25 independent man-rodent ... Several isoforms of myosin alkali light chain have been identified, associated with different muscle types. We have recently ... myosin plays a major role in the maintenance of cell shape and in cellular movement; in association with actin and other ... The possible role of myosin light chain in myoblast proliferation.. *Su-Zhen Zhang, Yong Xu, Hui-Qi Xie, Xiu-Qun Li, Yu-Quan ...
These probe sets represented a set of genes that included atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), BNP, small muscle protein, and α- ... Myosin light chain kinase and myosin phosphorylation effect frequency-dependent potentiation of skeletal muscle contraction. ... Among the several paralogs of the myosin regulatory light chain in vertebrates (5), myosin regulatory light chain 2, ... myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform; MLCK, myosin light chain kinase; M-mode, motion mode; MO, ...
myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform. Names. MLC-2a. MLC2a. myosin light chain 2a. myosin regulatory light chain 7. ... Differential regulation of the atrial isoforms of the myosin light chains during striated muscle development. Hailstones D, et ... NM_021223.3 → NP_067046.1 myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform. See identical proteins and their annotated locations ... MYL7 myosin light chain 7 [Homo sapiens] MYL7 myosin light chain 7 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:58498 ...
... of atrial myosin in euthyroid hearts. The same electrophoretic patterns also showed in atrial myosin from hypothyroid and ... whereas thyroid hormone does not affect atrial myosin ATPase, possibly due to its inability to control atrial myosin synthesis. ... ATPase activities of atrial myosin from hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rabbits were identical with the values for atrial myosin ... and actin-activated ATPase activities of atrial myosin were 2-fold greater than those of the ventricular myosin. The Ca++- and ...
The right atrial myocytes of −/− mice were also enlarged and contained more numerous cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum and ... contain only myosin II-A, whereas a monkey kidney epithelial cell line (COS-7 cells) contains only myosin II-B. Furthermore, ... Nonmuscle myosin II-B is required for normal development of the mouse heart. Antonella N. Tullio, Domenico Accili, Victor J. ... The two nonmuscle myosin II isoforms present in vertebrates differ in the rate at which they hydrolyze ATP and propel actin ...
Atrial fibrillation ACEISotalolDigitalisWarfarinLoop diuretics ICD - CRT(2002) Transplant(45 y) 2 1990 22 y(2012) 18 mm 48 mmHg ... Genetic variants in the β-myosin heavy chain encoded by MYH7 involving the so-called "converter region" have been associated ... A new mutation affecting the converter region of the beta-myosin heavy chain related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with poor ... February 2020 A new mutation affecting the converter region of the beta-myosin heavy chain related... ...
myosin light chain;. ANF,. atrial natriuretic factor;. E(n),. embryonic day.. *© 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of ... Notably, atrial-enriched regulatory and structural genes, such as those encoding sarcolipin (Sln), myosin light chain (Mlc) 1a ... Repression of Atrial Gene Expression by Hrt2.. Based on the up-regulation of multiple atrial genes including Mlc1a, Mlc2a, Sln ... Repression of Atrial Genes by Hrt2.. To determine whether Hrt2 was sufficient to repress endogenous atrial gene expression, we ...
myosin light chains cardiac myosin dilated cardiomyopathy myosin filaments reconstituted myosin actin-activated ATPase activity ... Expression of atrial myosin light chains but not alpha-myosin heavy chains correlate with increased ventricular function in ... Reconstitution of ventricular myosin with atrial light chains 1 improves its functional properties.. ... Khalina YN, Shpagina MD, Malyshev SL, Podlubnaya ZA (2003) Atrial myosin light chains in modulation of the functional ...
17β-estradiol-induced interaction of estrogen receptor α and human atrial essential myosin light chain modulates cardiac ... 17β-estradiol-induced interaction of estrogen receptor α and human atrial essential myosin light chain modulates cardiac ... Chronic increased workload of the human heart causes ventricular hypertrophy, re-expression of the atrial essential myosin ... We showed that E2 attenuated hALC-1 expression in human atrial tissues of both sexes and in human ventricular AC16 cells. E2 ...
Atrial myosin ATPase activity and structure were not influenced by the thyroid state of the animals. These results present ... The lacking difference between the hypothyroid and the euthyroid states indicates that a myosin with a lower enzymatic activity ... electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing of subfragment 1 this could be ascribed to an additional ventricular myosin in the ... than the normal ventricular myosin is not synthesized in the heart of higher mammals. ...
Rat monoclonal Myosin antibody [MAC 147] validated for WB, EM, ICC/IF. Referenced in 7 publications and 3 independent reviews. ... Myosin light chain 3 alkali ventricular skeletal slow antibody. *Myosin light chain 4 alkali atrial embryonic antibody ... Each myosin heavy chain can be split into 1 light meromyosin (LMM) and 1 heavy meromyosin (HMM). It can later be split further ... Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence - Anti-Myosin antibody [MAC 147] (ab51098)This image is courtesy of an Abreview by ...
... atrial natriuretic factor (ANF); dominant-negative MKK3 (dnMKK3); nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT); α-myosin heavy ... Ablation of the murine α myosin heavy chain gene leads to dosage effects and functional deficits in the heart. J. Clin. Invest. ... Transgenic remodeling of the regulatory myosin light chains in the mammalian heart. Circ. Res. 1997. 80:655-664. View this ... atrial natriuretic factor expression, and cardiac myocyte morphology. J. Biol. Chem. 2000. 276:29490-29498. View this article ...
Anp indicates atrial natriuretic peptide; Bnp, brain natriuretic peptide; Cnp, C-type natriuretic peptide; Mhc, myosin heavy ... atrial natriuretic peptide (NP) was decreased by 52% (P,0.05), whereas brain NP and β-myosin heavy chain showed a strong ...
"Chick atrial myosin heavy chain. [Source:Uniprot/SPTREMBL;Acc:Q910C5]"Homolog of Gallus gallus "Chick atrial myosin heavy chain ...
Rs4968309 in Myosin Light Chain 4 (MYL4) Associated With Atrial Fibrillation Onset and Predicts Clinical Outcomes After ... Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia with serious complications and a high rate of recurrence after catheter ... The prevalence of hypertension was associated with rs1515752, and left atrial size was associated with the genotype of ... Recently, mutation ofMYL4was reported as responsible for familial atrial cardiomyopathy and AF. This study aimed to determine ...
ANP indicates atrial natriuretic peptide; ASA, α-skeletal actin, BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; HW/BW, heart-to-body weight ... Double heterozygosity for mutations in the beta-myosin heavy chain and in the cardiac myosin binding protein C genes in a ... of wt myosin heads are essential to compensate functional changes inflicted by the mutant myosin heads. By implication, even a ... cardiac myosin heavy chain. RC. MHC arginine 453 cysteine substitution. RW. MHC arginine 719 tryptophane substitution. VM. MHC ...
myosin, light chain 3, alkali; ventricular.... 4635. 4635. MYL4. myosin, light chain 4, alkali; atrial, emb.... ... Myosin classes are distinguished based on sequence features of the motor, or head, domain, but also have distinct tail regions ... A protein complex, formed of one or more myosin heavy chains plus associated light chains and other proteins, that functions as ...
actinin = Sarcomeric α-actinin, MHC: Cardiac myosin heavy chain; ANF: Atrial natriuretic factor; TnI: Troponin I. DAPI = blue, ... Left atrial appendages from adult hearts contain a reservoir of diverse cardiac progenitor cells.. Leinonen JV1, Emanuelov AK, ... A) Location and size of the atrial appendages (red) in the adult heart (top) and in the end stage of heart looping (bottom). ... Our results demonstrate that the left atrial appendage plays a role as a reservoir of multiple types of progenitor cells in ...
Spontaneous cases are supposed to be associated with left atrial wall pathology. We present a case of a 53-year-old male ... Left atrial wall haematoma is a very uncommon entity, associated mainly to cardiac surgery, interventional procedures, or ... 12208228 - Efficacy of a dual chamber defibrillator with atrial antitachycardia functions in treat.... 3956178 - Myosin ... Spontaneous cases are supposed to be associated with left atrial wall pathology. We present a case of a 53-year-old male who ...
... such as atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and β-myosin heavy chain, and the β/α-myosin heavy chain ratio ( ... AMPK indicates AMP-activated protein kinase; ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; β-MHC, β-myosin heavy chain; BNP, brain ... and the β/α-myosin heavy chain ratio) to normal levels (Figure 8H; n=5/group, P,0.05). ...
... myosin, heavy chain 6, cardiac muscle, alpha (cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic 1) , atrial myosin heavy chain , myosin-7 , wea , ... myHC-alpha , myosin heavy chain 6 , myosin heavy chain polypeptide 6 cardiac muscle adult , myosin heavy chain, cardiac muscle ... Myosin heavy chain, cardiac muscle alpha isoform (MyHC-alpha) , alpha cardiac MHC , alpha myosin , cardiac myosin heavy chain ... myosin, heavy polypeptide 6, cardiac muscle, alpha , myosin-6 , myosin, heavy polypeptide 6, cardiac muscle, alpha ( ...
Myosin light chains of skeletal and cardiac muscles of ground squirrel Citillus undulatus in different periods of hibernation ... In the atrial myocardium of hibernating ground squirrels, ventricular myosin light chains 1 (up to 60%) were registered. In ... In the atrial myocardium of hibernating ground squirrels, ventricular myosin light chains 1 (up to 60%) were registered. In ... in ventricular myocardium the appearance of atrial myosin light chains 1 (up to 30%) was revealed. A possible role of ...
Mutations of a heart muscle protein, α-myosin heavy chain (MYH6) are associated with atrial septal defects. Several proteins ... Cells in part of the septum primum die creating a hole while muscle cells, the "septum secundum", grow along the right atrial ... Mutations of all these proteins are associated with both atrial and ventricular septal defects; In addition, NKX2-5 is ... Ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot are the most common congenital heart defects ...
Atrial Septopulmonary Bundle of the Posterior Left Atrium Provides a Substrate for Atrial Fibrillation Initiation in a Model of ... Myosin 1e is a component of the invadosome core that contributes to regulation of invadosome dynamics. Exp Cell Res.. 322(2): ... Left versus right atrial difference in dominant frequency, K(+) channel transcripts, and fibrosis in patients developing atrial ... Myosin 1e is a component of the glomerular slit diaphragm complex that regulates actin reorganization during cell-cell contact ...
Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein C: Modulator of Contractility. Human Atrial Myosin Light Chain 1 Expression Accentuates Heart ... Dynamic Structures of Myosin,Kinesin, and Troponin as Detected by SDSL. ESR. Mutations of Transcription Factors in Human with ... Is Myosin Phosphorylation Sufficient to Regulate Smooth Muscle Contraction?. Comparative Aspects of Crossbridge Function: ... Conformational Change and Regulation of Myosin Molecules. Driving Filament Sliding: Weak Binding Cross. bridge states, Strong ...
... atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), or myosin heavy chain (MHC). ... sarcomeric myosin heavy chain (MHC). *Titin, tropomyosin, α- ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone expressed in developing heart and fetal cardiomyocytes but down-regulated in adults ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) was upregulated during cardiac differentiation of hES cells as detected by a semiquantitative ... As measured by real-time RT-PCR analysis, expression of the cardiomyocyte marker α-myosin heavy chain was highest in the higher ...
The mRNA levels of β-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic factor were determined by real-time PCR to evaluate the presence ... HGF = hepatology growth factor; Ang II = angiotensin II; ANF = atrial natriuretic factor; β-MHC = β-myosin heavy chain. *P , ... Ang II was shown to directly induce the gene expression of β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) (4 ...
N-terminal pro B-type or atrial natriuretic peptide; α-/β-MHC, alpha- or beta-myosin heavy chain; SERCA2a, sarcoplasmic ... 1996). Influence of endothelin 1 on human atrial myocardium-myocardial function and subcellular pathways. Basic Res. Cardiol. ... It is known that pathological hypertrophy is associated with an increase in expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), B- ... These include cytoskeletal elements like actin and myosin myofibrils, regulatory complexes like tropomyosin and its attendant ...
Myosin Light Chain 7, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform. Protein Accession:. Q01449. Secondary Accessions: *B2R4L3 ... Chamber specification of atrial myosin light chain-2 expression precedes septation during murine cardiogenesis. (PMID: 8207020) ... Differential regulation of the atrial isoforms of the myosin light chains during striated muscle development. (PMID: 1429676) ...
  • A frameshift deletion in the sarcomere gene MYL4 causes early-onset familial atrial fibrillation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Rs4968309 in Myosin Light Chain 4 (MYL4) Associated With Atrial Fibrillation Onset and Predicts Clinical Outcomes After Catheter Ablation in Atrial. (cdc.gov)
  • Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia with serious complications and a high rate of recurrence after catheter ablation. (cdc.gov)
  • Diseases associated with MYL7 include Primary Cutaneous Amyloidosis and Familial Atrial Fibrillation . (genecards.org)
  • A subset of patients with HCM are at high risk of progressive disease which can lead to atrial fibrillation, stroke and death due to arrhythmias. (yahoo.com)
  • Therefore, while there are available and effective therapies for commonly occurring disorders of atrial cardiomyocytes such as atrial fibrillation, loss of ventricular cardiomyocytes resulting from myocardial infarction cannot be effectively treated. (ptglab.com)
  • Leads V4 and V5 of an electrocardiogram showing atrial fibrillation with somewhat irregular intervals between heart beats, no P waves , and a heart rate of about 150 beats per minute. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrial fibrillation ( AF or A-fib ) is an abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) characterized by the rapid and irregular beating of the atrial chambers of the heart . (wikipedia.org)
  • Healthy lifestyle changes, such as weight loss in people with obesity, increased physical activity, and drinking less alcohol , can lower the risk for atrial fibrillation and reduce its burden if it occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrial fibrillation is the most common serious abnormal heart rhythm and, as of 2020, affects more than 33 million people worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomarkers of Atrial Fibrillation: Which One Is a True Marker? (hindawi.com)
  • Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmias and associated with the risk of stroke and death. (hindawi.com)
  • Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice and also known as an independent risk factor for stroke [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • On the contrary, in the guideline for management of AF, the use of biomarkers as part of its management has never been mentioned until in the 2016 European Society of Cardiology guideline for management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS. (hindawi.com)
  • Histological and electrical change in atrial fibrillation occurred due to multiple factors that include inflammation, oxidative stress, renin angiotensin, growth factor, and ion-channel dysfunction, and even adipose tissue plays a substantial role for the development of AF through its paracrine effect [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although there are effective therapies available for common disorders of atrial cardiomyocytes, like atrial fibrillation, loss of ventricular cardiomyocytes as a result of myocardial infarction is unable to be successfully treated. (news-medical.net)
  • Patients develop atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia (VT), and sudden cardiac death with pronounced inter-individual variability in phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium buffering within atrial myocytes is affected by ageing in large animal models, elevating sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content, which could potentially contribute towards a tendency to atrial fibrillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Role of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Comorbidities in the Link between Atrial Fibrillation and Cognitive Impairment: An Appraisal of Current Scientific Evidence. (medworm.com)
  • Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice with implications on long-term outcomes. (medworm.com)
  • Metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus and obesity are independent predictors of atrial fibrillation and present therapeutic targets to reduce both the incidence and duration burden of atrial fibrillation. (medworm.com)
  • Atrial fibrillation is an independent predictor of cognitive impairment and dementia. (medworm.com)
  • This study aimed to identify novel GATA5 mutations that underlie familial atrial fibrillation. (scielo.br)
  • A total of 110 unrelated patients with familial atrial fibrillation and 200 unrelated, ethnically matched healthy controls were recruited. (scielo.br)
  • The entire coding region of the GATA5 gene was sequenced in 110 atrial fibrillation probands. (scielo.br)
  • Two novel heterozygous GATA5 mutations (p.Y138F and p.C210G) were identified in two of the 110 unrelated atrial fibrillation families. (scielo.br)
  • The findings expand the spectrum of GATA5 mutations linked to AF and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation, suggesting potential implications for the early prophylaxis and personalized treatment of this common arrhythmia. (scielo.br)
  • Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of cardiac arrhythmia seen in clinical practice, accounting for approximately one-third of hospitalizations for cardiac rhythm disturbances. (scielo.br)
  • Functional divergence of human cytoplasmic myosin II: kinetic characterization of the non-muscle IIA isoform. (nih.gov)
  • The isoform composition of myosin light chains and the extent of their phosphorylation in skeletal and cardiac muscles of ground squirrel Citellus undulatus in different periods of hibernation were studied. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • During hibernation, a shift of isoform composition of essential and regulatory skeletal muscle myosin light chains toward slower isoforms was observed, which is evidenced by the data obtained on m. psoas and on the totality of all skeletal muscles. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A possible role of posttranslation changes in myosin light chains and their isoform shifts in the hibernation scenario is discussed. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The ventricular myosin light chain-2 isoform ( MYL2/MLC-2v , Figure 1) is restricted to the ventricular segment of the heart and is related to the ventricles throughout its development. (ptglab.com)
  • Within the ventricular segment of the heart, the ventricular myosin light chain-2 isoform (MYL2/MLC-2v), as seen in Figure 1, can be found. (news-medical.net)
  • MYL2 stands for Myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform (MLC-2), also known as the regulatory light chain of myosin (RLC). (ptglab.com)
  • This isoform is distinct from those expressed in skeletal muscle (MYLPF), smooth muscle (MYL12B), and cardiac atrial muscle (MYL7) (PMID: 21345328). (ptglab.com)
  • Clone REA401 recognizes the human, mouse, and rat ventricular isoform of the myosin light chain 2 (MLC2v) antigen. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • In contrast, the atrial isoform of the myosin light chain 2 (MLC2a) is expressed in the presumptive ventricle prior to MLC2v, and its ventricular expression is subsequently down-regulated. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Structure and sequence of the myosin alkali light chain gene expressed in adult cardiac atria and fetal striated muscle. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human embyronic/atrial myosin alkali light chain gene. (fraunhofer.de)
  • However, a number of cells, including rat basophil leukemic cells ( 19 ) and human platelets ( 13 , 18 ), contain only myosin II-A, whereas a monkey kidney epithelial cell line (COS-7 cells) contains only myosin II-B. Furthermore, cardiac myocytes from newborn mice ( 8 ) and primary cultures of embryonic chicken cardiac myocytes were found to contain only NMHC-B and not NMHC-A ( 20 , 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Atrial light chain 1 (ALC-1) is expressed in embryonic and hypertrophied human ventricles but not in normal adult human ventricles. (edu.pl)
  • Embryonic Essential Myosin Light Chain Regulates Fetal Lung Development in Rats. (abnova.com)
  • This gene encodes a myosin alkali light chain that is found in embryonic muscle and adult atria. (abnova.com)
  • A proper understanding of the molecular and functional differences between atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes helps to define new strategies not only for embryonic stem cells (ESCs) applications but also to provide cellular models for the study of genetic atrial- or ventricular-related diseases (5). (ptglab.com)
  • The known interactions of UNC-45b as a molecular chaperone are consistent with diminished accumulation of the sarcomeric myosins, but not their mRNAs, and the resulting decreased contraction of homozygous mutant embryonic hearts. (biologists.org)
  • Developing skeletal muscles express unique myosin isoforms, including embryonic and neonatal myosin heavy chains, coded by the myosin heavy chain 3 ( MYH3) and MYH8 genes, respectively, and myosin light chain 1 embryonic/atrial, encoded by the myosin light chain 4 ( MYL4) gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These myosin isoforms are transiently expressed during embryonic and fetal development and disappear shortly after birth when adult fast and slow myosins become prevalent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of these genes are also expressed in the developing skeletal muscle, including two MyHC isoforms, called embryonic and neonatal (or perinatal) myosins, coded by MYH3 and MYH8 , respectively, and myosin light chain 1 embryonic/atrial, coded by the MYL4 gene, which are present at high levels in the initial stages of muscle development, are downregulated after birth, and are re-expressed during muscle regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we review the pattern of expression of myosin genes during muscle development, focusing especially on embryonic and neonatal MyHCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we used multicolor fate-mapping to visualize and quantify the contributions to zebrafish heart morphogenesis by embryonic atrial cardiomyocytes. (biologists.org)
  • A detailed understanding of the molecular and functional variances between atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes is helpful in defining novel techniques for applications of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), as well as providing cellular models for research into genetic atrial- or ventricular-related diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • CK-274 reduces the number of active actin-myosin cross bridges during each cardiac cycle and consequently reduces myocardial contractility. (yahoo.com)
  • Neuregulin infusion in rodents increases cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) expression and cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation which may improve actin-myosin interactions for contraction. (jove.com)
  • Several isoforms of myosin alkali light chain have been identified, associated with different muscle types. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Differential regulation of the atrial isoforms of the myosin light chains during striated muscle development. (nih.gov)
  • We used targeted gene disruption in mice to ablate nonmuscle myosin heavy chain B (NMHC-B), one of the two isoforms of nonmuscle myosin II present in all vertebrate cells. (pnas.org)
  • In vertebrates, most tissues contain two different isoforms of nonmuscle myosin II, II-A and II-B, which are composed of a pair of heavy chains (200 kDa) and two pairs of light chains (20 and 17 kDa) (reviewed in refs. (pnas.org)
  • The two nonmuscle myosin II isoforms present in vertebrates differ in the rate at which they hydrolyze ATP and propel actin filaments in the in vitro motility assay ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • The diversity of myosin isoforms, as well as other molecular components within the single muscle fiber, can produce functional heterogeneity ( Bottinelli, 2001 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These findings reveal a ventricular myocardial cell-autonomous function for Hrt2 in the suppression of atrial cell identity and the maintenance of postnatal cardiac function. (pnas.org)
  • In preclinical models, CK-274 reduces myocardial contractility by binding directly to cardiac myosin at a distinct and selective allosteric binding site, thereby preventing myosin from entering a force producing state. (yahoo.com)
  • We find that most atrial cardiomyocytes become rod-shaped in the second week of life, generating a single-muscle-cell-thick myocardial wall with a striking webbed morphology. (biologists.org)
  • Chronic infusion of apelin-13 into the PVN in normotensive rats induced hypertension, increased plasma noradrenaline and AVP levels and promoted myocardial atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain mRNA expressions, two indicative markers of cardiac hypertrophy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Molecular cloning and sequence of Sparus aurata skeletal myosin light chains expressed in white muscle: developmental expression and thyroid regulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In humans, the two genes encoding nonmuscle myosin heavy chains (NMHCs) are located on different chromosomes ( NMHC-A on 22q11.2 and NMHC-B on 17p13) ( 3 , 4 ) and, in a variety of species, these genes are expressed in a tissue-specific ( 5 - 7 ) and differentiation-dependent ( 8 - 10 ) manner. (pnas.org)
  • Reconstitution of ventricular myosin with atrial light chains 1 improves its functional properties. (edu.pl)
  • We investigated the effects of recombinant human atrial light chains (hALC-1) on the structure and enzymatic activity of synthetic filaments of ventricular myosin. (edu.pl)
  • Khalina Y, Udaltsov SN, Podlubnaya ZA (2002) Changes of composition of cardiac myosin light chains in dilated cardiomyopathy: effect on functional properties. (edu.pl)
  • Khalina YN, Shpagina MD, Malyshev SL, Podlubnaya ZA (2003) Atrial myosin light chains in modulation of the functional properties of myocardium. (edu.pl)
  • Regulatory myosin light chains of skeletal muscles of hibernating ground squirrels were completely dephosphorylated, while 25% of these light chains in active animals were phosphorylated. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the atrial myocardium of hibernating ground squirrels, ventricular myosin light chains 1 (up to 60%) were registered. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In contrast, during arousal of ground squirrels, in ventricular myocardium the appearance of atrial myosin light chains 1 (up to 30%) was revealed. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - [Myosin light chains of skeletal and cardiac muscles of ground squirrel Citillus undulatus in different periods of hibernation]. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • It is composed of two myosin heavy chains, two nonphosphorylatable myosin alkali light chains, and two phosphorylatable myosin regulatory light chains. (abnova.com)
  • Sarcomeric myosins present in mammalian striated muscle are class II or conventional myosins, each myosin molecule consisting of two heavy chains (MyHCs), two essential light chains (MLCs), and two regulatory MLCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Myosin Light Chains" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. (harvard.edu)
  • The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. (harvard.edu)
  • Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins. (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Myosin Light Chains" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Myosin Light Chains" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Myosin Light Chains" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Myosin is a hexamer composed of two myosin heavy chains and four myosin light chains. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Double missense mutations in cardiac myosin-binding protein C and myopalladin genes: A case report with diffuse coronary disease, complete atrioventricular block, and progression to dilated cardiomyopathy. (annals.org)
  • Having recently shown that cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is detectable in the serum after MI, we have proposed it as a potential biomarker for MI. (jove.com)
  • Data show that compound heterozygosity for recessive myosin heavy chain 6 (MYH6) mutations in patients with hypoplastic left heart and reduced systemic right ventricular ejection fraction. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Mutations in this gene cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atrial septal defect 3. (mybiosource.com)
  • Mutations in myosin heavy chain 11 cause a syndrome associating thoracic aortic aneurysm/aortic dissection and patent ductus arteriosus," Nature Genetics , vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 343-349, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Most of the MYH6 gene mutations associated with ASD affect a part of the α-myosin heavy chain known as the head domain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations associated with DCM and HCM can affect any part of the α-myosin heavy chain, and most change single amino acids in the protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This study functionally characterized the motor domains of five Dilated cardiomyopathy - causing mutations in human beta-cardiac myosin, MYH7. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Structural and enzymatic comparison of human cardiac muscle myosins isolated from infants, adults, and patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CK-274 is a novel cardiac myosin inhibitor, discovered by company scientists, in development for the potential treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). (yahoo.com)
  • Strauss's third example was the beta cardiac myosin heavy-chain abnormality discovered in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (cmaj.ca)
  • Perturbations in the MYH6 head domain seem to play a major role in the genetic origin of familial Secundum-type atrial septal defects. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot are the most common congenital heart defects seen in the VACTERL association. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mRNA levels of β-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic factor were determined by real-time PCR to evaluate the presence of fetal phenotypes of gene expression. (scielo.br)
  • These proteins mapped to select biological pathways such as endoplasmic reticulum stress response, cytoskeletal remodeling, and apoptosis and included known biomarkers of HF ( e.g. brain natriuretic peptide/atrial natriuretic factor and angiotensin-converting enzyme) and other indicators of presymptomatic functional impairment. (mcponline.org)
  • 1) ROS production, cell surface area, protein synthesis, and expressions of hypertrophic marker genes, including atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, atrial natriuretic factor, and β-myosin heavy chain, were decreased in HL-1 cells pretreated with 5-ALA and SFC. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Using a conditional Hrt2 null allele, we show that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Hrt2 in mice results in ectopic activation of atrial genes in ventricular myocardium with an associated impairment of cardiac contractility and a unique distortion in morphology of the right ventricular chamber. (pnas.org)
  • During embryogenesis, Hrt2 is expressed in the ventricular myocardium, but not in the atrial myocardium, and in the cardiac outflow tract and aortic arch arteries ( 5 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Myosin isoenzymes in normal and hypertrophied human ventricular myocardium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes form the muscular walls of the heart (the myocardium). (ptglab.com)
  • The muscular walls of the heart, also known as the myocardium, are formed from atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes. (news-medical.net)
  • Consistent with the atrialization of ventricular gene expression in Hrt2 mutant mice, forced expression of Hrt2 in atrial cardiomyocytes is sufficient to repress atrial cardiac genes. (pnas.org)
  • We developed an human cardiac alpha-myosin -induced myocarditis model in human HLA-DR4 transgenic mice that lack all mouse MHCII genes. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A total of 11 MyHCs is coded by 6 myosin heavy chain ( MYH ) genes which are widely expressed in body muscles and 5 other genes with limited expression in specialized skeletal muscles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Included in the latter group are the genes of the fetal gene program, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), β-myosin heavy chain, and α-skeletal actin. (physiology.org)
  • AF type and left atrial size were different among the genotypes of rs4968309. (cdc.gov)
  • The prevalence of hypertension was associated with rs1515752, and left atrial size was associated with the genotype of rs2071438. (cdc.gov)
  • Left atrial appendages from adult hearts contain a reservoir of diverse cardiac progenitor cells. (nih.gov)
  • Our aim was to investigate the different cardiac stem cell populations in the left atrial appendage (LAA) and their fates. (nih.gov)
  • Our results demonstrate that the left atrial appendage plays a role as a reservoir of multiple types of progenitor cells in murine adult hearts. (nih.gov)
  • Anatomy and histology of the left atrial appendage. (nih.gov)
  • Left atrial intramural haematoma associated with mitral annular calcification. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Left atrial wall haematoma is a very uncommon entity, associated mainly to cardiac surgery, interventional procedures, or trauma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Spontaneous cases are supposed to be associated with left atrial wall pathology. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We present a case of a 53-year-old male who was admitted for prolonged chest pain, with transthoracic and transesophagic echocardiography documentation of a left atrial mass in close proximity to a mitral annular calcification. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Postpartum, after the lungs expand, the left atrial pressure exceeds that of the right, causing the septum primum to press against the septum secundum. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Recently, mutation ofMYL4was reported as responsible for familial atrial cardiomyopathy and AF. (cdc.gov)
  • human alpha- and beta-cardiac myosin, as well as the mutants, show opposite mechanical and enzymatic phenotypes with respect to each other. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Direct binding studies show that the UNC-45b chaperone forms physical complexes with both the alpha and beta cardiac myosins and the cardiogenic transcription factor GATA4. (biologists.org)
  • The possible role of myosin light chain in myoblast proliferation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Key role of myosin light chain (MLC) kinase-mediated MLC2a phosphorylation in the alpha 1-adrenergic positive inotropic effect in human atrium. (nih.gov)
  • studies compare cardiac alpha-myosin, beta-myosin, and fast skeletal muscle myosin. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This study shows that zebrafish heart regeneration can be achieved by transdifferentiation of differentiated atrial cardiomyocytes into ventricular cardiomyocytes (4). (ptglab.com)
  • Recent research using the atria of zebrafish suggests that the activation of Notch signa-ling as a response to ventricle ablation is essential for the reprogramming of atrial cardiomyocytes into ventricular cardiomyocytes. (news-medical.net)
  • It is proposed from this study that heart regeneration in zebrafish can be attained by transdifferentiation of differentiated atrial cardiomyocytes into ventricular cardiomyocytes. (news-medical.net)
  • They speculated that the variation may alter the structure of the α-myosin heavy chain and disrupt its usual role in cardiac muscle contraction. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Muscle myosin is a hexameric protein containing 2 heavy chain subunits, 2 alkali light chain subunits, and 2 regulatory light chain subunits. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • MYL7 (Myosin Light Chain 7) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • In contrast, the atrial myosin light chain-2 ( MYL7 /MLC-2a , Figure 2) is expressed in the presumptive ventricle prior to MYL2/ MLC-2v (3). (ptglab.com)
  • The expression pattern of MYL2/MLC-2v and MYL7 /MLC-2a is considered as a specific marker for ventricle and atrial cardiomyocytes, commonly used for in vitro development of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes) . (ptglab.com)
  • Conversely, the atrial myosin light chain-2 (MYL7/MLC-2a), as seen in Figure 2, is expressed in the presumptive ventricle before MYL2/MLC-2v. (news-medical.net)
  • A specific marker for ventricle and atrial cardiomyocytes is found through the expression pattern of MYL2/MLC-2v and MYL7/MLC-2a. (news-medical.net)
  • MYL7, also known as myosin light chain 2a (MLC2a), is essential for heart development. (ptglab.com)
  • Expression and function of non-muscle myosin-IIA in Fechtner syndrome]. (nih.gov)
  • Atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, for example, display distinct gene expression patterns, contractile properties, and hormonal responses required for coordinated cardiac contractility. (pnas.org)
  • These results strongly suggest that in vivo expression of ALC-1 enhances ventricular myosin function, thereby contributing to cardiac compensation. (edu.pl)
  • Chronic increased workload of the human heart causes ventricular hypertrophy, re-expression of the atrial essential myosin light chain (hALC-1), and improved contractile function. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • We showed that E2 attenuated hALC-1 expression in human atrial tissues of both sexes and in human ventricular AC16 cells. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Differential gene expression patterns displayed in atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes. (ptglab.com)
  • Atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes have differential gene expression patterns concerning, for example, transcription factors, structural proteins, and ion channels. (news-medical.net)
  • pCMF1 antisense had no effect on myosin heavy chain expression in differentiated cardiac myocytes. (labome.org)
  • In the MYL2-tdTomato reporter, the red fluorescent tdTomato was inserted upstream of the 3' untranslated region of the Myosin Light Chain 2 (MYL2) gene in order faithfully label hiPSC-derived ventricular-like CMs while avoiding disruption of endogenous gene expression. (stanford.edu)
  • So its expression has been considered as useful marker for atrial cardiomyocytes. (ptglab.com)
  • Neither renal expression of the atrial natriuretic peptide gene nor ventricular expression of the c- fos gene was affected by captopril. (physiology.org)
  • Thyroxine-induced redistribution of isoenzymes of rabbit ventricular myosin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Atrial myocytes have a different ultrastructure compared to ventricular myocytes. (ptglab.com)
  • Differences can be seen in atrial myocyte ultrastructure when compared to ventricular myocytes. (news-medical.net)
  • The novel MYH6 mutation delE933 causes both structural damage of the sarcomere and functional impairments on atrial action propagation. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Myosin Heavy Chain 6, Cardiac Muscle, alpha Antibodies (44) and Myosin Heavy Chain 6, Cardiac Muscle, alpha Proteins (10) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Myosins are a large family of motor proteins that share the common features of ATP hydrolysis (ATPase enzyme activity), actin binding and potential for kinetic energy transduction. (genecards.org)
  • By contrast, myosin proteins are clearly present in controls but are completely absent from SMYD1-deficient zebrafish embryos at 24 hpf. (biologists.org)
  • MYL2 belongs to the myosin family of motor proteins. (ptglab.com)
  • The majority are characterized by spontaneous beating, displaying a broad range of depolarization-repolarization patterns, suggesting mixed populations of atrial and ventricular myocytes. (ptglab.com)
  • The highly homogeneous atrial- and ventricular-like myocytes are extremely valuable for drug safety, cardiac evaluation, and cell therapies for heart infarction. (ptglab.com)
  • The programmed differentiation of atrial- and ventricular-like myocytes may be used to develop safe cell sources for individual treatment and personalized cardiac repair. (ptglab.com)
  • Most are distinguished by spontaneous beating, exhibiting a wide range of depolarization-repolarization patterns, potentially indicating mixed populations of atrial and ventricular myocytes . (news-medical.net)
  • Which is more important: atrial or ventricular myocytes? (news-medical.net)
  • Additionally, they exhibit specific functions, as seen in Table 1, and highly homogeneous atrial- and ventricular-like myocytes are very helpful for drug safety, cardiac evaluation, and heart infarction cell therapies. (news-medical.net)
  • Actin-activated ATPase activity of myosin, a parameter of functional activity of molecular motor, amounted to 79.5 nmol Pi/mg per min in control myosin filaments. (edu.pl)
  • These contradictions, coupled with a unique myosin heavy chain profile, lead to the hypothesis that there are previously un-described molecular/biochemical specializations within varanid skeletal muscles. (frontiersin.org)
  • SHR rats had higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, cardiomyocyte diameters of the left cardiac ventricle, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). (osti.gov)
  • Changes in enzymatic and structural properties of ventricular myosin in thyrotoxic rabbit hearts have been investigated extensively. (meta.org)
  • In an effort to determine which level of the structural/organizational hierarchy of muscle is associated with functional segregation between the muscles of the tail base, an array of muscle features-myosin heavy chain profiles, enzymatic fiber types, twitch and tetanic force production, rates of fatigue, muscle compliance, and electrical activity patterns-were quantitated. (frontiersin.org)
  • The work was completed in Maastricht and provided the basis for a thesis on the function of the promoter of the atrial Myosin Light Chain gene. (umcutrecht.nl)
  • Transgenic rabbits were generated by oocyte-microinjection of β-myosin-heavy-chain-promoter-KCNH2/HERG-N588K constructs. (nih.gov)
  • We studied transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of H2-histamine receptors (H2-TG) by using the alpha myosin heavy chain promoter. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cardiac muscle myosin is a hexamer consisting of two heavy chain subunits, two light chain subunits, and two regulatory subunits. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The biochemical and biophysical properties of developmental myosins have only partially been defined, and their functional significance is not yet clear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, we discuss the human pathologies due to mutation of MYH3 and MYH8 and the unsettled question of the functional significance of these myosins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence, we find that ISL1 is negatively linked to known and previously unrecognized drivers of atrial induction, NR2F1 and MEIS2, and that it, thereby, acts as a functional opponent of retinoic acid signaling in competing for ventricular versus atrial specification. (elifesciences.org)
  • Purification of tdTomato+ and CFP+ CMs using flow cytometry coupled with transcriptional and functional characterization validated these genetic tools for their use in the isolation of bona fide ventricular-like and atrial-like CMs, respectively. (stanford.edu)
  • Auckland LM, Lambert SJ, Cummins P (1986) Cardiac myosin light and heavy chain isotypes in tetralogy of Fallot. (edu.pl)
  • The influence of hyper- and hypothyroidism on atrial and ventricular myosin structure and Ca2+-activated ATPase activity has been analyzed in adult mini-pigs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A) Location and size of the atrial appendages (red) in the adult heart (top) and in the end stage of heart looping (bottom). (nih.gov)
  • A) Whole tissue dissociation of the both atrial appendages to single cell suspension from three adult mice showed a 24% cell population expressing c-kit, when analyzed using flow cytometry. (nih.gov)
  • However, developmental myosins persist throughout adult stages in specialized muscles, such as the extraocular and jaw-closing muscles, and in the intrafusal fibers of the muscle spindles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, we perform labeling of F-actin and α-actinin in myosin-GFP expressing adult flies and of α-actinin and pericardin, a type IV extracellular matrix collagen, in wild type adult hearts. (jove.com)
  • These studies suggest that nonmuscle myosin II-B is required for normal cardiac myocyte development and that its absence results in structural defects resembling, in part, two common human congenital heart diseases, tetralogy of Fallot and double outlet right ventricle. (pnas.org)
  • Defects in MYH6 are the cause of atrial septal defect type 3 (ASD3). (mybiosource.com)
  • These include congenital heart defects, particularly atrial-septal defect (ASD), which is a hole in the wall (septum) that separates the two upper chambers of the heart (the atria). (medlineplus.gov)

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