Atrial Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms specifically found in the atrial muscle of the heart.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIA: A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.Myosin Type I: A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIB: A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in neuronal tissue.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Smooth Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.Myosin Type III: A subclass of myosins originally found in the photoreceptor of DROSOPHILA. The heavy chains can occur as two alternatively spliced isoforms of 132 and 174 KDa. The amino terminal of myosin type III is highly unusual in that it contains a protein kinase domain which may be an important component of the visual process.GizzardSkeletal Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseBody Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Kv1.5 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Mediator Complex Subunit 1: A mediator complex subunit that is believed to play a key role in the coactivation of nuclear receptor-activated transcription by the mediator complex. It interacts with a variety of nuclear receptors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; VITAMIN D RECEPTORS; PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; and GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Mediator Complex: A large protein complex which acts as a signaling adaptor protein that allows communication between the various regulatory and functional components of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION including DNA POLYMERASE II; GENERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are bound to upstream ENHANCER ELEMENTS. The mediator complex was originally studied in YEAST where at least 21 subunits were identified. Many of the yeast subunits are homologs to proteins in higher organisms that are found associated with specific nuclear receptors such as THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS and VITAMIN D RECEPTORS.LDL-Receptor Related Protein-Associated Protein: A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Familial: An autosomal dominant inherited form of HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY. It results from any of more than 50 mutations involving genes encoding contractile proteins such as VENTRICULAR MYOSINS; cardiac TROPONIN T; ALPHA-TROPOMYOSIN.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Integration Host Factors: Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Myoblasts, Cardiac: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Regulation of chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart by Irx4. (1/12)

The vertebrate heart consists of two types of chambers, the atria and the ventricles, which differ in their contractile and electrophysiological properties. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms by which these chambers are specified during embryogenesis. Here a chicken iroquois-related homeobox gene, Irx4, was identified that has a ventricle-restricted expression pattern at all stages of heart development. Irx4 protein was shown to regulate the chamber-specific expression of myosin isoforms by activating the expression of the ventricle myosin heavy chain-1 (VMHC1) and suppressing the expression of the atrial myosin heavy chain-1 (AMHC1) in the ventricles. Thus, Irx4 may play a critical role in establishing chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart.  (+info)

Sequential programs of retinoic acid synthesis in the myocardial and epicardial layers of the developing avian heart. (2/12)

Endogenous patterns of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in avian cardiac morphogenesis were characterized by localized expression of a key RA-synthetic enzyme, RALDH2, which displayed a biphasic pattern during heart development. RALDH2 immunoreactivity was initially apparent posterior to Hensen's node of stage 5-6 embryos and subsequently in somites and unsegmented paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm overlapping atrial precursors in the cardiogenic plate of stage 9- embryos. Initial RALDH2 synthesis in the posterior myocardium coincided with activation of the AMHC1 gene, a RA-responsive marker of inflow heart segments. A wave of RALDH2 synthesis then swept the myocardium in a posterior-to-anterior direction, reaching the outflow tract by stage 13, then fading from the myocardial layer. The second phase of RALDH2 expression, initiated at stage 18 in the proepicardial organ, persisted in migratory epicardial cells that completely enveloped the heart by stage 24. Early restriction of RALDH2 expression to the posterior cardiogenic plate, overlapping RA-inducible gene activation, provides evidence for commitment of posterior avian heart segments by localized production of RA, whereas subsequent RALDH2 expression exclusively in the migratory epicardium suggests a role for the morphogen in ventricular expansion and morphogenesis of underlying myocardial tissues.  (+info)

Ventricular expression of tbx5 inhibits normal heart chamber development. (3/12)

The T-box gene tbx5 is expressed in the developing heart, forelimb, eye, and liver in vertebrate embryos during critical stages of morphogenesis and patterning. In humans, mutations in the TBX5 gene have been associated with Holt-Oram syndrome, which is characterized by developmental anomalies in the heart and forelimbs. In chicken and mouse embryos, tbx5 expression is initiated at the earliest stages of heart formation throughout the heart primordia and is colocalized with other cardiac transcription factors such as nkx-2.5 and GATA4. As the heart differentiates, tbx5 expression is restricted to the posterior sinoatrial segments of the heart, consistent with the timing of atrial chamber determination. The correlation between tbx5 expression and atrial lineage determination was examined in retinoic acid (RA)-treated chicken embryos. tbx5 expression is maintained throughout the hearts of RA-treated embryos under conditions that also expand atrial-specific gene expression. The downstream effects of persistent tbx5 expression in the ventricles were examined directly in transgenic mice. Embryos that express tbx5 driven by a beta-myosin heavy chain promoter throughout the primitive heart tube were generated. Loss of ventricular-specific gene expression and retardation of ventricular chamber morphogenesis were observed in these embryos. These studies provide direct evidence for an essential role for tbx5 in early heart morphogenesis and chamber-specific gene expression.  (+info)

Irx4 forms an inhibitory complex with the vitamin D and retinoic X receptors to regulate cardiac chamber-specific slow MyHC3 expression. (4/12)

The slow myosin heavy chain 3 gene (slow MyHC3) is restricted in its expression to the atrial chambers of the heart. Understanding its regulation provides a basis for determination of the mechanisms controlling chamber-specific gene expression in heart development. The observed chamber distribution results from repression of slow MyHC3 gene expression in the ventricles. A binding site, the vitamin D response element (VDRE), for a heterodimer of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic X receptor alpha (RXR alpha) within the slow MyHC3 promoter mediates chamber-specific expression of the gene. Irx4, an Iroquois family homeobox gene whose expression is restricted to the ventricular chambers at all stages of development, inhibits AMHC1, the chick homolog of quail slow MyHC3, gene expression within developing ventricles. Repression of the slow MyHC3 gene in ventricular cardiomyocytes by Irx4 requires the VDRE. Unlike VDR and RXR alpha, Irx4 does not bind directly to the VDRE. Instead two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays show that Irx4 interacts with the RXR alpha component of the VDR/RXR alpha heterodimer and that the amino terminus of the Irx4 protein is required for its inhibitory action. These observations indicate that the mechanism of atrial chamber-specific expression requires the formation of an inhibitory protein complex composed of VDR, RXR alpha, and Irx4 that binds at the VDRE inhibiting slow MyHC3 expression in the ventricles.  (+info)

Microarray expression analysis of effects of exercise training: increase in atrial MLC-1 in rat ventricles. (5/12)

Previous studies have shown that endurance exercise training increases myocardial contractility. We have previously described training-induced alterations in myocardial contractile function at the cellular level, including an increase in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of tension. To determine the molecular mechanism(s) of these changes, oligonucleotide microarrays were used to analyze the gene expression profile in ventricles from endurance-trained rats. We used an 11-wk treadmill training protocol that we have previously shown results in increased contractility in cardiac myocytes. After the training, the hearts were removed and RNA was isolated from the ventricles of nine trained and nine control rats. With the use of an Affymetrix Rat Genome U34A Array, we detected altered expression of 27 genes. Several genes previously found to have increased expression in hypertrophied myocardium, such as atrial natriuretic factor and skeletal alpha-actin, were decreased with training in this study. From the standpoint of altered contractile performance, the most significant finding was an increase in the expression of atrial myosin light chain 1 (aMLC-1) in the trained ventricular tissue. We confirmed microarray results for aMLC-1 using RT-PCR and also confirmed a training-induced increase in aMLC-1 protein using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. aMLC-1 content has been previously shown to be increased in human cardiac hypertrophy and has been associated with increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of tension and increased power output. These results suggest that increased expression of aMLC-1 in response to training may be responsible, at least in part, for previously observed training-induced enhancement of contractile function.  (+info)

Increased Ca2+-sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in end-stage human heart failure results from altered phosphorylation of contractile proteins. (6/12)

OBJECTIVE: The alterations in contractile proteins underlying enhanced Ca(2+)-sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in end-stage failing human myocardium are still not resolved. In the present study an attempt was made to reveal to what extent protein alterations contribute to the increased Ca(2+)-responsiveness in human heart failure. METHODS: Isometric force and its Ca(2+)-sensitivity were studied in single left ventricular myocytes from non-failing donor (n=6) and end-stage failing (n=10) hearts. To elucidate which protein alterations contribute to the increased Ca(2+)-responsiveness isoform composition and phosphorylation status of contractile proteins were analysed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western immunoblotting. RESULTS: Maximal tension did not differ between myocytes obtained from donor and failing hearts, while Ca(2+)-sensitivity of the contractile apparatus (pCa(50)) was significantly higher in failing myocardium (deltapCa(50)=0.17). Protein analysis indicated that neither re-expression of atrial light chain 1 and fetal troponin T (TnT) nor degradation of myosin light chains and troponin I (TnI) are responsible for the observed increase in Ca(2+)-responsiveness. An inverse correlation was found between pCa(50) and percentage of phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 (MLC-2), while phosphorylation of MLC-1 and TnT did not differ between donor and failing hearts. Incubation of myocytes with protein kinase A decreased Ca(2+)-sensitivity to a larger extent in failing (deltapCa(50)=0.20) than in donor (deltapCa(50)=0.03) myocytes, abolishing the difference in Ca(2+)-responsiveness. An increased percentage of dephosphorylated TnI was found in failing hearts, which significantly correlated with the enhanced Ca(2+)-responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The increased Ca(2+)-responsiveness of the contractile apparatus in end-stage failing human hearts cannot be explained by a shift in contractile protein isoforms, but results from the complex interplay between changes in the phosphorylation status of MLC-2 and TnI.  (+info)

Mutation of weak atrium/atrial myosin heavy chain disrupts atrial function and influences ventricular morphogenesis in zebrafish. (7/12)

The embryonic vertebrate heart is composed of two major chambers, a ventricle and an atrium, each of which has a characteristic size, shape and functional capacity that contributes to efficient circulation. Chamber-specific gene expression programs are likely to regulate key aspects of chamber formation. Here, we demonstrate that epigenetic factors also have a significant influence on chamber morphogenesis. Specifically, we show that an atrium-specific contractility defect has a profound impact on ventricular development. We find that the zebrafish locus weak atrium encodes an atrium-specific myosin heavy chain that is required for atrial myofibrillar organization and contraction. Despite their atrial defects, weak atrium mutants can maintain circulation through ventricular contraction. However, the weak atrium mutant ventricle becomes unusually compact, exhibiting a thickened myocardial wall, a narrow lumen and changes in myocardial gene expression. As weak atrium/atrial myosin heavy chain is expressed only in the atrium, the ventricular phenotypes in weak atrium mutants represent a secondary response to atrial dysfunction. Thus, not only is cardiac form essential for cardiac function, but there also exists a reciprocal relationship in which function can influence form. These findings are relevant to our understanding of congenital defects in cardiac chamber morphogenesis.  (+info)

Tyrosine hydroxylase is expressed during early heart development and is required for cardiac chamber formation. (8/12)

 (+info)

*MYL4

Shift in atrial myosin heavy chains and in ventricular myosin light chains". European Heart Journal. 5 Suppl F: 85-93. doi: ... "Expression of atrial myosin light chains but not alpha-myosin heavy chains is correlated in vivo with increased ventricular ... "Entrez Gene: MYL4 myosin, light chain 4, alkali; atrial, embryonic". "Protein sequence of human MYL4 (Uniprot ID: P12829)". ... Abdelaziz AI, Pagel I, Schlegel WP, Kott M, Monti J, Haase H, Morano I (2005). "Human atrial myosin light chain 1 expression ...

*MYL7

Atrial Light Chain-2 (ALC-2) also known as Myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform (MLC2a) is a protein that in humans ... In a canine model of atrial fibrillation, decreased atrial contractility was associated with decreased ALC-2 and myosin binding ... "Effects of total replacement of atrial myosin light chain-2 with the ventricular isoform in atrial myocytes of transgenic mice ... Doevendans PA, Bronsaer R, Lozano PR, Kubalak S, van Bilsen M (2000). "The murine atrial myosin light chain-2 gene: a member of ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... myosin type ii MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.470.249 - cardiac myosins MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.470.249.249 - atrial myosins MeSH ... myosin type ii MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.475.124 - cardiac myosins MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.475.124.249 - atrial myosins MeSH ... myosin type iii MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.681 - myosin type iv MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.750 - myosin type v MeSH D12.776.220.525 ... myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.200 - myosin light chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.300 - myosin subfragments MeSH ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... myosin type ii MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.525.750.124 --- cardiac myosins MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.525.750.124.249 --- atrial ... myosin type iii MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.525.843 --- myosin type iv MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.525.875 --- myosin type v MeSH ... nonmuscle myosin type iia MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.525.750.500 --- nonmuscle myosin type iib MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.525. ... 750.750 --- skeletal muscle myosins MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.525.750.875 --- smooth muscle myosins MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.525 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D05)

... myosin type ii MeSH D05.750.078.730.475.475.124 --- cardiac myosins MeSH D05.750.078.730.475.475.124.249 --- atrial myosins ... myosin type iii MeSH D05.750.078.730.475.681 --- myosin type iv MeSH D05.750.078.730.475.750 --- myosin type v MeSH D05.750. ... myosins MeSH D05.750.078.730.475.100 --- myosin heavy chains MeSH D05.750.078.730.475.200 --- myosin light chains MeSH D05.750. ... nonmuscle myosin type iia MeSH D05.750.078.730.475.475.500 --- nonmuscle myosin type iib MeSH D05.750.078.730.475.475.750 --- ...

*MYL3

... and cardiac atrial muscle (MYL4). Ventricular ELC is part of the myosin molecule and is important in modulating cardiac muscle ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of human atrial and ventricular myosin alkali light chain cDNA clones". The Journal of ... "The possible role of myosin A1 light chain in the weakening of actin-myosin interaction". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1340 ( ... Myosin essential light chain (ELC), ventricular/cardiac isoform is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYL3 gene. This ...

*MYH6

"Cardiac alpha-myosin (MYH6) is the predominant sarcomeric disease gene for familial atrial septal defects". PLOS ONE. 6 (12): ... The proposed mechanism for this is the expression of a more normalized ratio of α-myosin chain to β-myosin chain proteins. This ... It is the enzymatic activity of the ATPase in the myosin head that cyclically hydrolyzes ATP, fueling the myosin power stroke. ... and atrial regulatory light chain (MYL7). Approximately 300 myosin molecules constitute one thick filament. MHC-α isoform is ...

*Congenital heart defect

Mutations of a heart muscle protein, α-myosin heavy chain (MYH6) are associated with atrial septal defects. Several proteins ... Cells in part of the septum primum die creating a hole while muscle cells, the "septum secundum", grow along the right atrial ... Aortic stenosis Atrial septal defect (ASD) Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) Bicuspid aortic valve Cardiomyopathy Complete ... Mutations of all these proteins are associated with both atrial and ventricular septal defects; In addition, NKX2-5 is ...

*MYL2

... and cardiac atrial muscle (MYL7). Ventricular myosin light chain-2 (MLC-2v) refers to the ventricular cardiac muscle form of ... Myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform (MLC-2) also known as the regulatory light chain of myosin ... MLC-2v interacts with the neck/tail region of the muscle thick filament protein myosin to regulate myosin motility and function ... MLC-2v phosphorylation at Ser14 and Ser15 increases myosin lever arm stiffness and promotes myosin head diffusion, which ...

*MYL6B

Myosin light chain 6B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYL6B gene. Myosin is a hexameric ATPase cellular motor ... the embryonic or atrial, and nonsarcomeric isoforms". Gene. 66 (1): 135-46. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(88)90231-4. PMID 2458299. ... "Entrez Gene: MYL6B myosin, light chain 6B, alkali, smooth muscle and non-muscle". Coureux PD, Sweeney HL, Houdusse A (2005). " ... 1988). "Alkali myosin light chains in man are encoded by a multigene family that includes the adult skeletal muscle, ...

*Celivarone

... displays some atrial selectivity, suggesting it may be most effective at targeting atrial arrhythmias like atrial ... more actin-myosin interactions and causing an increased contractility, respectively. Mutations cause many arrhythmic conditions ... These conditions are characterized by rapid atrial rates, 400-600 bpm for atrial fibrillation and 150-300 bpm for atrial ... including atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial flutter (AFl), and ventricular fibrillation (V-Fib). Arrhythmias can also be induced ...

*MYL1

Myosin light chain 3, skeletal muscle isoform is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYL1 gene. Myosin is a hexameric ... the embryonic or atrial, and nonsarcomeric isoforms". Gene. 66 (1): 135-46. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(88)90231-4. PMID 2458299. ... 1988). "Alkali myosin light chains in man are encoded by a multigene family that includes the adult skeletal muscle, ... "Entrez Gene: MYL1 myosin, light chain 1, alkali; skeletal, fast". Kelly RG, Buckingham ME (2000). "Modular regulation of the ...

*Calcium buffering

... within atrial myocytes is affected by ageing in large animal models, elevating sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ... In cardiac muscle cells, the most important buffers include troponin C, SERCA, calmodulin, and myosin. Alterations in calcium ... handling in old sheep atrial myocytes". The Journal of Physiology. 595 (19): 6263-6279. doi:10.1113/JP274053. ISSN 1469-7793. ... content, which could potentially contribute towards a tendency to atrial fibrillation. Neuroscience portal Calcium channel ...

*Actin

... to be a track for cargo transport myosins (nonconventional myosins) such as myosin V and VI. Nonconventional myosins use ATP ... Certain defects of the atrial septum have been described recently that could also be related to these mutations. Two cases of ... This arrangement allows myosin V to be an effective motor for the export of cargos, and myosin VI to be an effective motor for ... Myosin V walks towards the barbed end of actin filaments, while myosin VI walks toward the pointed end. Most actin filaments ...

*ACTC1

Myosin binding increases the flexibility of actin, and cross-linking studies have shown that myosin subfragment-1 binds to ... Another mutation has in the ACTC1 gene has been associated with atrial septal defects. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Buckingham M, Alonso S, Barton P, Cohen A, Daubas P, Garner I, Robert B, Weydert A (Dec 1986). "Actin and myosin multigene ... Bertrand R, Derancourt J, Kassab R (May 1994). "The covalent maleimidobenzoyl-actin-myosin head complex. Cross-linking of the ...

*MYH10

Myosin-10 also known as myosin heavy chain 10 or non-muscle myosin IIB (NM-IIB) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Mutations in MYH10 have been identified in patients with left atrial enlargement. NM-IIB is 228.9 kDa protein composed of 1976 ... Non-muscle myosins are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, but NM-IIB is the only non-muscle myosin II isoform expressed in ... Adelstein RS, Conti MA (Aug 1975). "Phosphorylation of platelet myosin increases actin-activated myosin ATPase activity". ...

*Milrinone

Calcium permits myosin and actin to interact which allows initiation of contraction within the cardiomyocytes. In those with ... Milrinone Use Is Associated With Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation After Cardiac Surgery. The Journal of the American Heart ... PKA also phosphorylates components on myofilaments allowing actin and myosin to interact more easily and thus increasing ... use following cardiac surgery has been under some debate because of the potential increase risk of postoperative atrial ...

*T-tubule

Heart failure can also cause the near-complete loss of T-tubules from atrial cardiomyocytes, reducing atrial contractility and ... In skeletal muscle cells, T-tubules are between 20 and 40 nm in diameter and are typically located either side of the myosin ... They are found in ventricular muscle cells in most species, and in atrial muscle cells from large mammals. In cardiac muscle ... T-tubules are found in both atrial and ventricular cardiac muscle cells (cardiomyocytes), in which they develop in the first ...

*Beta-2 adrenergic receptor

Protein kinase A then goes on to phosphorylate (and thus inactivate) myosin light-chain kinase, which causes smooth muscle ... Increases atrial cardiac muscle contractility. (inotropic effect). Increases contractility and automaticity of ventricular ...

*Kosmos 2044

Myosin Isoform Expression in Rodent Skeletal Muscle: The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of microgravity ... Measurement of Heart Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations: The objective of this experiment was to measure the cardiac ...

*Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

The cardiac myosin binding protein C mutation identified in Maine Coon cats has not been found in any other breed of cat with ... Clopidogrel (Plavix) is used to try to prevent left atrial thrombus formation in cats with HCM and a large left atrium. The ... They may also develop a left atrial thrombus that embolizes, most commonly, to the terminal aorta creating acute pain and rear ... Meurs KM, Norgard MM, Ederer MM, Hendrix KP, Kittleson MD (2007). "A substitution mutation in the myosin binding protein C gene ...

*Cardiac muscle

Myosin, in the thick filament, can then bind to actin, pulling the thick filaments along the thin filaments. When the ... There is an atrial syncytium and a ventricular syncytium that are connected by cardiac connection fibres. Electrical resistance ... Certain ion currents such as IK(UR) are highly specific to atrial cardiomyocytes, making them a potential target for treatments ... There are two kinds of myofilaments, thick filaments composed of the protein myosin, and thin filaments composed of the ...

*Systole

Atrial systole lasts approximately 100 ms and ends prior to ventricular systole, as the atrial muscle returns to diastole. The ... Subsequently, a rise in intracellular calcium triggers the interaction of actin and myosin in the presence of ATP which ... Atrial fibrillation represents a common electrical malady in the heart that appears during the time interval of atrial systole ... Atrial contraction, also referred to as the "atrial kick," contributes the remaining 20 - 30 percent of ventricular filling. ...

*Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Left atrial and pulmonary venous pressure increases in HFpEF due to diastolic insufficiency thus increasing pulmonary artery ... Ischemia can result in impaired relaxation of the heart; when myocytes fail to relax appropriately, myosin cross bridges remain ... There is an increased risk for atrial fibrillation and pulmonary hypertension. Risk factors for HFpEF include hypertension, ... and atrial fibrillation. More specific to HFpEF include avoidance of preload reduction. As patients display normal ejection ...

*Heart

However, as the atrial baroreceptors increase their rate of firing and as they stretch due to the increased blood pressure, the ... These are mostly associated with muscle contraction, and bind with actin, myosin, tropomyosin, and troponin. They include MYH6 ... A fourth heart sound S4 is referred to as an atrial gallop and is produced by the sound of blood being forced into a stiff ... There is an ear-shaped structure in the upper right atrium called the right atrial appendage, or auricle, and another in the ...

*Index of biochemistry articles

... atrial natriuretic factor - atrial natriuretic factor receptor - Avogadro's number - axon - B cell - bacteria - bacterial ... myosin - N-formylmethionine - N-formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalanine - N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor - N-methylaspartate - N- ...
... - One Day Package is recommended for persons between 30-60 years of age.It is especially recommended for individuals who have risk factors such as Hypertension,Diabetes Mellitus,History of smoking ,Obesity and those with a stressful Lifestyle.
... (AMHC) - One Day Package is recommended for persons between 30-60 years of age.It is especially recommended for individuals who have risk factors such as Hypertension,Diabetes Mellitus,History of smoking ,Obesity and those with a stressful Lifestyle.
Primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic cardiac disease characterized by thickening (hypertrophy) of the left ventricular (LV) wall, dyspnea and/or fatigue in the setting of a normal or supra-normal LV ejection fraction. The specific mechanisms underlying heart failure-related symptomatology in non-obstructive HCM are poorly defined, but as the vast majority of HCM patients with heart failure have apparently preserved LV contractile function, their symptoms of dyspnea and fatigue are presumed due to perturbations of the relaxation/filling phase (diastole) of the cardiac cycle, which has been termed diastolic dysfunction. In fact, diastole is mechanistically complex and involves LV pressure decay (relaxation), chamber compliance and atrial contractile function. LV end-diastolic volume, which represents fiber stretch, governs LV contractile function and stroke volume via the Frank-Starling mechanism. End-diastolic fiber stretch is, in turn, dependent on late diastolic filling due ...
Hall, Cynthia Ann, "The role of left atrial chamber size as assessed by echocardiography in determining thromboembolic complications of atrial fibrillation" (1986). Yale Medicine Thesis Digital Library. 2684 ...
We are aware that the COVID-19 pandemic is having an unprecedented impact on researchers worldwide. The Editors of all The Company of Biologists journals have been considering ways in which we can alleviate concerns that members of our community may have around publishing activities during this time. Read about the actions we are taking at this time.. Please dont hesitate to contact the Editorial Office if you have any questions or concerns.. ...
Acadia Pharmaceuticals treatment for Parkinsons disease-related psychosis failed a Phase 3 trial that was studying use of the drug for schizophrenia
I am the author of SIX books on Reichian Natural Health and Healing. Beyond Natural Cures Beyond Natural Skincare & Weightloss Til Love Do Us Part; Jesus Yoga Witchcraft and The AMHC Music and Foreign Language Program for Children and first and foremost I am a Waldorf mom! After healing my son of autism, I spend time each day reaching out to heal the world. I have written a chapter on homeschooling in Melisa Nielsons book A Journey Through Waldorf Homeschooling Grade Two and was also interviewed for the book Bilingual By Choice: The Family Guide for Raising Kids in Two (or More!) Languages by Virginie Raguenaud. Check out my website bodymindayurveda. ...
In the uncommon anatomic variation of the course of the RCA, the mid and distal segments course through the atrial chamber. The clinical consequence is minimal except during any procedure where a wire is passed into or through the right atrium, w...
An implantable cardiac stimulation device and associated method to verify capture of a stimulated atrial site by detecting a conducted depolarization at another atrial site or in the opposite atrial chamber. A signal received during an atrial capture detection window is compared to a depolarization signal threshold or to a depolarization signal template in order to verify detection of a conducted depolarization signal as evidence of capture at the stimulated site. By sensing depolarization signal away from the stimulated site, the negative effects of lead polarization normally encountered when detecting an evoked response are avoided.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human eHAND, but not dHAND, is down-regulated in cardiomyopathies. AU - Natarajan, Aruna. AU - Yamagishi, Hiroyuki. AU - Ahmad, Ferhaan. AU - Li, Duanxiang. AU - Roberts, Robert. AU - Matsuoka, Rumiko. AU - Hill, Sandra. AU - Srivastava, Deepak. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The progression of cardiomyopathy to congestive heart failure is often associated with the expression of fetal cardiac-specific genes. In mice, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, dHAND and eHAND, are expressed in a cardiac chamber-specific fashion and are essential for fetal cardiac development, but are down-regulated in the adult. Their expression in specific chambers of healthy and diseased human hearts has not been studied previously. Human dHAND and eHAND were mapped to human chromosomes 4q33 and 5q33, respectively, by fluorescent in situ hybridization, RNA from the four chambers of healthy human adult hearts, and from hearts of patients with several forms of cardiomyopathy, was obtained and ...
The search for the heart fields dates to mapping studies carried out on embryos in the 1940s was the beginning of identifying lateral plate mesoderm that gives rise to cardiogenic cells and has the potential to for myocardium [7]. The heart field regions lie laterally to the primitive streak, with the subpharyngeal mesodermal progenitor cells of the secondary heart field (SHF) located medially and ventrally to the primary heart field (PHF) cells that give rise to the primary linear heart tube. The PHF and the SHF are adjacent within the heart field region of the lateral plate mesoderm and cardiac crescent (refer to student figure 2). It is understood that in the pharyngeal mesoderm the cardiac regions are "prepatterned" in the progenitor cell population [8], hence being termed "specified but undifferentiated". It is the patterning of cells within the soon to become myocardium, that is responsible differentiation into chamber-specific myocytes (atrial and ventricular) and conduction cells [9]. ...
The basic technique for IART mapping involves collection of electrograms from one or both atria during sustained tachycardia, incorporating enough data points to establish the activation sequence over the entirety of the IART cycle length. This pattern can then be viewed in the context of surgical scars and natural conduction barriers to arrive at a rational model for macroreentry. Entrainment pacing with analysis of postpacing intervals can be used to decipher complex circuits when uncertainty exists.56. Ablation can be attempted once the route for propagation has been established with reasonable certainty, but even when tachycardia location is firm, the task of creating an effective line of conduction block in CHD patients with thickened and dilated atrial chambers is demanding. Quite often, the target area is wider than the average lesion dimension of a single RF application, so multiple contiguous lesions have to be placed to establish permanent block in the target area. This leaves open the ...
The anterior mitral leaflet (aml) is well seen, as well as the left ventricular and atrial chambers. The inferobasal portion of the left ventricle is particularly well seen in this view - perhaps the major justification for this particular part of the TOE examination! (The inferobasal part is that part of the LV in the upper portion of the image, close to the probe). Remember that in the visible human from which these anatomical sections were taken, the left side is particularly poorly filled, and thus the LV cavity appears much plumper in the echo image. Compare the above with the two-chamber mid-oesophageal view. ...
Intramuscular triacylglycerols measured by Oil Red O staining combined with an immunofluorescence staining against slow myosin heavy chain (sMHC), to determine
Recommendations for Cardiac Chamber Quantification by Echocardiography in Adults [document url="http://asecho.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/201...

Microcosm TargetsMicrocosm Targets

"Chick atrial myosin heavy chain. [Source:Uniprot/SPTREMBL;Acc:Q910C5]"Homolog of Gallus gallus "Chick atrial myosin heavy chain ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/enright-srv/microcosm/cgi-bin/targets/v5/hit_list.pl?genome_id=5171

Expression of the atrial-specific myosin heavy chain AMHC1 and the establishment of anteroposterior polarity in the developing...Expression of the atrial-specific myosin heavy chain AMHC1 and the establishment of anteroposterior polarity in the developing...

Expression of the atrial-specific myosin heavy chain AMHC1 and the establishment of anteroposterior polarity in the developing ... Expression of the atrial-specific myosin heavy chain AMHC1 and the establishment of anteroposterior polarity in the developing ... Expression of the atrial-specific myosin heavy chain AMHC1 and the establishment of anteroposterior polarity in the developing ... Expression of the atrial-specific myosin heavy chain AMHC1 and the establishment of anteroposterior polarity in the developing ...
more infohttps://dev.biologists.org/content/120/4/871.article-info

Comparative studies of atrial and ventricular myosin from normal, thyrotoxic, and thyroidectomized rabbits | MetaComparative studies of atrial and ventricular myosin from normal, thyrotoxic, and thyroidectomized rabbits | Meta

... of atrial myosin in euthyroid hearts. The same electrophoretic patterns also showed in atrial myosin from hypothyroid and ... whereas thyroid hormone does not affect atrial myosin ATPase, possibly due to its inability to control atrial myosin synthesis. ... ATPase activities of atrial myosin from hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rabbits were identical with the values for atrial myosin ... and actin-activated ATPase activities of atrial myosin were 2-fold greater than those of the ventricular myosin. The Ca++- and ...
more infohttps://www.meta.org/papers/comparative-studies-of-atrial-and-ventricular/6297827

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Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein C: Modulator of Contractility. Human Atrial Myosin Light Chain 1 Expression Accentuates Heart ... Dynamic Structures of Myosin,Kinesin, and Troponin as Detected by SDSL. ESR. Mutations of Transcription Factors in Human with ... Is Myosin Phosphorylation Sufficient to Regulate Smooth Muscle Contraction?. Comparative Aspects of Crossbridge Function: ... Conformational Change and Regulation of Myosin Molecules. Driving Filament Sliding: Weak Binding Cross. bridge states, Strong ...
more infohttps://www.buecher.de/shop/allgemein/sliding-filament-mechanism-in-muscle-contraction-ebook-pdf/ebook-pdf/products_products/detail/prod_id/37286361/

Publications for year 1984 - Zurich Open Repository and ArchivePublications for year 1984 - Zurich Open Repository and Archive

Shift in atrial myosin heavy chains and in ventricular myosin light chains. European Heart Journal, 5(suppl F):85-93. ... Schaub, M C; Tuchschmid, C R; Srihari, T; Hirzel, H O (1984). Myosin isoenzymes in human hypertrophic hearts. ...
more infohttps://www.zora.uzh.ch/view/yearnew/1984.html

prof. dr. P.A.F.M. (Pieter A.) Doevendans  - UMC Utrechtprof. dr. P.A.F.M. (Pieter A.) Doevendans - UMC Utrecht

The work was completed in Maastricht and provided the basis for a thesis on the function of the promoter of the atrial Myosin ... The work was completed in Maastricht and provided the basis for a thesis on the function of the promoter of the atrial Myosin ... "The characterization of the regulatory sequence of the atrial myosin light chain 2 gene". ...
more infohttps://umcutrecht.nl/en/research/researchers/doevendans-pieter-a-pafm

Doevendans Pieter A. PAFM - UMC UtrechtDoevendans Pieter A. PAFM - UMC Utrecht

The work was completed in Maastricht and provided the basis for a thesis on the function of the promoter of the atrial Myosin ... "The characterization of the regulatory sequence of the atrial myosin light chain 2 gene". ...
more infohttps://www.umcutrecht.nl/en/Research/Researchers/Doevendans-Pieter-A-PAFM

MYL7 Gene - GeneCards | MLRA Protein | MLRA AntibodyMYL7 Gene - GeneCards | MLRA Protein | MLRA Antibody

Myosin Light Chain 7, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform. Protein Accession:. Q01449. Secondary Accessions: *B2R4L3 ... Chamber specification of atrial myosin light chain-2 expression precedes septation during murine cardiogenesis. (PMID: 8207020) ... Differential regulation of the atrial isoforms of the myosin light chains during striated muscle development. (PMID: 1429676) ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=MYL7

Fraunhofer-Publica List: chromosome mappingFraunhofer-Publica List: chromosome mapping

Human embyronic/atrial myosin alkali light chain gene. Characterization, sequence, and chromosomal location. Arnold, H.-H.; ...
more infohttp://publica.fraunhofer.de/schlagwoerter/chromosome%20mapping

Downregulation of atrial markers during cardiac chamber morphogenesis is irreversible in murine embryos | DevelopmentDownregulation of atrial markers during cardiac chamber morphogenesis is irreversible in murine embryos | Development

1994) Chamber specification of atrial myosin light chain-2 expression precedes septation during murine cardiogenesis. J. Biol. ... and alpha myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC). Grafting ventricular cells into the atrial chamber does not result in upregulation of ... 1982) Immunochemical analysis of myosin heavy chain during avian myogenesis in vivo and ex utero. J. Cell. Biol 95, 763-770. ... An immunological analysis of myosin heavy chain isoform expression patterns in the embryonic heart. Anat. Rec 229, 355-368. ...
more infohttps://dev.biologists.org/content/125/22/4427?ijkey=97c0f5293551a1ec47dde8588b3558d6b188f437&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Chromosomal assignment of two myosin alkali light-chain genes encoding the ventricular/slow skeletal muscle isoform and the...Chromosomal assignment of two myosin alkali light-chain genes encoding the ventricular/slow skeletal muscle isoform and the...

... and the atrial muscle isoform MLC1A (equivalent to the fetal isoform MLC1emb) using a panel of 25 independent man-rodent ... Several isoforms of myosin alkali light chain have been identified, associated with different muscle types. We have recently ... myosin plays a major role in the maintenance of cell shape and in cellular movement; in association with actin and other ... The possible role of myosin light chain in myoblast proliferation.. *Su-Zhen Zhang, Yong Xu, Hui-Qi Xie, Xiu-Qun Li, Yu-Quan ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Chromosomal-assignment-of-two-myosin-alkali-genes-Cohen-Haguenauer-Barton/cda923ee82702aff5c60b581e7be61a8b4d62ccb

The Immature Heart and Anesthesia   | Anesthesiology | ASA PublicationsThe Immature Heart and Anesthesia | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications

Price KM, Littler WA, Cummins P: Human atrial and ventricular myosin light-chains subunits in the adult and during development ... Located near the head portion of the myosin molecule, the myosin light chains consist of alkali (LC1) and phosphorylatable ... Each myosin is composed of two heavy chains and two pairs of light chains. The tails of the heavy chains are woven together to ... Cardiac myosin can be resolved into three forms, each consisting of two heavy chains, alpha and/or beta. The V1 isoform (two ...
more infohttp://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1948387

Rs4968309 in Myosin Light Chain 4 (MYL4) Associated With Atrial Fibrillation Onset and Predicts Clinical Outcomes After...Rs4968309 in Myosin Light Chain 4 (MYL4) Associated With Atrial Fibrillation Onset and Predicts Clinical Outcomes After...

Rs4968309 in Myosin Light Chain 4 (MYL4) Associated With Atrial Fibrillation Onset and Predicts Clinical Outcomes After ... Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia with serious complications and a high rate of recurrence after catheter ... The prevalence of hypertension was associated with rs1515752, and left atrial size was associated with the genotype of ... Recently, mutation ofMYL4was reported as responsible for familial atrial cardiomyopathy and AF. This study aimed to determine ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=182220

Atrial and ventricular myocytes | Proteintech GroupAtrial and ventricular myocytes | Proteintech Group

Myosin light chain 2-based selection of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes. The ventricular myosin light chain-2 isoform ( ... In contrast, the atrial myosin light chain-2 (MYL7/MLC-2a, Figure 2) is expressed in the presumptive ventricle prior to MYL2/ ... 3) Chamber specification of atrial myosin light chain-2 expression precedes septation during murine cardiogenesis. ... Atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes form the muscular walls of the heart (the myocardium). Atrial myocytes have a different ...
more infohttps://ptglab.com/news/blog/atrial-and-ventricular-myocytes/

Influence of the thyroid state on myocardial myosin in the adult pig heart - Semantic ScholarInfluence of the thyroid state on myocardial myosin in the adult pig heart - Semantic Scholar

Atrial myosin ATPase activity and structure were not influenced by the thyroid state of the animals. These results present ... The lacking difference between the hypothyroid and the euthyroid states indicates that a myosin with a lower enzymatic activity ... electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing of subfragment 1 this could be ascribed to an additional ventricular myosin in the ... than the normal ventricular myosin is not synthesized in the heart of higher mammals. ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Influence-of-the-thyroid-state-on-myocardial-myosin-Wiegand-Henniges/099904704568838cd7dbc649ea6e91fde40b5266

Human cardiomyopathy mutations induce myocyte hyperplasia and activate hypertrophic pathways during cardiogenesis in zebrafish ...Human cardiomyopathy mutations induce myocyte hyperplasia and activate hypertrophic pathways during cardiogenesis in zebrafish ...

Two cardiac myosin heavy chain genes have been characterized in the zebrafish, myh6 (also known as atrial myosin heavy chain) ... and vmhc (ventricular myosin heavy chain). Zebrafish Myh6 and Vmhc proteins are more closely related to mouse Myh6 (α-myosin ... These mice harbor a missense mutation in their alpha myosin heavy chain gene (myh6) that causes a change from arginine to ... expressed under the control of the cardiac myosin light chain-2 (cmlc-2) promoter] that fluorescently labels the nuclei of ...
more infohttp://dmm.biologists.org/content/4/3/400

MYL4 - WikipediaMYL4 - Wikipedia

Shift in atrial myosin heavy chains and in ventricular myosin light chains". European Heart Journal. 5 Suppl F: 85-93. doi: ... "Expression of atrial myosin light chains but not alpha-myosin heavy chains is correlated in vivo with increased ventricular ... "Entrez Gene: MYL4 myosin, light chain 4, alkali; atrial, embryonic". "Protein sequence of human MYL4 (Uniprot ID: P12829)". ... Abdelaziz AI, Pagel I, Schlegel WP, Kott M, Monti J, Haase H, Morano I (2005). "Human atrial myosin light chain 1 expression ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MYL4

Transcriptomic analysis of the zebrafish inner ear points to growth hormone mediated regeneration following acoustic trauma |...Transcriptomic analysis of the zebrafish inner ear points to growth hormone mediated regeneration following acoustic trauma |...

Transcripts for GH, MHC Class I and II genes, and heavy- and light-chain myosins, as well as many others genes, were ... Many other gene transcripts were also differentially regulated, including heavy and light chain myosin transcripts, both of ... a light chain myosin, a heavy chain myosin, and a protein similar to atrial myosin light chain (zgc:66286). ... Another group of proteins that were highly regulated in our dataset were myosins. The most highly regulated were atrial myosin ...
more infohttps://bmcneurosci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2202-12-88

Myosin Heavy Chain 6, Cardiac Muscle, alpha (MYH6) ELISA KitsMyosin Heavy Chain 6, Cardiac Muscle, alpha (MYH6) ELISA Kits

... myosin, heavy chain 6, cardiac muscle, alpha (cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic 1) , atrial myosin heavy chain , myosin-7 , wea , ... myHC-alpha , myosin heavy chain 6 , myosin heavy chain polypeptide 6 cardiac muscle adult , myosin heavy chain, cardiac muscle ... Myosin heavy chain, cardiac muscle alpha isoform (MyHC-alpha) , alpha cardiac MHC , alpha myosin , cardiac myosin heavy chain ... myosin, heavy polypeptide 6, cardiac muscle, alpha , myosin-6 , myosin, heavy polypeptide 6, cardiac muscle, alpha ( ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/abstract/Myosin+Heavy+Chain+6%2C+Cardiac+Muscle%2C+alpha+

MYL7 - WikipediaMYL7 - Wikipedia

Atrial Light Chain-2 (ALC-2) also known as Myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform (MLC2a) is a protein that in humans ... In a canine model of atrial fibrillation, decreased atrial contractility was associated with decreased ALC-2 and myosin binding ... "Effects of total replacement of atrial myosin light chain-2 with the ventricular isoform in atrial myocytes of transgenic mice ... Doevendans PA, Bronsaer R, Lozano PR, Kubalak S, van Bilsen M (2000). "The murine atrial myosin light chain-2 gene: a member of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MYL7

Discussing personal differences/experiences, without denouncing ADHD? [Archive]  - ADD Forums - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity...Discussing personal differences/experiences, without denouncing ADHD? [Archive] - ADD Forums - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity...

Overexpression of TH led to increased atrial myosin heavy chain (AMHC1) and T-box 5 gene (Tbx5) expression in the ventricular ... mesoderm of both endocardial tubes and was subsequently expressed predominantly in the myocardial layer of the atrial segment. ...
more infohttp://www.addforums.com/forums/archive/index.php/t-165068.html

Diversification of cardiomyogenic cell lineages in vitro.  - PubMed - NCBIDiversification of cardiomyogenic cell lineages in vitro. - PubMed - NCBI

However, the ability to express the atrial-specific myosin heavy chain (AMHC) mRNA was confined to posterior cardiac ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7649381?dopt=Abstract

Cardiomyopathy in Transgenic myf5 Mice | Circulation ResearchCardiomyopathy in Transgenic myf5 Mice | Circulation Research

However, molecular markers of hypertrophy (such as α-skeletal actin and atrial myosin light chain-1) were expressed with a ... actin and myosin are dissociated; thus, the measured activity reflects inherent myosin ATPase activity.41 42 It was observed ... Myosin isoenzymes were analyzed by nondenaturing electrophoresis as described by DAlbis et al,37 and the relative amounts were ... Myofibrillar and myosin ATPase activity measured in partially purified myofibrils from left ventricle from bmyf5 transgenic or ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/78/3/379

JCI -
Human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into myocytes with structural and functional properties of cardiomyocytesJCI - Human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into myocytes with structural and functional properties of cardiomyocytes

... atrial myosin light chain (MLC-2A), ventricular myosin light chain (MLC-2V), and α-myosin heavy chain. MLC-2A expression was ... Myosin heavy chain expression in contracting myocytes isolated during embryonic stem cell cardiogenesis. Circ Res 1995. 76:710- ... Ca2+]i transients in adult human atrial tissue, studied using fura-2 (24), were similar to the ones recorded in the present ... a) Immunostaining of dispersed cells from a beating EB (day 16 after plating) with anti-cardiac α/β-myosin heavy chain mAbs. ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/12131

Time-dependent patterning of the mesoderm and endoderm by Nodal signals in zebrafish | BMC Developmental Biology | Full TextTime-dependent patterning of the mesoderm and endoderm by Nodal signals in zebrafish | BMC Developmental Biology | Full Text

... which express atrial myosin heavy chain (amhc) and ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc), respectively (Fig. 7B1, C1) [49]. ... Berdougo E, Coleman H, Lee DH, Stainier DY, Yelon D: Mutation of weak atrium/atrial myosin heavy chain disruptsatrial function ... Both chambers express cardiac myosin light chain 2 (cmlc2) (Fig. 7A1). Despite a large region of overlap, atrial myocardial ... Yelon D, Horne SA, Stainier DY: Restricted expression of cardiac myosin genes reveals regulated aspects of heart tube assembly ...
more infohttps://bmcdevbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-213X-7-22
  • MYL7 (Myosin Light Chain 7) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • In contrast, the atrial myosin light chain-2 ( MYL7 /MLC-2a , Figure 2) is expressed in the presumptive ventricle prior to MYL2/ MLC-2v (3). (ptglab.com)
  • The expression pattern of MYL2/MLC-2v and MYL7 /MLC-2a is considered as a specific marker for ventricle and atrial cardiomyocytes, commonly used for in vitro development of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes) . (ptglab.com)
  • Normal atrial function is essential for embryogenesis, as inactivation of the MYL7 gene was embryonic lethal at ED10.5-11.5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myosins are a large family of motor proteins that share the common features of ATP hydrolysis (ATPase enzyme activity), actin binding and potential for kinetic energy transduction. (genecards.org)
  • Relative to ventricular essential light chain VLC-1, ALC-1 has an additional ~40 amino-acid N-terminal region that contains four to eleven residues that are critical for binding actin and modulating myosin kinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, molecular markers of hypertrophy (such as α-skeletal actin and atrial myosin light chain-1) were expressed with a wider distribution, suggesting that their induction was secondary to the expression of the transgene. (ahajournals.org)
  • Fibers expressing high ALC-1 exhibited a higher maximal velocity and rate of shortening compared to fibers with low amounts of ALC-1, suggesting that ALC-1 increases cycling kinetics of myosin cross-bridges and regulates cardiac contractility. (wikipedia.org)
  • These contradictions, coupled with a unique myosin heavy chain profile, lead to the hypothesis that there are previously un-described molecular/biochemical specializations within varanid skeletal muscles. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1982 ) Immunochemical analysis of myosin heavy chain during avian myogenesis in vivo and ex utero. (biologists.org)
  • Changes in enzymatic and structural properties of ventricular myosin in thyrotoxic rabbit hearts have been investigated extensively. (meta.org)
  • human alpha- and beta-cardiac myosin, as well as the mutants, show opposite mechanical and enzymatic phenotypes with respect to each other. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In an effort to determine which level of the structural/organizational hierarchy of muscle is associated with functional segregation between the muscles of the tail base, an array of muscle features-myosin heavy chain profiles, enzymatic fiber types, twitch and tetanic force production, rates of fatigue, muscle compliance, and electrical activity patterns-were quantitated. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the ability to express the atrial-specific myosin heavy chain (AMHC) mRNA was confined to posterior cardiac progenitors. (nih.gov)
  • The programmed differentiation of atrial- and ventricular-like myocytes may be used to develop safe cell sources for individual treatment and personalized cardiac repair. (ptglab.com)
  • The majority are characterized by spontaneous beating, displaying a broad range of depolarization-repolarization patterns, suggesting mixed populations of atrial and ventricular myocytes. (ptglab.com)