Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
An antiarrhythmia agent that is particularly effective in ventricular arrhythmias. It also has weak beta-blocking activity.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.
A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.
An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.
A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.
A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial ARRHYTHMIAS and TACHYCARDIAS.
An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.
The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.
A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature atrial contractions or beats caused by signals originating from ectopic atrial sites. The ectopic signals may or may not conduct to the HEART VENTRICLES. Atrial premature complexes are characterized by premature P waves on ECG which are different in configuration from the P waves generated by the normal pacemaker complex in the SINOATRIAL NODE.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats with sudden onset and cessation.
Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.
The use of freezing as a special surgical technique to destroy or excise tissue.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Catheters inserted into various locations within the heart for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.
A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry circuit in or around the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by sudden onset and offset episodes of tachycardia with a HEART RATE of 100-150 beats per minute. The P wave is identical to the sinus P wave but with a longer PR interval.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.
The inferior and superior venae cavae.
A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.
An adrenergic beta-antagonist that is used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Small band of specialized CARDIAC MUSCLE fibers that originates in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum. The bundle of His, consisting of the left and the right bundle branches, conducts the electrical impulses to the HEART VENTRICLES in generation of MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.
A condition characterized by alterations of the sense of taste which may range from mild to severe, including gross distortions of taste quality.
The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

Superiority of ibutilide (a new class III agent) over DL-sotalol in converting atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. The Ibutilide/Sotalol Comparator Study Group. (1/582)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of a single dose of ibutilide, a new class III antiarrhythmic drug, with that of DL-sotalol in terminating chronic atrial fibrillation or flutter in haemodynamically stable patients. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised study. SETTING: 43 European hospitals. PATIENTS: 308 patients (mean age 60 years, 70% men, 48% with heart disease) with sustained atrial fibrillation (n = 251) or atrial flutter (n = 57) (duration three hours to 45 days) were randomised to three groups to receive a 10 minute infusion of 1 mg ibutilide (n = 99), 2 mg ibutilide (n = 106), or 1.5 mg/kg DL-sotalol (n = 103). Infusion was discontinued at termination of the arrhythmia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Successful conversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter, defined as termination of arrhythmia within one hour of treatment. RESULTS: Both drugs were more effective against atrial flutter than against atrial fibrillation. Ibutilide was superior to DL-sotalol for treating atrial flutter (70% and 56% v 19%), while the high dose of ibutilide was more effective for treating atrial fibrillation than DL-sotalol (44% v 11%) and the lower dose of ibutilide (44% v 20%, p < 0.01). The mean (SD) time to arrhythmia termination was 13 (7) minutes with 2 mg ibutilide, 19 (15) minutes with 1 mg ibutilide, and 25 (17) minutes with DL-sotalol. In all patients, the duration of arrhythmia before treatment was a predictor of arrhythmia termination, although this was less obvious in the group that received 2 mg ibutilide. This dose converted almost 48% of atrial fibrillation that was present for more than 30 days. Concomitant use of digitalis or nifedipine and prolongation of the QTc interval were not predictive of arrhythmia termination. Bradycardia (6.5%) and hypotension (3.7%) were more common side effects with DL-sotalol. Of 211 patients given ibutilide, two (0.9%) who received the higher dose developed polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, one of whom required direct current cardioversion. CONCLUSION: Ibutilide (given in 1 or 2 mg doses over 10 minutes) is highly effective for rapidly terminating persistent atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. This new class III drug, under monitored conditions, is a potential alternative to currently available cardioversion options.  (+info)

Atrial arrhythmia after surgical closure of atrial septal defects in adults. (2/582)

BACKGROUND: Atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation are causes of morbidity in adults with an atrial septal defect. In this study, we attempted to identify risk factors for atrial flutter and fibrillation both before and after the surgical closure of an atrial septal defect. METHODS: We searched for preoperative and postoperative atrial flutter or fibrillation in 213 adult patients (82 men and 131 women) who underwent surgical closure of atrial septal defects because of symptoms, a substantial left-to-right shunt (ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow, >1.5:1), or both at Toronto Hospital between 1986 and 1997. RESULTS: Forty patients (19 percent) had sustained atrial flutter or fibrillation before surgery. As compared with the patients who did not have atrial flutter or fibrillation before surgery, those who did were older (59+/-11 vs. 37+/-13 years, P<0.001) and had higher mean pulmonary arterial pressures (25.0+/-9.7 vs. 19.7+/-8.2 mm Hg, P=0.001). There were no perioperative deaths. After a mean follow-up period of 3.8+/-2.5 years, 24 of the 40 patients (60 percent) continued to have atrial flutter or fibrillation. The mean age of these patients was greater than that of the 16 who converted to sinus rhythm (P=0.02). New-onset atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation was more likely to have developed at follow-up in patients who were older than 40 years at the time of surgery than in those who were 40 or younger (5 of 67 vs. 0 of 106, P=0.008). Late events (those occurring more than one month after surgery) included stroke in six patients (all but one with atrial flutter or fibrillation, one of whom died) and death from noncardiac causes in two patients. Multivariate analysis showed that older age (>40 years) at the time of surgery (P=0.001), the presence of preoperative atrial flutter or fibrillation (P<0.001), and the presence of postoperative atrial flutter or fibrillation or junctional rhythm (P=0.02) were predictive of late postoperative atrial flutter or fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation in adults with atrial septal defects is related to the age at the time of surgical repair and the pulmonary arterial pressure. To reduce the morbidity associated with atrial flutter and fibrillation, the timely closure of atrial septal defects is warranted.  (+info)

Effect of right atrial isthmus ablation on the occurrence of atrial fibrillation: observations in four patient groups having type I atrial flutter with or without associated atrial fibrillation. (3/582)

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF), in at least some patients with coexisting type I atrial flutter (AFL), is based on macro-reentry around the tricuspid valve orifice, including the right atrial (RA) isthmus, by evaluation of AF recurrences after successful ablation of AFL. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-two consecutive patients with type I AFL, with or without concomitant AF, underwent radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the RA isthmus by an anatomical approach. The results were analyzed in 4 groups of patients: group 1 (only AFL; 29 patients), group 2 (AFL >AF; 22 patients), group 3 (AF >AFL; 15 patients), and group 4 (developing AFL while receiving class IC antiarrhythmic drug therapy for AF, the "class IC atrial flutter"; 16 patients). In all groups, RFA of type I AFL was performed with a high (>/=93%) procedural success rate. In group 1, only 2 patients (8%) had AF after (18+/-14 months) AFL ablation. These figures were 38% (20+/-14 months) and 86% (13+/-8 months) in groups 2 and 3, respectively. Group 4 patients (4+/-2 months) had a 73% freedom of AF recurrences with continuation of the class IC agent. CONCLUSIONS: The low incidence of new AF during long-term follow-up after RFA of type I AFL makes it unlikely that radiofrequency lesions promote the development of AF. The impact of isthmus ablation on AF recurrences differs according to the clinically predominant atrial arrhythmia and suggests a possible role of the RA isthmus in the occurrence of AF in some patients. Ablation of class IC atrial flutter in patients with therapy-resistant AF is a novel approach to management of this patient subset. Careful classification of AF patients plays a role in the selection of the site of ablation therapy.  (+info)

The cost-effectiveness of ibutilide versus electrical cardioversion in the conversion of atrial fibrillation and flutter to normal rhythm. (4/582)

Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter are cardiac rhythm disorders that are often symptomatic and may interfere with the heart's function, limiting its effectiveness. These arrhythmias are responsible for a large number of hospitalizations at a significant cost to the healthcare system. Electrical cardioversion (EC) is the most common nonpharmacologic intervention used to convert atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter to normal rhythm. Electrical cardioversion is highly successful in converting patients to normal rhythm; however, it is more traumatic and resource intensive than pharmacologic treatment. Recently, a new rapid-acting drug, ibutilide, was approved for the conversion of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Ibutilide is administered through intravenous infusion and does not require anesthetization of the patient, as is required for EC. A decision-tree model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of ibutilide therapy compared with EC therapy. Clinical outcomes were based on a phase III trial of ibutilide, and resource use was based on the literature and physician clinical judgment. A stepped conversion regimen of first-line ibutilide followed by EC for patients who fail to convert is less expensive and has a higher conversion rate than first-line EC. Sensitivity analysis shows that our results are robust to changes in cost and effectiveness estimates.  (+info)

Right atrial flutter due to lower loop reentry: mechanism and anatomic substrates. (5/582)

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of an atrial flutter (AFL) that is more rapid and at times more irregular than typical AFL are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients with AFL were studied. Atrial electrograms were recorded from a 20-pole catheter placed against the tricuspid annulus (TA), with its distal electrodes lateral to the isthmus between the TA and the eustachian ridge (ER), and from the His bundle and coronary sinus catheters. Atrial extrastimuli were delivered in the TA-ER isthmus during typical AFL. Episodes of a right atrial flutter rhythm that was different from typical AFL were induced in 3 patients and occurred spontaneously in 3 patients. This sustained AFL, designated as lower-loop reentry (LLR), involved the lower right atrium (RA), as manifested by early breakthrough in the lower RA, wave-front collision in the high lateral RA or septum, and conduction through the TA-ER isthmus. Linear ablation resulting in bidirectional conduction block in the TA-ER isthmus terminated spontaneous LLR in 3 patients and rendered LLR noninducible in all patients. The cycle length of LLR was shorter than that of typical AFL (217+/-32 versus 272+/-40 ms, P<0. 01). Alternating LLR and typical AFL in 1 patient resulted in cycle length oscillation. CONCLUSIONS: LLR is a subtype of right atrial flutter and depends on conduction through the TA-ER isthmus.  (+info)

Mapping of atrial activation with a noncontact, multielectrode catheter in dogs. (6/582)

BACKGROUND: Endocardial mapping of sustained arrhythmias has traditionally been performed with a roving diagnostic catheter. Although this approach is adequate for many tachyarrhythmias, it has limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel noncontact mapping system for assessing atrial tachyarrhythmias. METHODS AND RESULTS: The mapping system consists of a 9F multielectrode-array balloon catheter that has 64 active electrodes and ring electrodes for emitting a locator signal. The locator signal was used to construct a 3-dimensional right atrial map; it was independently validated and was highly accurate. Virtual electrograms were calculated at 3360 endocardial sites in the right atrium. We evaluated right atrial activation by positioning the balloon catheter in the mid right atrium via a femoral venous approach. Experiments were performed on 12 normal mongrel dogs. The mean correlation coefficient between contact and virtual electrograms was 0.80+/-0.12 during sinus rhythm. Fifty episodes of atrial flutter induced in 11 animals were evaluated. In the majority of experiments, complete or almost complete reentrant circuits could be identified within the right atrium. Mean correlation coefficient between virtual and contact electrograms was 0.85+/-0.17 in atrial flutter. One hundred fifty-six episodes of pacing-induced atrial fibrillation were evaluated in 11 animals. Several distinct patterns of right atrial activation were seen, including single-activation wave fronts and multiple simultaneous-activation wave fronts. Mean correlation coefficient between virtual and contact electrograms during atrial fibrillation was 0.81+/-0.18. The accuracy of electrogram reconstruction was lower at sites >4.0 cm from the balloon center and at sites with a high spatial complexity of electrical activation. CONCLUSIONS: This novel noncontact mapping system can evaluate conduction patterns during sinus rhythm, demonstrate reentry during atrial flutter, and describe right atrial activation during atrial fibrillation. The accuracy of electrogram reconstruction was good at sites <4.0 cm from the balloon center, and thus the system has the ability to perform high-resolution multisite mapping of atrial tachyarrhythmias in vivo.  (+info)

Electrophysiological determinant for induction of isthmus dependent counterclockwise and clockwise atrial flutter in humans. (7/582)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the electrophysiological determinant underlying the electrical induction of counterclockwise and clockwise isthmus dependent atrial flutter. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The isthmus bordered by the inferior vena caval orifice-tricuspid annulus-coronary sinus ostium (IVCO-TA-CSO) has been assumed to be the site of both slow conduction and unidirectional block critical to the initiation of atrial flutter. Trans-isthmus and the global atrial conduction were studied in 25 patients with isthmus dependent atrial flutter (group A) and in 21 patients without atrial flutter (group B), by pacing at the coronary sinus ostium and the low lateral right atrium (LLRA) and mapping with a 20 pole Halo catheter in the right atrium. RESULTS: Mean (SD) fluoroscopic isthmus length between the coronary sinus ostium and LLRA sites was 28.1 (4.0) mm in group A and 28.0 (3.9) mm in group B (p = 0.95), but the trans-isthmus conduction velocity of both directions at various pacing cycle lengths was nearly halved in group A compared with group B (mean 0.39-0.46 m/s v 0.83-0.89 m/s, p < 0.0001). Pacing at coronary sinus ostium directly induced counterclockwise atrial flutter in 14 patients and pacing at LLRA induced clockwise atrial flutter in 11 patients, following abrupt unidirectional trans-isthmus block. Transient atrial tachyarrhythmias preceded the onset of atrial flutter in 10 counterclockwise and six clockwise cases of atrial flutter. None of the group B patients had inducible atrial flutter even in the presence of trans-isthmus block. The intra- and interatrial conduction times, as well as the conduction velocities at the right atrial free wall and the septum, were similar and largely within the normal range in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Critical slowing of the trans-IVCO-TA-CSO isthmus conduction, but not the unidirectional block or the global atrial performance, is the electrophysiological determinant of the induction of counterclockwise and clockwise isthmus dependent atrial flutter in man.  (+info)

Clinical experience with a novel multielectrode basket catheter in right atrial tachycardias. (8/582)

BACKGROUND: The complexity of atrial tachycardias (ATs) makes the electroanatomic characterization of the arrhythmogenic substrate difficult with conventional mapping techniques. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible advantages of a novel multielectrode basket catheter (MBC) in patients with AT. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 31 patients with AT, an MBC composed of 64 electrodes was deployed in the right atrium (RA). The possibility of deployment, spatial relations between MBC and RA, MBC recording and pacing capabilities, mapping performance, and MBC-guided ablation were assessed. MBC deployment was possible in all 31 patients. The MBC was left in the RA for 175+/-44 minutes. Stable bipolar electrograms were recorded in 88+/-4% of electrodes. Pacing from bipoles was possible in 64+/-5% of electrode pairs. The earliest activity intervals, in relation to P-wave onset, measured from the MBC and standard roving catheters were 41+/-9 and 46+/-6 ms, respectively (P=0.21). Radiofrequency ablation was successful in 15 (94%) of 16 patients in whom it was attempted, including 2 patients with polymorphic right atrial tachycardia (RAT), 2 with RAT-atrial flutter combination, 1 with macroreentrant AT, and 1 with focal origin of atrial fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that MBC can be used safely in patients with right atrial arrhythmias. The simultaneous multielectrode mapping aids in the rapid identification of sites of origin of the AT and facilitates radiofrequency ablation procedures. The technique is especially effective for complex atrial arrhythmias.  (+info)

Atrial flutter is a type of abnormal heart rhythm or arrhythmia that originates in the atria - the upper chambers of the heart. In atrial flutter, the atria beat too quickly, usually between 250 and 350 beats per minute, which is much faster than the normal resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.

This rapid beating causes the atria to quiver or "flutter" instead of contracting effectively. As a result, blood may not be pumped efficiently into the ventricles - the lower chambers of the heart - which can lead to reduced cardiac output and symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness, or chest discomfort.

Atrial flutter is often caused by underlying heart conditions, such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, or congenital heart defects. It can also be a complication of cardiac surgery or other medical procedures. In some cases, atrial flutter may occur without any apparent underlying cause, which is known as lone atrial flutter.

Treatment for atrial flutter typically involves medications to control the heart rate and rhythm, electrical cardioversion to restore a normal heart rhythm, or catheter ablation to destroy the abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that are causing the arrhythmia. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to treat atrial flutter.

Catheter ablation is a medical procedure in which specific areas of heart tissue that are causing arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) are destroyed or ablated using heat energy (radiofrequency ablation), cold energy (cryoablation), or other methods. The procedure involves threading one or more catheters through the blood vessels to the heart, where the tip of the catheter can be used to selectively destroy the problematic tissue. Catheter ablation is often used to treat atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and other types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's upper chambers (atria). It may also be used to treat certain types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's lower chambers (ventricles), such as ventricular tachycardia.

The goal of catheter ablation is to eliminate or reduce the frequency and severity of arrhythmias, thereby improving symptoms and quality of life. In some cases, it may also help to reduce the risk of stroke and other complications associated with arrhythmias. Catheter ablation is typically performed by a specialist in heart rhythm disorders (electrophysiologist) in a hospital or outpatient setting under local anesthesia and sedation. The procedure can take several hours to complete, depending on the complexity of the arrhythmia being treated.

It's important to note that while catheter ablation is generally safe and effective, it does carry some risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures, and the possibility of recurrent arrhythmias. Patients should discuss the potential benefits and risks of the procedure with their healthcare provider before making a decision about treatment.

Atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fi-bru-la'shun) is a type of abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria, the upper chambers of the heart. In this condition, the electrical signals that coordinate heartbeats don't function properly, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting effectively. As a result, blood may not be pumped efficiently into the ventricles, which can lead to blood clots, stroke, and other complications. Atrial fibrillation is a common type of arrhythmia and can cause symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, and dizziness. It can be caused by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, age, and genetics. Treatment options include medications, electrical cardioversion, and surgical procedures to restore normal heart rhythm.

The tricuspid valve is the heart valve that separates the right atrium and the right ventricle in the human heart. It is called "tricuspid" because it has three leaflets or cusps, which are also referred to as flaps or segments. These cusps are named anterior, posterior, and septal. The tricuspid valve's function is to prevent the backflow of blood from the ventricle into the atrium during systole, ensuring unidirectional flow of blood through the heart.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

Propafenone is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat certain types of irregular heartbeats (such as atrial fibrillation, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia). It works by blocking certain electrical signals in the heart to help it beat regularly. Propafenone belongs to a class of drugs known as Class IC antiarrhythmics.

It is important to note that this definition provides an overview of what propafenone is and how it is used, but it does not cover all possible uses, precautions, side effects, and interactions related to the drug. For more detailed information about propafenone, including its specific indications, contraindications, and potential adverse effects, consult a reliable medical reference or speak with a healthcare professional.

Pericarditis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pericardium, which is the thin sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart and contains serous fluid to reduce friction during heartbeats. The inflammation can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and sometimes fever.

The pericardium has two layers: the visceral pericardium, which is tightly adhered to the heart's surface, and the parietal pericardium, which lines the inner surface of the chest cavity. Normally, there is a small amount of fluid between these two layers, allowing for smooth movement of the heart within the chest cavity.

In pericarditis, the inflammation causes the pericardial layers to become irritated and swollen, leading to an accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial space. This can result in a condition called pericardial effusion, which can further complicate the situation by putting pressure on the heart and impairing its function.

Pericarditis may be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, heart attacks, trauma, or cancer. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, managing symptoms, and reducing inflammation with medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine, or corticosteroids. In severe cases, pericardiocentesis (removal of excess fluid from the pericardial space) or surgical intervention may be necessary.

Anti-arrhythmia agents are a class of medications used to treat abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias. These drugs work by modifying the electrical activity of the heart to restore and maintain a normal heart rhythm. There are several types of anti-arrhythmia agents, including:

1. Sodium channel blockers: These drugs slow down the conduction of electrical signals in the heart, which helps to reduce rapid or irregular heartbeats. Examples include flecainide, propafenone, and quinidine.
2. Beta-blockers: These medications work by blocking the effects of adrenaline on the heart, which helps to slow down the heart rate and reduce the force of heart contractions. Examples include metoprolol, atenolol, and esmolol.
3. Calcium channel blockers: These drugs block the entry of calcium into heart muscle cells, which helps to slow down the heart rate and reduce the force of heart contractions. Examples include verapamil and diltiazem.
4. Potassium channel blockers: These medications work by prolonging the duration of the heart's electrical cycle, which helps to prevent abnormal rhythms. Examples include amiodarone and sotalol.
5. Digoxin: This drug increases the force of heart contractions and slows down the heart rate, which can help to restore a normal rhythm in certain types of arrhythmias.

It's important to note that anti-arrhythmia agents can have significant side effects and should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional who has experience in managing arrhythmias. Close monitoring is necessary to ensure the medication is working effectively and not causing any adverse effects.

The heart atria are the upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins and deliver it to the lower chambers, or ventricles. There are two atria in the heart: the right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it into the right ventricle, which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated; and the left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle, which then sends it out to the rest of the body. The atria contract before the ventricles during each heartbeat, helping to fill the ventricles with blood and prepare them for contraction.

Heart block is a cardiac condition characterized by the interruption of electrical impulse transmission from the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) to the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This disruption can lead to abnormal heart rhythms, including bradycardia (a slower-than-normal heart rate), and in severe cases, can cause the heart to stop beating altogether. Heart block is typically caused by damage to the heart's electrical conduction system due to various factors such as aging, heart disease, or certain medications.

There are three types of heart block: first-degree, second-degree, and third-degree (also known as complete heart block). Each type has distinct electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and symptoms. Treatment for heart block depends on the severity of the condition and may include monitoring, medication, or implantation of a pacemaker to regulate the heart's electrical activity.

Electrophysiologic techniques, cardiac, refer to medical procedures used to study the electrical activities and conduction systems of the heart. These techniques involve the insertion of electrode catheters into the heart through blood vessels under fluoroscopic guidance to record and stimulate electrical signals. The information obtained from these studies can help diagnose and evaluate various cardiac arrhythmias, determine the optimal treatment strategy, and assess the effectiveness of therapies such as ablation or implantable devices.

The electrophysiologic study (EPS) is a type of cardiac electrophysiologic technique that involves the measurement of electrical signals from different regions of the heart to evaluate its conduction system's function. The procedure can help identify the location of abnormal electrical pathways responsible for arrhythmias and determine the optimal treatment strategy, such as catheter ablation or medication therapy.

Cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are also used in device implantation procedures, such as pacemaker or defibrillator implantation, to ensure proper placement and function of the devices. These techniques can help program and test the devices to optimize their settings for each patient's needs.

In summary, cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are medical procedures used to study and manipulate the electrical activities of the heart, helping diagnose and treat various arrhythmias and other cardiac conditions.

Procainamide is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat various types of irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ventricular tachycardia. It works by prolonging the duration of the cardiac action potential and decreasing the slope of the phase 0 depolarization, which helps to stabilize the heart's electrical activity and restore a normal rhythm.

Procainamide is classified as a Class Ia antiarrhythmic drug, according to the Vaughan Williams classification system. It primarily affects the fast sodium channels in the heart muscle cells, reducing their availability during depolarization. This results in a decreased rate of impulse generation and conduction velocity, which can help to suppress abnormal rhythms.

The medication is available as an oral formulation (procainamide hydrochloride) and as an injectable solution for intravenous use. Common side effects of procainamide include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and dizziness. Procainamide can also cause a lupus-like syndrome, characterized by joint pain, skin rashes, and other autoimmune symptoms, in some patients who take the medication for an extended period.

It is essential to monitor procainamide levels in the blood during treatment to ensure that the drug is within the therapeutic range and to minimize the risk of adverse effects. Healthcare providers should also regularly assess patients' renal function, as procainamide and its active metabolite, N-acetylprocainamide (NAPA), are primarily excreted by the kidneys.

Electric countershock, also known as defibrillation, is a medical procedure that uses an electric current to restore normal heart rhythm in certain types of cardiac arrhythmias, such as ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The procedure involves delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the heart through electrodes placed on the chest wall or directly on the heart. This electric current helps to depolarize a large number of cardiac cells simultaneously, which can help to interrupt the abnormal electrical activity in the heart and allow the normal conduction system to regain control and restore a normal rhythm. Electric countershock is typically delivered using an automated external defibrillator (AED) or a manual defibrillator, and it is a critical component of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS).

The heart conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses to coordinate the contraction of the heart chambers. The main components of the heart conduction system include:

1. Sinoatrial (SA) node: Also known as the sinus node, it is located in the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava and functions as the primary pacemaker of the heart. It sets the heart rate by generating electrical impulses at regular intervals.
2. Atrioventricular (AV) node: Located in the interatrial septum, near the opening of the coronary sinus, it serves as a relay station for electrical signals between the atria and ventricles. The AV node delays the transmission of impulses to allow the atria to contract before the ventricles.
3. Bundle of His: A bundle of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that conducts electrical impulses from the AV node to the ventricles. It divides into two main branches, the right and left bundle branches, which further divide into smaller Purkinje fibers.
4. Right and left bundle branches: These are extensions of the Bundle of His that transmit electrical impulses to the respective right and left ventricular myocardium. They consist of specialized conducting tissue with large diameters and minimal resistance, allowing for rapid conduction of electrical signals.
5. Purkinje fibers: Fine, branching fibers that arise from the bundle branches and spread throughout the ventricular myocardium. They are responsible for transmitting electrical impulses to the working cardiac muscle cells, triggering coordinated ventricular contraction.

In summary, the heart conduction system is a complex network of specialized muscle cells responsible for generating and conducting electrical signals that coordinate the contraction of the atria and ventricles, ensuring efficient blood flow throughout the body.

Artificial cardiac pacing is a medical procedure that involves the use of an artificial device to regulate and stimulate the contraction of the heart muscle. This is often necessary when the heart's natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly and the heart is beating too slowly or irregularly.

The artificial pacemaker consists of a small generator that produces electrical impulses and leads that are positioned in the heart to transmit the impulses. The generator is typically implanted just under the skin in the chest, while the leads are inserted into the heart through a vein.

There are different types of artificial cardiac pacing systems, including single-chamber pacemakers, which stimulate either the right atrium or right ventricle, and dual-chamber pacemakers, which stimulate both chambers of the heart. Some pacemakers also have additional features that allow them to respond to changes in the body's needs, such as during exercise or sleep.

Artificial cardiac pacing is a safe and effective treatment for many people with abnormal heart rhythms, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Body Surface Potential Mapping (BSPM) is a non-invasive medical technique used to record and analyze the electrical activity of the heart from the surface of the body. It involves placing multiple electrodes on the skin of the chest, back, and limbs to measure the potential differences between these points during each heartbeat. This information is then used to create a detailed, visual representation of the electrical activation pattern of the heart, which can help in the diagnosis and evaluation of various cardiac disorders such as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and ventricular hypertrophy.

The BSPM technique provides high-resolution spatial and temporal information about the cardiac electrical activity, making it a valuable tool for both clinical and research purposes. It can help identify the origin and spread of abnormal electrical signals in the heart, which is crucial for determining appropriate treatment strategies. Overall, Body Surface Potential Mapping is an important diagnostic modality that offers unique insights into the electrical functioning of the heart.

Right atrial function refers to the role and performance of the right atrium in the heart. The right atrium is one of the four chambers of the heart and is responsible for receiving deoxygenated blood from the body via the superior and inferior vena cava. It then contracts to help pump the blood into the right ventricle, which subsequently sends it to the lungs for oxygenation.

Right atrial function can be assessed through various methods, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electrocardiogram (ECG). Abnormalities in right atrial function may indicate underlying heart conditions such as right-sided heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or other cardiovascular diseases. Proper evaluation and monitoring of right atrial function are essential for effective diagnosis, treatment, and management of these conditions.

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a rapid heart rhythm that originates above the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This type of tachycardia includes atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), and atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT). SVT usually causes a rapid heartbeat that starts and stops suddenly, and may not cause any other symptoms. However, some people may experience palpitations, shortness of breath, chest discomfort, dizziness, or fainting. SVT is typically diagnosed through an electrocardiogram (ECG) or Holter monitor, and can be treated with medications, cardioversion, or catheter ablation.

The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the largest vein in the human body that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities, pelvis, and abdomen to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The inferior vena cava is a retroperitoneal structure, meaning it lies behind the peritoneum, the lining that covers the abdominal cavity. It ascends through the posterior abdominal wall and passes through the central tendon of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity.

The inferior vena cava is composed of three parts:

1. The infrarenal portion, which lies below the renal veins
2. The renal portion, which receives blood from the renal veins
3. The suprahepatic portion, which lies above the liver and receives blood from the hepatic veins before draining into the right atrium of the heart.

The inferior vena cava plays a crucial role in maintaining venous return to the heart and contributing to cardiovascular function.

Disopyramide is an antiarrhythmic medication that is primarily used to treat certain types of irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias), such as ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation. It works by blocking the activity of sodium channels in the heart, which helps to slow down and regulate the heart rate.

Disopyramide is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it may be taken orally as a tablet or capsule. Common side effects of this medication include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and difficulty urinating. More serious side effects can include dizziness, fainting, irregular heartbeat, and allergic reactions.

It is important to take disopyramide exactly as directed by a healthcare provider, as improper use or dosing can lead to serious complications. Additionally, individuals with certain medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, or myasthenia gravis, may not be able to safely take this medication.

Flecainide is an antiarrhythmic medication used to regularize abnormal heart rhythms, specifically certain types of irregular heartbeats called ventricular arrhythmias and paroxysmal atrial tachycardia/atrial fibrillation. It works by blocking sodium channels in the heart, which helps to slow down the conduction of electrical signals and reduces the likelihood of erratic heart rhythms.

Flecainide is available in oral forms such as tablets or capsules and is typically prescribed under the supervision of a healthcare professional experienced in managing heart rhythm disorders. It's important to note that flecainide can have serious side effects, including increasing the risk of dangerous arrhythmias in some patients, so it should only be used under close medical monitoring.

This definition is for informational purposes only and should not be considered a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have any questions about your medications or health conditions, please consult with your healthcare provider.

Amiodarone is a Class III antiarrhythmic medication used to treat and prevent various types of irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias). It works by stabilizing the electrical activity of the heart and slowing down the nerve impulses in the heart tissue. Amiodarone is available in oral tablet and injection forms.

The medical definition of 'Amiodarone' is:

A benzofuran derivative with Class III antiarrhythmic properties, used for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. It has a relatively slow onset of action and is therefore not useful in acute situations. Additionally, it has negative inotropic effects and may exacerbate heart failure. The most serious adverse effect is pulmonary fibrosis, which occurs in approximately 1-2% of patients. Other important side effects include corneal microdeposits, hepatotoxicity, thyroid dysfunction, and photosensitivity. Amiodarone has a very long half-life (approximately 50 days) due to its extensive tissue distribution. It is metabolized by the liver and excreted in bile and urine.

Sources:

1. UpToDate - Amiodarone use in adults: Indications, dosing, and adverse effects.
2. Micromedex - Amiodarone.
3. Drugs.com - Amiodarone.

Atrial function in a medical context refers to the role and performance of the two upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. The main functions of the atria are to receive blood from the veins and help pump it into the ventricles, which are the lower pumping chambers of the heart.

The atria contract in response to electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, which is the heart's natural pacemaker. This contraction helps to fill the ventricles with blood before they contract and pump blood out to the rest of the body. Atrial function can be assessed through various diagnostic tests, such as echocardiograms or electrocardiograms (ECGs), which can help identify any abnormalities in atrial structure or electrical activity that may affect heart function.

Tachycardia is a medical term that refers to an abnormally rapid heart rate, often defined as a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute in adults. It can occur in either the atria (upper chambers) or ventricles (lower chambers) of the heart. Different types of tachycardia include supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ventricular tachycardia.

Tachycardia can cause various symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, lightheadedness, chest discomfort, or syncope (fainting). In some cases, tachycardia may not cause any symptoms and may only be detected during a routine physical examination or medical test.

The underlying causes of tachycardia can vary widely, including heart disease, electrolyte imbalances, medications, illicit drug use, alcohol abuse, smoking, stress, anxiety, and other medical conditions. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. Treatment for tachycardia depends on the underlying cause, type, severity, and duration of the arrhythmia.

The refractory period, electrophysiological, refers to the time interval during which a cardiac or neural cell is unable to respond to a new stimulus immediately after an action potential has been generated. This period is divided into two phases: the absolute refractory period and the relative refractory period.

During the absolute refractory period, the cell cannot be re-stimulated, regardless of the strength of the stimulus, due to the rapid inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels that are responsible for the rapid depolarization during an action potential. This phase is crucial for maintaining the unidirectional conduction of electrical impulses and preventing the occurrence of re-entry circuits, which can lead to life-threatening arrhythmias in the heart or hyperexcitability in neural tissue.

The relative refractory period follows the absolute refractory period and is characterized by a reduced excitability of the cell. During this phase, a stronger than normal stimulus is required to elicit an action potential due to the slower recovery of voltage-gated sodium channels and the partial activation of potassium channels, which promote repolarization. The duration of both the absolute and relative refractory periods varies depending on the cell type, its physiological state, and other factors such as temperature and pH.

In summary, the electrophysiological refractory period is a fundamental property of excitable cells that ensures proper electrical signaling and prevents uncontrolled excitation or re-entry circuits.

Atrial premature complexes (APCs or APCTs) are extra heartbeats that originate in the atria, which are the upper chambers of the heart. These early beats disrupt the normal rhythm and cause a premature contraction before the next scheduled beat. APCs can sometimes be felt as a "skipped" beat or palpitation. They are usually benign and do not require treatment unless they occur frequently or are associated with underlying heart disease.

Tachycardia is a heart rate that is faster than normal when resting. In adults, a normal resting heart rate is typically between 60 and 100 beats per minute (bpm). Tachycardia is generally considered to be a heart rate of more than 100 bpm.

Ectopic atrial tachycardia (EAT) is a type of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), which means that the abnormal rapid heartbeats originate in the atria, the upper chambers of the heart. EAT is caused by an ectopic focus, or an abnormal electrical focus outside of the sinoatrial node (the heart's natural pacemaker). This ectopic focus can be located in one of the pulmonary veins or in other atrial tissue.

EAT may present with symptoms such as palpitations, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, chest discomfort, or syncope (fainting). In some cases, EAT may not cause any symptoms and can be an incidental finding on an electrocardiogram (ECG) or Holter monitor.

The diagnosis of EAT is typically made based on the ECG findings, which show a regular narrow QRS complex tachycardia with P waves that are inverted in the inferior leads and often dissociated from the QRS complexes. Treatment options for EAT include observation, pharmacologic therapy, cardioversion, or catheter ablation.

Paroxysmal Tachycardia is a type of arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) characterized by rapid and abrupt onset and offset of episodes of tachycardia, which are faster than normal heart rates. The term "paroxysmal" refers to the sudden and recurring nature of these episodes.

Paroxysmal Tachycardia can occur in various parts of the heart, including the atria (small upper chambers) or ventricles (larger lower chambers). The two most common types are Atrial Paroxysmal Tachycardia (APT) and Ventricular Paroxysmal Tachycardia (VPT).

APT is more common and typically results in a rapid heart rate of 100-250 beats per minute. It usually begins and ends suddenly, lasting for seconds to hours. APT can cause symptoms such as palpitations, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, chest discomfort, or anxiety.

VPT is less common but more serious because it involves the ventricles, which are responsible for pumping blood to the rest of the body. VPT can lead to decreased cardiac output and potentially life-threatening conditions such as syncope (fainting) or even cardiac arrest.

Treatment options for Paroxysmal Tachycardia depend on the underlying cause, severity, and frequency of symptoms. These may include lifestyle modifications, medications, cardioversion (electrical shock to restore normal rhythm), catheter ablation (destroying problematic heart tissue), or implantable devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators.

Hydrops Fetalis is a serious condition characterized by the accumulation of excessive fluid in two or more fetal compartments, including the abdomen (ascites), around the heart (pericardial effusion), and/or within the lungs (pleural effusion). This accumulation can also affect the skin, causing it to become edematous. Hydrops Fetalis is often associated with various underlying causes, such as chromosomal abnormalities, congenital infections, genetic disorders, and structural defects that impair the fetus's ability to maintain fluid balance. In some cases, the cause may remain unknown. The prognosis for Hydrops Fetalis is generally poor, with a high mortality rate, although early detection and appropriate management can improve outcomes in certain situations.

Cryosurgery is a medical procedure that uses extreme cold, such as liquid nitrogen or argon gas, to destroy abnormal or unwanted tissue. The intense cold causes the water inside the cells to freeze and form ice crystals, which can rupture the cell membrane and cause the cells to die. Cryosurgery is often used to treat a variety of conditions including skin growths such as warts and tumors, precancerous lesions, and some types of cancer. The procedure is typically performed in a doctor's office or outpatient setting and may require local anesthesia.

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. There are four pulmonary veins in total, two from each lung, and they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood. The oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins is then pumped by the left ventricle to the rest of the body through the aorta. Any blockage or damage to the pulmonary veins can lead to various cardiopulmonary conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure.

Electrophysiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the electrical activities of the body, particularly the heart. In a medical context, electrophysiology studies (EPS) are performed to assess abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and to evaluate the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as medication or pacemakers.

During an EPS, electrode catheters are inserted into the heart through blood vessels in the groin or neck. These catheters can record the electrical activity of the heart and stimulate it to help identify the source of the arrhythmia. The information gathered during the study can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

In addition to cardiac electrophysiology, there are also other subspecialties within electrophysiology, such as neuromuscular electrophysiology, which deals with the electrical activity of the nervous system and muscles.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

The coronary sinus is a large vein that receives blood from the heart's muscle tissue. It is located on the posterior side of the heart and is a part of the cardiovascular system. The coronary sinus collects oxygen-depleted blood from the myocardium (the heart muscle) and drains it into the right atrium, where it will then be pumped to the lungs for oxygenation.

The coronary sinus is an essential structure in medical procedures such as cardiac catheterization and electrophysiological studies. It is also a common site for the implantation of pacemakers and other cardiac devices.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The atrioventricular (AV) node is a critical part of the electrical conduction system of the heart. It is a small cluster of specialized cardiac muscle cells located in the lower interatrial septum, near the opening of the coronary sinus. The AV node receives electrical impulses from the sinoatrial node (the heart's natural pacemaker) via the internodal pathways and delays their transmission for a brief period before transmitting them to the bundle of His and then to the ventricles. This delay allows the atria to contract and empty their contents into the ventricles before the ventricles themselves contract, ensuring efficient pumping of blood throughout the body.

The AV node plays an essential role in maintaining a normal heart rhythm, as it can also function as a backup pacemaker if the sinoatrial node fails to generate impulses. However, certain heart conditions or medications can affect the AV node's function and lead to abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrioventricular block or atrial tachycardia.

Cardiac arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms that result from disturbances in the electrical conduction system of the heart. The heart's normal rhythm is controlled by an electrical signal that originates in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located in the right atrium. This signal travels through the atrioventricular (AV) node and into the ventricles, causing them to contract and pump blood throughout the body.

An arrhythmia occurs when there is a disruption in this electrical pathway or when the heart's natural pacemaker produces an abnormal rhythm. This can cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.

There are several types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Atrial fibrillation: A rapid and irregular heartbeat that starts in the atria (the upper chambers of the heart).
2. Atrial flutter: A rapid but regular heartbeat that starts in the atria.
3. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT): A rapid heartbeat that starts above the ventricles, usually in the atria or AV node.
4. Ventricular tachycardia: A rapid and potentially life-threatening heart rhythm that originates in the ventricles.
5. Ventricular fibrillation: A chaotic and disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles, which can be fatal if not treated immediately.
6. Heart block: A delay or interruption in the conduction of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles.

Cardiac arrhythmias can cause various symptoms, such as palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms and go unnoticed. However, if left untreated, certain types of arrhythmias can lead to serious complications, including stroke, heart failure, or even sudden cardiac death.

Treatment for cardiac arrhythmias depends on the type, severity, and underlying causes. Options may include lifestyle changes, medications, cardioversion (electrical shock therapy), catheter ablation, implantable devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators, and surgery. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management of cardiac arrhythmias.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

A cardiac catheter is a thin, flexible tube that is inserted into the heart or adjacent blood vessels during a cardiac catheterization procedure. This procedure is typically performed to diagnose and treat various cardiovascular conditions such as heart disease, heart defects, or abnormal heart rhythms.

Cardiac catheters can be used for several purposes:

1. To measure the pressure and oxygen levels in different chambers of the heart and blood vessels.
2. To inject dye into the coronary arteries to visualize blockages or narrowing through angiography.
3. To perform interventions such as balloon angioplasty, stent placement, or valvuloplasty to open up blocked or narrowed blood vessels or repair damaged heart valves.
4. To collect samples of heart muscle tissue for biopsy, which can help diagnose conditions like cardiomyopathy or myocarditis.

There are various types of cardiac catheters, including:

1. Diagnostic catheters - used to measure pressure and oxygen levels in the heart and blood vessels.
2. Guiding catheters - used to guide other interventional devices like balloons or stents into place.
3. Angioplasty balloon catheters - used to inflate a balloon at the tip of the catheter, which helps open up blocked or narrowed blood vessels.
4. Thermodilution catheters - used to measure cardiac output and other hemodynamic parameters.
5. Microcatheters - smaller, more flexible catheters used for complex interventions or accessing difficult-to-reach areas of the heart and blood vessels.

Cardiac catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure that usually requires only local anesthesia and mild sedation. The recovery time is typically short, with most patients returning home within 24 hours after the procedure.

Butylscopolammonium Bromide is an anticholinergic drug, which is used as a smooth muscle relaxant and an anti-spasmodic agent. It works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body, on certain types of receptors, leading to relaxation of smooth muscles and reduction of spasms.

This medication is commonly used to treat gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal cramps, and spastic constipation. It may also be used in the management of bladder disorders, including neurogenic bladder and urinary incontinence.

The drug is available in various forms, including tablets, suppositories, and solutions for injection. The dosage and route of administration depend on the specific condition being treated and the patient's overall health status. As with any medication, Butylscopolammonium Bromide can cause side effects, such as dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, and constipation. It should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Left atrial function refers to the role and performance of the left atrium in the heart. The left atrium is the upper chamber on the left side of the heart that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and then contracts to help pump it into the left ventricle, which is the lower chamber that pumps blood out to the rest of the body.

The main functions of the left atrium include:

1. Receiving oxygen-rich blood from the lungs: The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins and acts as a reservoir for this blood before it is pumped into the left ventricle.
2. Contracting to help pump blood into the left ventricle: During atrial contraction, also known as atrial kick, the left atrium contracts and helps push blood into the left ventricle, increasing the amount of blood that can be ejected with each heartbeat.
3. Relaxing to receive more blood: Between heartbeats, the left atrium relaxes and fills up with more oxygenated blood from the lungs.
4. Contributing to heart rate regulation: The left atrium contains specialized cells called pacemaker cells that can help regulate the heart rate by initiating electrical impulses that trigger heart contractions.

Left atrial function is crucial for maintaining efficient cardiac output and overall cardiovascular health. Various conditions, such as heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension, can negatively impact left atrial function and contribute to the development of complications like stroke and reduced exercise tolerance.

Sick Sinus Syndrome (SSS) is a term used to describe a group of abnormal heart rhythm disturbances that originates in the sinoatrial node (the natural pacemaker of the heart). This syndrome is characterized by impaired functioning of the sinoatrial node, resulting in various abnormalities such as sinus bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate), sinus arrest (complete cessation of sinus node activity), and/or sinoatrial exit block (failure of the electrical impulse to leave the sinus node and spread to the atria).

People with SSS may experience symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, or syncope (fainting) due to inadequate blood supply to the brain caused by slow heart rate. The diagnosis of SSS is typically made based on the patient's symptoms and the results of an electrocardiogram (ECG), Holter monitoring, or event recorder that shows evidence of abnormal sinus node function. Treatment options for SSS may include lifestyle modifications, medications, or implantation of a pacemaker to regulate the heart rate.

Tachycardia is a heart rate that is faster than normal. In sinoatrial nodal reentry tachycardia (SANRT), the abnormally fast heart rhythm originates in the sinoatrial node, which is the natural pacemaker of the heart. This type of tachycardia occurs due to a reentry circuit within the sinoatrial node, where an electrical impulse travels in a circular pattern and repeatedly stimulates the node to fire off abnormal rapid heartbeats. SANRT is typically characterized by a heart rate of over 100 beats per minute, palpitations, lightheadedness, or occasionally chest discomfort. It is usually a benign condition but can cause symptoms that affect quality of life. In some cases, treatment may be required to prevent recurrences and manage symptoms.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a type of echocardiogram, which is a medical test that uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart. In TEE, a special probe containing a transducer is passed down the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) to obtain views of the heart from behind. This allows for more detailed images of the heart structures and function compared to a standard echocardiogram, which uses a probe placed on the chest. TEE is often used in patients with poor image quality from a standard echocardiogram or when more detailed images are needed to diagnose or monitor certain heart conditions. It is typically performed by a trained cardiologist or sonographer under the direction of a cardiologist.

Ambulatory electrocardiography, also known as ambulatory ECG or Holter monitoring, is a non-invasive method of recording the electrical activity of the heart over an extended period of time (typically 24 hours or more) while the patient goes about their daily activities. The device used to record the ECG is called a Holter monitor, which consists of a small, portable recorder that is attached to the patient's chest with electrodes.

The recorded data provides information on any abnormalities in the heart's rhythm or electrical activity during different stages of activity and rest, allowing healthcare providers to diagnose and evaluate various cardiac conditions such as arrhythmias, ischemia, and infarction. The ability to monitor the heart's activity over an extended period while the patient performs their normal activities provides valuable information that may not be captured during a standard ECG, which only records the heart's electrical activity for a few seconds.

In summary, ambulatory electrocardiography is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate the electrical activity of the heart over an extended period, allowing healthcare providers to diagnose and manage various cardiac conditions.

"Venae Cavae" is a term that refers to the two large veins in the human body that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.

The "Superior Vena Cava" receives blood from the upper half of the body, including the head, neck, upper limbs, and chest, while the "Inferior Vena Cava" collects blood from the lower half of the body, including the abdomen and lower limbs.

Together, these veins play a crucial role in the circulatory system by ensuring that oxygen-depleted blood is efficiently returned to the heart for reoxygenation in the lungs.

Edrophonium is a type of medication called an anticholinesterase agent. It works by blocking the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body that is important for muscle contraction. This results in an increase in the amount of acetylcholine available to stimulate muscle contraction.

Edrophonium is used as a diagnostic aid in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. It is also used to reverse the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, which are medications that are sometimes given during surgery to temporarily paralyze muscles.

Edrophonium is administered intravenously (through a vein) and its effects usually begin within 30 seconds to 1 minute after injection and last for about 5 to 10 minutes. Common side effects of edrophonium include sweating, increased salivation, and muscle twitching. More serious side effects, such as seizures or cardiac arrest, can occur but are rare.

It is important to note that edrophonium should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause serious side effects if not used properly.

Sotalol is a non-selective beta blocker and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It works by blocking the action of certain natural substances in your body, such as adrenaline, on the heart. This helps to decrease the heart's workload, slow the heart rate, and regulate certain types of irregular heartbeats (such as atrial fibrillation).

Sotalol is used to treat various types of irregular heartbeats (atrial fibrillation/flutter, ventricular tachycardia) and may also be used to help maintain a normal heart rhythm after a heart attack. It is important to note that Sotalol should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional who has experience in treating heart rhythm disorders.

This medical definition is based on the information provided by the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

The Bundle of His is a bundle of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that conduct electrical impulses to the Purkinje fibers, which then stimulate contraction of the ventricles in the heart. It is named after Wilhelm His, Jr., who first described it in 1893.

The Bundle of His is a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart that helps coordinate the contraction of the atria and ventricles to ensure efficient pumping of blood. The bundle originates from the atrioventricular node, which receives electrical impulses from the sinoatrial node (the heart's natural pacemaker) and transmits them through the Bundle of His to the Purkinje fibers.

The Bundle of His is divided into two main branches, known as the right and left bundle branches, which further divide into smaller fascicles that spread throughout the ventricular myocardium. This ensures a coordinated contraction of the ventricles, allowing for efficient pumping of blood to the rest of the body.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Heart disease is a broad term for a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It's often used to refer to conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, which can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

2. Heart failure: This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.

3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms, which can be too fast, too slow, or irregular. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.

4. Valvular heart disease: This involves damage to one or more of the heart's four valves, which control blood flow through the heart. Damage can be caused by various conditions, including infection, rheumatic fever, and aging.

5. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, viral infections, and drug abuse.

6. Pericardial disease: This involves inflammation or other problems with the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It can cause chest pain and other symptoms.

7. Congenital heart defects: These are heart conditions that are present at birth, such as a hole in the heart or abnormal blood vessels. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.

8. Heart infections: The heart can become infected by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to various symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that many factors can contribute to the development of heart disease, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

The atrial appendage, also known as the left atrial appendage (LAA), is a small, ear-shaped structure that is located on the upper left chamber of the heart (left atrium). It has a unique muscular structure and plays a role in the normal functioning of the heart. However, it is best known for its association with atrial fibrillation, a common type of irregular heart rhythm. In people with atrial fibrillation, blood clots can form in the LAA, which can then travel to other parts of the body and cause strokes. For this reason, one treatment option for atrial fibrillation is to close off or remove the LAA to reduce the risk of stroke.

Digoxin is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called cardiac glycosides. It is used to treat various heart conditions, such as heart failure and atrial fibrillation, by helping the heart beat stronger and more regularly. Digoxin works by inhibiting the sodium-potassium pump in heart muscle cells, which leads to an increase in intracellular calcium and a strengthening of heart contractions. It is important to monitor digoxin levels closely, as too much can lead to toxicity and serious side effects.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a type of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), which is a rapid heart rhythm originating at or above the atrioventricular node. In AVNRT, an abnormal electrical circuit in or near the AV node creates a reentry pathway that allows for rapid heart rates, typically greater than 150-250 beats per minute.

In normal conduction, the electrical impulse travels from the atria to the ventricles through the AV node and then continues down the bundle branches to the Purkinje fibers, resulting in a coordinated contraction of the heart. In AVNRT, an extra electrical pathway exists that allows for the reentry of the electrical impulse back into the atria, creating a rapid and abnormal circuit.

AVNRT is classified based on the direction of the reentry circuit:

1. Typical or common AVNRT: The most common form, accounting for 90% of cases. In this type, the reentry circuit involves an "anterior" and a "posterior" loop in or near the AV node. The anterior loop has slower conduction velocity than the posterior loop, creating a "short" reentry circuit that is responsible for the rapid heart rate.
2. Atypical AVNRT: Less common, accounting for 10% of cases. In this type, the reentry circuit involves an "outer" and an "inner" loop around the AV node. The outer loop has slower conduction velocity than the inner loop, creating a "long" reentry circuit that is responsible for the rapid heart rate.

AVNRT can present with symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, chest discomfort, or syncope (fainting). Treatment options include observation, vagal maneuvers, medications, and catheter ablation. Catheter ablation is a curative treatment that involves the destruction of the abnormal electrical pathway using radiofrequency energy or cryotherapy.

Dysgeusia is a medical term that refers to a distortion in the ability to taste. It can cause food and drinks to have a metallic, rancid, or bitter taste. Dysgeusia is different from ageusia, which is the complete loss of taste, and hypogeusia, which is a reduced ability to taste.

Dysgeusia can be caused by various factors, including damage to the nerves responsible for taste, exposure to certain chemicals or medications, and medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Treatment for dysgeusia depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the symptom, changing the medication or adjusting the dosage may help. In other cases, addressing the underlying medical condition may improve taste perception.

The atrial septum is the wall of tissue that divides the right and left atria, which are the upper chambers of the heart. This septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood in the left atrium is kept separate from oxygen-poor blood in the right atrium. Defects or abnormalities in the atrial septum, such as a hole or a gap, can result in various heart conditions, including septal defects and congenital heart diseases.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

Sulfonamides are a group of synthetic antibacterial drugs that contain the sulfonamide group (SO2NH2) in their chemical structure. They are bacteriostatic agents, meaning they inhibit bacterial growth rather than killing them outright. Sulfonamides work by preventing the bacteria from synthesizing folic acid, which is essential for their survival.

The first sulfonamide drug was introduced in the 1930s and since then, many different sulfonamides have been developed with varying chemical structures and pharmacological properties. They are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and ear infections.

Some common sulfonamide drugs include sulfisoxazole, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (a combination of a sulfonamide and another antibiotic called trimethoprim). While sulfonamides are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can cause side effects such as rash, nausea, and allergic reactions. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Sinus arrhythmia is a type of heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmia) where the normal rhythm generated by the sinus node in the heart varies in rate or pattern. The sinus node is the natural pacemaker of the heart and usually sets a steady pace for heartbeats. However, in sinus arrhythmia, the heart rate may speed up or slow down abnormally during breathing in (inspiration) or breathing out (expiration).

When the heart rate increases during inspiration, it is called "inspiratory sinus arrhythmia," and when the heart rate decreases during expiration, it is called "expiratory sinus arrhythmia." Most people experience a mild form of inspiratory sinus arrhythmia, which is considered normal, especially in children and young adults.

However, if the variation in heart rate is significant or accompanied by symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, or chest discomfort, it may require medical evaluation and treatment. Sinus arrhythmia can be caused by various factors, including lung disease, heart disease, electrolyte imbalances, or the use of certain medications.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) refers to the use of computer systems and technologies to assist and enhance surgical procedures. These systems can include a variety of tools such as imaging software, robotic systems, and navigation devices that help surgeons plan, guide, and perform surgeries with greater precision and accuracy.

In CAS, preoperative images such as CT scans or MRI images are used to create a three-dimensional model of the surgical site. This model can be used to plan the surgery, identify potential challenges, and determine the optimal approach. During the surgery, the surgeon can use the computer system to navigate and guide instruments with real-time feedback, allowing for more precise movements and reduced risk of complications.

Robotic systems can also be used in CAS to perform minimally invasive procedures with smaller incisions and faster recovery times. The surgeon controls the robotic arms from a console, allowing for greater range of motion and accuracy than traditional hand-held instruments.

Overall, computer-assisted surgery provides a number of benefits over traditional surgical techniques, including improved precision, reduced risk of complications, and faster recovery times for patients.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

The azygos vein is a large, unpaired venous structure in the thoracic cavity of the human body. It begins as the ascending lumbar vein, which receives blood from the lower extremities and abdominal organs. As it enters the thorax through the diaphragm, it becomes the azygos vein and continues to ascend along the vertebral column.

The azygos vein receives blood from various tributaries, including the intercostal veins, esophageal veins, mediastinal veins, and bronchial veins. It then arches over the right mainstem bronchus and empties into the superior vena cava, which returns blood to the right atrium of the heart.

The azygos vein provides an important collateral pathway for venous return in cases where the inferior vena cava is obstructed or occluded. It also plays a role in the spread of certain thoracic diseases, such as tuberculosis and cancer.

An artificial pacemaker is a medical device that uses electrical impulses to regulate the beating of the heart. It is typically used when the heart's natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly and the heart rate is too slow or irregular. The pacemaker consists of a small generator that contains a battery and electronic circuits, which are connected to one or more electrodes that are placed in the heart.

The generator sends electrical signals through the electrodes to stimulate the heart muscle and cause it to contract, thereby maintaining a regular heart rhythm. Artificial pacemakers can be programmed to deliver electrical impulses at a specific rate or in response to the body's needs. They are typically implanted in the chest during a surgical procedure and can last for many years before needing to be replaced.

Artificial pacemakers are an effective treatment for various types of bradycardia, which is a heart rhythm disorder characterized by a slow heart rate. Pacemakers can significantly improve symptoms associated with bradycardia, such as fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, and fainting spells.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

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Type I atrial flutter, also known as common atrial flutter or typical atrial flutter, has an atrial rate of 240 to 340 beats/ ... Type I flutter is further divided into two subtypes, known as counterclockwise atrial flutter and clockwise atrial flutter ... Counterclockwise atrial flutter (known as cephalad-directed atrial flutter) is more commonly seen. The flutter waves in this ... Flutter waves may not be evident on an ECG in atypical forms of atrial flutter. Individual flutter waves may be symmetrical, ...
... and atrial flutter are common types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) which affect the upper chambers (atria) of the ... and atrial flutter are common types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) which affect the upper chambers (atria) of the ... Atrial fibrillation (Afib) and atrial flutter are common types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) which affect the upper ... 2020 Update to the 2016 ACC/AHA Clinical Performance and Quality Measures for adults with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter ...
In the most common form of atrial flutter (type I atrial flutter), electrocardiography (ECG) demonstrates a negative sawtooth ... Atrial flutter is a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by atrial rates of 240-400 beats/min, usually with some degree of ... and some patients have both atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. However, the underlying mechanism of atrial flutter makes ... Atrial flutter may be a sequela of open heart surgery. After cardiac surgery, atrial flutter may be reentrant as a result of ...
Atrial flutter is a type of arrhythmia that occurs when the heart chambers beat faster than normal and not always in ... What is Atrial Flutter?. Atrial flutter, like atrial fibrillation, is a rhythmic disturbance of the heart (arrhythmia). Atrial ... But atrial flutter has similar symptoms, causes and consequences. People with atrial flutter may develop AFib as well. Atrial ... What causes atrial flutter?. The cause of atrial flutter may be unknown. In some cases, it is the result of damage to the ...
... after atrial fibrillation. Much has been learned about the mechanism of atrial flutter since the late 20th century; treatment ... Atrial flutter is the second most common tachyarrhythmia, ... See Atrial Flutter and Pediatric Atrial Flutter for complete ... Digoxin toxicity is very rarely a cause of atrial flutter; however, ascertaining that atrial flutter is not caused by digoxin ... encoded search term (Emergent Management of Atrial Flutter) and Emergent Management of Atrial Flutter What to Read Next on ...
What Is Atrial Flutter - The heart comprises two upper chambers called left and right atria, two lower chambers, and left and ... Atrial Flutter Symptoms. People may have no atrial flutter symptoms. The increment in atrial flutter rate can cause stroke, ... Understanding Atrial Flutter. The atrial flutter is when your upper chamber is beating too quickly. It is a heart rhythm ... Atrial Flutter Causes. Atrial flutter is an age-triggered arrhythmia. It rarely occurs before 50 years of age. Once it happens ...
Copyright © 2023 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Cardiovascular Society. All rights reserved.. ...
... atrial flutter not fib according to him - Peter Griffin 6/6/2023, 16:32:16 *Re: Tom Lockyer interview on Sky - atrial flutter ... atrial flutter not fib according to him - Henlow Hatter 6/6/2023, 15:35:17 *Re: Tom Lockyer interview on Sky - atrial flutter ... atrial flutter not fib according to him - oldbob 6/6/2023, 14:39:23 *Re: Tom Lockyer interview on Sky - atrial flutter not fib ... Re: Tom Lockyer interview on Sky - atrial flutter not fib according to him. Posted by Frog Hatter on 6/6/2023, 14:38:18, in ...
Amiodarone infusion in the treatment of acute atrial fibrillation or flutter: high versus low dose treatment ... Amiodarone infusion in the treatment of acute atrial fibrillation or flutter: high versus low dose treatment ...
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Identify the key ECG findings for atrial flutter (AF) and use three key features to distinguish it from other SVTs. (5 minutes) ... Atrial flutter is managed similarly to atrial fibrillation with rate control and anticoagulation. However, compared to atrial ... Compared to atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter is typically more difficult to rate control but more responsive to ablation. ... Atrial flutter is due to a large re-entry circuity, through the cavo-tricuspid isthmus (CTI). This typically produces an atrial ...
The term was originally applied to adults with regular atrial depolarizations at a rate of 260-340 beats per minute (bpm). ... Atrial flutter is an electrocardiographic descriptor used both specifically and nonspecifically to describe various atrial ... Atrial flutter must be differentiated from atrial fibrillation and chaotic atrial tachycardia. When atrial flutter is conducted ... Go to Atrial Flutter and Emergent Management of Atrial Flutter for complete information on these topics. ...
J T Vanderlugt Efficacy of intravenous ibutilide for rapid termination of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter: a dose- ... Initial treatment of atrial flutter targets the rate control (which is frequently ~150 BPM). Drugs of choice include beta ... If synchronized DC cardioversion is utilized in a non-emergent setting, the provider must be certain that the atrial flutter is ... Beta blockers and CCB are effective in prophylactic prevention of atrial flutter after postoperative thoracic or cardiac ...
The study involved 87 atrial flutter patients (group 1) with no structural heart disease (lone AFL), 50 atrial flutter patients ... Effect of radiofrequency ablation of atrial flutter on the natural history of subsequent atrial arrhythmias. Journal of ... Therefore, in the case of atrial flutter, there would seem to be no valid reason to prefer ongoing medical therapy to an ... It is well established that patients with atrial flutter (AFL) treated with drugs are at high risk for the development of ...
... the atrial rate in patients with atrial flutter could decrease to the level described for atrial tachycardia. So, the atrial ... If we rely on atrial rate alone then the rate falls under atrial tachycardia. Most textbooks would say that atrial flutter has ... It is obvious from lead II that this is atrial flutter. However, it is interesting to see the P to P rate change as seen from ... atrial fibrillation with complete heart block (2) * atrial fibrillation with entrance block and junctional tachycardia with ...
Treatment for atrial flutter involves blocking agents and medications to stabilize the atria, or catheter ablation may be used ... How is atrial flutter treated?. Treatments can help you feel better and prevent future problems, especially stroke and heart ... Your treatment will depend on the cause of your atrial flutter, your symptoms, and your risk for stroke. Treatments include:. * ... Catheter ablation to stop atrial flutter. Thin wires are used to send energy to destroy the tiny areas of heart tissue that are ...
Adverse Reaction Atrial+flutter pill and drug ...
Atrial Flutter - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional ... Atrial flutter is much less common than atrial fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is a rapid, irregularly ... Symptoms and Signs of Atrial Flutter Symptoms of atrial flutter depend primarily on ventricular rate and the nature of any ... Atrial flutter is a rapid regular atrial rhythm due to an atrial macroreentrant circuit. Symptoms include palpitations and ...
... atrial flutter waves are observed as sawtooth-like atrial activity. Pathophysiologically, atrial flutter is a form of atrial ... Typically, the ventricular rate is half the atrial rate. In the EKG; ... A type of atrial arrhythmia characterized by atrial rates of between 240 and 400 beats per minute and some degree of ... atrial flutter waves are observed as sawtooth-like atrial activity. Pathophysiologically, atrial flutter is a form of atrial ...
I have a history of Afib but take no meds - do you think it advisable that I take an aspirin a day ? To me it seems like the benefits (...
NYU Langone heart rhythm specialists are experts in the management of atrial fibrillation, also known as AFib, and atrial ... Atrial Flutter Left atrial appendage occlusion devices can prevent stroke in people with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter ... Atrial Flutter Our cardiologists recommend lifestyle changes to help prevent symptoms of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter ... Medical Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation & Atrial Flutter Our cardiologists may use medication to help manage atrial ...
Atrial Fibrillation or flutter is a common type of abnormal heartbeat. The heart rhythm is fast and irregular in this condition ... Atrial Fibrillation or Flutter. Atrial Fibrillation or flutter is a common type of abnormal heartbeat. The heart rhythm is fast ... An ECG (a test that records the electrical activity of the heart) may show atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter.. If your ... An ECG (a test that records the electrical activity of the heart) may show atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. If your ...
I thought I was Going mad! No sleep for 3weeks, night panic attacks persistent dry cough, nausea,joint pain, swollen ankles, cold feet,...
It feels like a fluttering or racing heart, or like your heart skips a beat. ... Atrial Fibrillation increases stroke risk by 5X. AFib is the most common type of heart rhythm condition. It feels like a ... fluttering or racing heart, or like your heart skips a beat. When the heart is in AFib, blood can become static and form a clot ...
... takes referrals and provides teaching for patients with a new or previous diagnosis of Atrial Fibrillation or Atrial Flutter. ... Cardiac atrial fibrillation clinics have a multidisciplinary team that ... takes referrals and provides teaching for patients with a new or previous diagnosis of Atrial Fibrillation or Atrial Flutter. ... Cardiac atrial fibrillation clinics have a multidisciplinary team that ...
Atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation: Atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation may increase the likelihood of a blood clot. ... Atrial flutters and atrial fibrillation. These conditions are characterized by fluttering sensations in the heart and a fast, ...
Older women who eat slightly more than the recommended daily amount of protein are less likely to develop atrial fibrillation, ... What Is Atrial Flutter?. Atrial flutter is a disorder which causes the heart to beat out of its normal rhythm. Learn more here. ... Atrial Fibrillation. News. Eating More Protein May Ward Off Atrial Fibrillation in Older Women, Study Finds. A large analysis ... The Latest in Atrial Fibrillation. More Than 1 in 4 Women Experience Atrial Fibrillation After Menopause. Post-menopausal women ...
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Atrial Flutter Treatment In McKinney - Heart diseases are one of the major diseases that is constantly increasing in Texas. But ... ABOUT ATRIAL FLUTTER DISEASE. Atrial Flutter is related to causing of abnormal heart rhythm in atrial valves which causes many ... Atrial Flutter Treatment in Carrollton. Atrial Flutter Treatment In Carrollton - Heart and Vascular Care center give the best ... Similarly, this problem is related to Atrial Fibrillation only. In Atrial Flutter, there is irregular pumping of blood in the ...
  • Atrial fibrillation (Afib) and atrial flutter are common types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) which affect the upper chambers (atria) of the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For patient education information, see the Heart Health Center , as well as Atrial Flutter , Arrhythmias (Heart Rhythm Disorders) , Stroke , Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT, PSVT) , and Palpitations . (medscape.com)
  • Low energy biphasic waveform cardioversion of atrial arrhythmias in pediatric patients and young adults. (medscape.com)
  • Effect of radiofrequency ablation of atrial flutter on the natural history of subsequent atrial arrhythmias. (afibbers.org)
  • Some people with irregular heartbeats or arrhythmias feel like their heart is fluttering. (dignityhealth.org)
  • Afib and atrial flutter often occur in the same person at different times. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In Afib or flutter, the heart rate may be as high as 250 to 350 beats per minute and is very often over 100 beats per minute. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An ECG (a test that records the electrical activity of the heart) may show AFib or atrial flutter. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This can prevent the abnormal electrical signals that cause AFib or flutter from moving through your heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is not as common as atrial fibrillation, also known as AFib or AF. (heart.org)
  • People with atrial flutter may develop AFib as well. (heart.org)
  • The treatment for atrial flutter is similar to the treatment for AFib. (heart.org)
  • At NYU Langone, our cardiovascular specialists are experts in the diagnosis and treatment of atrial fibrillation (AFib) and atrial flutter in adults. (nyulangone.org)
  • Our experts work closely with your cardiologist to pinpoint the cause of AFib or atrial flutter, so a normal heart rhythm can be restored. (nyulangone.org)
  • Older women who eat slightly more than the recommended daily amount of protein are less likely to develop atrial fibrillation , also called afib, a dangerous heart rhythm disorder, according to a study that will be presented at the American College of Cardiology's annual conference March 28-30. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Atrial flutter is much less common than atrial fibrillation (AFib or AF), but its causes and consequences are similar. (stroke.org)
  • Atrial fibrillation (AF or Afib) increases the risk of ischemic stroke five fold, and in the setting of mitral stenosis it drives up the risk of stroke twenty fold over that of patients with a normal heartbeat. (dicardiology.com)
  • Atrial fibrillation, commonly called AFib, is an irregular or abnormal heartbeat. (dignityhealth.org)
  • Atrial flutter is similar to AFib , but the heartbeats are more organized. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Atrial fibrillation (AFib) - a type of arrhythmia causing an irregular heart rhythm - affects about 46.3 million people around the world. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Atrial flutter can be treated more definitively with a technique known as catheter ablation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This flutter is curable with a short catheter ablation process. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Catheter ablation can treat most flutters, including this one. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • For this flutter, the catheter ablation procedure is complex and involves a lot of other long processes. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Effective atrial flutter treatment involves medication or clinical procedures devised to scar small areas of heart tissue (ablation). (tutorialspoint.com)
  • However, compared to atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter is often more difficult to rate control and is more responsive to cardioversion and EP ablation. (teachim.org)
  • Compared to atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter is typically more difficult to rate control but more responsive to ablation. (teachim.org)
  • Biviano A, Garan H, Hickey K, Whang W, Dizon J, Rosenbaum M. Atrial flutter catheter ablation in adult patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot: mechanisms and outcomes of percutaneous catheter ablation in a consecutive series. (medscape.com)
  • It is not clear, however, whether a successful right atrial flutter ablation (cavotricuspid isthmus [CTI] ablation) decreases the risk of future AF development in AFL patients with no previous history of AF. (afibbers.org)
  • A right atrial flutter ablation is usually successful and, according to this study, materially reduces the need for cardioversions and antiarrhythmic medications. (afibbers.org)
  • Therefore, in the case of atrial flutter, there would seem to be no valid reason to prefer ongoing medical therapy to an ablation, especially since both carry the same risk of the future development of atrial fibrillation. (afibbers.org)
  • Catheter ablation to stop atrial flutter. (stanfordhealthcare.org)
  • Treatment involves rate control with medication, prevention of thromboembolism with anticoagulants, and often conversion to sinus rhythm with medication, cardioversion, or atrial flutter substrate ablation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Contact-force (CF)-guided ablation to treat typical atrial flutter does not reduce recurrent atrial arrhythmia at 12 months follow-up, in comparison to ablation blinded for contact force. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
  • For patients with recurrent atrial arrhythmia, CF-guided catheter ablation (CA) is designed to improve efficacy, while reducing the risk of complications. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
  • Role of a 4q25 Genetic Variant in Atrial Flutter Background The prediction of atrial fibrillation (AF) following catheter ablation of atrial flutter (Afl) would be helpful to facilitate targeted arrhythmia monitoring and anti-coagulation strategies. (nyu.edu)
  • Atrial flutter is a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by atrial rates of 240-400 beats/min, usually with some degree of atrioventricular (AV) node conduction block. (medscape.com)
  • Atrial flutter, like atrial fibrillation , is a rhythmic disturbance of the heart ( arrhythmia ). (heart.org)
  • Atrial flutter is an age-triggered arrhythmia. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • A type of atrial arrhythmia characterized by atrial rates of between 240 and 400 beats per minute and some degree of atrioventricular node conduction block. (nih.gov)
  • The combination of an atrial arrhythmia, jaundice and splenomegaly suggests alcoholism. (manualofmedicine.com)
  • Therefore, Giehm-Reese and team aimed to study the recurrent atrial arrhythmia during 12-month follow-up, to investigate whether CF-guided CA for typical atrial flutter is superior to CF-blinded CA. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
  • The authors note that the primary outcome of the study was for any recurrent atrial arrhythmia ≥30 seconds, within 12 months, and documented in 12-lead electrocardiogram or Holter monitor recording. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
  • Treatment for atrial fibrillation is comprehensive and aims to cure your arrhythmia and prevent complications. (dignityhealth.org)
  • A heart arrhythmia may feel like a fluttering, pounding or racing heartbeat. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of arrhythmia, affecting about 46.3 million people globally. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The increment in atrial flutter rate can cause stroke, heart failure and damage, and other heart complications. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Clinical relevance of atrial fibrillation/flutter, stroke, pacemaker implant, and heart failure in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy: a long-term longitudinal study. (medscape.com)
  • Your treatment will depend on the cause of your atrial flutter, your symptoms, and your risk for stroke. (stanfordhealthcare.org)
  • Our experts can also implant a left atrial appendage occlusion device to reduce your risk of stroke. (nyulangone.org)
  • Atrial flutter also significantly raises the chance of stroke, and the likelihood increases with certain risk factors. (dicardiology.com)
  • The second change, which only applies to the performance measure of anticoagulation prescribed, is the different CHA2DS2-VASc risk score treatment thresholds for men (greater than one) and women (greater than two), further demonstrating that the risk of stroke differs for men and women with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. (dicardiology.com)
  • The CHA2DS2-VASc calculates stroke risk for patients with atrial fibrillation based on age, sex and clinical factors. (dicardiology.com)
  • Comparative Risks of Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Flutter versus Atrial Fibrillation. (cornell.edu)
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the risk of ischemic stroke in patients who have atrial fibrillation and patients who have atrial flutter. (cornell.edu)
  • Survival statistics were used to compare incidence of stroke in patients with flutter and patients with fibrillation. (cornell.edu)
  • Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to compare the associations of flutter and fibrillation with ischemic stroke after adjustment for demographics and risk factors. (cornell.edu)
  • The annual incidence of ischemic stroke in patients with flutter was 1.38% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22%-1.57%) compared with 2.02% (95% CI 1.99%-2.05%) in patients with fibrillation. (cornell.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with atrial flutter faced a lower risk of ischemic stroke than patients with atrial fibrillation. (cornell.edu)
  • Atrial flutter also is linked to stroke. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Dr. Kusumoto says atrial fibrillation decreases the heart's blood pumping efficiency and puts a patient at higher risk for blood clots, heart failure, and stroke. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Signs and symptoms in patients with atrial flutter typically reflect decreased cardiac output as a result of the rapid ventricular rate. (medscape.com)
  • Typical atrial flutter with variable conduction of 3:1 and 4:1 at a ventricular rate of ~75. (teachim.org)
  • In the setting of a healthy AV node and no pharmacologic AV nodal blockade this the atrial rate is typically conducted at a 2:1 producing a ventricular rate of ~150bpm. (teachim.org)
  • Atrial flutter is due to a large re-entry circuit in the cavo-tricuscpid isthmus (CTI) often producing sawtooth P waves at a rate ~300bpm with a 2:1 conducted ventricular rate of 150bmp (in the absence of AV nodal disease or blockade). (teachim.org)
  • Typically, the ventricular rate is half the atrial rate. (nih.gov)
  • Symptoms of atrial flutter depend primarily on ventricular rate and the nature of any underlying heart disorder. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Treatment of atrial flutter focuses on ventricular rate control, rhythm control, and prevention of thromboembolism. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A supraventricular tachycardia with a ventricular heart rate of 150 beats per minute is suggestive (though not necessarily diagnostic) of atrial flutter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of adenosine in the vein (intravenously) can help medical personnel differentiate between atrial flutter and other forms of supraventricular tachycardia. (wikipedia.org)
  • AFL is the second most common pathologic supraventricular tachycardia but occurs at a rate less than one-tenth of the most common supraventricular tachycardia (atrial fibrillation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Review of diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of fetal atrial flutter compared with supraventricular tachycardia. (medscape.com)
  • This involves the insertion of a catheter through a vein in the groin which is followed up to the heart and is used to identify and interrupt the electrical circuit causing the atrial flutter (by creating a small burn and scar). (wikipedia.org)
  • A non-surgical, catheter-based procedure can often heal atrial flutter. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Because the AV node cannot conduct at the same rate as the atrial activity, some form of conduction block is often seen, typically 2:1 (most common), 3:1, or 4:1. (medscape.com)
  • In intact animals it slows heart rate, decreases AV nodal conduction and increases the refractory periods of atrial and ventricular muscle and conduction tissue. (nih.gov)
  • The research team, comprising Mikkel Giehm-Reese and colleagues (all Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark) note that a previous study, published in EP Europace with the same study population documented that the rate of persistent conduction block was similar with and without using CF while performing CA for typical atrial flutter after three months. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
  • Atrioventricular 2:1-conduction via an accessory pathway during left atrial flutter unmasking WPW. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, accurate diagnostic workup of broad complex tachycardia is crucial to ensure correct indication for ICD treatment and to avoid unnecessary invasive treatment and device-associated morbidity.Case summaryWe present a case of atypical atrial flutter with 2:1 atrioventricular (AV) conduction via a left-posterior accessory pathway (AP), leading to the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. (deepdyve.com)
  • Interrogation of the two-chamber ICD, which was very likely implanted unjustified in a peripheral clinic before, revealed atrial flutter with 2:1 AV conduction. (deepdyve.com)
  • Many patients with atrial flutter also have periods of atrial fibrillation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It can evaluate right and left atrial size, as well as the size and function of the right and left ventricles, and this information facilitates diagnosis of valvular heart disease, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and pericardial disease. (medscape.com)
  • The diagnosis of atrial flutter is by electrocardiography (ECG). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cardiac atrial fibrillation clinics have a multidisciplinary team that takes referrals and provides teaching for patients with a new or previous diagnosis of Atrial Fibrillation or Atrial Flutter. (vch.ca)
  • 2020 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS): The Task Force for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Developed with the special contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) of the ESC. (empendium.com)
  • Rarely, atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter may be due to pericardial disease or effusion or caused by carbon monoxide intoxication. (medscape.com)
  • December 23, 2020 - The American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) has made two updates to its Clinical Performance and Quality Measures on Atrial Fibrillation or Atrial Flutter. (dicardiology.com)
  • Successful implementation of these updated performance measures by clinicians and health care organizations will lead to quality improvement for adult patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. (dicardiology.com)
  • The 2020 Update to the 2016 ACC/AHA Clinical Performance and Quality Measures for Adults With Atrial Fibrillation or Atrial Flutter is publish online in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology and Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. (dicardiology.com)
  • Lastly, the authors note that typical atrial flutter was detected in 11 (14%) and 5 (7%) patients in the intervention and control groups respectively. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
  • A similar response may follow pharmacologic AV nodal blockade (eg, with adenosine ), but such therapy does not terminate atrial flutter. (msdmanuals.com)
  • See Atrial Flutter and Pediatric Atrial Flutter for complete information on these topics. (medscape.com)
  • But atrial flutter has similar symptoms, causes and consequences. (heart.org)
  • People may have no atrial flutter symptoms. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Resulting symptoms include dizziness, a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), shortness of breath, and fainting (syncope). (nih.gov)
  • Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of atrial fibrillation or flutter. (flcard.com)
  • If you experience these symptoms and think you may have atrial flutter, contact your health care professional immediately. (stroke.org)
  • Some people with atrial fibrillation don't experience symptoms. (dignityhealth.org)
  • When they do, the symptoms may come and go (occasional atrial fibrillation) or be ongoing (persistent atrial fibrillation). (dignityhealth.org)
  • Atrial flutter has an organized heart rhythm and is less chaotic, unlike atrial fibrillation, where the heartbeat pattern is irregular. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • We can represent the heartbeat rate as the proportion of atrial beats to ventricle beats. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Atrial Fibrillation or flutter is a common type of abnormal heartbeat. (flcard.com)
  • These conditions are characterized by fluttering sensations in the heart and a fast, irregular heartbeat. (healthline.com)
  • Post-menopausal women with stress, insomnia, depression, or social strain may have a higher risk of atrial fibrillation, or dangerous irregular heartbeat. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Atrial flutter may present with a heartbeat that's overly fast, irregular or with heart palpitations (feeling a hard, fast or irregular heartbeat in the chest). (stroke.org)
  • Pathophysiologically, atrial flutter is a form of atrial reentry in which there is a premature electrical impulse creates a self-propagating circuit. (nih.gov)
  • ECG with paroxysm correct form of atrial flutter. (dicardiology.com)
  • METHODS: Using inpatient and outpatient Medicare claims data from 2008 to 2014 for a 5% sample of all beneficiaries 66 years of age or older, we identified patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation and those diagnosed with atrial flutter. (cornell.edu)
  • Therefore, now we are also providing Atrial care in McKinney for better cardiac care. (txhvc.com)
  • Sotalol hydrochloride prolongs the plateau phase of the cardiac action potential in the isolated myocyte, as well as in isolated tissue preparations of ventricular or atrial muscle (Class III activity). (nih.gov)
  • Atrial flutter in an unstable patient should be treated immediately with synchronized cardioversion. (medscape.com)
  • The risk of thromboembolic complications in Fontan patients with atrial flutter/fibrillation treated with electrical cardioversion. (medscape.com)
  • Electrical cardioversion to stop atrial flutter. (stanfordhealthcare.org)
  • All people with atrial fibrillation will need to learn how to manage this condition at home . (flcard.com)
  • Many people with atrial fibrillation do very well. (flcard.com)
  • For Low Income, Uninsured Patients cardizem drip atrial flutter . (ostadyabi.com)
  • It is well established that patients with atrial flutter (AFL) treated with drugs are at high risk for the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). (afibbers.org)
  • The study involved 87 atrial flutter patients (group 1) with no structural heart disease (lone AFL), 50 atrial flutter patients (group 2) with structural heart disease, and a control group of 59 atrial flutter patients without structural heart disease who were treated with medication only (control group). (afibbers.org)
  • So, in the presence of drugs (atrial myopathy), the atrial rate in patients with atrial flutter could decrease to the level described for atrial tachycardia. (ekgrhythm.com)
  • The first change in the document, which is incorporated into all the performance measures, is the definition of valvular atrial fibrillation, including for patients with either moderate or severe mitral stenosis or those with a mechanical prosthetic heart valve. (dicardiology.com)
  • RESULTS: We identified 14,953 patients with flutter and 318,138 with fibrillation. (cornell.edu)
  • In addition, it was noted that atrial fibrillation (AF) was detected in 23 (30%) and 29 (40%) patients in the intervention and control group respectively. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
  • 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS Focused Update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. (empendium.com)
  • The findings in the subgroups were of particular interest - we found that the association of atrial fibrillation with risk of dementia was stronger in patients who were younger and those without kidney disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 300 pg/mL at screening (Visit 1) for patients without ongoing atrial fibrillation/flutter. (who.int)
  • This block may also be variable and cause atrial flutter to appear as an irregular rhythm. (medscape.com)
  • Metabolic conditions such as hyperthyroidism and alcoholism can also cause atrial flutter. (medscape.com)
  • Talk to your health care provider about steps to treat conditions that cause atrial fibrillation/flutter. (flcard.com)
  • What causes atrial flutter? (heart.org)
  • If a short circuit of the heart's electrical signal occurs, it causes atrial flutter. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • If the heart causes atrial flutter to continue to pulsate for a long time, it can cause cardiomyopathy, which weakens the heart muscles. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • At the time of this update, there is no consensus on the optimal management of atrial flutter in the emergency department, due to a lack of robust evidence, as well as a wide variation in typical management. (medscape.com)
  • Go to Atrial Flutter and Emergent Management of Atrial Flutter for complete information on these topics. (medscape.com)
  • The 2020 Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Heart Rhythm Society Comprehensive Guidelines for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation. (empendium.com)
  • Tachycardia may or may not be present, depending on the degree of AV block associated with the atrial flutter activity. (medscape.com)
  • Atrial flutter must be differentiated from atrial fibrillation and chaotic atrial tachycardia. (medscape.com)
  • When atrial flutter is conducted to the ventricle in a 1:1 fashion, the electrocardiogram may resemble ventricular tachycardia. (medscape.com)
  • If we rely on atrial rate alone then the rate falls under atrial tachycardia. (ekgrhythm.com)
  • So, the atrial rate is not a good parameter to use whether a rhythm is atrial tachycardia or atrial flutter. (ekgrhythm.com)
  • Atrial flutter (AFL) is a common abnormal heart rhythm that starts in the atrial chambers of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrial flutter is characterized by a sudden-onset (usually) regular abnormal heart rhythm on an electrocardiogram (ECG) in which the heart rate is fast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to the abnormal heart rhythm atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter also leads to poor contraction of the atrial chambers of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrial Flutter is related to causing of abnormal heart rhythm in atrial valves which causes many discomfort issue s for the patient. (txhvc.com)
  • citation needed] Although often regarded as a relatively benign heart rhythm problem, atrial flutter shares the same complications as the related condition atrial fibrillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Dr. Nisha Bansal , a professor and the Arthur Stach Family Endowed Professor in the Division of Nephrology at the University of Washington School of Medicine and corresponding author of this study, it is well known that atrial fibrillation may lead to strokes, yet associations with other complications are less recognized. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biologically it seems plausible that atrial fibrillation may be linked with other important neurological complications, even in the absence of strokes, which motivated this study," she told Medical News Today . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When discussing dementia risks with people, Dr. Bansal said these findings support the need for doctors to provide a broader discussion of possible complications related to atrial fibrillation, particularly when making decisions related to therapies. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is typically not a stable rhythm, and often degenerates into atrial fibrillation (AF). (wikipedia.org)
  • If the affected person is having chest pain, has lost consciousness, or has low blood pressure (unstable atrial flutter), then an urgent electrical shock to the heart to restore a normal heart rhythm is necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medications used to restore a normal heart rhythm (antiarrhythmics) such as ibutilide effectively control atrial flutter about 80% of the time when they are started but atrial flutter recurs at a high rate (70-90% of the time) despite continued use. (wikipedia.org)
  • In atrial flutter, the heart beats too fast, but mostly continues to contract in a regular rhythm. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The electrocardiogram (ECG) usually demonstrates a regular rhythm, with P waves that can appear sawtoothed (see the image below), also called flutter waves, usually best visible in lead II. (medscape.com)
  • It is a heart rhythm disorder, an errant flutter in the atria. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Atrial flutter is a rapid regular atrial rhythm due to an atrial macroreentrant circuit. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is a rapid, irregularly irregular atrial rhythm. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Atrial flutter is a disorder which causes the heart to beat out of its normal rhythm. (everydayhealth.com)
  • The writing committee for this 2020 document incorporated two changes to performance measures in accordance with the 2019 ACC/AHA/Heart Rhythm Society atrial fibrillation guideline focused update . (dicardiology.com)
  • The performance measures are taken from the 2019 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Rhythm Society atrial fibrillation guideline update and are selected from the strongest recommendations (Class 1 or 3). (dicardiology.com)
  • 20 technologists annotated each beat's type (Normal, Premature Atrial Contraction, Premature Ventricular contraction) and rhythm (Normal Sinusal Rhythm, Atrial Fibrillation, Atrial Flutter). (physionet.org)
  • Trusted cardiologists at Dignity Health strive to heal atrial fibrillation in Southern California. (dignityhealth.org)
  • The isthmus of tissue responsible for atrial flutter is seen anterior to the coronary sinus (CS) orifice. (medscape.com)
  • Atrial flutter is due to a large re-entry circuity, through the cavo-tricuspid isthmus (CTI). (teachim.org)
  • Fetal atrial flutter: electrophysiology and associations with rhythms involving an accessory pathway. (medscape.com)
  • Note negative sawtooth pattern of flutter waves in leads II, III, and aVF. (medscape.com)
  • atrial flutter waves are observed as sawtooth-like atrial activity. (nih.gov)
  • Close inspection of the jugular venous pulse reveals flutter a waves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Carotid sinus massage can increase AV block and better expose the typical flutter waves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Worldwide incidence with atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter or, is estimated to be 1 in 100 000 [ 2 ], but there more classically, permanent atrial standc is not sufficient evidence on the prevalence still and junctional bradycardia, observed. (who.int)
  • Atrial rates are generally between 240 and 360 beats per minute (bpm) without medications. (medscape.com)
  • Classification of typical and non-typical (atypical) atrium flutters depends on the short circuit in the heart based on the pathway the electrical signals follow to move faster around the atrium part of the heart. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • On the ECG there was atrial with a pacemaker being the typical form of flutter with 3:1 atrioventricular block. (who.int)
  • If the extra beats come from the top chamber of the heart, they are called premature atrial contractions (PACs). (mayoclinic.org)
  • Movahed MR, Hashemzadeh M, Jamal MM. Diabetes mellitus is a strong, independent risk for atrial fibrillation and flutter in addition to other cardiovascular disease. (medscape.com)
  • This typically produces an atrial rate ~300bpm with a negative 'sawtooth' deflection in lead II. (teachim.org)
  • Immediate treatment of atrial flutter centers on slowing the heart rate with medications such as beta blockers (e.g., metoprolol) or calcium channel blockers (e.g., diltiazem) if the affected person is not having chest pain, has not lost consciousness, and if their blood pressure is normal (known as stable atrial flutter). (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrial Disease is rarely harmful to a person. (txhvc.com)
  • Atrial flutter occurs when rapidly firing electrical signals cause the muscles in the heart's upper chambers (atria) to contract at a very rapid rate (250 to 350 times per minute). (stroke.org)
  • An abrupt and fixed SVT at a rate of 150bpm should always raise suspicion for atrial flutter and can be effectively identified with vagal maneuvers or imitation of AV nodal blockade. (teachim.org)
  • Atrial flutter is the second most common tachyarrhythmia, after atrial fibrillation . (medscape.com)
  • In atrial flutter, the ventricles (lower heart chambers) may beat very rapidly, but in a regular pattern. (flcard.com)
  • General treatment goals for symptomatic atrial flutter are similar to those for atrial fibrillation. (medscape.com)
  • Flutters may go away without treatment and action required. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Levitra is a prescription medication for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) cardizem drip atrial flutter . (ostadyabi.com)
  • Atrial Flutter Treatment In McKinney - Heart diseases are one of the major diseases that is constantly increasing in Texas. (txhvc.com)
  • Similarly, the best part about our cardiology center is we are providing Atrial Flutter Treatment In McKinney , Plano, Frisco, Dallas and in other locations of Texas. (txhvc.com)
  • Episodes of atrial flutter may go away themselves or may require treatment. (mayoclinic.org)
  • With atrial flutter, the signal that tells the atrium to beat may be blocked by damaged tissue or scar tissue. (heart.org)