Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Atrial Flutter: Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Arrhythmia, Sinus: Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Tachycardia, Ectopic Atrial: Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.Tachycardia, Supraventricular: A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Tachycardia, Sinus: Simple rapid heartbeats caused by rapid discharge of impulses from the SINOATRIAL NODE, usually between 100 and 180 beats/min in adults. It is characterized by a gradual onset and termination. Sinus tachycardia is common in infants, young children, and adults during strenuous physical activities.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Propafenone: An antiarrhythmia agent that is particularly effective in ventricular arrhythmias. It also has weak beta-blocking activity.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Sick Sinus Syndrome: A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Cardiac Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical activity and characteristics of the HEART; MYOCARDIUM; and CARDIOMYOCYTES.Electric Countershock: An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Atrial Remodeling: Long-term changes in the electrophysiological parameters and/or anatomical structures of the HEART ATRIA that result from prolonged changes in atrial rate, often associated with ATRIAL FIBRILLATION or long periods of intense EXERCISE.Atrial Premature Complexes: A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature atrial contractions or beats caused by signals originating from ectopic atrial sites. The ectopic signals may or may not conduct to the HEART VENTRICLES. Atrial premature complexes are characterized by premature P waves on ECG which are different in configuration from the P waves generated by the normal pacemaker complex in the SINOATRIAL NODE.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Magnetocardiography: The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Flecainide: A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial ARRHYTHMIAS and TACHYCARDIAS.Sinoatrial Block: Disturbance in the atrial activation that is caused by transient failure of impulse conduction from the SINOATRIAL NODE to the HEART ATRIA. It is characterized by a delayed in heartbeat and pauses between P waves in an ELECTROCARDIOGRAM.Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Atrial Appendage: Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Disopyramide: A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Sotalol: An adrenergic beta-antagonist that is used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Quinidine: An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Refractory Period, Electrophysiological: The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Ventricular Premature Complexes: A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature contractions of the HEART VENTRICLES. It is characterized by the premature QRS complex on ECG that is of abnormal shape and great duration (generally >129 msec). It is the most common form of all cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular complexes have no clinical significance except in concurrence with heart diseases.Atrioventricular Node: A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Long QT Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.Cardiac Complexes, Premature: A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Torsades de Pointes: A malignant form of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that is characterized by HEART RATE between 200 and 250 beats per minute, and QRS complexes with changing amplitude and twisting of the points. The term also describes the syndrome of tachycardia with prolonged ventricular repolarization, long QT intervals exceeding 500 milliseconds or BRADYCARDIA. Torsades de pointes may be self-limited or may progress to VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION.Amiodarone: An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.Myoblasts, Cardiac: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Death, Sudden: The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.Digitalis Glycosides: Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels: A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Syncope: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Aconitine: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging: Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Purkinje Fibers: Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.Encainide: One of the ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS, it blocks VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS and slows conduction within the His-Purkinje system and MYOCARDIUM.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cardiac Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Atrioventricular Block: Impaired impulse conduction from HEART ATRIA to HEART VENTRICLES. AV block can mean delayed or completely blocked impulse conduction.KCNQ1 Potassium Channel: A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Mexiletine: Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to LIDOCAINE. It may have some anticonvulsant properties.Procainamide: A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia: A congenital cardiomyopathy that is characterized by infiltration of adipose and fibrous tissue into the RIGHT VENTRICLE wall and loss of myocardial cells. Primary injuries usually are at the free wall of right ventricular and right atria resulting in ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Epicardial Mapping: Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Calsequestrin: Acidic protein found in SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM that binds calcium to the extent of 700-900 nmoles/mg. It plays the role of sequestering calcium transported to the interior of the intracellular vesicle.Bundle-Branch Block: A form of heart block in which the electrical stimulation of HEART VENTRICLES is interrupted at either one of the branches of BUNDLE OF HIS thus preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Digitalis: A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Acetanilides: Compounds based on N-phenylacetamide, that are similar in structure to 2-PHENYLACETAMIDES. They are precursors of many other compounds. They were formerly used as ANALGESICS and ANTIPYRETICS, but often caused lethal METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Rhabdomyoma: A benign tumor derived from striated muscle. It is extremely rare, generally occurring in the tongue, neck muscles, larynx, uvula, nasal cavity, axilla, vulva, and heart. These tumors are treated by simple excision. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1354)Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
"Clinical Management of Atrial Fibrillation" (2015); and "Cardiac Arrhythmias, Pacing and Sudden Death" (2017). He is a fellow ... becoming Director of the Cardiac Care Unit and the Cardiac Arrhythmia Service. In 1990, he was appointed Chief of the Division ... His research has contributed to the understanding of cardiac arrhythmia and effective methods for its correction. In particular ... He has edited or co-edited three peer-reviewed journal supplements and several books, including "Cardiac Arrhythmia: Mechanisms ...
Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common cardiac arrhythmias. In general, it is an irregular, narrow complex rhythm. ... Ventricular tachycardia (VT or V-tach) is a potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia that originates in the ventricles. ... Adrenergic storm Alcohol Amphetamine Anaemia Antiarrhythmic agents Anxiety Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter Atrial ... vena cava Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter AV nodal reentrant tachycardia Accessory pathway mediated tachycardia Atrial ...
Cardiac arrhythmia Aortic valve insufficiency Pulmonary artery hypertension: PAH has the following symptoms; dyspnea and ... Asymptomatic atrial septal defects; In the heart the right ventricular (RV) can have a volume overload which ultimately ... Geva, Professor Tal (2014). "Atrial septal defects". The Lancet. 383 (9932): 1921-1932. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62145-5. ...
... which is linked to cardiac arrhythmia; Hallermann-Streiff syndrome; and heart malformations, such as viscero-atrial heterotaxia ... Delmar M, Makita N (May 2012). "Cardiac connexins, mutations and arrhythmias". Current Opinion in Cardiology. 27 (3): 236-41. ... that patients with an array of somatic mutations in GJA1 most often do not present with cardiac arrhythmias, even though ... "Protein sequence of human GJA1 (Uniprot ID: P17302)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 18 ...
... cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), laser lead extraction and ablation of atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia ... Khaykin was also a member of the Arrhythmia Management Committee of the Cardiovascular Care Network, as well as the Publication ... "precise electrical measurements at the tip of a cardiac catheter, providing cardiac specialists with both numbers and a visual ... As a member of the group he has contributed to the development of national registries for atrial fibrillation and ventricular ...
"Cardiac Sodium Channel Mutations in Patients with Long QT Syndrome, an Inherited Cardiac Arrhythmia." Human Molecular Genetics ... An arrhythmia can present itself as either bradycardia or tachycardia.  Untreated arrhythmias may progress to atrial ... 2] It has a half-life of 8.9 +- 2.3 hrs which may be prolonged to 66 hrs in people with cardiac disease . Cardiac ... 6] Arrhythmias can be caused by various conditions including ischemia, hypoxia, pH disruptions, B adrenergic activation, drug ...
Some of these pathologies include cardiac arrhythmia (such as atrial fibrillation), cardiac hypertrophy, Duchenne muscular ... Atrial fibrillation Abnormalities in the function of MS channels can cause: Neuronal disease Muscular degeneration. Cardiac ... Honore, E., Patel, A. A., Kohl, P., Franz, M. R. & Sachs, F. in Cardiac Mechano-Electric Feedback and Arrhythmias: From Pipette ... Peyronnet R, Nerbonne JM, Kohl P (2016). "Cardiac mechano-gated ion channels and arrhythmias". Circ. Res. 118: 311-29. doi: ...
Cardiac arrhythmia arises from abnormalities in action potential formation and propagation through the heart. Changes in ... If untreated, arrhythmias may present as bradycardia, tachycardia, or progress to atrial/ventricular fibrillation. BRL-32872's ... BRL-32872 is an experimental drug candidate that provides a novel approach to the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia. Being a ... This effect is particularly well suited for treating atrial and ventricular fibrillation, as it restores pacemaker control of ...
Management of Cardiac Arrhythmias. Contemporary cardiology. Hanumana Press. pp. 123-140. doi:10.1007/978-1-60761-161-5. ISBN ... 978-1-60761-160-8. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) "Cryoablation for the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation". Retrieved ... During EPS, sinus rhythm as well as supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias of baseline cardiac intervals is recorded. The ... Last, the electrophysiologist may administer various drugs (proarrhythmic agents) to induce arrhythmia. If the arrhythmia is ...
... especially arrhythmias. Several anti-arrhythmia drugs act on the cardiac action potential, such as quinidine, lidocaine, beta ... Tamargo J, Caballero R, Delpón E (January 2004). "Pharmacological approaches in the treatment of atrial fibrillation". Curr. ... The cardiac action potential plays an important role in coordinating the contraction of the heart. The cardiac cells of the ... Kléber AG, Rudy Y (April 2004). "Basic mechanisms of cardiac impulse propagation and associated arrhythmias". Physiol. Rev. 84 ...
... and was intended for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation and other cardiac arrhythmia. Biomedical Systems later ... "Biomedical Systems Introduces Long-Term ECG Monitoring to Diagnose Atrial Fibrillation". PR Newswire. 19 March 2012. Retrieved ... Founded in 1975, Biomedical Systems offered centralized cardiac safety, medical imaging and respiratory services in drug ... Wireless Telemetry Device as part of their Cardiac Patient Services Business. TruVue would record and remotely transmit ...
Rarely, a cardiac arrhythmia, such as atrial fibrillation on top of supraventricular tachycardia, may develop. The fungus ... and monitoring for cardiac arrhythmias. Large and prolonged doses of coprine were found to have gonadotoxic effects on rats and ...
cardiac tamponade Arrhythmia - atrial fibrillation and a number of other arrhythmias can cause chest pain. Myocarditis Mitral ... ISBN 978-1-4160-0087-7. Karnath B, Holden MD, Hussain N (April 2004). "Chest pain: Differentiating cardiac from non-cardiac ... In some cases, chest pain may not even be a symptom of an acute cardiac event. An estimated 33% of patients with myocardial ... Chest pain that is reproducible during the physical exam with contact of the chest wall is more indicative of non-cardiac chest ...
Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter resulted in 112,000 deaths in 2013, up from 29,000 in 1990. Sudden cardiac death is the ... Cardiac arrhythmia, also known as "cardiac dysrhythmia" or "irregular heartbeat", is a group of conditions in which the ... These include the great cardiac vein, the middle cardiac vein, the small cardiac vein and the anterior cardiac veins. As the ... About 80% of sudden cardiac death is the result of ventricular arrhythmias. Arrhythmias may occur at any age but are more ...
Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology: Journal of the Working Groups on Cardiac Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Cellular ... Some types of arrhythmia such as atrial fibrillation increase the long term risk of stroke. Some arrhythmias cause the heart to ... Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology: Journal of the Working Groups on Cardiac Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Cellular ... The cardiac output is normalized to body size through body surface area and is called the cardiac index. The average cardiac ...
... it has been shown that beta blockers can negate certain cardiac arrhythmias. Refractory Hypertension associated with ... In rabbit models, increased expression of autoantibodies has been directly correlated with induction of atrial fibrillation. In ... "β1-Adrenergic and M2 Muscarinic Autoantibodies and Thyroid Hormone Facilitate Induction of Atrial Fibrillation in Male Rabbits ... "Activating autoantibodies to the beta-1 adrenergic and m2 muscarinic receptors facilitate atrial fibrillation in patients with ...
... was applied on atrial cardiomyocytes to end spiral wave arrhythmias, found to occur in atrial fibrillation, with ... 2016). "Optogenetic termination of ventricular arrhythmias in the whole heart: towards biological cardiac rhythm management". ... 2014). "Light-induced termination of spiral wave arrhythmias by optogenetic engineering of atrial cardiomyocytes". Cardiovasc ... In addition, this approach has been applied in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) as a new biological pacemaker as a ...
... is a drug currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias - specifically atrial fibrillation. ... Rotigaptide is being studied for its antiarrhythmic effects, specifically for treating atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation ... on Atrial Conduction and Vulnerability to Atrial Fibrillation. Circulation. 114: 110-118. Verheule S, van Kempen MJ, te ... In atrial fibrillation, multiple impulses travel through the atria at the same time. Instead of a coordinated contraction, the ...
Oberto's procedure was performed at the Texas Cardiac Arrhythmia Institute in Austin by Dr. Andrea Natale. Euroleague.net ... The procedure was done to correct the electrical system of the heart that was sending Oberto into atrial fibrillation. ...
... as it is the most common cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heart beat) seen in patients. Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is an arrhythmia ... During atrial fibrillation this process becomes chaotic and the atrial depolarization occurs faster than it should causing the ... XEN-D0101 selectively increases atrial refractory period by 22% in dogs with atrial tachycardia induced electrical remodeling. ... Over Other Cardiac Ion Channels. Circulation, 118, 342-357. Milnes, J., Louis, L., Madge, D., & Ford, J. (2008). The Atrial ...
... following cardiac surgery has been under some debate because of the potential increase risk of postoperative atrial arrhythmias ... Milrinone Use Is Associated With Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation After Cardiac Surgery. The Journal of the American Heart ... This reduction in cardiac output can cause many systemic implications such as fatigue, syncope and other issues associated with ... In critically ill patients with evidence of cardiac dysfunction there is limited good quality evidence to recommend its use. ...
It may present as a cardiac arrhythmia or as sudden cardiac death. Cystic tumours of the atrioventricular nodal region, true to ... Atrial myxoma Papillary fibroelastoma Paniagua, JR.; Sadaba, JR.; Davidson, LA.; Munsch, CM. (Apr 2000). "Cystic tumour of the ...
... , or cannon atrial waves, are waves seen occasionally in the jugular vein of humans with certain cardiac ... Cannon A waves may also be seen in ventricular tachycardia due to the inherent AV dissociation of the arrhythmia. This wave ... arrhythmias. When the atria and ventricles contract simultaneously, the blood will be pushed against the AV valve, and a very ...
It is especially effective in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of arrhythmia( ... Pilsicainide is a drug used clinically in Japan to treat cardiac arrhythmias. It functions by blocking the fast inward movement ... Length of excitation wave and susceptibility to reentrant atrial arrhythmias in normal conscious dogs. Circ Res. 1988;62(2):395 ... A review of atrial fibrillation. J Natl Med Assoc. 2002;94(12):1036-48. 16. Veenhuyzen GD, Simpson CS, and Abdollah H. Atrial ...
There has also been some evidence of a role of RGS2 in atrial arrhythmias where RGS2 deficient mice exhibited prolonged and ... Both GsPCR and GqPCR activation can contribute to cardiac hypertrophy via activation of MAP Kinases as well. RGS2 has been ... "Evidence for enhanced M3 muscarinic receptor function and sensitivity to atrial arrhythmia in the RGS2-deficient mouse". Am. J ... RGS2 is thought to have protective effects against myocardial hypertrophy as well as atrial arrhythmias. Increased stimulation ...
Three leads can be seen in this example of a cardiac resynchronization device: a right atrial lead (solid black arrow), a right ... Biventricular pacing alone is referred to as CRT-P (for pacing). For selected patients at risk of arrhythmias, CRT can be ... Right atrial and right ventricular leads as visualized under x-ray during a pacemaker implant procedure. The atrial lead is the ... Main article: Cardiac resynchronization therapy. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is used for people with heart failure ...
Analysis of Cardiac Signals Related to Atrial Arrhythmia. Led by Behnaz Ghoraani, Ph.D. ... recently filed two patent applications for developing methods for guiding sensing catheters to locate cardiac arrhythmia ...
Surgical ablation for cardiac arrhythmias, whether it is performed in conjunction with other cardiac surgery procedures or not ... Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance in the United States. It affects more than 2.5 ... cardiac tumors, myocarditis, post cardiac surgery, sick sinus syndrome, preexcitation syndrome, cardiac trauma, pericarditis. ... Sustained ventricular arrhythmia is a common cause of sudden cardiac death in patients with ischemic, dilatative, or ...
... either of atrial or of ventricular origin, remains a major challenge. Sudden cardiac death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias ... What then is the appropriate target? It is well established that cardiac electrical properties can vary substantially between ... an arrhythmia thats prevalence is increasing and accounts for nearly one quarter of ischemic stokes the elderly population. ... remains the leading cause of death in industrialized countries while atrial fibrillation is the most common rhythm disorder; ...
The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of Rac1 overexpression on atrial electrophysiology. METHODS AND ... The small GTPase Rac1 seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). ... Arrhythmias, Cardiac / enzymology*, genetics, pathology, physiopathology. Atrial Function* / drug effects. Electrocardiography ... The atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was determined and inducibility of atrial arrhythmias was tested. Action ...
Atrial Fibrillation. Atrial Remodeling. Vascular Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Arrhythmias, Cardiac. Heart Diseases. ... Irbesartan for the Prevention of Atrial Arrhythmias and Cardiac Electrical Remodeling in Patients With Hypertension and ... Irbesartan for the Prevention of Atrial Arrhythmias and Cardiac Electrical Remodeling in Patients With Hypertension, Permanent ... Atrial Fibrillation. Arrhythmia. Pacemaker, Artificial. Atrial High Rate Episodes. Electrophysiology. Renin-Angiotensin System ...
Atrial Fibrillation , Arrhythmia , Atrial Flutter , Stanford Cardiac Invasive Electrophysiology Novel Computer Experience ... acute termination of atrial arrhythmia during the case; (b) long-term reduction in arrhythmia burden; (c) long-term freedom ... This study will test the ability of computer algorithms to predict successful ablation therapy for atrial arrhythmias. ... Patients will be recruited prospectively from among those undergoing ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial ...
Atrial arrhythmia, which includes atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL), is common in patients with pulmonary ... Neuromodulation targets intrinsic cardiac neurons to attenuate neuronally mediated atrial arrhythmias. Am J Physiol Regul ... Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Cardiac Nerves on Atrial Arrhythmia in Experimental Pulmonary Artery HypertensionNovelty and ... Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Cardiac Nerves on Atrial Arrhythmia in Experimental Pulmonary Artery HypertensionNovelty and ...
In one specific technique, an increase in the pacing rate occurs only if two P-waves are detected within X cardiac cycles. In ... In both techniques, the overdrive pacing rate is decreased if no increase has occurred in the last Z cardiac cycles. By ... the overdrive pacing rate is increased only if at least two P-waves are detected within a block of N cardiac cycles. ... the overdrive pacing rate only in response to detection of at least two P-waves within a determined number of cardiac cycles, ...
The surgical treatment of concomitant atrial arrhythmias during redo cardiac operations. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2012 Dec; ... The surgical treatment of concomitant atrial arrhythmias during redo cardiac operations. In: Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2012 ... The surgical treatment of concomitant atrial arrhythmias during redo cardiac operations. John M. Stulak, Joseph A. Dearani, ... The surgical treatment of concomitant atrial arrhythmias during redo cardiac operations. / Stulak, John M.; Dearani, Joseph A ...
Malignant life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia and atrial arrhythmia with serious impact on cardiac function are frequently ... FHCM-related arrhythmias occur both at the ventricular and at the atrial levels. Importantly, sudden cardiac death in FHCM is ... Spectrum of HERG K+-channel dysfunction in an inherited cardiac arrhythmia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:2208-2212. ... Genetic and Molecular Basis of Cardiac Arrhythmias: Impact on Clinical Management Parts I and II. Silvia G. Priori, Jacques ...
The impedance signal analyzer circuit classifies the atrial tachyarrhythmia indication as ST when the detected sudden change ... circuit configured to detect a sudden change in a characteristic of the sensed atrial impedance signal that indicates atrial ... classifies the atrial tachyarrhythmia indication as AF when the detected sudden change satisfies an AF threshold value of the ... satisfies an ST threshold value of the characteristic, classifies the atrial tachyarrhythmia indication as AT when the detected ...
Atrial Fibrillation. Recurrence. Arrhythmias, Cardiac. Heart Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Pathologic Processes. Disease ... Atrial fibrillation (AF) represents the most common arrhythmia of clinical importance. The prevalence of AF in the general ... Multi_center Study to Evaluate the Effect of N-3 Fatty Acids (OMEGA-3) on Arrhythmia Recurrence in Atrial Fibrillation (AFFORD) ... Quality of life will be evaluated using questionnaires: Toronto Atrial Fibrillation Severity Scale (AFSS), Severity of Atrial ...
Cardiac Electrophysiology , UM Professional Building. 419 West Redwood Street. Baltimore, MD 21201 Get Directions ... Cardiac Electrophysiology , UMMC. 22 South Greene Street. Baltimore, MD 21201 Get Directions ...
Atrial flutter/atrial fibrillation. Fourteen cases of (post)ictal AF (n=13) or atrial flutter (n=1) were found. Only three ... seizure type associated with cardiac arrhythmia, duration of arrhythmia, time between seizure onset and arrhythmia, ... Articles relating to cardiac arrhythmias mistaken for epileptic seizures, medication-induced arrhythmias, animal studies, ... ictal cardiac arrhythmias attempting to unveil clinical profiles associated with each arrhythmia. ...
An arrhythmia may happen for different reasons: The heartbeat may begin in a part of the heart other than the sinus node The ... There are several types of arrhythmias, named by the chambers of the heart in which they occur (atria or ventricles) and by ... It is one of the most common forms of cardiac arrhythmia, affecting 0.4% of the general population and 5 to 10% of persons over ... Arrhythmia/Atrial Fibrillation. An arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm. There are several types of arrhythmias, named by the ...
Episodes of atrial fibrillation are controlled using medications that reduce the pulse rate during atrial fibrillation. Atrial ... Congenital arrhythmias may present as arrhythmic sensations, loss of consciousness, cardiac arrest, or sudden death. However, ... Atrial fibrillation. In atrial fibrillation, random electrical impulses fire off from the atria and some of them pass through ... Atrial fibrillation may make heart failure worse. It causes blood clots in the atrial walls, possibly blocking arteries and ...
Atrial Fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is a type of arrhythmia where the electrical signals in the atria (the two small ... Cardiac Sarcoma. Cardiac sarcoma is a type of tumor that occurs in the heart. Cardiac sarcoma is a primary malignant (cancerous ... Arrhythmias. Arrhythmias are heart rhythm disorders that may originate in the atria (the receiving chambers of the heart) or ... Visitors Guide to Cardiac Surgery. Cardiac nurses at the Massachusetts General Hospital Heart Center offer support and ...
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Cardiac Pacing Department, Saint-Cloud, France ... Three patients with atrial arrhythmias in the atrial overdrive ... EFFECT OF PROPAFENONE IN PATIENTS WITHOUT ATRIAL ARRHYTHMIAS DURING ATRIAL OVERDRIVE. Three patients had no atrial arrhythmias ... Mean cumulative duration of atrial arrhythmias in the seven patients with atrial arrhythmia episodes during atrial overdrive + ... while no atrial arrhythmia was identified with atrial overdrive alone. AA, mean number of atrial arrhythmia episodes (SD); *p ...
Also avail free - Cardiac Catheterization News Widget from Medindia ... Find latest news and research updates on Cardiac Catheterization. ... Atrial Septal Defect or ASD - Animation. Animation and slides of Atrial septal defect (ASD) illustrating the dynamics and ... Palpitations And Arrhythmias. Palpitations are unpleasant sensation of ones own heartbeat.. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery ( ...
View reference source for the article along with the name of the writer and the editor for the article on Cardiac ... Palpitations And Arrhythmias. Palpitations are unpleasant sensation of ones own heartbeat.. Atrial Septal Defect or ASD - ... Cardiac Rehabilitation. Do you know how cardiac rehabilitation could help cardiac patients and why it is so effective? Read on ... 2) Cardiac Catheterization. http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/cardiac-catheterization. 3) Cardiac Catheterization. http://www. ...
Persistent atrial standstill is caused by inherited atrial myopathy.. Atrial. Standstill is characterized by an absence of P ... arrhythmias or complete heart block.. Direct or indirect cardiac trauma (e.g. hit by car and cardiac needle puncture).. ... Arrhythmias. Definition of Arrhythmias:. 1. An abnormality in the rate, regularity, or site of origin. of the cardiac impulse. ... ectopic supraventricular tachycardias (atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, or atrial flutter).. Long pause following an ...
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Progress in the understanding of cardiac early afterdepolarizations and torsades de pointes: time to revise current concepts. ... Background- Atrial fibrillation (AF) at times recurs immediately after termination of the arrhythmia. The mechanism(s) ... Reinduction of Atrial Fibrillation Immediately After Termination of the Arrhythmia Is Mediated by Late Phase 3 Early ... Reinduction of Atrial Fibrillation Immediately After Termination of the Arrhythmia Is Mediated by Late Phase 3 Early ...
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- Atrial arrhythmia, which includes atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL), is common in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), who often have increased sympathetic nerve activity. (ahajournals.org)
- We identified seven distinct patterns of (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias: ictal asystole (103 cases), postictal asystole (13 cases), ictal bradycardia (25 cases), ictal atrioventricular (AV)-conduction block (11 cases), postictal AV-conduction block (2 cases), (post)ictal atrial flutter/atrial fibrillation (14 cases) and postictal ventricular fibrillation (3 cases). (bmj.com)
- This article presents selected lessons from experimental studies of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter that pertain to the mechanisms and predisposing factors for flutter and fibrillation and approaches to treatment by antiarrhythmic drugs. (biomedsearch.com)
- Experimental studies also provide lessons for the effects of ablation and surgical lesions on prevention or facilitation of atrial fibrillation and flutter. (biomedsearch.com)
- heart , atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (Aflut), occur frequently after most types of cardiac surgeries. (bioportfolio.com)
- Paroxysmal atrial tachy, flutter. (healthtap.com)
- Dronedarone for maintenance of sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation or flutter. (wikipedia.org)
- If the atrial electrical signals are very fast and regular, atrial flutter occurs. (medicinenet.com)
- Rarely, in patients with other underlying structural heart problems, PACs can trigger a more serious arrhythmia such as atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation . (wikipedia.org)
- Related terms are supraventricular arrhythmia, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and paroxysmal atrial flutter. (americanterm.com)
- 80 percent of patients who undergo cardioversion for persistent atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter after AF ablation have recurrence. (greenmedinfo.com)
- For this reason, the ventricular rate of atrial fibrillation is often slower than that seen in atrial tachycardia or atrial flutter, also heart diseases. (steadyhealth.com)
- Is there a difference between atrial fibrulation and atrial flutter? (steadyhealth.com)
- What is the standard treatment procedure for atrial flutter? (steadyhealth.com)
- Is there an absolute cure of atrial flutter? (steadyhealth.com)
- Pregnant with Atrial Flutter?WHat are my options? (steadyhealth.com)
- citation needed] Some causes of tachycardia include: Adrenergic storm Alcohol Amphetamine Anaemia Antiarrhythmic agents Anxiety Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter Atrial tachycardia AV nodal reentrant tachycardia Brugada syndrome Caffeine Cocaine Exercise Fear Fever Hypoglycemia Hypovolemia Hyperthyroidism Hyperventilation Infection Junctional tachycardia Methamphetamine Multifocal atrial tachycardia Nicotine Pacemaker mediated Pain Pheochromocytoma Sinus tachycardia Tricyclic antidepressants Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome An electrocardiogram (ECG) is used to classify the type of tachycardia. (wikipedia.org)
- Main outcomes Associations between exercise capacity and muscle strength with risk of vascular disease and subgroups (ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular death) and risk of arrhythmia and subgroups (atrial fibrillation or flutter, bradyarrhythmia, supraventricular tachycardia, and ventricular arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death). (bmj.com)
- Atrial flutter is similar to atrial fibrillation, though the fast heartbeat can be more regular. (mountsinai.org)
- Many people with atrial flutter develop atrial fibrillation over time. (mountsinai.org)
- Atrial flutter can also make it harder for your heart to push blood into your ventricles, which are the lower chambers of your heart. (mountsinai.org)
- Atrial flutter can be chronic or it can come and go. (mountsinai.org)
- Supraventricular arrhythmias, for instance, start in the upper chambers of the heart (the atria) and include atrial fibrillation (A-fib), Atrial Flutter, supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), and Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. (mountsinai.org)
- Atrial fibrillation or flutter is a common type of abnormal heartbeat. (stlukes-stl.com)
- Atrial flutter is a relatively common supraventricular arrhythmia that can cause unacceptable symptoms and can promote atrial thrombus formation with the potential for systemic embolization. (uptodate.com)
- Restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm improves symptoms and decreases the risk of embolization if atrial flutter recurrence does not occur. (uptodate.com)
- See 'Overview of atrial flutter', section on 'Clinical manifestations' and 'Embolic risk and the role of anticoagulation in atrial flutter', section on 'Embolic risk' . (uptodate.com)
- Issues related to the indications and therapeutic options for the maintenance of sinus rhythm in atrial flutter will be reviewed here. (uptodate.com)
- Causes of atrial flutter, rate control therapy, the restoration of sinus rhythm after cardioversion, and the role of anticoagulation in atrial flutter are discussed separately. (uptodate.com)
- See 'Overview of atrial flutter', section on 'Etiology and risk factors' and 'Restoration of sinus rhythm in atrial flutter' and 'Embolic risk and the role of anticoagulation in atrial flutter' and 'Control of ventricular rate in atrial flutter' . (uptodate.com)
- We attempt to keep most patients with recurrent atrial flutter in sinus rhythm to decrease symptoms, unlike atrial fibrillation (AF) in which rhythm control and rate control are reasonable strategies. (uptodate.com)
- See 'ECG tutorial: Atrial and atrioventricular nodal (supraventricular) arrhythmias', section on 'Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter' and 'Overview of atrial flutter' . (uptodate.com)
- The discussion in this topic pertains primarily to patients with typical atrial flutter. (uptodate.com)
- The pathogenesis of typical atrial flutter makes it highly amendable to curative therapy with radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation, though atypical flutters may also be cured with RF ablation. (uptodate.com)
- Typical (also called isthmus-dependent) atrial flutter utilizes a large macroreentrant pathway in the right atrium, with the left atrium following passively. (uptodate.com)
- See 'Electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic features of atrial flutter' . (uptodate.com)
- This is the property of the AV node that prevents rapid conduction to the ventricle in cases of rapid atrial rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. (wikipedia.org)
- The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of Rac1 overexpression on atrial electrophysiology. (biomedsearch.com)
- RacET and statin-treated RacET were not significantly different regarding atrial electrophysiology. (biomedsearch.com)
- AHRE are felt to be a precursor to AF, and may be both the result and a cause of changs in the atrial electrophysiology, and structure (known as cardiac remodeling)that are associated with the development of AF. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The recognition that diversity in cardiac electrophysiology, and indeed in many aspects of cardiac function, can be attributed to variable expression of specific genes or variability in the function of their protein products has the potential to alter the way in which we think about normal and abnormal electrical heart function. (ahajournals.org)
- The third part of the article reviews the potential for a genetic approach to understanding diversity in cardiac function, focusing in particular on ion channels and gap junction proteins as the central players in normal and abnormal electrophysiology. (ahajournals.org)
- The Division of Cardiology's Cardiac Electrophysiology Program at UPMC Presbyterian is the largest in the region treating the full range of arrhythmias and other disorders associated with a high risk of sudden death. (upmc.com)
- The electrophysiology facilities at UPMC Presbyterian offer safe and efficient delivery of care for patients with arrhythmia-related problems. (upmc.com)
- The Invasive Cardiac Electrophysiology Laboratories are specially equipped with operating room laminar airflow for enhanced sterility. (upmc.com)
- In addition to standard therapies, the Cardiac Electrophysiology Program offers a number of investigative approaches not currently available at any other center in the region. (upmc.com)
- In such cases, other diagnostic tests are available, such as an exercise stress test, a Holter monitor test (measures cardiovascular electrical activity for 24 to 48 hours), or a cardiac electrophysiology study conducted by inserting a catheter through a blood vessel into the heart's upper and lower chambers. (bumrungrad.com)
- Whether you are in the lab or the office, stay current in the ever-evolving field of electrophysiology with Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias . (indigo.ca)
- DAS-CAM brings together renowned experts, who will cover not only clinical cardiac electrophysiology and device technology, but also the leadership, biostatistics and health economics perspectives. (escardio.org)
- The programme targets clinical cardiac electrophysiologists with the ambition to improve their knowledge and skills in order to become leading professionals in clinical cardiac electrophysiology. (escardio.org)
- He was a founding member of the Philadelphia Arrhythmia Group and a charter member of the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. (wikipedia.org)
- Dr. Nikolaos Tsiouris, MD is a clinical cardiac electrophysiology doctor who practices in Las Vegas, NV. (healthgrades.com)
- Led by a highly skilled and experienced group of electrophysiologists, including John Cogan, MD and Daniel Benhayon, MD , and backed by our comprehensive TotalHeart team, we deliver quality, coordinated and compassionate cardiac electrophysiology care to patients in Broward County, Miami-Dade County and beyond from adolescence to adulthood. (mhs.net)
- For questions regarding this document, contact the Cardiac Electrophysiology Devices Branch at 301-796-5631. (fda.gov)
- At the Rush Electrophysiology, Arrhythmia and Pacemaker Program, you'll find electrophysiologists who specialize in caring for heartbeat irregularities and provide second opinions. (rush.edu)
- In addition, our electrophysiologists are heavily involved with the latest research and clinical trials in cardiac electrophysiology including cutting-edge atrial fibrillation treatment. (wakehealth.edu)
- Mayo Clinic has one of the largest cardiac ablation practices, with 30 electrophysiologists working in the Electrophysiology Laboratory . (mayoclinic.org)
- Jonathan Chrispin, M.D., joins the Johns Hopkins Medicine Division of Cardiology Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia Service as an assistant professor. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Dr. Chrispin focuses on all aspects of clinical electrophysiology, including pacemaker/defibrillator implantation, complex catheter ablation for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and laser-lead extraction. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- He completed intern and residency training in internal medicine at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, where he also completed a fellowship in cardiovascular disease and served as chief clinical cardiac electrophysiology fellow. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Sinus tachycardia is the most common cardiac consequence of epileptic seizures and may occur in up to 80% of seizures. (bmj.com)
- The two major types of heart arrhythmia are tachycardia (fast arrhythmia) and bradycardia (slow arrhythmia). (columbiasurgery.org)
- ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation is the commonest underlying arrhythmia. (europa.eu)
- 9. Electrophysiological ablation for atrial tachycardia within 6 months of the operation. (bioportfolio.com)
- This can present with palpitations or syncope from an atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia or rarely sudden death secondary to ventricular fibrillation from rapid conduction of atrial fibrillation across the accessory pathway. (escardio.org)
- Because of monumental strides in the treatment of most refractory arrhythmias by endocardial catheter techniques during the past decade, the only remaining viable surgical procedures for cardiac arrhythmias are the Maze procedure for atrial fibrillation and the Dor procedure for ischemic ventricular tachycardia. (nih.gov)
- Reentrant, automatic, or triggered mechanisms may cause VA, just as these mechanisms cause supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and other arrhythmias. (medscape.com)
- OBJECTIVE To assess the incidence of atrial tachycardia/fibrillation post-PVAI as detected by a PPM and whether these recurrences correlate to symptomatic recurrence. (semanticscholar.org)
- This comprehensive but clinical approach has necessitated the inclusion of certain subjects such as the mechanisms of tachycardia, metabolic aspects of cardiac arrhythmias and reperfusion arrhythmias, which are not directly or exclusively clinical. (springer.com)
- AFib is a type of arrhythmia termed supraventricular tachycardia, meaning that the problem occurs above the ventricles. (medicinenet.com)
- Multifocal (or multiform) atrial tachycardia (MAT) is an abnormal heart rhythm , specifically a type of supraventricular tachycardia , that is particularly common in older people and is associated with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (wikipedia.org)
- When a number of different clusters of cells outside the SA node take over control of the heart rate, and the rate exceeds 100 beats per minute, this is called multifocal atrial tachycardia (if the heart rate is ≤100, this is technically not a tachycardia and it is then termed multifocal atrial rhythm). (wikipedia.org)
- Multifocal atrial tachycardia is characterized by an electrocardiogram (ECG) strip with 3 or more P-waves of variable morphology and varying P-R intervals, plus tachycardia, which is a heart rate exceeding 100 beats per minute. (wikipedia.org)
- Then, if the heart rate exceeds 100 beats per minute, the phenomenon is called multifocal atrial tachycardia. (wikipedia.org)
- In this study, the researchers found cardiac arrhythmias in 30.5% of the participants and 25.9% of these arrhythmias were sinus tachycardia, where the heart beats at a higher than normal rate. (eurekalert.org)
- In the KORA study, only 2.7% of participants had arrhythmias, of which 0.4% had sinus tachycardia. (eurekalert.org)
- Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a type of arrhythmia where the heart beats too fast because of a glitch with the heart's electrical system originating in the two top chambers (atria). (rush.edu)
- Ventricular tachycardia (VT or V-tach) is a potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia that originates in the ventricles. (wikipedia.org)
- Serious in-hospital cardiac event was defined as any of in-hospital poststroke acute myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia, moderate to serious acute heart failure, or cardiac death. (wiley.com)
- Among the 948 patients included, ≥1 serious in-hospital cardiac event occurred in 39 (4·1%) patients after a median delay of two-days from stroke onset (acute myocardial infarction in three patients, ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia in three patients, acute heart failure in 36 patients, and cardiac death in three patients). (wiley.com)
- Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) is a rapid heart rate. (stlukes-stl.com)
- Dr. Chrispin's research interests focus on using advanced cardiac imaging and advanced techniques with cardiac MRI to better understand the structural substrate that is associated with the development of atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Of all clinically relevant ictal arrhythmias, ictal asystole has gained much attention as it may cause syncope and subsequent falls, fractures and traffic accidents. (bmj.com)
- Ventricular arrhythmia (VA) may be an isolated and completely benign finding in children, a marker of serious systemic disease or myopathy, or a mechanism for syncope and sudden cardiac death (SCD). (medscape.com)
- There are few data reporting risk and outcome for patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation in this clinical setting. (elsevier.com)
- Clinical cardiologists who manage arrhythmias are increasingly faced with new complexities in management decisions. (ahajournals.org)
- We attempted to identify clinical profiles associated with various (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias. (bmj.com)
- The contrasting clinical profiles of ictal and postictal arrhythmias suggest different pathomechanisms. (bmj.com)
- We systematically reviewed the literature to identify the full spectrum of clinically relevant (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias attempting to unveil clinical profiles associated with each arrhythmia. (bmj.com)
- The Elizabeth Anne and Karen Barlow Corrigan Women's Heart Health Program at Massachusetts General Hospital provides a unique clinical service - cardiac care designed specifically for women. (massgeneral.org)
- As effective treatment can be delivered if arrhythmias are detected early, one EU project has developed a new diagnostic tool for preventive clinical practice. (europa.eu)
- The Cardiac Elecrophysiology (EP) Program is known for its outstanding clinical care. (upmc.com)
- En route to the ED, the Trainee's clinical con- dition did not improve. (cdc.gov)
- Although the epidemiology of clinical arrhythmias is difficult to dis- cover, it is widely appreciated that arrhythmias are commonplace. (springer.com)
- What is the impact of Atrial Fibrillation on the Clinical Course of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy? (booktopia.com.au)
- This guidance provides FDA's recommendations on clinical trial designs for surgical ablation devices intended for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). (fda.gov)
- This chapter will review sex differences in different cardiac arrhythmias with an emphasis on clinical evaluation, treatment, and outcomes. (springer.com)
- Clinical and echocardiographic features of intermittent atrial fibrillation that predict recurrent atrial fibrillation. (springer.com)
- Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common type of heart arrhythmia, especially amongst older people. (bumrungrad.com)
- If you have Afib (Atrial Fibrillation) or any type of cardiac arrhythmia and need life insurance, some arrhythmia can be harmless and have very little impact on your life insurance rate. (americanterm.com)
- We regularly shop Afib and other cardiac arrhythmia life insurance cases to all insurance companies and we are up to the task to find you the best rate possible. (americanterm.com)
- The Corrigan Minehan Heart Center's Atrial Fibrillation Program provides advanced care for atrial fibrillation (afib or AF) using catheter ablation with a variety of energy sources, including radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation and laser. (massgeneral.org)
- What causes Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (AFIB intermittent)? (steadyhealth.com)
- Atrial Fibrillation, also called AFib, is the most common form of arrhythmia and occurs more frequently as we age. (mountsinai.org)
- Organized by type of arrhythmia, this simple yet comprehensive medical reference book provides detailed information on anatomy, diagnoses, mapping/ablation, and troubleshooting. (indigo.ca)
- Atrial fibrillation, the most common type of arrhythmia, is a serious condition that causes an irregular, and often fast, heartbeat. (rush.edu)
- Specialists also perform cardiac catheterization with coronary angiography . (massgeneral.org)
- Medindia provides you with the latest news and research breakthroughs on Cardiac Catheterization. (medindia.net)
- Cardiac catheterization is a radiological procedure for both diagnosis and treatment of heart conditions. (medindia.net)
- 1) Indications for and objectives of cardiac catheterization in aortic valve disease. (medindia.net)
- 2) Effect of Transradial Access on Quality of Life and Cost of Cardiac Catheterization: A randomized Comparison. (medindia.net)
- 3) The effect of early education on patient anxiety while waiting for elective cardiac catheterization. (medindia.net)
- 4) Diseases and conditions: What is diagnostic cardiac catheterization? (medindia.net)
- What are the complications occurred during Cardiac catheterization? (medindia.net)
- What is the average time for patient to stay in hospital on observation after cardiac Catheterization that is paid and covered by Horizon Blue Cross and other commercial insurance companies? (medindia.net)
- Cardiac Catheterization (incl. (healthgrades.com)
- The EP program is also internationally known for its research into the underlying causes of arrhythmia and in using those discoveries to develop improved methods for diagnosis and treatment. (upmc.com)
- Mayo Clinic electrophysiologists are recognized as experts in their field who have made important contributions to the understanding of arrhythmia diagnosis and treatment. (mayoclinic.org)
- 6-10) Moreover, increased oxidative stress associated with angiotensin II-mediated NADPH oxidase activation leads to electrical abnormalities likely to propagate arrhythmias. (bioportfolio.com)
- In addition to the increasing importance of the heart as a possible source of cardiac embolism there is recent evidence implicating the brain in the production of cardiac structural abnormalities and in cardiac dysrhythmogenesis. (bmj.com)
- Electrophysiological mechanisms of atrial fibrillation. (wikimedia.org)
- During the meeting all the principal aspects of the different arrhythmias, from epidemiology to physiopathology, electrogenetic mechanisms, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, pshycological implications and economic costs have been discussed among the numerous experts and participants. (booktopia.com.au)
- Genetically modified mice rapidly appeared as promising tools for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac SCN5A -related arrhythmic syndromes and several mouse models have been established. (frontiersin.org)
- Atrial fibrillation is a complex arrhythmia and its precise mechanisms remain unclear. (fda.gov)
- 8 9 10 11 12 Several lines of evidence point towards a causal role of exercise for the development of arrhythmia, including substrate, modulator, and trigger mechanisms. (bmj.com)
- Our electrophysiologists recognize that atrial arrhythmias commonly do not occur in isolation, but rather in association with obesity , sedentary lifestyle, and other causes of hypertension . (upmc.com)
- Cardiac electrophysiologists are like electricians for the heart. (wakehealth.edu)
- Cardiac electrophysiologists are cardiologists with specialty training in the mechanism, function and performance of the heart's electrical activities. (wakehealth.edu)
- Abstract -Genetic approaches have succeeded in defining the molecular basis of an increasing array of heart diseases, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the long-QT syndromes, associated with serious arrhythmias. (ahajournals.org)
- 120ms) is commonly found in trained athletes but care is needed not to miss underlying pathology such as an atrial septal defect, brugada syndrome or arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (see below) ( 1 ). (escardio.org)
- Fibrosis within left atrial wall is associated with stroke, atrial fibrillation recurrence after catheter ablation, and cardiomyopathy. (springer.com)
- After an incidence has been detected, members of the patient's close family are examined to detect possible arrhythmias. (hus.fi)
- Discerning the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic episodes of atrial fibrillation before and after catheter ablation (DISCERN AF): a prospective, multicenter study. (semanticscholar.org)
- Chronic atrial fibrillation in the absence of rheumatic heart disease is associated with a fivefold increased incidence of stroke compared with the normal age matched population. (bmj.com)
- 4 Between 25-34 years, the incidence of atrial fibrillation is 2.6/1000 and rises to 38/1000 between 55-64 years. (bmj.com)
- The incidence of atrial fibrillation increases with age. (aafp.org)
- Consumption of tuna or other broiled or baked fish, but not fried fish or fish sandwiches, is associated with lower incidence of atrial fibrillation. (greenmedinfo.com)
- 1 The incidence of arrhythmia rises with age, and increased longevity has also raised the burden of these diseases. (bmj.com)
- Secular trends in incidence of atrial fibrillation in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1980 to 2000, and implications on the projections for future prevalence. (springer.com)
- Recently, novel late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the left atrium has been developed to identify fibrosis/disease within left atrial wall. (springer.com)
- Thrombus detection in the left atrial appendage using contrast-enhanced MRI: a pilot study. (springer.com)
- Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and transesophageal echocardiography in detection of thrombus in the left atrial appendage. (springer.com)
- Surgical ablation for cardiac arrhythmias, whether it is performed in conjunction with other cardiac surgery procedures or not, is an elective procedure. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Columbia's surgical atrial fibrillation program is led by Michael Argenziano, MD , Director of Arrhythmia Surgery, and the management team are trained in the most innovative treatment options for atrial fibrillation. (columbiasurgery.org)
- The Surgical Atrial Fibrillation Program at NYP/Columbia, one of the most experienced in the nation, offers a variety of solutions for this condition, and our expert surgeons have performed over 1000 procedures for AF. (columbiasurgery.org)
- Reentrant arrhythmia depends on a circuit, often caused by surgical scar, fibrosis, or fatty degeneration. (medscape.com)
- The success of the MAZE procedure 1 and its successors has led to the development of surgical ablation devices designed to mark cardiac tissue in a manner similar to suture lines, thereby disrupting the path of the electrical impulses causing the patient's AF. (fda.gov)
- Transcatheter closure of ASD is associated with a lower risk of procedure-related arrhythmias than surgical treatment. (kardiologiapolska.pl)
- HRS/EHRA/ECAS expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: recommendations for personnel, policy, procedures and follow-up. (springer.com)
- Popular treatments for chronic atrial fibrillation include radio frequency ablation and the maze procedure. (americanterm.com)
- Ball J, Carrington MJ, Wood KA, Stewart S. Women versus men with chronic atrial fibrillation: insights from the Standard versus Atrial Fibrillation specific management study (SAFETY). (springer.com)
- Nevertheless, the 25-30 years of intense activity in the field of cardiac arrhythmia surgery provided the essential foundation for the development of these catheter techniques and represent one of the most exciting and productive eras in the history of medicine. (nih.gov)
- The field of cardiac arrhythmias has been evolving so fast during the last years that scientific meetings are frequently necessary to present technological advances, to communicate results of relevant and innovative researches, to assess the impact of recently developed diagnostic and therapeutical tools, to discuss controversial aspects, and to reach a consensus on the most appropriate evaluation and management of specific problems. (booktopia.com.au)
- The global arrhythmia monitoring devices market size is expected to reach USD 8.41 billion in 2025 with a CAGR of 6.8% during the forecast period, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Continuous R&D activities in the field of cardiac monitoring are leading to technological expansion. (comunicati.net)
- Some types of arrhythmia are not considered to be clinically significant or dangerous, but more serious cases can be life-threatening. (bumrungrad.com)
- Other types of arrhythmia can be dangerous and even life threatening and could cause you to pay more or even be declined for life insurance. (americanterm.com)
- Atrial fibrillation occurs in episodes that either cease spontaneously or become prolonged. (hus.fi)
- Episodes of atrial fibrillation are controlled using medications that reduce the pulse rate during atrial fibrillation. (hus.fi)
- There was no statistical difference between the atrial overdrive and atrial overdrive + propafenone phases with regard to the number of atrial arrhythmia episodes (14 (27) v 13 (28)), their total duration (30 (78) v 29 (63) h), and their maximum duration (41 (72) v 31 (58) min). (bmj.com)
- However, in the brady-tachy subgroup with persistent atrial arrhythmias, atrial overdrive + propafenone produced a shorter mean cumulative duration of atrial arrhythmia than atrial overdrive (104 (115) v 178 (149) h, p = 0.04), with a significant decrease in the number of atrial arrhythmia episodes (134 (98) v 102 (83), p = 0.05). (bmj.com)
- The proportion of asymptomatic atrial arrhythmia episodes increased only in the AV block group during atrial overdrive + propafenone (p = 0.03). (bmj.com)
- Propafenone may increase the proportion of asymptomatic atrial arrhythmia episodes. (bmj.com)
- In 1980, Dr. Levi Watkins first implanted this device, invented by Drs. Michel Mirowski and Morton Mower, in a patient who had experienced numerous episodes of life-threatening arrhythmias. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- If you have paroxysmal atrial fib which comes and goes and you have 4 episodes or less per year, you may be able to qualify for Preferred or Regular rates with some insurance companies. (americanterm.com)
- RacET demonstrated significant atrial fibrosis but only moderate systolic heart failure. (biomedsearch.com)
- Atrial fibrillation may make heart failure worse. (hus.fi)
- It retains the effective use of full-page illustrations and short explanations that gained the book such enormous popularity and now provides information on recent advances in cardiac pacing, including biventricular pacing for the treatment of heart failure. (wiley.com)
- The Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplant Program at the Massachusetts General Hospital Corrigan Minehan Heart Center evaluates and manages a range of heart disease conditions that result in heart failure. (massgeneral.org)
- Most types of cardiac arrhythmia can be diagnosed with an EKG (electrocardiogram) test . (bumrungrad.com)
- Premature atrial contractions are typically diagnosed with an electrocardiogram , Holter monitor , or cardiac event monitor . (wikipedia.org)
- See 'The electrocardiogram in atrial fibrillation' and 'Actions of angiotensin II on the heart' and 'Epidemiology of and risk factors for atrial fibrillation' . (uptodate.com)
- Objective To assess the accuracy of general practitioners, practice nurses, and interpretative software in the use of different types of electrocardiogram to diagnose atrial fibrillation. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Many primary care professionals cannot accurately detect atrial fibrillation on an electrocardiogram, and interpretative software is not sufficiently accurate to circumvent this problem, even when combined with interpretation by a general practitioner. (bmj.com)
- Propafenone is a type IC antiarrhythmic drug commonly used for the treatment of atrial tachyarrhythmias. (bmj.com)
- Cardiac arrhythmias comprise a heterogenous group of disorders ranging from benign premature heart beats to malignant sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. (springer.com)
- To date only one randomised study published nearly a decade ago showed that postoperative atrial tachyarrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation could be significantly reduced when magnesium sulphate was administered. (isrctn.com)
- Researchers who studied beer drinkers at the Munich Octoberfest have found that the more alcohol consumed the higher was the likelihood of developing abnormal heart rhythms called cardiac arrhythmias. (eurekalert.org)
- Some of these rhythms are related to the treatment of atrial fibrillation with drugs, as your cousin's doctor choice could be. (steadyhealth.com)
- Antiarrhythmic drug therapy in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. (biomedsearch.com)
- If arrhythmias are detected at an early stage of heart disease, appropriate treatment can be effective, reducing disability and death. (europa.eu)
- Animation and slides of 'Atrial septal defect (ASD)' illustrating the dynamics and treatment of the abnormal hole in septal wall of upper chambers of the heart. (medindia.net)
- Certain types of arrhythmias don't require medical treatment. (bumrungrad.com)
- In one short professional career, we have witnessed the birth of arrhythmia surgery, its adolescence as an "esoteric" specialty, its prime as an enlightening yet exhausting period, and finally its waning years as a source of knowledge and wisdom on which better methods of treatment have been founded. (nih.gov)
- For long-term treatment of arrhythmias, daily medications become part of everyday life. (myvmc.com)
- Together, you, your primary care doctor or general cardiologist, and the arrhythmia specialist decide on the most appropriate treatment for you. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Pill in the Pocket": How Effective and Safe Is this Strategy for Treatment of Recurrences of Atrial Fibrillation? (booktopia.com.au)
- Premature atrial contractions are often benign, requiring no treatment. (wikipedia.org)
- Acupuncture has therapeutic value in the treatment of atrial fibrillation and post-herpetic neuralgia. (greenmedinfo.com)
- They offer all of the most advanced treatment options, including cardiac ablation and leadless pacing (e.g. (rush.edu)
- How complicated is Maze Procedure for treatment of atrial fibrillation? (steadyhealth.com)
- Direct treatment cost of atrial fibrillation in the elderly American population: a Medicare perspective. (springer.com)
- In addition to improving treatment efficacy, cardiac LGE is also helping in the detection of post procedural complications, such as esophageal injury. (springer.com)
- The new diagnostic method will help to make the treatment of ventricular fibrillation and possibly also atrial fibrillation more effective. (medicalxpress.com)