Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.
A CATHETER-delivered implant used for closing abnormal holes in the cardiovascular system, especially HEART SEPTAL DEFECTS; or passageways intentionally made during cardiovascular surgical procedures.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.
Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).
Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
Agents that prevent clotting.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Surgery performed on the heart.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.
Cardiac manifestation of systemic rheumatological conditions, such as RHEUMATIC FEVER. Rheumatic heart disease can involve any part the heart, most often the HEART VALVES and the ENDOCARDIUM.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.
Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.
Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.
A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Methods used to temporarily or permanently block the flow of BODY FLUIDS through various ducts and tubules throughout the body, including BLOOD VESSELS and LYMPHATIC VESSELS such as by THERAPEUTIC EMBOLIZATION or LIGATION.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Catheters inserted into various locations within the heart for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.
The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
A malignant tumor of the skin appendages, which include the hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and the mammary glands. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).
Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.
Widening of a stenosed HEART VALVE by the insertion of a balloon CATHETER into the valve and inflation of the balloon.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.

A novel K(ATP) current in cultured neonatal rat atrial appendage cardiomyocytes. (1/253)

The functional and pharmacological properties of ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels were studied in primary cultured neonatal rat atrial appendage cardiomyocytes. Activation of a whole-cell inward rectifying K(+) current depended on the pipette ATP concentration and correlated with a membrane hyperpolarization close to the K(+) equilibrium potential. The K(ATP) current could be activated either spontaneously or by a hypotonic stretch of the membrane induced by lowering the osmolality of the bathing solution from 290 to 260 mOsm/kg H(2)O or by the K(+) channel openers diazoxide and cromakalim with EC(50) approximately 1 and 10 nmol/L, respectively. The activated atrial K(ATP) current was highly sensitive to glyburide, with an IC(50) of 1.22+/-0.15 nmol/L. Recorded in inside-out patches, the neonatal atrial K(ATP) channel displayed a conductance of 58.0+/-2.2 pS and opened in bursts of 133.8+/-20.4 ms duration, with an open time duration of 1.40+/-0.10 ms and a close time duration of 0.66+/-0.04 ms for negative potentials. The channel had a half-maximal open probability at 0.1 mmol/L ATP, was activated by 100 micromol/L diazoxide, and was inhibited by glyburide, with an IC(50) in the nanomolar range. Thus, pending further tests at low concentrations of K(ATP) channel openers, the single-channel data confirm the results obtained with whole-cell recordings. The neonatal atrial appendage K(ATP) channel thus shows a unique functional and pharmacological profile resembling the pancreatic beta-cell channel for its high affinity for glyburide and diazoxide and for its conductance, but also resembling the ventricular channel subtype for its high affinity for cromakalim, its burst duration, and its sensitivity to ATP. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments showed the expression of Kir6.1, Kir6.2, SUR1A, SUR1B, SUR2A, and SUR2B subunits, a finding supporting the hypothesis that the neonatal atrial K(ATP) channel corresponds to a novel heteromultimeric association of K(ATP) channel subunits.  (+info)

Left atrial appendage: structure, function, and role in thromboembolism. (2/253)

The left atrial appendage (LAA) is derived from the left wall of the primary atrium, which forms during the fourth week of embryonic development. It has developmental, ultrastructural, and physiological characteristics distinct from the left atrium proper. The LAA lies within the confines of the pericardium in close relation to the free wall of the left ventricle and thus its emptying and filling may be significantly affected by left ventricular function. The physiological properties and anatomical relations of the LAA render it ideally suited to function as a decompression chamber during left ventricular systole and during other periods when left atrial pressure is high. These properties include the position of the LAA high in the body of the left atrium; the increased distensibility of the LAA compared with the left atrium proper; the high concentration of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) granules contained within the LAA; and the neuronal configuration of the LAA. Thrombus has a predilection to form in the LAA in patients with atrial fibrillation, mitral valve disease, and other conditions. The pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated; however, relative stasis which occurs in the appendage owing to its shape and the trabeculations within it is thought to play a major role. Obliteration or amputation of the LAA may help to reduce the risk of thromboembolism, but this may result in undesirable physiological sequelae such as reduced atrial compliance and a reduced capacity for ANF secretion in response to pressure and volume overload.  (+info)

Left atrial appendage anatomy and function: short term response to sustained atrial fibrillation. (3/253)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is significant atrial or atrial appendage enlargement or functional remodelling as a result of one to two months of sustained atrial fibrillation, a duration similar to that experienced by patients undergoing warfarin anticoagulation before elective cardioversion. METHODS: To test the hypothesis that left atrial and left atrial appendage enlargement develop as a result of short term atrial fibrillation, serial anatomical and functional indices were measured using transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in 20 patients with recent onset atrial fibrillation (14 men, six women; mean (SEM) age 67 (2) years). Serial TOE was performed 2.5 months apart in patients with sustained atrial fibrillation. RESULTS: There was no significant change in left atrial area (23.7 cm(2) to 24.1 cm(2), p = 0.98); length (5.7 cm to 5.7 cm, p = 0.48); width (5.2 cm to 5.2 cm, p = 0. 65); volume (83 cm(3) to 87 cm(3), p = 0.51) or left atrial appendage area (7.9 cm(2) to 8.1 cm(2), p = 0.89); length (4.6 cm to 4.5 cm, p = 0.8); or width (2.5 to 2.4 cm, p = 0.87). Peak left atrial appendage velocity ejection (0.2 m/s to 0.2 m/s, p = 0.57), and presence of severe spontaneous echo contrast in the left atrial appendage (n = 15 (75%) to n = 13 (72%)) were also not significantly different. There was no correlation between changes in left atrial or left atrial appendage dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of sustained atrial fibrillation, significant left atrial and left atrial appendage functional and anatomical remodelling do not occur with atrial fibrillation of a duration similar to that used for conservative anticoagulation in preparation for cardioversion.  (+info)

Echocardiographic assessment of the left atrial appendage. (4/253)

The left atrial (LA) appendage is a common source of cardiac thrombus formation associated with systemic embolism. Transesophageal echocardiography allows a detailed evaluation of the structure and function of the appendage by two-dimensional imaging and Doppler interrogation of appendage flow. Specific flow patterns, reflecting appendage function, have been characterized for normal sinus rhythm and various abnormal cardiac rhythms. Appendage dysfunction has been associated with LA appendage spontaneous echocardiographic contrast, thrombus formation and thromboembolism. These associations have been studied extensively in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, in patients undergoing cardioversion of atrial arrhythmias and in patients with mitral valve disease. The present review summarizes the literature on the echocardiographic assessment of LA appendage structure, function and dysfunction, which has become an integral part of the routine clinical transesophageal echocardiographic examination.  (+info)

Contractile and arrhythmic effects of endothelin receptor agonists in human heart in vitro: blockade with SB 209670. (5/253)

It is known that binding sites with endothelin(A) (ET)(A) and ET(B) receptor characteristics coexist in human heart but little is known about the receptors that mediate cardiostimulant effects of ET receptor agonists or their consequences. Functional studies were performed on isolated human cardiac tissues. The maximal positive inotropic effects of ET-1 were right atrium > left atrium = right ventricle. The rank order of potencies of agonists in right atrium was sarafotoxin S6c > ET-1 = ET-2 > or = ET-3. The ET(A) receptor-selective compounds BQ123 (10 microM) and A-127722 (1 microM) only slightly blocked (<0.5 log-unit shift) the effects of lower concentrations of ET-1, and the ET(B) receptor antagonist Ro46-8443 (10 microM) did not cause blockade. SB 209670 caused concentration-dependent rightward shifts of ET-1 and sarafotoxin S6c concentration-effect curves with Schild slopes not different from one and affinities (-logM K(B)) of 7.0 and 7.9, respectively. ET-1 caused arrhythmic contractions in right atrial trabeculae that were prevented by 10 microM SB 209670 but not 10 microM BQ123 or 1 microM A-127722, precluding ET(A) receptors. ET-1 caused a higher incidence of arrhythmic contractions in tissues taken from patients treated with beta-blockers before surgery than in tissues from non-beta blocker-treated patients. Sarafotoxin S6c produced arrhythmias that were prevented by SB 209670. The positive inotropic effects of ET-1 in human right atrial myocardium are mediated mostly by a non-ET(A), non-ET(B) receptor. Ventricular inotropic ET receptors differ from atrial inotropic ET receptors. ET-1 induced arrhythmic contractions in human atria do not appear to be mediated by an ET(A) receptor.  (+info)

Ionic mechanisms of electrical remodeling in human atrial fibrillation. (6/253)

OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a decrease in atrial ERP and ERP adaptation to rate as well as changes in atrial conduction velocity. The cellular changes in repolarization and the underlying ionic mechanisms in human AF are only poorly understood. METHODS: Action potentials (AP) and ionic currents were studied with the patch clamp technique in single atrial myocytes from patients in chronic AF and compared to those from patients in stable sinus rhythm (SR). RESULTS: The presence of AF was associated with a marked shortening of the AP duration and a decreased rate response of atrial repolarization. L-type calcium current (ICa,L) and the transient outward current (Ito) were both reduced about 70% in AF, whereas an increased steady-state outward current was detectable at test potentials between -30 and 0 mV. The inward rectifier potassium current (IKI) and the acetylcholine-activated potassium current (IKACh) were increased in AF at hyperpolarizing potentials. Voltage-dependent inactivation of the fast sodium current (INa) was shifted to more positive voltages in AF. CONCLUSIONS: AF in humans leads to important changes in atrial potassium and calcium currents that likely contribute to the decrease in APD and APD rate adaptation. These changes contribute to electrical remodeling in AF and are therefore important factors for the perpetuation of the arrhythmia.  (+info)

Prognostic value of left atrial appendage function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (7/253)

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether parameters of left atrial appendage (LAA) function, assessed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), could predict the clinical outcome in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Fifty-five patients (20 had ischemic cardiomyopathy; mean age, 56+/-14 years) who underwent TEE to evaluate LAA function from 1992 to 1996 were studied. After a mean follow-up period of 34+/-13 months, 16 patients died; the cause was cardiac in 14 and noncardiac in 2. Patients who died of cardiac cause had a lower LAA emptying velocity than survivors (38+/-18 vs 54+/-18 cm/s, p=0.01). There were, however, no significant differences between survivors and nonsurvivors with regard to the maximal LAA area (4.3+/-1.3 vs 4.5+/-0.9 cm2, p=0.55), minimal LAA area (2.4+/-1.1 vs 2.9+1.1 cm2, p=0.13), and LAA ejection fraction (46+/-16 vs 36+/-18%, p=0.05). On the Cox proportional hazards model analysis, LAA emptying velocity <50 cm/s (chi-square 5.9, p=0.02), LAA ejection fraction <43% (chi-square 5.6, p=0.02), female gender (chi-square 5.2, p=0.02), pulmonary artery wedge pressure > or =14 mmHg (chi-square 4.8, p=0.03), E/A ratio > or =1.3 (chi-square 4.6, p=0.03), deceleration time <148 ms (chi-square 4.6, p=0.03), and cardiothoracic ratio > or =54% (chi-square 4.3, p=0.04) were significantly related to cardiac death. The stepwise multivariate analysis revealed that LAA emptying velocity (chi-square 6.1, p=0.01) and gender (chi-square 5.4, p=0.02) were the independent predictors for outcome. In conclusion, the parameters of LAA function may be useful predictors of the clinical outcome in patients with DCM.  (+info)

Evaluation of right atrial appendage blood flow by transesophageal echocardiography in subjects with a normal heart. (8/253)

Right atrial appendage (RAA) blood flow pattern was analyzed in 42 normal subjects-without cardiovascular disease (aged 30 to 48 years, mean 40 +/- 6) who underwent transesophageal echocardiography. RAA flow pattern was demonstrated to be bi-, tri- or quadriphasic and heart rate dependent (p < 0.01) in this study. In 15 subjects (36%), a biphasic pattern was observed. A triphasic pattern was observed in 12 subjects (28%). Fifteen subjects (36%) had a quadriphasic pattern. In these subjects, we observed a pattern consisting of two diastolic forward flow waves, each followed by a backward flow wave. Mean heart rates among subjects with bi-, tri- and quadriphasic patterns were 110 +/- 6, 91 +/- 4 and 72 +/- 13 beats/min, respectively. In the triphasic pattern, the onset of superior vena cava diastolic forward flow began 18 +/- 4 ms after the onset of tricuspid E wave, whereas the first diastolic forward flow wave in the RAA began 40 +/- 7 ms after onset of the tricuspid E wave. A similar relation was also noted in the quadriphasic pattern. This sequence was constant and independent of heart rate (p < 0.05), suggesting a temporal relation between right ventricular relaxation and the first diastolic forward flow wave in the RAA. In normal subjects, the RAA flow pattern is heart rate dependent and three distinct flow patterns can be differentiated. Right ventricular relaxation appears to induce both the superior vena cava diastolic forward flow wave and the first diastolic forward flow wave of the RAA. These results can be used for comparison with patterns found in disease states.  (+info)

The atrial appendage, also known as the left atrial appendage (LAA), is a small, ear-shaped structure that is located on the upper left chamber of the heart (left atrium). It has a unique muscular structure and plays a role in the normal functioning of the heart. However, it is best known for its association with atrial fibrillation, a common type of irregular heart rhythm. In people with atrial fibrillation, blood clots can form in the LAA, which can then travel to other parts of the body and cause strokes. For this reason, one treatment option for atrial fibrillation is to close off or remove the LAA to reduce the risk of stroke.

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a type of echocardiogram, which is a medical test that uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart. In TEE, a special probe containing a transducer is passed down the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) to obtain views of the heart from behind. This allows for more detailed images of the heart structures and function compared to a standard echocardiogram, which uses a probe placed on the chest. TEE is often used in patients with poor image quality from a standard echocardiogram or when more detailed images are needed to diagnose or monitor certain heart conditions. It is typically performed by a trained cardiologist or sonographer under the direction of a cardiologist.

The heart atria are the upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins and deliver it to the lower chambers, or ventricles. There are two atria in the heart: the right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it into the right ventricle, which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated; and the left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle, which then sends it out to the rest of the body. The atria contract before the ventricles during each heartbeat, helping to fill the ventricles with blood and prepare them for contraction.

Left atrial function refers to the role and performance of the left atrium in the heart. The left atrium is the upper chamber on the left side of the heart that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and then contracts to help pump it into the left ventricle, which is the lower chamber that pumps blood out to the rest of the body.

The main functions of the left atrium include:

1. Receiving oxygen-rich blood from the lungs: The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins and acts as a reservoir for this blood before it is pumped into the left ventricle.
2. Contracting to help pump blood into the left ventricle: During atrial contraction, also known as atrial kick, the left atrium contracts and helps push blood into the left ventricle, increasing the amount of blood that can be ejected with each heartbeat.
3. Relaxing to receive more blood: Between heartbeats, the left atrium relaxes and fills up with more oxygenated blood from the lungs.
4. Contributing to heart rate regulation: The left atrium contains specialized cells called pacemaker cells that can help regulate the heart rate by initiating electrical impulses that trigger heart contractions.

Left atrial function is crucial for maintaining efficient cardiac output and overall cardiovascular health. Various conditions, such as heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension, can negatively impact left atrial function and contribute to the development of complications like stroke and reduced exercise tolerance.

Atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fi-bru-la'shun) is a type of abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria, the upper chambers of the heart. In this condition, the electrical signals that coordinate heartbeats don't function properly, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting effectively. As a result, blood may not be pumped efficiently into the ventricles, which can lead to blood clots, stroke, and other complications. Atrial fibrillation is a common type of arrhythmia and can cause symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, and dizziness. It can be caused by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, age, and genetics. Treatment options include medications, electrical cardioversion, and surgical procedures to restore normal heart rhythm.

Thromboembolism is a medical condition that refers to the obstruction of a blood vessel by a thrombus (blood clot) that has formed elsewhere in the body and then been transported by the bloodstream to a narrower vessel, where it becomes lodged. This process can occur in various parts of the body, leading to different types of thromboembolisms:

1. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A thrombus forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs or pelvis, and then breaks off and travels to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
2. Pulmonary Embolism (PE): A thrombus formed elsewhere, often in the deep veins of the legs, dislodges and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and potentially life-threatening complications if not treated promptly.
3. Cerebral Embolism: A thrombus formed in another part of the body, such as the heart or carotid artery, dislodges and travels to the brain, causing a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
4. Arterial Thromboembolism: A thrombus forms in an artery and breaks off, traveling to another part of the body and blocking blood flow to an organ or tissue, leading to potential damage or loss of function. Examples include mesenteric ischemia (intestinal damage due to blocked blood flow) and retinal artery occlusion (vision loss due to blocked blood flow in the eye).

Prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing thromboembolism and reducing the risk of severe complications.

Electric countershock, also known as defibrillation, is a medical procedure that uses an electric current to restore normal heart rhythm in certain types of cardiac arrhythmias, such as ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The procedure involves delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the heart through electrodes placed on the chest wall or directly on the heart. This electric current helps to depolarize a large number of cardiac cells simultaneously, which can help to interrupt the abnormal electrical activity in the heart and allow the normal conduction system to regain control and restore a normal rhythm. Electric countershock is typically delivered using an automated external defibrillator (AED) or a manual defibrillator, and it is a critical component of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS).

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

A heart aneurysm, also known as a ventricular aneurysm, is a localized bulging or ballooning of the heart muscle in the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart. This condition typically occurs following a myocardial infarction (heart attack), where blood flow to a portion of the heart muscle is blocked, leading to tissue death and weakness in the heart wall. As a result, the weakened area may stretch and form a sac-like bulge or aneurysm.

Heart aneurysms can vary in size and may cause complications such as blood clots, arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats), or heart failure. In some cases, they may be asymptomatic and discovered during routine imaging tests. The diagnosis of a heart aneurysm is typically made through echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or cardiac CT scans. Treatment options depend on the size, location, and symptoms of the aneurysm and may include medications, surgical repair, or implantation of a device to support heart function.

A septal occluder device is a type of medical implant used to close defects or holes in the heart, specifically within the septum, which is the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. The device typically consists of two disc-shaped components connected by a waist, resembling a button or an umbrella.

The procedure for implanting a septal occluder device involves inserting it through a catheter, which is introduced into a vein in the leg and guided to the heart. Once in position, the discs of the device expand and are pressed against the septum on both sides of the hole, effectively closing it. Over time, tissue grows over the device, permanently sealing the defect.

Septal occluder devices are commonly used to treat atrial septal defects (ASD) and patent foramen ovale (PFO), which are two types of congenital heart defects that can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart palpitations. The use of these devices has revolutionized the treatment of these conditions, allowing for less invasive procedures and faster recovery times compared to traditional surgical methods.

Atrial function in a medical context refers to the role and performance of the two upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. The main functions of the atria are to receive blood from the veins and help pump it into the ventricles, which are the lower pumping chambers of the heart.

The atria contract in response to electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, which is the heart's natural pacemaker. This contraction helps to fill the ventricles with blood before they contract and pump blood out to the rest of the body. Atrial function can be assessed through various diagnostic tests, such as echocardiograms or electrocardiograms (ECGs), which can help identify any abnormalities in atrial structure or electrical activity that may affect heart function.

Heart disease is a broad term for a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It's often used to refer to conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, which can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

2. Heart failure: This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.

3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms, which can be too fast, too slow, or irregular. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.

4. Valvular heart disease: This involves damage to one or more of the heart's four valves, which control blood flow through the heart. Damage can be caused by various conditions, including infection, rheumatic fever, and aging.

5. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, viral infections, and drug abuse.

6. Pericardial disease: This involves inflammation or other problems with the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It can cause chest pain and other symptoms.

7. Congenital heart defects: These are heart conditions that are present at birth, such as a hole in the heart or abnormal blood vessels. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.

8. Heart infections: The heart can become infected by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to various symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that many factors can contribute to the development of heart disease, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

Catheter ablation is a medical procedure in which specific areas of heart tissue that are causing arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) are destroyed or ablated using heat energy (radiofrequency ablation), cold energy (cryoablation), or other methods. The procedure involves threading one or more catheters through the blood vessels to the heart, where the tip of the catheter can be used to selectively destroy the problematic tissue. Catheter ablation is often used to treat atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and other types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's upper chambers (atria). It may also be used to treat certain types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's lower chambers (ventricles), such as ventricular tachycardia.

The goal of catheter ablation is to eliminate or reduce the frequency and severity of arrhythmias, thereby improving symptoms and quality of life. In some cases, it may also help to reduce the risk of stroke and other complications associated with arrhythmias. Catheter ablation is typically performed by a specialist in heart rhythm disorders (electrophysiologist) in a hospital or outpatient setting under local anesthesia and sedation. The procedure can take several hours to complete, depending on the complexity of the arrhythmia being treated.

It's important to note that while catheter ablation is generally safe and effective, it does carry some risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures, and the possibility of recurrent arrhythmias. Patients should discuss the potential benefits and risks of the procedure with their healthcare provider before making a decision about treatment.

The atrial septum is the wall of tissue that divides the right and left atria, which are the upper chambers of the heart. This septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood in the left atrium is kept separate from oxygen-poor blood in the right atrium. Defects or abnormalities in the atrial septum, such as a hole or a gap, can result in various heart conditions, including septal defects and congenital heart diseases.

Atrial flutter is a type of abnormal heart rhythm or arrhythmia that originates in the atria - the upper chambers of the heart. In atrial flutter, the atria beat too quickly, usually between 250 and 350 beats per minute, which is much faster than the normal resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.

This rapid beating causes the atria to quiver or "flutter" instead of contracting effectively. As a result, blood may not be pumped efficiently into the ventricles - the lower chambers of the heart - which can lead to reduced cardiac output and symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness, or chest discomfort.

Atrial flutter is often caused by underlying heart conditions, such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, or congenital heart defects. It can also be a complication of cardiac surgery or other medical procedures. In some cases, atrial flutter may occur without any apparent underlying cause, which is known as lone atrial flutter.

Treatment for atrial flutter typically involves medications to control the heart rate and rhythm, electrical cardioversion to restore a normal heart rhythm, or catheter ablation to destroy the abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that are causing the arrhythmia. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to treat atrial flutter.

Mitral valve stenosis is a cardiac condition characterized by the narrowing or stiffening of the mitral valve, one of the four heart valves that regulate blood flow through the heart. This narrowing prevents the mitral valve from fully opening during diastole (relaxation phase of the heart cycle), leading to restricted flow of oxygenated blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle.

The narrowing or stiffening of the mitral valve can be caused by various factors, such as rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart defects, aging, or calcium deposits on the valve leaflets. As a result, the left atrium has to work harder to pump blood into the left ventricle, causing increased pressure in the left atrium and pulmonary veins. This can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, coughing, and heart palpitations.

Mitral valve stenosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging techniques like echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications, as well as surgical interventions such as mitral valve repair or replacement to alleviate the stenosis and improve heart function.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

Artificial cardiac pacing is a medical procedure that involves the use of an artificial device to regulate and stimulate the contraction of the heart muscle. This is often necessary when the heart's natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly and the heart is beating too slowly or irregularly.

The artificial pacemaker consists of a small generator that produces electrical impulses and leads that are positioned in the heart to transmit the impulses. The generator is typically implanted just under the skin in the chest, while the leads are inserted into the heart through a vein.

There are different types of artificial cardiac pacing systems, including single-chamber pacemakers, which stimulate either the right atrium or right ventricle, and dual-chamber pacemakers, which stimulate both chambers of the heart. Some pacemakers also have additional features that allow them to respond to changes in the body's needs, such as during exercise or sleep.

Artificial cardiac pacing is a safe and effective treatment for many people with abnormal heart rhythms, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Anticoagulants are a class of medications that work to prevent the formation of blood clots in the body. They do this by inhibiting the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot. Anticoagulants can be given orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously, depending on the specific drug and the individual patient's needs.

There are several different types of anticoagulants, including:

1. Heparin: This is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is often used in hospitalized patients who require immediate anticoagulation. It works by activating an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of clots.
2. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH): LMWH is a form of heparin that has been broken down into smaller molecules. It has a longer half-life than standard heparin and can be given once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection.
3. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs): These are newer oral anticoagulants that work by directly inhibiting specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Examples include apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
4. Vitamin K antagonists: These are older oral anticoagulants that work by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the formation of clotting factors. Warfarin is an example of a vitamin K antagonist.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. It is important to note that anticoagulants can increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used with caution and regular monitoring of blood clotting times may be required.

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. There are four pulmonary veins in total, two from each lung, and they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood. The oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins is then pumped by the left ventricle to the rest of the body through the aorta. Any blockage or damage to the pulmonary veins can lead to various cardiopulmonary conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Right atrial function refers to the role and performance of the right atrium in the heart. The right atrium is one of the four chambers of the heart and is responsible for receiving deoxygenated blood from the body via the superior and inferior vena cava. It then contracts to help pump the blood into the right ventricle, which subsequently sends it to the lungs for oxygenation.

Right atrial function can be assessed through various methods, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electrocardiogram (ECG). Abnormalities in right atrial function may indicate underlying heart conditions such as right-sided heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or other cardiovascular diseases. Proper evaluation and monitoring of right atrial function are essential for effective diagnosis, treatment, and management of these conditions.

Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is defined as a chronic heart condition caused by damage to the heart valves due to untreated or inadequately treated streptococcal throat infection (strep throat). The immune system's response to this infection can mistakenly attack and damage the heart tissue, leading to inflammation and scarring of the heart valves. This damage can result in narrowing, leakage, or abnormal functioning of the heart valves, which can further lead to complications such as heart failure, stroke, or infective endocarditis.

RHD is a preventable and treatable condition if detected early and managed effectively. It primarily affects children and young adults in developing countries where access to healthcare and antibiotics for strep throat infections may be limited. Long-term management of RHD typically involves medications, regular monitoring, and sometimes surgical intervention to repair or replace damaged heart valves.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Tachycardia is a heart rate that is faster than normal when resting. In adults, a normal resting heart rate is typically between 60 and 100 beats per minute (bpm). Tachycardia is generally considered to be a heart rate of more than 100 bpm.

Ectopic atrial tachycardia (EAT) is a type of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), which means that the abnormal rapid heartbeats originate in the atria, the upper chambers of the heart. EAT is caused by an ectopic focus, or an abnormal electrical focus outside of the sinoatrial node (the heart's natural pacemaker). This ectopic focus can be located in one of the pulmonary veins or in other atrial tissue.

EAT may present with symptoms such as palpitations, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, chest discomfort, or syncope (fainting). In some cases, EAT may not cause any symptoms and can be an incidental finding on an electrocardiogram (ECG) or Holter monitor.

The diagnosis of EAT is typically made based on the ECG findings, which show a regular narrow QRS complex tachycardia with P waves that are inverted in the inferior leads and often dissociated from the QRS complexes. Treatment options for EAT include observation, pharmacologic therapy, cardioversion, or catheter ablation.

Electrophysiologic techniques, cardiac, refer to medical procedures used to study the electrical activities and conduction systems of the heart. These techniques involve the insertion of electrode catheters into the heart through blood vessels under fluoroscopic guidance to record and stimulate electrical signals. The information obtained from these studies can help diagnose and evaluate various cardiac arrhythmias, determine the optimal treatment strategy, and assess the effectiveness of therapies such as ablation or implantable devices.

The electrophysiologic study (EPS) is a type of cardiac electrophysiologic technique that involves the measurement of electrical signals from different regions of the heart to evaluate its conduction system's function. The procedure can help identify the location of abnormal electrical pathways responsible for arrhythmias and determine the optimal treatment strategy, such as catheter ablation or medication therapy.

Cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are also used in device implantation procedures, such as pacemaker or defibrillator implantation, to ensure proper placement and function of the devices. These techniques can help program and test the devices to optimize their settings for each patient's needs.

In summary, cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are medical procedures used to study and manipulate the electrical activities of the heart, helping diagnose and treat various arrhythmias and other cardiac conditions.

An embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a substance, such as a blood clot or an air bubble, blocks a blood vessel. This can happen in any part of the body, but it is particularly dangerous when it affects the brain (causing a stroke) or the lungs (causing a pulmonary embolism). Embolisms can cause serious harm by preventing oxygen and nutrients from reaching the tissues and organs that need them. They are often the result of underlying medical conditions, such as heart disease or deep vein thrombosis, and may require immediate medical attention to prevent further complications.

Sick Sinus Syndrome (SSS) is a term used to describe a group of abnormal heart rhythm disturbances that originates in the sinoatrial node (the natural pacemaker of the heart). This syndrome is characterized by impaired functioning of the sinoatrial node, resulting in various abnormalities such as sinus bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate), sinus arrest (complete cessation of sinus node activity), and/or sinoatrial exit block (failure of the electrical impulse to leave the sinus node and spread to the atria).

People with SSS may experience symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, or syncope (fainting) due to inadequate blood supply to the brain caused by slow heart rate. The diagnosis of SSS is typically made based on the patient's symptoms and the results of an electrocardiogram (ECG), Holter monitoring, or event recorder that shows evidence of abnormal sinus node function. Treatment options for SSS may include lifestyle modifications, medications, or implantation of a pacemaker to regulate the heart rate.

The pericardium is the double-walled sac that surrounds the heart. It has an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer, which further divides into two parts: the parietal layer lining the fibrous pericardium and the visceral layer (epicardium) closely adhering to the heart surface.

The space between these two layers is filled with a small amount of lubricating serous fluid, allowing for smooth movement of the heart within the pericardial cavity. The pericardium provides protection, support, and helps maintain the heart's normal position within the chest while reducing friction during heart contractions.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Therapeutic occlusion is a dental term that refers to the deliberate and controlled closure of the teeth using various appliances or devices, with the aim of treating or preventing dental or oral conditions. This technique is often used in orthodontics (the branch of dentistry concerned with the correction of teeth and jaw alignment) to influence the growth and development of the jaws, correct bite relationships, or move teeth into more favorable positions.

The appliances used for therapeutic occlusion can be removable or fixed, and they work by altering the way the upper and lower teeth come together when biting or chewing. The duration and frequency of therapeutic occlusions are carefully planned and monitored by dental professionals to ensure optimal treatment outcomes and minimize potential side effects.

Examples of appliances used for therapeutic occlusion include:

1. Bite plates or splints: These are removable devices made of acrylic material that cover some or all of the teeth in one arch, creating a artificial bite relationship when worn. They can be used to relieve pressure on specific teeth, muscles, or joints, or to guide the jaw into a more favorable position.
2. Twin blocks: These are removable appliances made of acrylic material that have two pieces, one for the upper arch and one for the lower arch. They are designed to interlock in a specific way when the jaws close together, encouraging the lower jaw to move forward and correcting an overbite or deep bite.
3. Herbst appliance: This is a fixed appliance that connects the upper and lower molars using telescopic rods or tubes. The appliance limits the movement of the lower jaw, helping to correct an overbite by encouraging the lower jaw to grow forward.
4. Headgear: This is an external appliance worn around the head and connected to a dental device in the mouth. It applies gentle pressure to guide the growth and development of the jaws, typically used to correct an excessive overjet or overbite.

It's important to note that therapeutic occlusion should only be performed under the supervision of a qualified dental professional, as improper use can lead to unwanted side effects or further dental issues.

Echocardiography, Doppler, pulsed is a type of diagnostic medical test that uses ultrasound to create detailed images of the heart's structures and assess their function. In this technique, high-frequency sound waves are directed at the heart using a handheld device called a transducer, which is placed on the chest wall. The sound waves bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then sends the information to a computer that converts it into images.

Pulsed Doppler echocardiography is a specific type of Doppler ultrasound that allows for the measurement of blood flow velocities in the heart and great vessels. In this technique, the transducer emits short bursts or "pulses" of sound waves and then measures the time it takes for the echoes to return. By analyzing the frequency shifts of the returning echoes, the velocity and direction of blood flow can be determined. This information is particularly useful in evaluating valvular function, assessing the severity of valvular lesions, and identifying areas of turbulent or abnormal blood flow.

Overall, echocardiography, Doppler, pulsed is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of cardiovascular conditions, including heart valve disorders, congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathies, and pericardial diseases.

Warfarin is a anticoagulant medication that works by inhibiting the vitamin K-dependent activation of several coagulation factors (factors II, VII, IX, and X). This results in prolonged clotting times and reduced thrombus formation. It is commonly used to prevent and treat blood clots in conditions such as atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Warfarin is also known by its brand names Coumadin and Jantoven.

It's important to note that warfarin has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic one is small. Therefore, it requires careful monitoring of the patient's coagulation status through regular blood tests (INR) to ensure that the dosage is appropriate and to minimize the risk of bleeding complications.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

A cardiac catheter is a thin, flexible tube that is inserted into the heart or adjacent blood vessels during a cardiac catheterization procedure. This procedure is typically performed to diagnose and treat various cardiovascular conditions such as heart disease, heart defects, or abnormal heart rhythms.

Cardiac catheters can be used for several purposes:

1. To measure the pressure and oxygen levels in different chambers of the heart and blood vessels.
2. To inject dye into the coronary arteries to visualize blockages or narrowing through angiography.
3. To perform interventions such as balloon angioplasty, stent placement, or valvuloplasty to open up blocked or narrowed blood vessels or repair damaged heart valves.
4. To collect samples of heart muscle tissue for biopsy, which can help diagnose conditions like cardiomyopathy or myocarditis.

There are various types of cardiac catheters, including:

1. Diagnostic catheters - used to measure pressure and oxygen levels in the heart and blood vessels.
2. Guiding catheters - used to guide other interventional devices like balloons or stents into place.
3. Angioplasty balloon catheters - used to inflate a balloon at the tip of the catheter, which helps open up blocked or narrowed blood vessels.
4. Thermodilution catheters - used to measure cardiac output and other hemodynamic parameters.
5. Microcatheters - smaller, more flexible catheters used for complex interventions or accessing difficult-to-reach areas of the heart and blood vessels.

Cardiac catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure that usually requires only local anesthesia and mild sedation. The recovery time is typically short, with most patients returning home within 24 hours after the procedure.

Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is a type of cardiac ultrasound that uses advanced technologies to create a real-time, detailed 3D image of the heart. This imaging technique provides a more comprehensive view of the heart's structure and function compared to traditional 2D echocardiography. By visualizing the heart from multiple angles, 3DE can help physicians better assess complex cardiac conditions, plan treatments, and monitor their effectiveness.

In a 3DE examination, a transducer (a handheld device that emits and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest to capture ultrasound data. This data is then processed by specialized software to create a 3D model of the heart. The procedure is non-invasive and typically takes less than an hour to complete.

Three-dimensional echocardiography has several clinical applications, including:

1. Evaluation of cardiac morphology and function in congenital heart disease
2. Assessment of valvular structure and function, such as mitral or aortic valve regurgitation or stenosis
3. Guidance during interventional procedures like transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
4. Quantification of left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, and mass
5. Assessment of right ventricular size and function
6. Detection and monitoring of cardiac tumors or other masses
7. Pre-surgical planning for complex heart surgeries

Overall, 3DE offers a more accurate and detailed view of the heart, allowing healthcare providers to make informed decisions about patient care and improve outcomes.

The term "extremities" in a medical context refers to the most distant parts of the body, including the hands and feet (both fingers and toes), as well as the arms and legs. These are the farthest parts from the torso and head. Medical professionals may examine a patient's extremities for various reasons, such as checking circulation, assessing nerve function, or looking for injuries or abnormalities.

The superior vena cava is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right brachiocephalic veins (also known as the internal jugular and subclavian veins) near the base of the neck. The superior vena cava runs posteriorly to the sternum and enters the upper right portion of the right atrium, just posterior to the opening of the inferior vena cava. It plays a crucial role in the circulatory system by allowing blood returning from the head, neck, upper limbs, and thorax to bypass the liver before entering the heart.

The refractory period, electrophysiological, refers to the time interval during which a cardiac or neural cell is unable to respond to a new stimulus immediately after an action potential has been generated. This period is divided into two phases: the absolute refractory period and the relative refractory period.

During the absolute refractory period, the cell cannot be re-stimulated, regardless of the strength of the stimulus, due to the rapid inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels that are responsible for the rapid depolarization during an action potential. This phase is crucial for maintaining the unidirectional conduction of electrical impulses and preventing the occurrence of re-entry circuits, which can lead to life-threatening arrhythmias in the heart or hyperexcitability in neural tissue.

The relative refractory period follows the absolute refractory period and is characterized by a reduced excitability of the cell. During this phase, a stronger than normal stimulus is required to elicit an action potential due to the slower recovery of voltage-gated sodium channels and the partial activation of potassium channels, which promote repolarization. The duration of both the absolute and relative refractory periods varies depending on the cell type, its physiological state, and other factors such as temperature and pH.

In summary, the electrophysiological refractory period is a fundamental property of excitable cells that ensures proper electrical signaling and prevents uncontrolled excitation or re-entry circuits.

A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to deprivation of oxygen and nutrients to brain cells. This can result in the death of brain tissue and cause permanent damage or temporary impairment to cognitive functions, speech, memory, movement, and other body functions controlled by the affected area of the brain.

Strokes can be caused by either a blockage in an artery that supplies blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts only a few minutes and does not cause permanent damage.

Symptoms of a stroke may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; and confusion or disorientation. Immediate medical attention is crucial for stroke patients to receive appropriate treatment and prevent long-term complications.

Pericardial effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space, which is the potential space between the two layers of the pericardium - the fibrous and serous layers. The pericardium is a sac that surrounds the heart to provide protection and lubrication for the heart's movement during each heartbeat. Normally, there is only a small amount of fluid (5-15 mL) in this space to ensure smooth motion of the heart. However, when an excessive amount of fluid accumulates, it can cause increased pressure on the heart, leading to various complications such as decreased cardiac output and even cardiac tamponade, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Pericardial effusion may result from several causes, including infections (viral, bacterial, or fungal), inflammatory conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or cancer), trauma, heart surgery, kidney failure, or iatrogenic causes. The symptoms of pericardial effusion can vary depending on the rate and amount of fluid accumulation. Slowly developing effusions may not cause any symptoms, while rapid accumulations can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, palpitations, or even hypotension (low blood pressure). Diagnosis is usually confirmed through imaging techniques such as echocardiography, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the effusion, ranging from close monitoring to drainage procedures or medications to address the root cause.

Heart valve diseases are a group of conditions that affect the function of one or more of the heart's four valves (tricuspid, pulmonic, mitral, and aortic). These valves are responsible for controlling the direction and flow of blood through the heart. Heart valve diseases can cause the valves to become narrowed (stenosis), leaky (regurgitation or insufficiency), or improperly closed (prolapse), leading to disrupted blood flow within the heart and potentially causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and irregular heart rhythms. The causes of heart valve diseases can include congenital defects, age-related degenerative changes, infections, rheumatic heart disease, and high blood pressure. Treatment options may include medications, surgical repair or replacement of the affected valve(s), or transcatheter procedures.

Carcinoma of the skin appendages refers to a type of cancer that originates in the specialized cells of the skin's sweat glands, hair follicles, or sebaceous glands. These cancers are relatively rare and can present as various subtypes, including eccrine carcinoma, apocrine carcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma, and malignant adnexal tumors.

The symptoms of skin appendage carcinomas may include:

1. A firm, painless lump or nodule under the skin that may be skin-colored, red, or blue.
2. Ulceration, crusting, or bleeding from the lesion.
3. Itching, burning, or pain in the affected area.
4. Lymph node enlargement near the tumor site.

Treatment typically involves surgical excision of the tumor, often followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to ensure complete removal and reduce the risk of recurrence. Regular follow-up appointments with a dermatologist or oncologist are essential for monitoring and early detection of any potential recurrences or new primary cancers.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The heart conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses to coordinate the contraction of the heart chambers. The main components of the heart conduction system include:

1. Sinoatrial (SA) node: Also known as the sinus node, it is located in the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava and functions as the primary pacemaker of the heart. It sets the heart rate by generating electrical impulses at regular intervals.
2. Atrioventricular (AV) node: Located in the interatrial septum, near the opening of the coronary sinus, it serves as a relay station for electrical signals between the atria and ventricles. The AV node delays the transmission of impulses to allow the atria to contract before the ventricles.
3. Bundle of His: A bundle of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that conducts electrical impulses from the AV node to the ventricles. It divides into two main branches, the right and left bundle branches, which further divide into smaller Purkinje fibers.
4. Right and left bundle branches: These are extensions of the Bundle of His that transmit electrical impulses to the respective right and left ventricular myocardium. They consist of specialized conducting tissue with large diameters and minimal resistance, allowing for rapid conduction of electrical signals.
5. Purkinje fibers: Fine, branching fibers that arise from the bundle branches and spread throughout the ventricular myocardium. They are responsible for transmitting electrical impulses to the working cardiac muscle cells, triggering coordinated ventricular contraction.

In summary, the heart conduction system is a complex network of specialized muscle cells responsible for generating and conducting electrical signals that coordinate the contraction of the atria and ventricles, ensuring efficient blood flow throughout the body.

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve, is a two-leaflet valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart. Its function is to ensure unidirectional flow of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle. The mitral valve consists of two leaflets (anterior and posterior), the chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, and the left atrial and ventricular myocardium. Dysfunction of the mitral valve can lead to various heart conditions such as mitral regurgitation or mitral stenosis.

Coronary thrombosis is a medical condition that refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a coronary artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. The development of a thrombus can partially or completely obstruct blood flow, leading to insufficient oxygen supply to the heart muscle. This can cause chest pain (angina) or a heart attack (myocardial infarction), depending on the severity and duration of the blockage.

Coronary thrombosis often results from the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, a buildup of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining (endothelium) of the coronary artery. The ruptured plaque exposes the underlying tissue to the bloodstream, triggering the coagulation cascade and resulting in the formation of a thrombus.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for managing coronary thrombosis, as timely treatment can help restore blood flow, prevent further damage to the heart muscle, and reduce the risk of complications such as heart failure or life-threatening arrhythmias. Treatment options may include medications, such as antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, and thrombolytic drugs, or interventional procedures like angioplasty and stenting to open the blocked artery. In some cases, surgical intervention, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), may be necessary.

Doppler echocardiography is a type of ultrasound test that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart and its blood vessels. It measures the direction and speed of blood flow in the heart and major blood vessels leading to and from the heart. This helps to evaluate various conditions such as valve problems, congenital heart defects, and heart muscle diseases.

In Doppler echocardiography, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the chest, which emits sound waves that bounce off the heart and blood vessels. The transducer then picks up the returning echoes, which are processed by a computer to create moving images of the heart.

The Doppler effect is used to measure the speed and direction of blood flow. This occurs when the frequency of the sound waves changes as they bounce off moving objects, such as red blood cells. By analyzing these changes, the ultrasound machine can calculate the velocity and direction of blood flow in different parts of the heart.

Doppler echocardiography is a non-invasive test that does not require any needles or dyes. It is generally safe and painless, although patients may experience some discomfort from the pressure applied by the transducer on the chest. The test usually takes about 30 to 60 minutes to complete.

The sinoatrial (SA) node, also known as the sinus node, is the primary pacemaker of the heart. It is a small bundle of specialized cardiac conduction tissue located in the upper part of the right atrium, near the entrance of the superior vena cava. The SA node generates electrical impulses that initiate each heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and pump blood into the ventricles. This process is called sinus rhythm.

The SA node's electrical activity is regulated by the autonomic nervous system, which can adjust the heart rate in response to changes in the body's needs, such as during exercise or rest. The SA node's rate of firing determines the heart rate, with a normal resting heart rate ranging from 60 to 100 beats per minute.

If the SA node fails to function properly or its electrical impulses are blocked, other secondary pacemakers in the heart may take over, resulting in abnormal heart rhythms called arrhythmias.

Cefamandole is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is a type of antibacterial medication used to treat various infections caused by bacteria. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, resulting in weakening and eventual death of the bacterial cells.

Cefamandole has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, making it useful for treating a variety of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and septicemia.

Like other cephalosporins, cefamandole is generally well-tolerated and has a low incidence of serious side effects. However, it can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as allergic reactions in some people. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting cefamandole therapy.

It is important to note that antibiotics should only be used to treat bacterial infections and not viral infections, as they are not effective against viruses and can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

Balloon occlusion is a medical procedure that involves the use of a small, deflated balloon at the end of a catheter, which can be inserted into a blood vessel or other tubular structure in the body. Once the balloon is in position, it is inflated with a fluid or gas to create a blockage or obstruction in the vessel. This can be used for various medical purposes, such as:

1. Controlling bleeding: By inflating the balloon in a blood vessel, doctors can temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area, allowing them to treat injuries or abnormalities that are causing excessive bleeding.
2. Vessel narrowing or blockage assessment: Balloon occlusion can be used to assess the severity of narrowing or blockages in blood vessels. By inflating the balloon and measuring the pressure differences upstream and downstream, doctors can determine the extent of the obstruction and plan appropriate treatment.
3. Embolization therapy: In some cases, balloon occlusion is used to deliver embolic agents (such as coils, particles, or glue) that block off blood flow to specific areas. This can be useful in treating conditions like tumors, arteriovenous malformations, or aneurysms.
4. Temporary vessel occlusion during surgery: During certain surgical procedures, it may be necessary to temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area. Balloon occlusion can be used to achieve this quickly and safely.
5. Assisting in the placement of stents or other devices: Balloon occlusion can help position and deploy stents or other medical devices by providing temporary support or blocking off blood flow during the procedure.

It is important to note that balloon occlusion procedures carry potential risks, such as vessel injury, infection, or embolism (the blockage of a blood vessel by a clot or foreign material). These risks should be carefully weighed against the benefits when considering this type of treatment.

Heart block is a cardiac condition characterized by the interruption of electrical impulse transmission from the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) to the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This disruption can lead to abnormal heart rhythms, including bradycardia (a slower-than-normal heart rate), and in severe cases, can cause the heart to stop beating altogether. Heart block is typically caused by damage to the heart's electrical conduction system due to various factors such as aging, heart disease, or certain medications.

There are three types of heart block: first-degree, second-degree, and third-degree (also known as complete heart block). Each type has distinct electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and symptoms. Treatment for heart block depends on the severity of the condition and may include monitoring, medication, or implantation of a pacemaker to regulate the heart's electrical activity.

An intracranial embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other foreign material (embolus) forms elsewhere in the body and travels to the blood vessels within the brain. This embolus then blocks the flow of blood in the cerebral arteries, leading to potential damage or death of brain tissue. Common sources of intracranial emboli include heart conditions such as atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, or following a heart attack; or from large-vessel atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. Symptoms can vary depending on the location and size of the obstruction, but may include sudden weakness or numbness, confusion, difficulty speaking, vision loss, severe headache, or even loss of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and treat intracranial embolism, often involving anticoagulation therapy, endovascular procedures, or surgery.

An artificial pacemaker is a medical device that uses electrical impulses to regulate the beating of the heart. It is typically used when the heart's natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly and the heart rate is too slow or irregular. The pacemaker consists of a small generator that contains a battery and electronic circuits, which are connected to one or more electrodes that are placed in the heart.

The generator sends electrical signals through the electrodes to stimulate the heart muscle and cause it to contract, thereby maintaining a regular heart rhythm. Artificial pacemakers can be programmed to deliver electrical impulses at a specific rate or in response to the body's needs. They are typically implanted in the chest during a surgical procedure and can last for many years before needing to be replaced.

Artificial pacemakers are an effective treatment for various types of bradycardia, which is a heart rhythm disorder characterized by a slow heart rate. Pacemakers can significantly improve symptoms associated with bradycardia, such as fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, and fainting spells.

The heart septum is the thick, muscular wall that divides the right and left sides of the heart. It consists of two main parts: the atrial septum, which separates the right and left atria (the upper chambers of the heart), and the ventricular septum, which separates the right and left ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). A normal heart septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood from the lungs does not mix with oxygen-poor blood from the body. Any defect or abnormality in the heart septum is called a septal defect, which can lead to various congenital heart diseases.

A heart septal defect is a type of congenital heart defect, which means it is present at birth. It involves an abnormal opening in the septum, the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. This opening allows oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart.

There are several types of heart septal defects, including:

1. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD): A hole in the atrial septum, the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart (the right and left atria).
2. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): A hole in the ventricular septum, the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart (the right and left ventricles).
3. Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD): A combination of an ASD and a VSD, often accompanied by malformation of the mitral and/or tricuspid valves.

The severity of a heart septal defect depends on the size of the opening and its location in the septum. Small defects may cause no symptoms and may close on their own over time. Larger defects can lead to complications, such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or infective endocarditis, and may require medical or surgical intervention.

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

Myocardial stunning is a condition in cardiovascular medicine where the heart muscle (myocardium) temporarily loses its ability to contract effectively after being exposed to a brief, severe episode of ischemia (restriction of blood supply) or reperfusion injury (damage that occurs when blood flow is restored to an organ or tissue after a period of ischemia). This results in a reduction in the heart's pumping function, which can be detected using imaging techniques such as echocardiography.

The stunning phenomenon is believed to be caused by complex biochemical and cellular processes that occur during ischemia-reperfusion injury, including the generation of free radicals, calcium overload, inflammation, and activation of various signaling pathways. These changes can lead to the dysfunction of contractile proteins, mitochondrial damage, and altered gene expression in cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells).

Myocardial stunning is often observed following procedures such as coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery, where blood flow is temporarily interrupted and then restored to the heart. It can also occur during episodes of unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, or cardiac arrest. Although the stunning itself is usually reversible within a few days to several weeks, it may contribute to short-term hemodynamic instability and increased risk of adverse events such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or even death.

Management of myocardial stunning typically involves supportive care, optimizing hemodynamics, and addressing any underlying conditions that may have contributed to the ischemic episode. In some cases, medications like inotropes or vasopressors might be used to support cardiac function temporarily. Preventive strategies, such as maintaining adequate blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygenation during procedures, can help reduce the risk of myocardial stunning.

Premedication is the administration of medication before a medical procedure or surgery to prevent or manage pain, reduce anxiety, minimize side effects of anesthesia, or treat existing medical conditions. The goal of premedication is to improve the safety and outcomes of the medical procedure by preparing the patient's body in advance. Common examples of premedication include administering antibiotics before surgery to prevent infection, giving sedatives to help patients relax before a procedure, or providing medication to control acid reflux during surgery.

The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart and the valves between them. It is a thin, smooth membrane that is in contact with the blood within the heart. This layer helps to maintain the heart's internal environment, facilitates the smooth movement of blood through the heart, and provides a protective barrier against infection and other harmful substances. The endocardium is composed of simple squamous epithelial cells called endothelial cells, which are supported by a thin layer of connective tissue.

Balloon valvuloplasty is a medical procedure used to treat heart valve stenosis or narrowing. It involves the use of a thin, flexible tube (catheter) with a balloon at its tip, which is guided through a blood vessel to the narrowed heart valve. Once in position, the balloon is inflated to stretch and widen the valve opening, improving blood flow. After the valve is widened, the balloon is deflated and the catheter is removed. This procedure can be performed on various heart valves, including the aortic, mitral, and pulmonary valves.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

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The right atrial appendage overlaps it. The first few centimeters of the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk lies in the same ...
The left atrial appendage can serve as an approach for mitral valve surgery. The body of the left atrial appendage is anterior ... In those with uncontrollable atrial fibrillation, left atrial appendage occlusion may be performed at the time of any open- ... The case of a disappearing left atrial appendage thrombus: direct visualization of left atrial thrombus migration, captured by ... 1) There are no atrial inlet valves to interrupt blood flow during atrial systole. (2) The atrial systole contractions are ...
He worked on a device for left atrial appendage occlusion sold by AtriCure. He wrote a book with Steven Nissen that published ... Hughes, Sue (June 18, 2010). "AtriClip for left atrial appendage occlusion approved in US". www.medscape.com. Gillinov, Marc; ...
Ramlawi, B; Abu Saleh, WK; Edgerton, J (2015). "The Left Atrial Appendage: Target for Stroke Reduction in Atrial Fibrillation ... the lack of an organized atrial contraction can result in some stagnant blood in the left atrium (LA) or left atrial appendage ... "Left atrial appendage occlusion in atrial fibrillation for stroke prevention: A systemic review". International Journal of ... of cases of thrombi associated with non-valvular atrial fibrillation evolve in the left atrial appendage. However, the LAA lies ...
2005). "Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion Study (LAAOS): results of a randomized controlled pilot study of left atrial appendage ... 2003). "Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion Study (LAAOS): a randomized clinical trial of left atrial appendage occlusion during ... 2006). "The PROTECT AF (WATCHMAN Left Atrial Appendage System for Embolic PROTECTion in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation) ... "Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage versus warfarin therapy for prevention of stroke in patients with atrial ...
In 2021, Whitlock published the LAAOS III trial, a trial which showed left atrial appendage occlusion, a simple additional ... Whitlock, Richard (2021). "Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion during Cardiac Surgery to Prevent Stroke". New England Journal of ... Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion Study) trial. On April 9, 2015, Whitlock and his team performed the first transcatheter aortic ... procedure during cardiac surgery, reduced stroke rates significantly in patients with baseline atrial fibrillation. Ted Thomas ...
"Prevention of Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation - Elimination of the Left Atrial Appendage". May 7, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2020. " ... Wolf, RK; Buntin, PT; Schmidt, P; Siderys, H (1981). "The placement of a LeVeen shunt into the right atrial appendage". Journal ... He is the creator of the Wolf Mini Maze, a procedure used to correct atrial fibrillation (AF). Wolf previously hosted a weekly ... In 2015, Wolf relocated the Atrial Fibrillation Center to Houston, Texas where he was featured on Fox 26 News. He served as ...
There is an ear-shaped structure in the upper right atrium called the right atrial appendage, or auricle, and another in the ... The left atrium has an outpouching called the left atrial appendage. Like the right atrium, the left atrium is lined by ... the left atrial appendage. The right atrium and the right ventricle together are sometimes referred to as the right heart. ... which are also present in the right atrial appendage. The right atrium is connected to the right ventricle by the tricuspid ...
... a left atrial appendage clot, a clot on the inter-atrial septum, or within the PFO tunnel. Until recently, patients with PFO ... If the atrial septal defect is causing the right ventricle to enlarge a secundum atrial septal defect should generally be ... The catheter is guided through the atrial septal wall and one disc (left atrial) is opened and pulled into place. Once this ... Bubbles only flow from right atrium to left atrium if the right atrial pressure is greater than left atrial). Because better ...
"Left Atrial Appendage Closure for Stroke Prevention in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: Rationale, Devices in Clinical ... "Left Atrial Appendage Closure: A Percutaneous Transcatheter Approach for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation." European ... Foundation for Cardiovascular Research, Ulf Landmesser Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion - where are we compared to new drugs, AF ... "Cardiac CT and Echocardiographic Evaluation of Peri-Device Flow after Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Closure Using the ...
TTE in adults is also of limited use for the structures at the back of the heart, such as the left atrial appendage. ... A common example that demonstrates this is the visibility of the left atrial appendage. This structure is known to form clots ... TAPSE Left atrial size Right atrial size Mitral valve flow is best seen in this view and has the best angle with probe to ... Cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in someone not on anticoagulation would require TEE to best visualize the LAA to rule out ...
A thrombus is most likely to form in the atrial appendages. A blood clot in the left atrial appendage is particularly important ... Left atrial flutter is considered atypical and is common after incomplete left atrial ablation procedures. Atypical atrial ... Similar to the abnormal heart rhythm atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter also leads to poor contraction of the atrial chambers ... also known as common atrial flutter or typical atrial flutter, has an atrial rate of 240 to 340 beats/minute. However, this ...
Common causes include asplenia (post-splenectomy) or congenital absence of spleen (right atrial appendage isomerism). Spleens ...
If there is partial absence of pericardium, there will be bulge of the left atrial appendage. On CT and MRI scans, similar ... About 30 to 50 percent of the affected people have other heart abnormalities such as atrial septal defect, patent ductus ...
The right coronary sulcus separates the right atrium and its atrial appendage from the right ventricle inferiorly. The right ...
... make up the part of the wall in front of this, the right atrial appendage.[citation needed] In the left ... the pectinate muscles are confined to the inner surface of its atrial appendage. They tend to be fewer and smaller than in the ...
9,480,480, Issued: November 1, 2016 Exclusion of the Left Atrial Appendage, Robert E. Michler & Albert N. Santilli, U.S. Patent ... "US Patent for Exclusion of the left atrial appendage Patent (Patent # 9,486,225 issued November 8, 2016) - Justia Patents ...
Schober, Karsten E.; Maerz, Imke (2006). "Assessment of left atrial appendage flow velocity and its relation to spontaneous ... Atrial fibrillation detectable by ECG is an additional risk factor. Aortic thrombus can often be visualized directly by ... In addition, the extent of the heart disease, in particular the extent of atrial enlargement and the pumping capacity of the ... Damage to the endocardium and slowing of blood flow in the enlarged left atrium and atrial auricle are primarily responsible ...
Wudel JH, Chaudhuri P, Hiller JJ (2008). "Video-assisted epicardial ablation and left atrial appendage exclusion for atrial ... "Video-assisted bilateral pulmonary vein isolation and left atrial appendage exclusion for atrial fibrillation". J Thorac ... The left atrial appendage is usually removed. Video-assisted Bilateral Epicardial Bipolar Radiofrequency Pulmonary Vein ... and the right atrial isthmus lesion. We call this pattern of atrial lesions the "mini-maze Procedure" ... None of the present ...
Rodbard and Wagner connected the right atrial appendage to the right pulmonary artery in an early report on this surgical ... In patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, obstruction of blood flow at the atrial septum should be examined and ...
... can refer to: Left atrial appendage Right atrial appendage This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Auricular appendage. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
... left atrial appendage, and coronary arteries. It can also be used during cardiac surgery to monitor the patient and assess the ... This procedure allows for better imaging of the aorta, pulmonary artery, heart valves, atria, atrial septum, ...
The embryonic left atrium remains as the trabecular left atrial appendage, and the embryonic right atrium remains as the right ... The atrial portion starts moving in a cephalically and then moves to the left from its original position. This curved shape ... When forming intra-atrial septa, atrio-ventricular valves will begin to grow. A muscular interventricular septum begins to grow ... atrial appendage. At the end of the fourth week, two atrioventricular endocardial cushions appear. Initially the ...
Also, atrial fibrillation, causes stagnant blood in the left atrium (LA), or left atrial appendage (LAA), and can lead to a ... The most common cause is atrial fibrillation, which causes a blood stasis within the atria with easy thrombus formation, but ...
Left atrial appendage isomerism, also called left atrial isomerism, is a cardiac development defect in which the heart has two ... Right atrial appendage isomerism, also called right atrial isomerism, is a cardiac development defect in which the heart has ... Right-atrial and left-atrial isomerism and associated pulmonary issues are treated in a series of steps based on the severity ... September 26, 2015). "Anatomy, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of heterotaxy (isomerism of the atrial appendages)". Up To ...
It can also be advanced across the atrial septum into the left atrium to visualize the left atrial appendage during left atrial ... right atrial volume index RVOT - right ventricular outflow tract RVD - basal RV diameter IVC - inferior vena cava GLS - global ... left atrial volume index EDV - end-diastolic volume ESV - end-systolic volume EF - ejection fraction FS - fractional shortening ... appendage occlusion device deployment. Utilization of ICE imagery can be incorporated into the 3-D models built with ...
... venous blood from both vena cavae and the lower chamber is in contact with the tricuspid valve and the right atrial appendage. ... The natural history of this defect depends on the size of the communicating orifice between the upper and lower atrial chambers ... Understanding the nature of congenital division of the atrial chambers. Br Heart J. Jul 1992;68(1):1-3. [Medline]. Richardson ... Transoesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of atrial morphology in children with congenital heart disease. Eur Heart J. Feb ...
Atritech developed a novel device called the Watchman® designed to close the left atrial appendage in patients with atrial ...
... crescent-shaped thickened portion of heart muscle at the opening into the right atrial appendage.[citation needed] It consists ... and homogenous to adjacent atrial wall on CT and MRI. Sinoatrial node Gray, Henry (1918). Gray's Anatomy (20th ed.). p. 509. ...
... consensus document provides definitions for parameters and endpoints to be assessed in clinical studies regarding left atrial ... appendage occlusion for ischemic stroke prevention in AF. ... Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion and Residual Leaks. *Device, ... Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is a device-based therapy for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial ... The increasing interest in left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) for ischaemic stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) ...
The NCDR Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion Registry James V Freeman 1 , Paul Varosy 2 , Matthew J Price 3 , David Slotwiner 4 , ... Background: Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation has been evaluated in ... Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Previous Major Gastrointestinal Bleeding (from the ... Keywords: atrial fibrillation; bleeding; hospital volume; left atrial appendage occlusion; registry; stroke. ...
The global left atrial appendage closure devices market size reached US$ 1.5 Billion in 2023 and grow at a CAGR of 16.85% to ... Some of the factors driving the North America left atrial appendage closure devices market included a growing number of atrial ... Left atrial appendage closure devices (LAAC) are medical devices that are implanted in the heart to lower the risk of stroke in ... Left Atrial Appendage Closure Devices Market Trends:. The rising prevalence of AFib, on account of the widespread adoption of ...
Left atrial appendage occlusion. / Steinberg, Daniel H.; Bertog, Stefan; Franke, Jennifer et al. Structural Heart Disease ... Left atrial appendage occlusion. Daniel H. Steinberg, Stefan Bertog, Jennifer Franke, Jens Wiebe, Nina Wunderlich, Horst ... Steinberg, D. H., Bertog, S., Franke, J., Wiebe, J., Wunderlich, N., & Sievert, H. (2012). Left atrial appendage occlusion. In ... Steinberg DH, Bertog S, Franke J, Wiebe J, Wunderlich N, Sievert H. Left atrial appendage occlusion. In Structural Heart ...
Atrial fibrillation (AF) has strong associations with other cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure, coronary artery ... Left Atrial Appendage Percutaneous Closure. The majority of embolic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF ... Left atrial appendage closure as an alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: a patient-level meta- ... Possible involvement of TGF-β/periostin in fibrosis of right atrial appendages in patients with atrial fibrillation. Int J Clin ...
... and commercial development is a three-dimensionally configured curved catheter for safe traversal of the right atrial appendage ... the transition segment extends across the caval-atrial junction and curves rightward, forward, and upward such that the ...
Inversion of the left atrial appendage: Clinical and echocardiographic correlates. David A. Danford, John P. Cheatham, Jeff C. ... Inversion of the left atrial appendage: Clinical and echocardiographic correlates. American Heart Journal. 1994 Mar;127(3):719- ... Danford, DA, Cheatham, JP, Van Gundy, JC, Mohiuddin, SM & Fleming, WH 1994, Inversion of the left atrial appendage: Clinical ... Inversion of the left atrial appendage: Clinical and echocardiographic correlates. / Danford, David A.; Cheatham, John P.; Van ...
Left atrial appendage exclusion (LAAE) is a new surgical option to reduce stroke risk in AF. The study objective was to ... result from left atrial appendage thrombi. Oral anticoagulation can reduce stroke risk but is limited by complication risk and ... Standalone epicardial left atrial appendage exclusion for thromboembolism prevention in atrial fibrillation. ... Objectives: Most strokes associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) result from left atrial appendage thrombi. Oral ...
Dilated right atrial appendage. Cause of Death. The Associate Medical Examiner concluded the cause of death to be "cardiac ...
Left Atrial Appendage Closure. D000097546. Solute Carrier Family 12. D000096925. Cough-Variant Asthma. D000096823. Legumins. ...
In particular, left atrial or left atrial appendage (LA/LAA) thrombus can be noted in 10% of patients with atrial fibrillation ... Impact of Left Atrial or Left Atrial Appendage Thrombus on Stroke Outcome: A Matched Control Analysis. Article information. J ... Keywords: Atrial fibrillation; Ischemic stroke; Heart atria; Atrial appendage; Thrombosis; Prognosis Introduction. Nonvalvular ... Left atrial or left atrial appendage (LA/LAA) thrombi are frequently observed during cardioembolic evaluation in patients with ...
Ablation of rare accessory pathway from right atrial appendage diverticulum to anatomic left ventricle in cc-tga.. ... "Ablation of rare accessory pathway from right atrial appendage diverticulum to anatomic left ventricle in cc-tga." (2023). ...
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia; Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana; Resultado do Tratamento atrial fibrillation; left atrial appendage ... Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem; Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia; Fibrilação Atrial/complicações; Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico ... An 86-year-old patient with non-valvular atrial fibrillation was referred to our institution to undergo a left atrial appendage ... "Water Gun:" A New Morphology of Left Atrial Appendage. Rivero-Santana, Borja; Galeote, Guillermo; Valbuena, Silvia; Jimenez- ...
Abnormal P-wave terminal force in lead V1 is associated with low left atrial appendage ejection velocity. In: Journal of ... Abnormal P-wave terminal force in lead V1 is associated with low left atrial appendage ejection velocity. Journal of ... Dive into the research topics of Abnormal P-wave terminal force in lead V1 is associated with low left atrial appendage ... Abnormal P-wave terminal force in lead V1 is associated with low left atrial appendage ejection velocity. / McConkey, Nathaniel ...
Left atrial appendage closure. *Mechanical circulatory support device implantation. *Minimally invasive heart surgery ...
The serum levels of aztreonam following single 500 mg or 1 g (intramuscular or intravenous) or 2 g (intravenous) doses of AZACTAM exceed the MIC90 for Neisseria sp., Haemophilus influenzae, and most genera of the Enterobacteriaceae for 8 hours (for Enterobacter sp., the 8-hour serum levels exceed the MIC for 80% of strains). For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a single 2 g intravenous dose produces serum levels that exceed the MIC90 for approximately 4 to 6 hours. All of the above doses of AZACTAM result in average urine levels of aztreonam that exceed the MIC90 for the same pathogens for up to 12 hours.. When aztreonam pharmacokinetics were assessed for adult and pediatric patients, they were found to be comparable (down to 9 months old). The serum half-life of aztreonam averaged 1.7 hours (1.5-2.0) in subjects with normal renal function, independent of the dose and route of administration. In healthy subjects, based on a 70 kg person, the serum clearance was 91 mL/min and renal clearance was 56 ...
Heart, Atrial Appendage. 12. 278. 509. 590. Heart, Left Ventricle. 116. 384 ...
APÊNDICE ATRIAL ATRIAL APPENDAGE APENDICE ATRIAL APNÉIA DO SONO TIPO CENTRAL SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL APNEA DEL SUEÑO CENTRAL ...
The left atrial appendage (LAA) is a small, ear-shaped pouch in the muscle wall of the left atrium. In normal hearts, the heart ... Its impact on percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion as an alternative therapeutic approach to medical therapy for ... surgical planning with 3d printed hearts for percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion ... Surgical planning with 3D printed hearts for percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion.. ...
Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion * Leukemia * LGBTQIA+ Health Care * Lifestyle Classes - Open to Everyone! ...
Heart - Atrial Appendage. Heart - Left Ventricle. Kidney - Cortex. Kidney - Medulla. Liver. Lung ...
Atrial Fibrillation. Left Atrial Appendage Closure. Interventional Pharmacology. FFR/IFR. Neurovascular. Bioresorbable Vascular ...
Tags: atrial fibrillation, FDA Advisory Committee, Interventional Cardiology, left atrial appendage closure, stroke prevention ... Tags: atrial fibrillation, Interventional Cardiology, left atrial appendage closure, stroke prevention, Watchman. ... a novel catheter-delivered left atrial appendage closure device for people with atrial fibrillation. They signaled that ... FDA Approves Watchman Left Atrial Appendage Closure Device for AF. Larry Husten, PHD The FDA has approved Boston Scientifics ...
J&J, through its acquisition of Laminar, is developing a separate approach that would eliminate the left atrial appendage. ... 2. Boston Scientific faces challengers in left atrial appendage treatment. Late 2023 saw both Medtronic and J&J announce the ... "Left atrial appendage closure and exclusion is a hot space," said Thibault. ... and Abbotts entry has expanded the market for left atrial appendage closure," she said. ...
He would not get a Watchmen (left atrial appendage closure device). He is way too young, its for old people when they cant get ... Unless you opt for the left atrial appendage closure device to block the source of pooled and thrombogenic blood. Article ... Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter stroke risk= lifetime of blood thinners as per guidelines. ...
After placing the belt, a closure device is deployed to close the puncture in the right atrial appendage. ... We developed a new transcatheter treatment for this orphan disease called TRAIPTA (Trans-Atrial Intra-Pericardial Tricuspid ...
... percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion can be performed to reduce the risk of stroke. ... The device will remain in the heart permanently to stop the abnormal flow of blood between the two atrial chambers of the heart ... Patients with atrial septal defects may benefit from percutaneous closure, which would prevent the hemodynamic consequences of ... For patients who have significant risk for stroke due to atrial fibrillation but also have significant risks of bleeding or are ...
Atrial fibrillation considering blood thinners or left atrial appendage closure to prevent strokes ...
  • The global left atrial appendage closure devices market size reached US$ 1.5 Billion in 2023. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Left atrial appendage closure devices (LAAC) are medical devices that are implanted in the heart to lower the risk of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AFib). (imarcgroup.com)
  • Furthermore, extensive research and development (R&D) activities for product innovation, a rising number of atrial intervention product approvals, an increasing number of clinical trials, and the adoption of new technologies, such as robotic-assisted closure devices, are positively impacting the market growth. (imarcgroup.com)
  • IMARC Group provides an analysis of the key trends in each segment of the global left atrial appendage closure devices market, along with forecasts at the global, regional, and country levels from 2024-2032. (imarcgroup.com)
  • The report has provided a detailed breakup and analysis of the left atrial appendage closure devices market based on the product. (imarcgroup.com)
  • An 86-year-old patient with non-valvular atrial fibrillation was referred to our institution to undergo a left atrial appendage (LAA) closure for recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding on direct oral anticoagulants . (bvsalud.org)
  • These researchers prospectively compared 3D PSM prediction of device size and compression to the standard TEE approach in 22 patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent LAA closure with the WD. (stratasys.com)
  • The FDA has approved Boston Scientific's long-delayed Watchman Left Atrial Appendage Closure Device. (jwatch.org)
  • The FDA's Circulatory System Devices advisory panel gave an extremely cautious endorsement on Wednesday to Boston Scientific's Watchman device, a novel catheter-delivered left atrial appendage closure device for people with atrial fibrillation. (jwatch.org)
  • The company disclosed on Tuesday yet another obstacle in the path to approval for its novel Watchman left atrial appendage closure device for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. (jwatch.org)
  • The FDA's Circulatory System Devices Panel yesterday gave a vote of confidence to Boston Scientific's Watchman left atrial appendage closure device for the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation patients. (jwatch.org)
  • Patients with atrial septal defects may benefit from percutaneous closure, which would prevent the hemodynamic consequences of chamber volume overload. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • Next, a thoracoscopic left atrial appendage closure was performed through three ports within the intercostal space. (ctsnet.org)
  • Boston Scientific's Brad Sutton delivers a keynote at MD&M Minneapolis 2023 on the company's Watchman Left Atrial Appendage (LAA) Closure device. (designnews.com)
  • The increasing interest in left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) for ischaemic stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) fuels the need for more clinical data on the safety and effectiveness of this therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is a device-based therapy for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), which continues to evolve. (medscape.com)
  • Its impact on percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion as an alternative therapeutic approach to medical therapy for stroke prevention continues to evolve as the technology advances. (stratasys.com)
  • 8. Intracardiac Versus Transesophageal Echocardiographic Guidance for Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion: The LAAO Italian Multicenter Registry. (nih.gov)
  • Available for licensing and commercial development is a three-dimensionally configured curved catheter for safe traversal of the right atrial appendage (RAA). (nih.gov)
  • Ablation of rare accessory pathway from right atrial appendage diverti" by Shree Lata Radhakrishnan, Robert Drutel et al. (lsuhsc.edu)
  • Ablation of rare accessory pathway from right atrial appendage diverticulum to anatomic left ventricle in cc-tga. (lsuhsc.edu)
  • In particular, left atrial or left atrial appendage (LA/LAA) thrombus can be noted in 10% of patients with atrial fibrillation and in more than 40% of patients with acute thromboembolism and newly recognized atrial fibrillation [ 4 ]. (j-stroke.org)
  • The majority of AF-related strokes occur from left atrial appendage (LAA) thromboembolism. (psu.edu)
  • According to the company, the Watchman is indicated as an alternative to long-term warfarin therapy for the reduction of thromboembolism from the left atrial appendage in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation at increased risk for stroke and systemic embolism. (jwatch.org)
  • Common complications are pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and thromboembolism. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Most strokes associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) result from left atrial appendage thrombi. (baptisthealth.net)
  • Left atrial or left atrial appendage (LA/LAA) thrombi are frequently observed during cardioembolic evaluation in patients with ischemic stroke. (j-stroke.org)
  • Atrial thrombi may form. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chemical-induced atrial thrombi may be closely related to myocardial injury, endothelial injury, circulatory stasis, hypercoagulability, and impaired atrial mechanical activity, such as atrial fibrillation, which could result in stasis of blood within the left atrial appendage, contributing to left atrial thrombosis. (nih.gov)
  • Standalone epicardial left atrial appendage exclusion for thromboembol" by Richard Cartledge, Gary Gottlieb et al. (baptisthealth.net)
  • It combines epicardial radiofrequency left atrial posterior wall ablation through subxiphoid access, concomitant thoracoscopic left atrial appendage management, and pre/postprocedural transcatheter pulmonary vein isolation. (ctsnet.org)
  • He started the epicardial ablation program at UCSF and also worked with Dr. Randall Lee to perform the first percutaneous epicardial left atrial appendage (LAA) ligation in the Bay Area in patients with atrial fibrillation. (stanford.edu)
  • The left atrial appendage (LAA) is a small pouch-like structure located in the muscle wall of the heart, which can be a source of blood clots, leading to stroke in AFib patients. (imarcgroup.com)
  • As AF contributes to pathologic atrial and ventricular remodeling, restoration of sinus rhythm can slow or, in some cases, reverse atrial dilatation and left ventricular dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • Left atrial appendage exclusion (LAAE) is a new surgical option to reduce stroke risk in AF. (baptisthealth.net)
  • Dysfunction of the left atrium (LA) and left atrial appendage (LAA) can increase rates of thromboembolic stroke. (psu.edu)
  • 40 cm/s after adjustment for CHA 2 DS 2 VASc variables, heart rate during TEE, history of atrial arrhythmias, and left atrial volume index was 2.24 (95% CI of 1.13-6.00). (psu.edu)
  • 40 cm/s after adjustment for CHA2DS2VASc variables, heart rate during TEE, history of atrial arrhythmias, and left atrial volume index was 2.24 (95% CI of 1.13-6.00). (psu.edu)
  • Water Gun:' A New Morphology of Left Atrial Appendage. (bvsalud.org)
  • The left atrial appendage (LAA) is a small, ear-shaped pouch in the muscle wall of the left atrium. (stratasys.com)
  • In normal hearts, the heart contracts with each heartbeat, and the blood in the left atrium and LAA is squeezed out of the left atrium into the left ventricle When a patient has atrial fibrillation, the electrical impulses that control the heartbeat do not travel in an organized manner through the heart. (stratasys.com)
  • Medtronic, Boston Scientific, Johnson & Johnson and Abbott are tackling AFib with a new technique that uses pulsed field energy to ablate heart tissue and new approaches to prevent blood clots from escaping the heart's left atrial appendage. (medtechdive.com)
  • Late 2023 saw both Medtronic and J&J announce the acquisition of devices designed to reduce the stroke risk associated with the heart's left atrial appendage (LAA), a small sac in the upper left chamber. (medtechdive.com)
  • Prior to skin incision, a temperature probe was placed in the esophagus and verified by fluoroscopy at the level of the left atrial posterior wall. (ctsnet.org)
  • As the pericardium was opened, the EPi-Sense trocar together with a 5 mm endoscope were placed behind the left atrial posterior wall and the pulmonary veins were visualized. (ctsnet.org)
  • Research Interest: Dr. Badhwar has published electrophysiologic characteristics of SVTs including atrial tachycardia arising from the coronary sinus musculature, para-hisian atrial tachycardia, left sided AVNRT, junctional tachycardia and nodofascicular tachycardia. (stanford.edu)
  • This study is a prospective, multicenter, randomized (2:1) controlled study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the LARIAT System to percutaneously isolate and ligate the Left Atrial Appendage from the left atrium as an adjunct to planned pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) catheter ablation in the treatment of subjects with symptomatic persistent or longstanding persistent atrial fibrillation. (stanford.edu)
  • Can a mitral stenosis or enlarged left atrial appendage in the heart cause muscle cramping, aching, fatigue, and heaviness in the arms and legs during exercise and exertion? (healthtap.com)
  • Convergent hybrid AF ablation is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for treating persistent atrial fibrillation. (ctsnet.org)
  • 11. Evaluation of adult versus pediatric transesophageal echocardiography probe efficiency for guiding septal puncture during atrial fibrillation ablation. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical Interest: Dr. Badhwar's clinical interest is in complex catheter ablation procedures including mapping and ventricular tachycardia (VT), atrial fibrillation (AF) and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) including junctional variants of SVT. (stanford.edu)
  • He has also published clinical outcomes of combining LAA ligation with catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation perform (first in human percutaneous closed chested Maze procedure) and is now part of a multi-center randomized study comparing standard ablation to ablation plus LAA ligation in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (aMAZE trial). (stanford.edu)
  • Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who underwent transesophageal echocardiography or multi-detector coronary computed tomography were included in the study. (j-stroke.org)
  • In this video, the authors demonstrate a successful convergent procedure in a sixty-nine-year-old normosthenic male patient suffering from persistent atrial fibrillation despite previous pulmonary vein isolations and electrical cardioversions. (ctsnet.org)
  • Hybrid Convergent Procedure for the Treatment of Persistent and Long-Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: Results of CONVERGE Clinical Trial. (ctsnet.org)
  • The escalating prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AFib), the growing geriatric population prone to cardiovascular disorders (CVDs), and ongoing product advancements and innovations represent some of the key factors driving the market. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common heart rhythm abnormality, affecting more than 33 million people worldwide and is highly associated with not only increased risk of cerebral stroke, but also sudden death, heart failure, impaired quality of life, and poor exercise capacity [1). (stratasys.com)
  • What is atrial fibrillation (AFib)? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Atrial fibrillation, also known as AFib or AF, is one of the most common types of arrhythmias . (medlineplus.gov)
  • What causes atrial fibrillation (AFib)? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Who is more likely to develop atrial fibrillation (AFib)? (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the symptoms of atrial fibrillation (AFib)? (medlineplus.gov)
  • How is atrial fibrillation (AFib) diagnosed? (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the treatments for atrial fibrillation (AFib)? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Since correct positioning of the clip on the LAA basis with no residual pouch was confirmed by transesophageal echocardiography, the clip was released and subtotal excision of the appendage for decompression was performed (2). (ctsnet.org)
  • By maintaining the atrial contribution to cardiac output, symptoms of heart failure and overall quality of life can improve. (medscape.com)
  • 18, cardiac transplantation, and chronic atrial pacing. (psu.edu)
  • Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. (nih.gov)
  • Atrial fibrillation is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. (nih.gov)
  • In the AFFIRM study (Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management), an insignificant trend toward increased mortality was noted in the rate control group, and importantly, no evidence suggested that the rhythm-control strategy protected patients from stroke. (medscape.com)
  • Although significant progress has been made in recent years, a new survey from the European Society of Cardiology finds that there are still too many atrial fibrillation patients who are not taking the best medications to reduce their elevated risk for stroke. (jwatch.org)
  • Medical technology companies in 2024 are launching devices that address two especially vexing challenges affecting millions of heart patients: high blood pressure and atrial fibrillation, a form of irregular heartbeat. (medtechdive.com)
  • Although atrial fibrillation may be a permanent disease, various treatments and risk modifying strategies have been developed to help reduce the risk of stroke in patients that remain in atrial fibrillation. (nih.gov)
  • This activity describes the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of atrial fibrillation and highlights the role of team-based interprofessional care for affected patients. (nih.gov)
  • Explain the interprofessional team strategies for improving care coordination and communication regarding the management of patients with atrial fibrillation. (nih.gov)
  • In more chronic cases, there is more organization of the thrombus (e.g., presence of vascularized fibrous connective tissue, inflammation, and/or cartilage metaplasia), with potential attachment to the atrial wall. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple layers of fibrin, erythrocytes, and scattered inflammatory cells (arrows) comprise this right atrial thrombus. (nih.gov)
  • The center offers new options for valve replacement and repairs as well as treatments for septal defects and stroke prevention for atrial fibrillation. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • Atrial fibrillation is referred to as recurrent when a patient has two or more episodes. (nih.gov)
  • Risk factors for atrial fibrillation include advanced age, high blood pressure, underlying heart and lung disease, congenital heart disease, and increased alcohol consumption. (nih.gov)
  • One concern is that an extensive maze procedure can render the atrial severely hypocontractile, which may elevate the risk of embolic stroke even if AF is substantively suppressed. (medscape.com)
  • Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is a rapid, irregularly irregular atrial rhythm. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A very large new meta-analysis finds a favorable risk-benefit for the new oral anticoagulant drugs in the setting of atrial fibrillation. (jwatch.org)
  • The faster heart rate and loss of atrial contraction with onset of atrial fibrillation often lead to sudden worsening of symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (nih.gov)
  • The increased risk of stroke in people with atrial fibrillation (AF) is well known, and this stroke risk is, of course, linked to an increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. (jwatch.org)
  • Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is a well-known risk factor for stroke, which is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. (j-stroke.org)
  • The risk of atrial fibrillation increases as you get older, especially when you are over age 65. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You may be at risk of atrial fibrillation in the early days and weeks after surgery on your heart , lungs, or esophagus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have atrial fibrillation and you are at increased risk for a stroke, your cardiologist may recommend blood thinners. (sjpp.org)
  • The device will remain in the heart permanently to stop the abnormal flow of blood between the two atrial chambers of the heart. (spectrumhealth.org)
  • LAA anatomy - a structure known to be highly variable in geometry - is complicated and it is hard to quantify the interaction between the device and the appendage even with advanced imaging techniques. (stratasys.com)
  • Background: Sinus P-wave abnormalities have been associated stroke in people with atrial fibrillation (AF). (psu.edu)
  • People with atrial fibrillation are 5 to 7 times more likely to have a stroke than the general population. (stratasys.com)
  • Summarize the treatment and management options available for atrial fibrillation. (nih.gov)
  • Any condition that leads to inflammation, stress, damage, or ischemia affecting the anatomy of the heart can result in the development of atrial fibrillation. (nih.gov)