A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A triazine herbicide.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of fescue is also used with some other grasses.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.
An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
5-Amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione. Substance that emits light on oxidation. It is used in chemical determinations.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.

Maternal exposure to atrazine during lactation suppresses suckling-induced prolactin release and results in prostatitis in the adult offspring. (1/193)

The availability of prolactin (PRL) to the neonatal brain is known to affect the development of the tuberoinfundibular (TIDA) neurons and, as a consequence, lead to alterations in subsequent PRL regulation. Without early lactational exposure to PRL (derived from the dam's milk), TIDA neuronal growth is impaired and elevated PRL levels are present in the prepubertal male. These observations, combined with the finding that alterations in PRL secretion (i.e., hyperprolactinemia) in the adult male rat have been implicated in the development of prostatitis, led us to hypothesize that early lactational exposure to agents that suppress suckling-induced PRL release would lead to a disruption in TIDA development, altered PRL regulation, and subsequent prostatitis in the male offspring. To test this hypothesis, suckling-induced PRL release was measured in Wistar dams treated twice daily with the herbicide atrazine (ATR, by gavage, on PND 1-4 at 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg body weight), or twice daily with the dopamine receptor agonist bromocriptine (BROM, sc, at 0.052, 0.104, 0.208, and 0.417 mg/kg); BROM is known to suppress PRL release. Similarly, atrazine has also been reported to suppress PRL in adult females. Serum PRL was measured on PND 3 using a serial sampling technique and indwelling cardiac catheters. A significant rise in serum PRL release was noted in all control females within 10 min of the initiation of suckling. Fifty-mg/kg ATR inhibited suckling-induced PRL release in all females, whereas 25 and 12.5 mg/kg ATR inhibited this measure in some dams and had no discernible effect in others. The 6.25 mg/kg dose of ATR was without effect. BROM, used here as a positive control, also inhibited suckling-induced PRL release at doses of 0.104 to 0.417 mg/kg, with no effect at 0.052 mg/kg. To examine the effect of postnatal ATR and BROM on the incidence and severity of inflammation (INF) of the lateral prostate of the offspring, adult males were examined at 90 and 120 days. While no effect was noted at 90 days of age, at 120 days, both the incidence and severity of prostate inflammation was increased in those offspring of ATR-treated dams (25 and 50 mg/kg). The 12.5 mg/kg ATR and the two highest doses of BROM increased the incidence, but not the severity, of prostatitis. Combined treatment of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and 25 or 50 mg/kg ATR on PND 1-4 reduced the incidence of inflammation observed at 120 days, indicating that this increase in INF, seen after ATR alone, resulted from the suppression of PRL in the dam. To determine whether or not there is a critical period for these effects, dams were dosed with 25 and 50 mg/kg on PND 6-9 and PND 11-14. Inflammation was increased in those offspring from dams treated on PND 6-9, but this increase was not significant. Dosing on PND 11-14 was without effect. These data demonstrate that ATR suppresses suckling-induced PRL release and that this suppression results in lateral prostate inflammation in the offspring. The critical period for this effect is PND 1-9.  (+info)

Associations between stomach cancer incidence and drinking water contamination with atrazine and nitrate in Ontario (Canada) agroecosystems, 1987-1991. (2/193)

BACKGROUND: Nitrate and atrazine are two chemicals that are heavily used in certain sectors of agriculture. They are suspected to be associated with the development of certain types of tumours. METHODS: Existing data were obtained on the incidence of specific types of cancers, contamination of drinking water with atrazine and nitrate, and related agricultural practices for the 40 ecodistricts in the province of Ontario. The data were merged into a georelational database for geographical and statistical analyses. Weighted (by population size) least squares regression analyses were conducted while controlling for confounding socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Maximum likelihood spatial error models were estimated when least square regression error terms were found to be spatially autocorrelated using the Moran's I statistic. RESULTS: Atrazine contamination levels (range 50-649 ng/l, maximum acceptable concentration [MAC] = 60000 ng/l) were positively associated (P < 0.05) with stomach cancer incidence and negatively associated with colon cancer incidence. Nitrate levels, (range 0-91 mg/l, MAC = 10 mg/l) were negatively associated with stomach cancer incidence. CONCLUSION: The associations found at the ecodistrict level, both positive and negative, if confirmed by other studies, raise serious questions about maximum allowable limits for atrazine, as well as possibilities of complex trade-offs among disease outcomes, and interactions of biophysical and social mechanisms which might explain them. Although the negative associations appear to have no direct biological explanations, such counter-intuitive outcomes may occur in complex systems where social and biological variables interact.  (+info)

Atrazine disrupts the hypothalamic control of pituitary-ovarian function. (3/193)

The chloro-S-triazine herbicides (i.e., atrazine, simazine, cyanazine) constitute the largest group of herbicides sold in the United States. Despite their extensive usage, relatively little is known about the possible human-health effects and mechanism(s) of action of these compounds. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the chlorotriazines disrupt the hormonal control of ovarian cycles. Results from these studies led us to hypothesize that these herbicides disrupt endocrine function primarily through their action on the central nervous system. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined the estrogen-induced surges of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Long-Evans hooded (LE) rats treated with atrazine (50-300 mg/kg/day, by gavage) for 1, 3, or 21 days. One dose of atrazine (300 mg/kg) suppressed the LH and prolactin surge in ovariectomized LE, but not SD female rats. Atrazine (300 mg/kg) administered to intact LE females on the day of vaginal proestrus was without effect on ovulation but did induce a pseudopregnancy in 7 of 9 females. Three daily doses of atrazine suppressed the estrogen-induced LH and prolactin surges in ovariectomized LE females in a dose-dependent manner, but this same treatment was without effect on serum LH and prolactin in SD females. The estrogen-induced surges of both pituitary hormones were suppressed by atrazine (75-300 mg/kg/day) in a dose-dependent manner in females of both strains evaluated after 21 days of treatment. Three experiments were then performed to determine whether the brain, pituitary, or both organs were the target sites for the chlorotriazines. These included examination of the ability of (1) the pituitary lactotrophs to secrete prolactin, using hypophyosectomized females bearing pituitary autotransplants (ectopic pituitaries); (2) the synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to induce LH secretion in females treated with high concentrations of atrazine for 3 days; and (3) atrazine (administered in vivo or in vitro) to suppress LH and prolactin secretion from pituitaries, using a flow-through perifusion procedure. In conclusion, the results of these studies demonstrate that atrazine alters LH and prolactin serum levels in the LE and SD female rats by altering the hypothalamic control of these hormones. In this regard, the LE female appeared to be more sensitive to the hormone suppressive effects of atrazine, as indicated by the decreases observed on treatment-day 3. These experiments support the hypothesis that the effect of atrazine on LH and prolactin secretion is mediated via a hypothalamic site of action.  (+info)

Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste. (4/193)

The practice of immunoassay has experienced a widespread transition from radioisotopic labeling to nonisotopic labeling over the last two decades. Radioisotope labels have drawbacks that hamper their applications: (i) perceived radiation hazards of reagents, (ii) regulatory requirements and disposal problems of working with radioactive materials, and (iii) short shelf-life of the labeled reagents. The advantage of isotopic labeling is the incorporation into analytes without altering structure or reactivity, as is often the case with ELISA or fluorescent detection systems. We developed a format for isotope label immunoassay with the long-life isotope (14)C as the label and accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) as the detection system. AMS quantifies attomole levels of several isotopes, including (14)C. With this exquisite sensitivity, the sensitivity of an immunoassay is limited by the K(d) of the antibody and not the detection system. The detection limit of the assays for atrazine and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was 2.0 x 10(-10) M and 2.0 x 10(-11) M, respectively, approximately an order of magnitude below the standard enzyme immunoassay. Notably, <1 dpm (0.45 pCi) of (14)C-labeled compound was used in each assay, which is well below the limit of disposal (50 nCi per g) as nonradioactive waste. Thus, endogenous reporter ligands quantified by AMS provide the advantages of an RIA without the associated problems of radioactive waste.  (+info)

Determination of selected herbicides and phenols in water and soils by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. (5/193)

A high-performance liquid chromatography procedure or the determination of the herbicides simazine, propazine, bromacil, metoxuron, and hexazinone is elaborated. Stationary phases RP8 and RP18 and mixtures of methanol-water (2:1 and 1:1, v/v) as a mobile phase are applied for this purpose. The conditions for solid-phase extraction are established, allowing the separation of phenols and herbicides in their mixtures and the extraction of phenols (from river and coke plant water) and herbicides (from the soil samples).  (+info)

Analysis of the diversity of a sheep antibody repertoire as revealed from a bacteriophage display library. (6/193)

We have applied bacteriophage display technology to construct and analyze the diversity of an IgG library of >1 x 108 clones from an adult sheep immunized against the hapten atrazine. We have identified eight new VH gene families (VH2-VH9) and five new Vkappa gene families (VkappaV-VkappaIX). The heavy and kappa light chain variable region gene loci were found to be far more diverse than previously thought.  (+info)

Characterization of an atrazine-degrading Pseudaminobacter sp. isolated from Canadian and French agricultural soils. (7/193)

Atrazine, a herbicide widely used in corn production, is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant. Fourteen bacterial strains able to use this herbicide as a sole source of nitrogen were isolated from soils obtained from two farms in Canada and two farms in France. These strains were indistinguishable from each other based on repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR genomic fingerprinting performed with primers ERIC1R, ERIC2, and BOXA1R. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis of one representative isolate, strain C147, the isolates belong to the genus Pseudaminobacter in the family Rhizobiaceae. Strain C147 did not form nodules on the legumes alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.). A number of chloro-substituted s-triazine herbicides were degraded, but methylthio-substituted s-triazine herbicides were not degraded. Based on metabolite identification data, the fact that oxygen was not required, and hybridization of genomic DNA to the atzABC genes, atrazine degradation occurred via a series of hydrolytic reactions initiated by dechlorination and followed by dealkylation. Most strains could mineralize [ring-U-(14)C]atrazine, and those that could not mineralize atrazine lacked atzB or atzBC. The atzABC genes, which were plasmid borne in every atrazine-degrading isolate examined, were unstable and were not always clustered together on the same plasmid. Loss of atzB was accompanied by loss of a copy of IS1071. Our results indicate that an atrazine-degrading Pseudaminobacter sp. with remarkably little diversity is widely distributed in agricultural soils and that genes of the atrazine degradation pathway carried by independent isolates of this organism are not clustered, can be independently lost, and may be associated with a catabolic transposon. We propose that the widespread distribution of the atrazine-degrading Pseudaminobacter sp. in agricultural soils exposed to atrazine is due to the characteristic ability of this organism to utilize alkylamines, and therefore atrazine, as sole sources of carbon when the atzABC genes are acquired.  (+info)

Differential modulation of catecholamines by chlorotriazine herbicides in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in vitro. (8/193)

Epidemiological, wildlife, and laboratory studies have pointed to the possible adverse health effects of chlorotriazine herbicide (i.e. , atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine) exposure. However, the cellular mechanism(s) of action of these compounds remains unknown. Recently, it was reported by Cooper et al. (2000, Toxicol. Sci. 53, 297-307) that atrazine disrupts ovarian function by altering hypothalamic catecholamine concentrations and subsequently the regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion by the pituitary. In this study, we examined the effect of three chlorotriazines on catecholamine metabolism in vitro using PC12 cells. Intracellular norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) concentrations and spontaneous NE release were measured following treatment with different concentrations of atrazine, simazine (0, 12. 5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 microM) and cyanazine (0, 25, 50, 100, and 400 microM) for 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h. Atrazine and simazine significantly decreased intracellular DA concentration in a concentration-dependent manner. Intracellular NE concentration was also significantly decreased by 100 and 200 microM atrazine and 200 microM simazine. Similarly, there was a dose-dependent inhibition of NE release with 100 and 200 microM concentrations of both compounds. Although 100 and 400 microM cyanazine increased intracellular NE concentration, 50, 100, and 400 microM cyanazine significantly increased NE release at 24 and 36 h. In contrast, intracellular DA concentration was decreased by cyanazine, but only at 400 microM. The GABA(A)-receptor agonist, muscimol (0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 microM) had no effect on either the release or on intracellular catecholamine concentrations from 6 through 24 h of treatment. Cell viability was somewhat lower in the groups exposed to 100 and 200 microM atrazine and simazine. However, the reduction in viability was significant only in the highest dose of atrazine used (200 microM) at 24 h. Cyanazine did not have an effect on the viability at any of the doses tested, and the cells were functional, even up to 48 h of exposure. These data indicate that both atrazine and simazine inhibit the cellular synthesis of DA mediated by the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and NE mediated by dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH), and, as a result, there is a partial or significant inhibition of NE release. Cyanazine, on the other hand, stimulated the synthesis of intracellular NE, and not DA. Thus, chlorotriazine compounds presumably act at the enzymatic steps or sites of CA biosynthesis to modulate monoaminergic activity in PC12 cells.  (+info)

Atrazine, 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine, (ATR) is the most heavily used herbicide in the United States with over 70 million pounds of atrazine applied annually and it is the most common herbicidal contaminant of ground water in agricultural areas. It is our goal to characterize the effects of prenatal atrazine exposure on the developing mammalian immune system. We hypothesie th
Environmental factors can alter DNA methylation and epigenetic modifications in the germline [51, 90]. We studied the effects of the widely used herbicide atrazine (ATZ) on meiosis. In many countries, ATZ is the most common contaminant detected in rivers [19, 72, 92]. ATZ residues are even detected in soil and aqueous environments in countries where it has been banned [59, 102, 103]. Low levels of ATZ metabolites in pregnant women are associated with low birth weight [16, 61]. In mammals, ATZ is metabolized by several groups of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. The metabolism of ATZ interferes with oxidative phosphorylation and cytochrome P450 function, resulting in decreased oxygen consumption [10, 14, 39, 47]. ATZ is known to alter reproductive processes in rodents [96, 101], reptiles [18], birds [104], goats [81], amphibians [28-30] and fish [63, 69]. ATZ targets many tissues, including the testes [67, 68, 101], ovaries [8, 17, 41, 52], brain [5, 7], liver [25, 36, 38, 78]. The effects of ATZ ...
Beyond Pesticides, December 15, 2009) Exposure to the endocrine-disrupting herbicide atrazine triggers the release of stress hormones in rats, according to a new study published in the December 2009 issue of the journal Toxicological Sciences. The researchers believe this may explain how the popular weed killer produces some its harmful reproductive effects. The study, Characterization of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Response to Atrazine and Metabolites in the Female Rat, was conducted by the Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory.. According to a December 4 analysis by Environmental Health Sciences, a foundation-funded journalism organization, the researchers discovered that female rats fed atrazine at the time of ovulation released a flow of stress hormones that are known to interfere with hormones essential for reproduction. The findings reveal one way atrazine may impact female reproduction. Elevated stress hormones ...
The herbicide atrazine is one of the most commonly applied pesticides in the world. As a result, atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground, surface, and drinking water. Atrazine is also a potent endocrine disruptor that is active at low, ecologically relevant concentrations. Previous studies showed that atrazine adversely affects amphibian larval development. The present study demonstrates the reproductive consequences of atrazine exposure in adult amphibians. Atrazine-exposed males were both demasculinized (chemically castrated) and completely feminized as adults. Ten percent of the exposed genetic males developed into functional females that copulated with unexposed males and produced viable eggs. Atrazine-exposed males suffered from depressed testosterone, decreased breeding gland size, demasculinized/feminized laryngeal development, suppressed mating behavior, reduced spermatogenesis, and decreased fertility. These data are consistent with effects of atrazine ...
The herbicide atrazine is one of the most commonly applied pesticides in the world. As a result, atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground, surface, and drinking water. Atrazine is also a potent endocrine disruptor that is active at low, ecologically relevant concentrations. Previous studies showed that atrazine adversely affects amphibian larval development. The present study demonstrates the reproductive consequences of atrazine exposure in adult amphibians. Atrazine-exposed males were both demasculinized (chemically castrated) and completely feminized as adults. Ten percent of the exposed genetic males developed into functional females that copulated with unexposed males and produced viable eggs. Atrazine-exposed males suffered from depressed testosterone, decreased breeding gland size, demasculinized/feminized laryngeal development, suppressed mating behavior, reduced spermatogenesis, and decreased fertility. These data are consistent with effects of atrazine ...
Contribution of Acinetobacter genus in the degradation of atrazine and its analogs is reported here. An interesting bacterial isolate capable of degrading atrazine as high as 250 ppm was isolated from a soil heavily contaminated with atrazine. The permissible level of atrazine in drinking water is 3 ppb and hence use of a strain capable of atrazine degradation as high as 250 ppm would be of immense help for rapid environmental cleanup. This isolate was found to be capable of best growth at 37 degrees C and at pH inclined towards the alkaline side. It was found that atrazine was utilized as a carbon and not as a nitrogen source. Acinetobacter species was also active on other triazine pesticides, viz., simazine, terbutryn, cyanazine, and prometon. There are very few reports on the degradation of atrazine by any member of this genus and hence this could lead to new degradation pathways and new metabolites.. ...
Beyond Pesticides, March 3, 2010) A recently published study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences finds that male frogs exposed to the herbicide atrazine can become so completely female that they can mate and lay viable eggs. This latest study adds to the growing scientific evidence which shows that atrazine, one of the most common herbicides used in the U.S., disrupts the development and behavior of aquatic animals, and negatively effects their immune, hormone, and reproductive systems. The study, Atrazine induces complete feminization and chemical castration in male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), led by Tyrone Hayes, PhD, at the University of California, Berkeley, demonstrates the reproductive consequences of atrazine exposure in adult amphibians. Dr. Hayes and other researchers examined a group of 40 African clawed frogs, all of which carried male chromosomes. As tadpoles, the frogs were put in water with 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) of atrazine - a concentration ...
The EPA has measured concentrations of atrazine and similar pesticides in food crops and livestock commodities. They used this information in another model which contains data from consumption surveys (that asked for the type and amount of food consumed) of nearly 25,000 individuals in the US. The model converted any processed food into its corresponding raw agricultural commodity (i.e., vegetable, fruit, cereal grain, etc.), thus estimate the amount of atrazine an average American consumes through food.. Additionally, the EPA periodically monitors lakes, streams, rivers and groundwater for levels of atrazine. Using toxicology data, the EPA is able to estimate the maximum concentration of atrazine in drinking water safe for humans. This concentration should be less than the concentrations actually observed in the EPAs extensive water monitoring data.. Finally, the EPA addressed atrazine exposure through skin contact. They looked at studies on how much atrazine transferred to cloths that were ...
Soluble sugars, which play a central role in plant structure and metabolism, are also involved in the responses to a number of stresses, and act as metabolite signalling molecules that activate specific or hormone-crosstalk transduction pathways. The different roles of exogenous sucrose in the tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana plantlets to the herbicide atrazine and oxidative stress were studied by a transcriptomic approach using CATMA arrays. Parallel situations of xenobiotic stress and sucrose-induced tolerance in the presence of atrazine, of sucrose, and of sucrose plus atrazine were compared. These approaches revealed that atrazine affected gene expression and therefore seedling physiology at a much larger scale than previously described, with potential impairment of protein translation and of reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) defence mechanisms. Correlatively, sucrose-induced protection against atrazine injury was associated with important modifications of gene expression related to ROS defence
Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) was the most frequently detected analyte (58% > limit of detection [LOD]) followed by desethyl atrazine (6%), desethyl atrazine mercapturate (3%), atrazine mercapturate (1%), hydroxyl atrazine (1%), atrazine (1%) and desisopropyl atrazine (0.5%). Because of low detection of other analytes, only DACT was included in the exposure-outcome analyses. The adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.13 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]:0.82, 1.55) and exposure < median was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.42) compared to girls with exposure < LOD (reference). In the subset that excluded girls with missing data, the adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.38) and exposure < median was 1.26 (95% CI: 0.65, 2.24) compared to the reference ...
The Environmental Protection Agency will hold a Scientific Advisory Panel public meeting Tuesday, to review and consider the ecological risks from the use of Atrazine. The product is one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States and it could be banned here. Produced by Swiss agrochemical company Syngenta, Atrazine has been banned in the European Union since 2004, but 80 million pounds of it are applied in the United States each year.. Atrazine is a potent endocrine disruptor that has been shown to cause immunosuppression, hermaphroditism and even complete sex reversal in male frogs at concentrations as low as 2.5 parts per billion. The chemical has been linked to reproductive defects in fish and prostate and breast cancer in laboratory rodents, and epidemiological studies suggest it is carcinogenic to humans. Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide in American groundwater.. It is used primarily on corn, sugarcane, rice, sorghum and on golf courses and lawns. Atrazine has a ...
A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL)-based immunoassay technique based on both dipstick and flow injection analytical formats is reported for the detection of atrazine. In the dipstick-based immunoassay technique, antibody (anti-atrazine) was first immobilized on the nitrocellulose membranes. The dipstick was then treated with atrazine and atrazine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (atra-HRP) to facilitate the competitive binding. The dipstick was further treated with urea-hydrogen peroxide (U-H2O2) and luminol to generate photons. The number of photons generated was inversely proportional to the atrazine concentration. In the flow injection analysis (FIA) format, the antibody was immobilized on protein-A sepharose matrix and packed in a glass capillary column, which functioned as an immunoreactor. Competitive binding of antigen and antibody occurred. The CL signals generated during the biochemical reactions were correlated with atrazine concentrations in the analytical samples. By using dipstick ...
Excessive use of pesticides and herbicides is a major environmental and health concern worldwide. Atrazine, a synthetic triazine herbicide commonly used to control grassy and broadleaf weeds in...
Atrazine is widely used as a selective triazine herbicide for controlling a wide varieties of broad-leaf and grassy weeds [1]. Atrazine herbicide is moderately present in the aquatic environment and has a low rate of biodegradability. Despite the atrazines low water solubility, there is much concern about the contamination of water resources with the highly toxic herbicides [2, 3]. Many studies reported that atrazines half-life in the aqueous phase and groundwater resources ranges from 41 to 237 days and 15 months to 20 years, respectively [4].. The maximum contaminant level for atrazine in drinking water established by the USEPA and WHO is 3.0 and 2.0 \( \mu \)gL−1, respectively [5]. Long-term effects of atrazine include probable human carcinogen, endocrine-disrupter, alteration in vitamins function, hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity [6].. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) [7] and photocatalytic oxidation process are efficient methods relying on hydroxyl radicals (OH°) production to ...
A new study came out this week that happened to remind me of one of my pet peeves about certain biomedical studies -- choosing an outcome measure that doesnt tell you what you really want to know. The study, which was led by Stanford postdoctoral fellow Jennifer Hartle, DrPH, and estimated the amount of BPA a child is exposed to in the course of a normal school day, was great. But her description of EPA safety tests on the plastics component Bisphenol A, or BPA -- done back in the 1980s -- made me think back to earlier work by University of California, Berkeley biologist Tyrone Hayes, PhD.. In the 1990s, the agricultural herbicide atrazine was safety tested by exposing frogs to low doses of atrazine as they developed from eggs to tadpoles to frogs. The adult frogs didnt die or show obvious deformities such as extra legs, so the pesticide was deemed safe. But Hayes took a closer look and, in 2002, found that even at very low levels of atrazine exposure, male frogs were producing eggs instead ...
Abstract The photodegradation of the herbicides atrazine and ametryn with visible light in aerated neutral aqueous solutions and 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis (2,6-dichloro-3-sulfophenyl) porphyrin or 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis (4-sulfophenyl) porphyrin as sensitizers are reported for the first time. Our findings show that the degradation percentage reached 30% for atrazine and 63% for ametryn. The final photoproducts were characterized as dealkylated s-triazines. Photolysis of the pesticides in the presence of a singlet oxygen quencher showed only a minor contribution of this type of mechanism, while a bimolecular quenching reaction between the triplet state of the sensitizer and the pesticides is excluded by flash photolysis studies. It is proposed that the mechanism may involve the formation of a superoxide radical anion from the triplet state of the sensitizer and molecular oxygen, followed by a radical decomposition pathway ...
Following is a press release from US EPA summarizing important regulatory actions relating to atrazine.. In January 2003, EPA issued an Interim Re-registration Eligibility Decision (IRED) for the widely-used pesticide atrazine, culminating a multi-year assessment. Specific risk mitigation measures were described for potential human health concerns, however the document committed to future development of measures for mitigating ecological risks. As a follow-up, an addendum to the January document is being released. The addendum discusses ecological monitoring and risk mitigation within sensitive watersheds, the most current scientific information regarding potential effects of atrazine on amphibians and recent scientific work about the potential association between atrazine exposure and the incidence of prostate and other cancers.. Specifically to target monitoring of ecologically vulnerable watersheds, the manufacturers of atrazine are required to monitor residue levels in 40 indicator ...
atrazine chlorohydrolase: an atrazine-dechlorinating enzyme with restricted substrate specificity & contributes to the microbial hydrolysis of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine in soils & groundwater
The PELAGIE cohort. The PELAGIE cohort included 3,421 pregnant women from Brittany from 2002 through February 2006. Enrollment started in the district of Ille-et-Vilaine, continued in Finistère, and ended in Côtes dArmor. Gynecologists, obstetricians, and ultrasonographers recruited women during consultations in early pregnancy, informing them about the nature of the study and asking them to participate (after providing written consent). Women were enrolled before the 19th week of gestation after providing written informed consent and completing a questionnaire at home concerning family social and demographic characteristics, diet, and lifestyle. Women were asked to return the questionnaire by mail, along with a first-morning-void urine sample that they collected and transferred into two vials containing nitric acid (to inhibit bacterial proliferation). Samples were mailed to the study laboratory (INSERM U625, Rennes, France) in a prestamped package at ambient temperature, with routine ...
Article Sorption and resistant desorption of Atrazine in typical Chinese soils. Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides and is produced and used in large quantity worldwide. In the present study, the sorption and desorption of atrazine i...
Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR) radiation and ultraviolet (UV)-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIPuv possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIPFIR radiation counterparts. Scatchard plots of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high- and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF) and different selectivity index (SI) for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by
The present study investigates the efficiency of a sustainable treatment technology, the electrophotocatalytic (EPC) process using innovative photoanode TiO2−x prepared by a magnetron sputter deposition process to remove the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) from water. The coexistence of anatase and rutile were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the presence of oxygen vacancies reduce the value of the observed bandgap to 3.0 eV compared to the typical 3.2 eV TiO2, this reduction is concomitant with a partial phase transition which is probably responsible for the increase in photoactivity. The experimental results with an initial concentration of ATZ (100 μg L−1) show that more than 99% of ATZ oxidation was obtained after 30 min of treatment and reaction kinetic constant was about 0.146 min−1. This good efficiency indicates that EPC process is an efficient, simple and green technique for degradation of pesticides such as ATZ in water. The analysis with liquid chromatography technique ...
Tese de mestrado em Biologia (Biologia Celular e Biotecnologia), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2008Atrazine has been used worldwide since 1952 and is frequently detected above the levels established by regulatory authorities in consumption waters. Therefore, and because of its ecotoxicological properties, its use has been forbidden in most European countries, including Portugal. However, atrazine is still used in many countries worldwide. The main purpose of the present work was to examine the efficacy of the atrazinedegrading bacteria Pseudomonas sp. ADP (P. ADP) as bioaugmentation agent in soils contaminated with high doses (~20x and ~50xRD; RD Recommended dose) of the commercial formulation, Primextra S-Gold, that contains atrazine, and also S-metolachlor and benoxacor as main active ingredients. It was also tested the effect of combining bioaugmentation and biostimulation using soil amendment with trisodium citrate in open soil microcosms, with ...
Atrazine exposure during embryonic development could cause later reproductive problems for female zebrafish, as well as physical deformations in their offspring, according to new research from Purdue University.
The herbicide atrazine is a potent endocrine disrupter that chemically castrates and feminizes exposed male amphibians. Further, when combined with other pesticides, exposure results in a hormonal stress response that leads to retarded growth and development, and immuno-suppression. The immuno-suppression results in increased disease rates and mortality. Though many factors likely contribute to amphibian declines, pesticides likely play an important role even in populations that appear to decline for other reasons, such as disease. Pesticides like atrazine are ubiquitous, persistent contaminants. Effects of exposure have been shown in every vertebrate class examined (fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals) via common mechanisms. These observations demonstrate the critical impact that pesticides have on environmental health. Furthermore, reproductive cancers and birth defects associated with exposure to many of these same chemicals (e.g. atrazine) via identical mechanisms demonstrate that the ...
Reliable predictions of the fate and behaviour of pesticides in soils is dependent on the use of accurate equilibrium sorption constants and/or rate coefficients. However, the sensitivity of these parameters to changes in the physicochemical characteristics of soil solids and interstitial solutions remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effects of soil organic matter content, particle size distribution, dissolved organic matter and the presence of crop residues (wheat straw and ash) on the sorption of the herbicides atrazine and isoproturon by a clay soil. Sorption Kds derived from batch equilibrium studies for both atrazine and isoproturon by ,2 mm clay soil were approximately 3.5 L/kg. The similarity of Kocs for isoproturon sorption by the ,2 mm clay soil and ,2 mm clay soil oxidised with hydrogen peroxide suggested that the sorption of this herbicide was strongly influenced by soil organic matter. By contrast, Kocs for atrazine sorption by oxidised soil were three times ...
Citation: Barriuso, E., Koskinen, W.C., Sadowsky, M.J. 2004. Solvent extraction characterization of bioavailability of atrazine residues in soils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52:6552-6556. Interpretive Summary: Characterization of pesticide bioavailability, particularly in aged soils, is of continued interest because this information is necessary for environmental risk assessment of pesticides. The objective of this study was to correlate atrazine (a triazine herbicide) residue bioavailability in aged soils, as determined by solvent extraction methods, to atrazine mineralization by an atrazine-degrading bacterium. We identified an extraction procedure using aqueous methanol (a water/alcohol mixture) that can characterize atrazine bioavailability in dissimilar aged soils, which in turn may be useful to determine bioavailability of other compounds in soils, especially other triazine herbicides. Scientists now a relatively easy and inexpensive technique to determine the amounts of ...
The most-researched crop production product in use today is subject of another study that raises questions about the safe levels of the product in drinking water. Atrazine, a widely used herbicide, has been on the market for more than 50 years, and has been subject to thousands of studies.. This latest toxicology study from Purdue University reports to have found that atrazine alters reproductive and neuroendocrine genes during embryonic development in fish. Digging into the study isnt for the non-tech faint of heart; this is a look at a genetic response to the herbicide on 42 genes out of more than 35,000 in the genome of a fish - the zebrafish.. Freeman tells Farm Progress that researchers evaluated all the genes in the zebrafish genome for changes in response to exposure at 0.3 parts per billion, 3 ppb and 30 ppb. She reports that 21 genes changed at 0.3 ppb, 62 genes changed at 3 ppb and 64 genes changed at 30 ppb adding that 42 is the number o genes that were changed in both the 3 and ...
Atrazine (ATR) is an herbicide that has been shown to have adverse reproductive effects including alterations in levels of pituitary hormones such as prolactin (prl) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in female LE rats when administered at doses of 200 mg/kg/day for 1 and 3 days. Because the action of prl in promotion of progesterone secretion is essential for the initiation of pregnancy in rats, this study was designed to examine the effect of exposure to ATR during early pregnancy on implantation and short-term pregnancy maintenance. Rats were divided into two groups representing periods of dosing with ATR prior to the diurnal or nocturnal surges of prl. Within each group, four groups consisting of four strains of rats [Holtzman (HLZ); Sprague Dawley (SD); Long Evans (LE); Fischer 344 (F344)] were each further subdivided into four ATR dosages. Rats were dosed by gavage with 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day ATR on days 1-8 of pregnancy (day 0 = sperm +). All animals were necropsied on day 8 or 9 of ...
Atrazine is a common but controversial pre- and post-emergent herbicide used to control broadleaf and grass-like weeds in commercial farming fields. It is also a component of granular weed and feed lawn products designed for the home and landscape gardener. The use of atrazine is banned in Europe due to concerns over ...
G-Protein-Coupled Receptor 30 and Estrogen Receptor-α Are Involved in the Proliferative Effects Induced by Atrazine in Ovarian Cancer Cells. BACKGROUND: Atrazine, one of the most common pesticide contaminants, has been shown to up-regulate aromatase activity in certain estrogen-sensitive tumors without binding or activating the estrogen receptor (ER). Recent investigations have demonstrated that the orphan G-protein- coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), which is structurally unrelated to the ER, mediates rapid actions of 17β-estradiol and environmental estrogens. OBJECTIVES: Given the ability of atrazine to exert estrogen-like activity in cancer cells, we evaluated the potential of atrazine to signal through GPR30 in stimulating biological responses in cancer cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Atrazine did not transactivate the endogenous ERα in different cancer cell contexts or chimeric proteins encoding the ERα and ERβ hormone-binding domain in gene reporter assays. Moreover, atrazine neither regulated ...
Adsorption of two widespread emerging water contaminants (atrazine and paracetamol) onto three different activated carbons was investigated. The carbons were characterized and the influence of their physicochemical properties on the adsorption performance of atrazine and paracetamol was evaluated. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to different adsorption isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) while the adsorption rates were described using three different kinetic models (pseudo second order, intraparticle diffusion and a new approach based on diffusion-reaction models). The results indicated that hydrophobic character of the compounds does not affect the sorption capacity of the tested carbons but does influence the uptake rate. The model proposed, based on mass balances, lead to interpret and compare the kinetic of different adsorbents in contrast to classical empirical models. The model is a simple and powerful tool able to satisfactorily estimate the ...
EPAs draft human health risk assessment for atrazine identifies potential risks to workers who apply atrazine or enter treated fields after application.
M. M. Corvi, Stanley, K. A., Peterson, T. S., Kent, M. L., Feist, S. W., La Du, J. K., Volz, D. C., Hosmer, A. J., and Tanguay, R. L., Investigating the Impact of Chronic Atrazine Exposure on Sexual Development in Zebrafish, Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 95, no. 44, pp. 276 - 288, 2012. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immobilization of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. T2 - Applied Clay Science. AU - Stelting, Scott. AU - Burns, Richard G.. AU - Sunna, Anwar. AU - Visnovsky, Gabriel. AU - Bunt, Craig R.. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - Storage and delivery of beneficial microorganisms are fundamental issues determining their value and effectiveness for a wide range of industrial and environmental purposes. One such application is the use of bacteria for the remediation of soil pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and persistent pesticides. Liquid cultures of a candidate for atrazine degradation in soil and water, Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP (3.67×10 9 colony-forming units, cfu/mL), when stored at 4 and 25°C, showed a 1 log reduction in cfu/mL occurs after approximately 4 and 2weeks, respectively. When immobilized onto natural zeolite from two sources (a New Zealand and an Australian quarry) and stored in open containers exposed to the ...
Oh, the beleaguered frogs. You probably already know that amphibian species are declining around the world. You have probably seen the depressing photos of deformed frogs trying to get through life with too many (or too few) legs. You may even have seen Dr. Tyrone Hayes breathtaking presentation on how the herbicide atrazine turns boy frogs in to hermaphrodite frogs.. This week the N & O ran a story about a new study that reinforces the theory that farm runoff is causing the deformed limbs. Excess nutrients in the water lead to lots more parasites in the water that turn normal tadpoles into sickly, deformed adult frogs.. One of the questions about this research is, how come the trematodes make frogs so sick? Theyre not a new pathogen - theyve always been in the frogs environments. Its just that lately the frogs cant seem to fight them off. Another stumper: if its one disease deforming the frogs, why does it affect so many species? Leopard frogs, bullfrogs, wood frogs, and many others have ...
Based on submission by Monika Frey to the MaizeGDB and the Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter. Function Maize gene for first step in biosynthesis of benzoxazin, which aids in resistance to insect pests, pathogenic fungi and bacteria. First report Hamilton 1964, as a mutant sensitive to the herbicide atrazine, and lacking benzoxazinoids (less than 1% of non-mutant plants). Mutations in the bx1 gene reduce the resistance to first generation European corn borer that is conferred by benzoxazinoids. Molecular characterization reveals that the BX1 protein is a homologue to the alpha-subunit of tryptophan synthase. The reference mutant allele has a deletion of about 900 bp, located at the 5-terminus and comprising sequence upstream of the transcription start site and the first exon. A second mutant allele is given by a Mu transposon insertion in the fourth exon (Frey et al. 1997 ). Gene sequence diversity analysis has been performed for 281 inbred lines of maize, and the results suggest that bx1 is ...
Atrazine is the worlds most widely used herbicide. It is used to control weeds in plantations, on roadsides, in parks, gardens, orchards and pastures, etc - lots of places where children play. It is notorious for its tendency to contaminate groundwater, with a consequent deleterious effect on human health as documented by the World Health Organisation. Because it is a systemic poison (organochlorine), its residues penetrate the flesh of fruit and vegetables and cannot be washed off. The Australian Medical Association is opposed to Atrazine spraying.. Research 4 has indicated that atrazine is associated with prostrate, ovarian and creast cancer and also damages the endocrine system, functioning as a synthetic hormone disruptor. As a hormon mimic it can block, antagonise, compete with, or mimic hormones at cellular level. This may lead to reproductive and endocrinal effects. Atrazine has also demonstrated cardiac toxicity in experimental animals. Exposure may lead to abdominal pain, impaired ...
Given that water is oxidized indirectly by P680+ and the build up of intermediates caused by inhibition in Qb would not allow P680 to deposit its extra electron into the beginning of the electron transport chain, water would not be oxidized/split into 2H+ and (1/2)O2 because P680 would not become P680+. So this inhibition would halt the production of oxygen, correct?. Given that, I would say that the production of O2 would be more immediately halted than that of ATP, especially since ATP synthase would continue to function until the electrochemical gradient between the stroma and thylakoid space was spent, and would not be immediately affected by inhibition in Qa (although the electron transport chain which maintains the electrochemical gradient would be compromised and thus indirectly ATP synthase would be affected).. Is my reasoning correct?. ...
Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is widely used as a broad-spectrum herbicide. Animal studies have demonstrated that ATR exposure can cause cell death in dopaminergic neurons. The molecular mechanisms underlying ATR-induced neuronal cell death, however, are unknown. In this study, we investigated the autophagy and apoptosis induced by ATR in dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Wistar rats were administered with ATR at doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for three months. In terms of histopathology, the expression of autophagy- and apoptosis-related genes as well as proteins related to the Beclin-1/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) autophagy and apoptosis pathways were examined in the rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. We observed degenerative micromorphology indicative of neuronal apoptosis and mitochondrial autophagy by electron microscopy in ATR-exposed rat striatum. The rat ventral mesencephalon in the ATR-exposed groups also showed increased
Atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N′-(l-methylethyl)-l,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) is a herbicide of the triazine family used for controlling broadleaf and some grassy weeds in corn and sorghum. Since its intr
Atrazine (ATR) blunts the hormone-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, when administered by gavage (50-100 mg/kg/day for 4 days), in ovariectomized rats. In this study, we determined if comparable doses delivered either by gavage (bolus dose) or distributed in diet would reduce the LH surge and subsequently affect fertility in the intact female rat. ATR was administered daily to intact female Sprague-Dawley (SD) or Long Evans (LE) rats by gavage (0, 0.75 1.5, 3, 6, 10, 12, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) or diet (0, 30, 100, 160, 500, 660, or 1460 ppm) during one complete 4-day estrous cycle, starting on day of estrus. Estrous status, corpora lutea, ova, and LH plasma concentrations were evaluated. A second cohort of animals was mated on the fourth treatment day. Fertility metrics were assessed on gestational day 20. A higher portion of LE rats had asynchronous estrous cycles when compared to SD rats both during pretreatment and in response to ATR (≥50 mg/kg). In contrast, bolus doses of ATR (≥50 mg/kg)
Avoid treating powdery dry or light sand soils when conditions are favorable for wind erosion. Under these conditions, settle the soil surface first by rainfall or irrigation.. - Do not apply to impervious substrates, such as paved or highly compacted surfaces.. - Do not use tailwater from the first flood or furrow irrigation of treated fields to treat nontarget crops, unless at least 1/2 inch of rainfall has occurred between application and the first irrigation.. Where directions specify a VISOR S-MOC HERBICIDE tank mixture with AAtrex formulations, other brands of atrazine may be used. Follow all use rates and other use restrictions on the AAtrex or respective atrazine product label if other brands of atrazine are used.. Note: Certain states may have established rate limitations for atrazine within specific geographical areas. Consult your state lead pesticide control agency for additional information. It is a violation of this label to deviate from state use regulations.. Precaution: Injury ...
Minutes released from the EPAs independent Scientific Advisory Panel show that there is serious concern about Atrazine and its cancer-causing properties.
EN] Intensive agriculture associated with the use of large amounts of different pesticides, together with the growing concern about the potential contamination of ground water, have brought about the need for developing fast screening methods. This work presents the automation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for atrazine by means of a flow-through system. Three different solid supports for antibody immobilization were compared in a direct competitive assay format. Sensitivity reached in all cases was below the maximum level allowed in the EU (100 ng L-1). Cross-reactivity of atrazine-related compounds was also studied. The performance of the different supports is discussed regarding sensitivity and immunosurface regeneration ...
Vermicomposting is an effective and environmentally friendly approach for eliminating soil organic contamination. Atrazine is one of the most commonly applied triazinic herbicides and frequently detected in agricultural soils. This study investigated the roles and mechanisms of two earthworm species (epigeic Eisenia foetida and endogeic Amynthas robustus) in microbial degradation of atrazine. Both earthworms accelerated atrazine degradation performance from 39.0% in sterile soils to 94.9%-95.7%, via neutralizing soil pH, consuming soil humus, altering bacterial community structure, enriching indigenous atrazine degraders and excreting the intestinal atrazine-degrading bacteria. Rhodoplanes and Kaistobacter were identified as soil indigenous degraders for atrazine mineralization and stimulated by both earthworm species. A. robustus excreted the intestinal Cupriavidus and Pseudomonas, whereas Flavobacterium was released by E. foetida. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the ...
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of atrazine on endocrine function in fish, using goldfish Carassius auratus as a model. Acute and chronic contaminations will be performed in the laboratory, using varying doses of the substance, to meet the following objectives ...
Over 200,000 cases of invasive breast cancer are diagnosed annually; herbicide contaminants in local water sources may contribute to the growth of these cancers. GPR30, a G protein coupled receptor, was identified as a potential orphan receptor that may interact with triazine herbicides such as atrazine, one of the most commonly utilized chlorotriazines in agricultural practices in the United States. Our goal was to identify whether chlorotriazines affected the expression of GPR30. Two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, as well as one normal breast cell line, MCF-10A, were treated with a 100-fold range of atrazine, cyanazine, or simazine, with levels flanking the EPA safe level for each compound. Using real-time PCR, we assessed changes in GPR30 mRNA compared to a GAPDH control. Our results indicate that GPR30 expression increased in breast cancer cells at levels lower than the US EPA drinking water contamination limit. During this treatment, the viability of cells was unaltered. In
Arthrobacter aurescens ATCC ® BAA-1386D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 TypeStrain=False Application:
Arthrobacter aurescens ATCC ® BAA-1386D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 TypeStrain=False Application:
Thirty-six experiments were conducted over two years (2018, 2019) to evaluate tolpyralate, a benzoylpyrazole 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor, for weed management in corn in Ontario. The importance of adjuvants (MSO and UAN) with tolpyralate + atrazine and the influence of Roundup Weathermax® was determined for control of nine annual weed species, glyphosate-resistant (GR) Canada fleabane and GR waterhemp. Optimal control was achieved with tolpyralate + atrazine + MSO and when tolpyralate + atrazine was co-applied with Roundup Weathermax®. Tolpyralate and tolpyralate + atrazine has residual activity on GR Canada fleabane, comparable to current industry standards. Three weed species exhibited a time-of-day effect to tolpyralate + atrazine, although, consistent control was achieved regardless of application time. Corn injury was greatest from tolpyralate + atrazine when applied at the 2X rate alone and/or co-applied with glyphosate at 1 WAA; there was no further increase in corn ...
"Atresia" . Atrazine herbicide linked to prostate inflammation, reproductive issues and more. of Texas linked atrazine exposure in humans to a rare congenital abnormality in the nasal cavity known as choanal atresia. This condition is marked by improper development of the nasal passage during fetal
Chenopodium albumL. is a major weed in spring-planted crops in the temperate regions of the world. Since 2000, farmers have reported an unsatisfactory control of this weed in sugar beet fields in Belgium, France and The Netherlands. Frequently, the survivingC. albumplants are resistant to metamitron, a key herbicide in this crop. Metamitron resistance inC. albumis caused by a Ser264 to Gly mutation in the psbA gene on the chloroplast genome, which prevents binding of metamitron to its target site. This mutation causes also resistance to other herbicides with a similar mode of action, like metribuzin -applied in potato- and atrazine in particular. Atrazine has been applied very frequently in maize in the 1970s and the 1980s, but is now banned in Europe due to environmental reasons. The persistent use of atrazine in maize confronted Belgian and other European farmers in the early 1980s with atrazine resistantC. albumwith the same Ser264 to Gly mutation. The problems with atrazine resistantC. ...
Chenopodium albumL. is a major weed in spring-planted crops in the temperate regions of the world. Since 2000, farmers have reported an unsatisfactory control of this weed in sugar beet fields in Belgium, France and The Netherlands. Frequently, the survivingC. albumplants are resistant to metamitron, a key herbicide in this crop. Metamitron resistance inC. albumis caused by a Ser264 to Gly mutation in the psbA gene on the chloroplast genome, which prevents binding of metamitron to its target site. This mutation causes also resistance to other herbicides with a similar mode of action, like metribuzin -applied in potato- and atrazine in particular. Atrazine has been applied very frequently in maize in the 1970s and the 1980s, but is now banned in Europe due to environmental reasons. The persistent use of atrazine in maize confronted Belgian and other European farmers in the early 1980s with atrazine resistantC. albumwith the same Ser264 to Gly mutation. The problems with atrazine resistantC. ...
Separation of Atrazine-desethyl; Metoxuron; Hexazinone; Simazine; Cyanazine; Methabenzthiazuron; Atrazine; Monolinuron; Diuron; Isoproturon; Metobromuron; Metazachlor; Sebuthylazin; Linuron; Metolachlor
White Atrazine is a vital herbicide that is under attack by environmentalists, activist researchers, activist media and slick trial attorneys.
Citation: Fausey, N.R., King, K.W., Dunn, R., Edwards, T., Ufferman, L. 2007. Conservation program (EQIP) reduces atrazine in Columbus, OH drinking water supply reservoir [abstract]. Soil and Water Conservation Society. p. 104. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Conservation dollars applied in the Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed have achieved a significant reduction in the atrazine levels in Hover Reservoir, a major drinking water source for Columbus, Ohio. During the 1990s, atrazine levels in this reservoir periodically exceeded the health advisory limit of 3 parts per billion (ppb). To reduce these elevated levels of atrazine, the city used activated carbon to filter all the drinking water, incurring very high water treatment costs. Working with the Upper Big Walnut Water Quality Partnership, an all volunteer group of local farmers, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District and the USDAs Natural Resources Conservation Service and Farm Services Agency targeted producers ...
EPA Denies SAVE THE FROGS! Petition for a Federal Ban on the Use And Production of Atrazine - All of Gods creatures have rights, includes both human and non-human animals
Shandong Binnong Technology Co., Ltd. Country: China. Atrazine Ametryn Metolachlor Mesotrione S-metolachlor Terbuthylazine Glufosinate-ammonium Prometryn Bentazone Pendimethalin Jiangyin Milagro Chemical Co.,Ltd Country: China. Flumioxazin Indoxacarb Boscalid Fenazaquin Fluazinam Nuclear polyhedrosis virus Agriculural Organosilicone Adjuvant microelements amino acid chelate Methoxyfenozide Zinc thiazole Zhejiang Zhongshan Chemical Industry Group Co., Ltd. Country: China. Ametryn Terbuthylazine Metamitron S-metolachlor Picoxystrobin Mesotrione Bentazone Atrazine Isoxaflutole Florasulam Metolachlor Sichuan Leshan Fuhua Tongda Agro-chemical Technology Co., Ltd. Country: China. Azoxystrobin Glufosinate-ammonium 2,4-D Glyphosate Atrazine Nicosulfuron Quizalofop-P Glyphosate-potassium Dicamba Pyraclostrobin Limin Chemical Co., Ltd. Country: China. Propineb Mancozeb Cymoxanil Propineb Fosetyl-aluminium Difenoconazole Azoxystrobin Mesotrione Thiacloprid Chlorothalonil ...
Background & Objectives: Lithium is the metal used in bipolar disorder treatment.  As for the prevalence of the disorder infertility (childbearing) age and the use of lithium, this study aimed at studying the effects of drugs on histological changes, and the ovarian function in the first generation of adult female ...
in Environmental Pollution (2017). Factors governing spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide compounds (pesticides and metabolites) concentrations in chalk aquifers remain unclear due to complex flow processes and multiple sources. To ... [more ▼]. Factors governing spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide compounds (pesticides and metabolites) concentrations in chalk aquifers remain unclear due to complex flow processes and multiple sources. To uncover which factors govern pesticide compound concentrations in a chalk aquifer, we develop a methodology based on time series analyses, uni- and multivariate statistics accounting for concentrations below detection limits. The methodology is applied to long records (1996-2013) of a restricted compound (bentazone), three banned compounds (atrazine, diuron and simazine) and two metabolites (deethylatrazine (DEA) and 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)) sampled in the Hesbaye chalk aquifer in Belgium. In the confined area, all compounds had non-detects ...
Metabolic resistances to atrazine (atz-R) and mesotrione (meso-R) occur in several waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer] populations in the United States. Interestingly, although metabolic atz-R but mesotrione-sensitive A. tuberculatus populations have been reported, an Amaranthus population has not been confirmed as meso-R but atrazine-sensitive, implying an association between these traits. Experiments were designed to investigate whether the single gene conferring metabolic atz-R plays a role in meso-R. An F2 population was generated from a multiple herbicide-resistant A. tuberculatus population from McLean County, IL (MCR). A cross was made between a known meso-R male clone (MCR-6) and a herbicide-sensitive female clone from Wayne County, IL (WCS-2) to develop an F1 population. Survival of MCR-6 plants following atrazine POST treatment (14.4 kg ha−1) indicated the male parent was homozygous atz-R. F1 plants were intermated to obtain a segregating pseudo-F2 population. ...
Atrazine, a widely used agricultural herbicide, not only can alter hormone levels in the developing frogs, but also perturb their physical development — and lead to an excess number of females, researchers report. Their new findings may help explain observations reported by a number of other research groups that at least in frogs, fairly low concentrations of atrazine can induce a feminization — or demasculinization.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are synthetic and natural compounds that, when absorbed by an organism, can change the function of the endocrine system (Stuart, 2006). Researchers all over the world are studying the potentially harmful effects of these chemicals, particularly those effects on fish and amphibians. These effects include, reproductive, neurological, and immunologic dysfunction, among others (Harding et al. 2006).Research in our lab has focused on the reproductive effects of EDCs in aquatic habitats. Fish and amphibians are exposed to EDCs through their environment. To our knowledge, the concentrations of three specific EDCs-- atrazine, 17 α ethynylestradiol, and 17 β estradiol--have not been determined for the Pike River in Kenosha, WI. We hypothesize that surface waters in Lake Michigan will have higher levels of 17α ethynylestradiol and 17β estradiol. In agricultural areas, we hypothesize that atrazine will be detected in higher concentrations. Finally, we hypothesize ...
Note: Abstract: COST Action 837, Common meeting on Potentail for increasing plant performance in the phytoremediation of organic pollutants, Grenoble (France), September 27-29, 2001. ...
Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) is a perennial warm season grass that is well adapted to most types of soil. In fact, it grows extremely well on sandy or infertile soils. It was introduced from Brasil in 1914 as a pasture grass, but it quickly became a low maintenance lawn grass. A great characteristic of this grass is that Read more about Bahiagrass Guide - Paspalum notatum[…] ...
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Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Brodo, I.M.; Sharnoff, S.D. and Sharnoff, S. (2001) Ahtiana (pp. 148-150) In, Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, 795 pages. [1] (Description of A. aurescens and distribution map for North America: p. 149; color photo: p. 149, plate 96 ...
April 20th, 2011 , by Glenn Meyers. Justin Gallivan, associate professor of biomolecular chemistry at Emory University, is busy developing new ways to reprogram bacteria to carry out some remarkable new tasks - instructing the E. Coli bacteria, for instance, to eat atrazine, a widely used herbicide that can cause considerable contamination of ground water. ...
Research lead by a team from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand has found that commonly used herbicides, including the worlds most used herbicide Roundup, can cause bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics. This is the first study of its kind in the world. The team at the University of Canterbury investigated what happens to species of disease-causing bacteria when
Health experts call Roundup a probable carcinogen for humans. Glyphosate, found in worlds most widely used herbicide, classified as probable carcinogen by cancer research experts. by Renee Lewis, (published in Al Jeezera America on March 21, 2015). The most widely used herbicide in the world, glyphosate, the active ingredient in the Monsanto product Roundup, was classified as probably carcinogenic to humans, in a report released Friday by cancer researchers affiliated with the World Health Organization.. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) announced its assessment of glyphosate after convening a meeting this month of 17 cancer experts from 11 countries. They looked at the available scientific evidence on five different pesticides, including glyphosate, to determine whether to classify them as carcinogens. Carcinogens are substances that can lead to cancer under certain levels of exposure. ...
High-throughput methods for structural genomics have produced an increasing number of protein structures to be solved by X-ray crystallography. The abundance of protein structure information in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) has increased the need and desire for structure-based function prediction [1] and has contributed to structure-based drug design [2]. However, two problems remain regarding the prediction of enzyme function. First, proteins within a superfamily, which are usually expected to share the same catalytic properties, can catalyze different reactions. There are reports that enzymes with 98% sequence identity, such as melamine deaminase and atrazine chlorohydrolase, may catalyze different reactions [3]. Second, two enzymes belonging to different superfamilies or fold classes can catalyze almost identical reactions [4].. The function of a protein can be affected by a small number of residues in a localized region of its three-dimensional structure [5]. Moreover, the specific arrangement ...
Water, Ability, Agriculture, Animal, Atrazine, Biota, Detection Limits, Ecosystems, Environment, Herbicides, Literature, Methods, Plants, Publications, Simazine, Soil, Soils, Tissue, Tissues, Triazines
This study aimed at determining the effects of cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy on the morphology of the developing heart. Twelve adult female Wistar rats were used for the study. The animals were time mated and grouped into three: a control (A) and two treatment groups (B and C). The treatment groups were exposed to smoke from 2 sticks of cigarette (St. Moritz®) on days 8 - 14 (Group B) and days 15-21 (Group C) of the gestation. Each stick of cigarette contained an average of 0.8375 g of tobacco. The pregnant rats were allowed to litter, and at postnatal day 15, pups from all the groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, the chest wall was dissected and the heart was excised and either placed in 10% formal saline fixative for histological preparation using Haematoxylin and eosin staining techniques, or 0.25 M cold sucrose solution and homogenised for enzyme study on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase using the colorimetric method. The pups exposed to cigarette smoke in ...
HortPro provides horticultural products and services in Hawkes Bay. We sell great quality, high value products to growers, orchards and vineyards.
The present invention relates to a containerization system comprising at least one inner water soluble bag located within an outer water insoluble bag. The inner water soluble bag contains an agrichemical that does not substantially dissolve the bag. The outer water insoluble bag is flexible and collapsible and has a low stretchability; it may be made of polyester or laminated polypropylene-polethylene
Daryono, Daryono and Tim, KMP (2017) LAYANAN KHUSUS KOLEKSI BENGKULU CORNER DI PERPUSTAKAAN UNIVERSITAS BENGKULU. In: INOVASI LAYANAN PERPUSTAKAAN DAN FENOMENA HOAX. Bagian Dua Inovasi Layanan Perpustakaan, 1 (1). Yuma Pustaka, Surakarta, pp. 152-166. ISBN 9786026631541 Simarmata, Marulak and Bona Romaston, Haloho and Yenny, Sariasih (2017) APLIKASI PRA-DAN PURNA-TUMBUH HERBISIDA BERBAHAN AKTIF CAMPURAN ATRAZINE DAN MESOTRIONE UNTUK PENGENDALIAN GULMA PADA TANAMAN JAGUNG MANIS. In: Prosiding Seminar Nasional Inovasi Teknologi Pertanian Modern Mendukung Pembangunan Pertanian Berkelanjutan. Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Bengkulu. ISBN 978-602-9064-37-7 (Unpublished) Solfema, Solfema (2017) ENTREPRENEURSHIP CULTURAL CULTIVATION FOR STUDENTS IN DEALING WORKING WORLD CHALLENGES. In: Proseding Seminar Nasional Pendidikan Nonformal Optimalisasi Peningkatan Mutu & Kemandirian Dalam Menciptakan Lapangan Kerja Lulusan Prodi PNF Menghadapi Mea & Bonus Demographi 2045. Unit Penerbitan FKIP Universitas ...
In my post Rachel Carsons Legacy, I wrote about widely-used chemicals called endocrine disruptors that are causing deformities in fish and frogs, and are linked to an increase in genital deformities in newborn baby boys.. When reading about endocrine disruptors, I keep coming across the work of Dr. Tyrone Hayes, a professor in the Department of Integrative Biology, at the University of California-Berkeley. He has studied the effects on frogs of an agricultural pesticide called Atrazine. Hayes found that these chemicals, even at very low levels, were causing male frogs in the wild to develop eggs in their testes (!).. I came across a lecture Dr. Hayes gave called From Silent Spring to Silent Night. The lecture is about an hour long, but its worth watching (see below). Hayes is a funny and engaging speaker and he uses easily understood charts/graphs/pictures to explain how these chemicals effect the frogs-and how they might also effect you.. One Dr. Hayess experiments with frogs really hit ...
that the Monsanto Fundwas a corporate donor of $25,000 and above. Another donor was The NutriSweet Company,which was owned by G.D. Searle & Co., which in turn also funded Enzine-linked STATS. Pfizer, which held the NutriSweet brand, was also a donor to ACSH. This source is called the Integrity in Science Project.. In this Forbes piece further touting atrazine, Entine claims that Hayesresearch was not reproducible, but this assessment http://www.ucsusa.org/scientific_integrity/abuses_of_science/atrazine-and-health.html by the Union of Concern Scientists notes that the hand-picked industry scientists chosen to replicateHayes research did not accurately copy Hayes methods:. Dr. Tyrone B. Hayes of the University of California at Berkeley, originally hired by the chemical company Syngenta to review studies to help certify the herbicide for re-registration with the EPA, was at first surprised when he found that African clawed frog tadpoles were chemically castratedwhen exposed to ...
Adp, Adsorption, Atrazine, Cell, Cells, Charge, Humic Substances, Hydroxides, Kinetics, Minerals, Pesticides, Pseudomonas, Role, Soils, Strain
For ten years, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been studying the most widely used pesticide in the country - atrazine. In August, the EPA is due to publish new rules for its use.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Monsanto Co, maker of the worlds most widely used herbicide, Roundup, wants an international health organization to retract a report linking the chief ingredient in Roundup to cancer.
July 05, 2015 by Dr. Mercola Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Monsantos best-selling herbicide Roundup, is one of the most commonly used herbicides in the world. An estimated one billion pounds a year is sprayed on our food crops,1,2resulting in the average American eating several hundred pounds of glyphosate-contaminated food every year. How might that…
Chloridazon has been a widely used herbicide during the past decades, especially in sugar-beet cultivation. UV-induced degradation of chloridazon leads to the formation of desphenyl counterparts, i.e. desphenyl-chloridazon and methyl-desphenyl-chloridazon. Even if accumulation of these residues in natural wa Recent Open Access Articles
Glyphosate, the most used herbicide in the World, has been found in the urine of 93% of the American public during a unique testing project that started in
Other names: Melamine; S-Triazinetriamine; Cyanuramide; Cyanurotriamide; Cyanurotriamine; Hicophor PR; Isomelamine; Teoharn; Theoharn; Virset 656-4; 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-triimine; 2,4,6-Triamino-s-triazine; 2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-triazine; 2,4,6-Triaminotriazine; s-Triazine, 2,4,6-triamino-; NCI-C50715; Aero; Cyanuric triamide; Cyanurtriamide; Triaminotriazine; s-Triazine, 4,6-diamino-1,2-dihydro-2-imino-; Pluragard C 133; ADK Stab ZS 27; DG 002; DG 002 (amine); Mark ZS 27; NSC 2130; Pluragard; Spinflam ML 94M; Yukamelamine; ZS 27 ...
One of the most important experimental approaches for discovering the function of genes promises to be gene chips and microarrays. In principle, DNA sequences representing all the genes in an organism can be placed on miniature solid supports and used as hybridization substrates to quantitate the expression of all the genes represented in a complex mRNA sample (26). Thus, we may expect to have extensive databases of quantitative information about the degree to which each gene responds to pathogens, pests, drought, cold, salt, photoperiod, and other environmental variation. Similarly, we will have extensive information about which genes respond to changes in developmental processes such as germination and flowering. In addition, we will soon know which genes respond to the phytohormones, growth regulators, safeners, herbicides, and related agrichemicals. Perhaps less obviously, we may expect to have similar information for many mutants or natural accessions that differ in some way that cannot be ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1R7G3 (TRMD_PAEAT), tRNA (guanine-N(1)-)-methyltransferase. Paenarthrobacter aurescens (strain TC1)
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1RAI8 (TRMB_PAEAT), tRNA (guanine-N(7)-)-methyltransferase. Paenarthrobacter aurescens (strain TC1)
Hayes' research into atrazine as an endocrine disruptor has been contested by Syngenta (the manufacturer of atrazine) and the ... Since publishing his research on atrazine as an endocrine disruptor, Hayes has become an advocate for banning atrazine. ... on the herbicide atrazine. When Hayes' research found unexpected toxicities for atrazine, he reported them to the panel, ... Atrazine Updates: Amphibians, April 2010, EPA. Kloas, W; Lutz, I; Springer, T; Krueger, H; Wolf, J; Holden, L; Hosmer, A (2009 ...
IBT also originally evaluated the safety of atrazine, a herbicide now thought to be an endocrine disruptor, suspected ... Ackerman, Frank (2007). "The economics of atrazine" (PDF). International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health. 13 ( ...
Triazine Cumulative Risk Assessment and Atrazine, Simazine, and Propazine Decisions, June 22, 2006, EPA. Atrazine Updates, ... the lead critic of atrazine use, but other scientists as well, whose studies have shown atrazine to have adverse effects on the ... Atrazine is the second-most commonly used herbicide in the United States after glyphosate, with application of approximately ... In 2014, New Yorker writer Rachel Aviv reported that atrazine manufacturer Syngenta might have been orchestrating an attack on ...
... atrazine is commonly used with other herbicides to reduce the overall rate of atrazine and to lower the potential for ... Atrazine does not break down readily (within a few weeks) after being applied to soils of above neutral pH. Under alkaline soil ... Atrazine is thus said to have "carryover", a generally undesirable property for herbicides. Glyphosate (Roundup) was introduced ... Environmental Protection Agency: Atrazine Updates. Current as of January 2013. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Ibrahim MA, Bond GG, ...
This enzyme participates in atrazine degradation. Boundy-Mills KL, de Souza ML, Mandelbaum RT, Wackett LP, Sadowsky MJ (March ... strain ADP encodes the second enzyme of a novel atrazine degradation pathway". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 63 (3): ...
Rohr, J.R. (2018) "Atrazine and Amphibians: A Story of Profits, Controversy, and Animus". In: D. A. DellaSala, and M. I. ... Freshwater habitats in the United States are widely contaminated by the common pesticide atrazine. There is controversy over ... Reeves, C (2015). "Of Frogs & Rhetoric: The Atrazine wars". Technical Communication Quarterly. 24 (4): 328-348. doi:10.1080/ ...
This enzyme participates in atrazine degradation. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this class of enzymes ... "AtzC is a new member of the amidohydrolase protein superfamily and is homologous to other atrazine-metabolizing enzymes". J. ...
This enzyme participates in atrazine degradation. Eaton RW, Karns JS (1991). "Cloning and comparison of the DNA encoding ...
This enzyme participates in atrazine degradation. Stransky H, Amberger A (1973). "Isolation and properties of a cyanamide ...
This enzyme participates in atrazine degradation. Cook AM, Beilstein P, Grossenbacher H, Hutter R (1985). "Ring cleavage and ...
A variety of chemical hazards (e.g. DDT, atrazine, etc.) have been identified. However, every year companies produce more new ...
Bichat, F.; Sims, G. K.; Mulvaney, R. L. (1999). "Microbial utilization of heterocyclic nitrogen from atrazine". Soil Science ...
An example of this is the atrazine chlorohydrolase (atzA encoded) from Pseudomonas sp. ADP which evolved from melamine ... "Catalytic improvement and evolution of atrazine chlorohydrolase". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 75 (7): 2184-91. doi: ... deaminase (triA encoded), which has very small promiscuous activity towards atrazine, a man-made chemical. Enzymes are evolved ...
"Atrazine removal using adsorption and electrochemical regeneration". Water Research. 38 (13): 3067-3074. doi:10.1016/j.watres. ...
Brown, N; Roberts, E. P. L.; Chasiotis, A.; Cherdron, T.; Sanghrajka, N (2004). "Atrazine removal using adsorption and ...
"Endocrine Disruptors, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2013". Robert S (2010). "Pesticide atrazine can turn ...
White Paper on Potential Developmental Effects of Atrazine on Amphibians, 54, July 17, 2005 Talsness CE, Kuriyama SN, Sterner- ... Sanders R (2010-03-01). "Pesticide atrazine can turn male frogs into females". Berkeley News. Retrieved 2017-08-08. "Findings ... the herbicide atrazine, and the fungicide vinclozolin), the contraceptive 17-alpha ethinylestradiol, as well as naturally ...
Like atrazine, a related triazine herbicide, it acts by inhibiting photosynthesis. It remains active in the soil for 2-7 months ... Atrazine EU directive 91/414/EEC Simazine, Extoxnet PIP. ...
Atrazine has been banned in the EU since 2004, yet is still commonly used in the US despite the evidence of harm. Atrazine ... Increased atrazine levels correlate with increased incidence of AWD." Before birth, openings in the abdomen can usually be ... The EPA is aware that a common herbicide called Atrazine causes abdominal wall defects as well as other birth defects and ... Atrazine and nitrates are common agricultural fertilizers" and concluded: "Indiana has significantly higher rates of AWD [ ...
2002 Degradation of atrazine by hornwort in aquatic systems. Bioremediation Journal 6(3): 217-224. Kuhar M, Yamamura HI (Jul ... For example, micro-autoradiography was used to examine whether atrazine was being metabolized by the hornwort plant or by ...
Fazlurrahman; Batra, M.; Pandey, J.; Suri, C.r.; Jain, R.k. (1 December 2009). "Isolation and characterization of an atrazine- ...
Atrazine (Atrazine). *Larvadex (Cyromazine). *Neporex (Cyromazine). *Oxyfly (Lambda-cyhalothrin). *Virusnip (Potassium ...
Clare Howard Special Report: Syngenta's campaign to protect atrazine, discredit critics. Environmental Health News, 17 June ... Illinois concerning the adverse effects of atrazine in human water supplies. The suit was settled for $105 million in May 2012 ... whose research is purported to suggest that the Syngenta-produced chemical atrazine was responsible for abnormal development of ...
... is a precursor to many herbicides including atrazine and simazine. It is found in rubber products as well. ...
Fate of atrazine and alachlor in redox-treated ferruginous smectite. Env. Tox. & Chem. 20: 2717-2724. Palmer Resources Limited ...
It is based on the herbicides mesotrione, s-metolachlor, and atrazine. It is applied after planting, until the corn emerges, to ...
In the case of cyanazine, atrazine can cause effects on non-target species like Chironomus tentans. Atrazine is able to ... R. L. Cooper, "Atrazine Disrupts the Hypothalamic Control of Pituitary-Ovarian Function," Toxicol. Sci., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. ... As cyanazine belongs to the same class of herbicides as atrazine, the effect on the hormonal status of rats by cyanazine could ... Y. Jin-Clark, M. J. Lydy, and K. Y. Zhu, "Effects of atrazine and cyanazine on chlorpyrifos toxicity in Chironomus tentans ( ...
Fate of atrazine and alachlor in redox-treated ferruginous smectite. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 20: 2717-2724. Kappa ... Similar observations have been reported for the herbicides trifluralin and atrazine. Alachlor is often used in high school ... It is marketed in mixed formulations with atrazine, glyphosate, trifluralin and imazaquin. It is a selective, systemic ...
Sprague, Lori A.; Herman, Janet S.; Hornberger, George M.; Mills, Aaron L. (2000). "Atrazine adsorption and colloid‐facilitated ...
Atrazine. Informaci n bibliogr fica. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease ...
However, exposure to atrazine may occur at farms where it has been sprayed. Atrazine may affect pregnant women by causing their ... Birth defects and liver, kidney, and heart damage has been seen in animals exposed to high levels of atrazine. This chemical ... The general population is probably not exposed to atrazine. ... How can atrazine affect my health?. *How likely is atrazine to ... What is atrazine?. Atrazine is an herbicide that does not occur naturally. Pure atrazine is an odorless, white powder that is ...
atrazine.com - Syngentas page about atrazine Atrazinelovers: an anti-atrazine website - maintained by Tyrone Hayes Atrazine - ... EPA [ww.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/atrazine/atrazine_update.htm#amphibian Atrazine Updates: Scientific Peer Review- ... Atrazine has been found to act as an agonist of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1. Atrazine has been shown to ... Atrazine may be catabolized as a carbon and nitrogen source in reducing environments, and some aerobic atrazine degraders have ...
Toxicological Profile for Atrazine. CAS#: 1912-24-9. Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological profile ... Toxicological profile for Atrazine. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
Atrazine Chlorohydrolase (AtzA) is an enzyme (E.C.3.8.1.8), which catalyzes the conversion of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine. ... "Substrate specificity of atrazine chlorohydrolase and atrazine-catabolizing bacteria". Appl Environ Microbiol. 66 (10): 4247-52 ... AtzA is an atrazine-dechlorinating enzyme with fairly restricted substrate specificity and plays a main role in the hydrolysis ... Atrazine Hydroxyatrazine is a hydrolase (an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bond ), which acts on halide ...
1-3, p. 44). Rats, dogs,horses, or cattle fed dietary levels of more than 25 ppm of atrazine for extended periods did not ... of which atrazine is the best known, is relatively low. However, the ingestion of high doses can cause ataxia, dyspnea and ... 8-47, Table N1) concurs withthis limit for atrazine. Atrazine is a stable, white, crystalline compound. ... In the final rule, OSHA is establishing an 8-hour TWA PEL of5 mg/m3 for atrazine. The Agency concludes that this limit will ...
"The use of atrazine in the environment is basically an uncontrolled experiment - there seems to be no atrazine-free environment ... To date, atrazines effects on mammals and amphibians have been tested only at large doses, not at doses commonly found in the ... A restricted herbicide, atrazine is used primarily on crops, not around the home, and can be purchased and applied only by ... Hayes doubts that atrazine has such severe effects on humans, because the herbicide does not accumulate in tissue and humans ...
2-Chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine, 6-Chloro-N-ethyl-N- (1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine Colorless or white, odorless, crystalline powder. [herbicide]
Inexpensive and readily available, atrazine is found in many commercial herbicide brands for both agricultural and home use. ... Atrazine is among the most widely used of chemical herbicides. ... Types of Weeds Controlled by Atrazine By Frank Whittemore ABOUT ... Atrazine is among the most widely used of chemical herbicides. Inexpensive and readily available, atrazine is found in many ... Atrazine is approved for agricultural applications for pine, fir and other conifer plantings, corn, sorghum, wheat, sugar cane ...
Atmospheric Fate and Tranport Modeling of Atrazine. Estimated 1991 emissions of atrazine to the air from usage in the U.S. and ... Atrazine is a current-use herbicide, used largely on corn and sorghum in both the United States and Canada. It is one of the ... Maps showing week-by-week estimates of atrazine emissions during 1991 (also available as as a PowerPoint presentation [16 MB] ... The following documents are available describing the results of atmospheric atrazine modeling with the HYSPLIT-SV model:. * ...
Mae-Wan Ho review the evidence on the endocrine-disrupting and carcinogenic effects of atrazine, especially in the light of the ... Controversy erupted over new findings that atrazine may be linked to global demise of frogs. Prof. Joe Cummins and Dr. ... Atrazine Poisoning Worse Than Suspected. Controversy erupted over new findings that atrazine may be linked to global demise of ... Atrazine is most widely used on corn followed by sorghum and sugarcane. Atrazine is registered for use on range grasses for ...
Atrazine.us is a website dedicated to presenting relevant scientific and regulatory information on this important product. The ... As explained in detail in the atrazine Data Quality Act Petition, the atrazine Environmental Risk Assessment is influential ... EPA And Syngenta Agree on Interim Atrazine Re-Registration Requirements EPA and Syngenta have reached agreement on some interim ... CRE, Farmers File Joint Data Quality Act Petition on Atrazine The Kansas Corn Growers Association and the Triazine Network ...
Farmers have taken to atrazine the way ,toddlers take to candy. For the giant chemical outfit Ciba-Geigy, atrazine ,has been an ... Atrazine has been showing up in supermarket corn, and in beef and milk. ,(Atrazine-treated corn is routinely fed to cattle.) ... Atrazine is cheap. Its long-lasting. And it doesnt dissolve in water. You ,can even spray it in the rain. ... The downside of atrazine is spelled out in a new book, "Toxic Deception: ,How the Chemical Industry Manipulates Science, Bends ...
In 1985, 77% of the acres of field corn and 49% of the acres of sweet corn in Wisconsin were treated with atrazine. ... 1912-24-9 Atrazine is a white crystal solid. Farmers have used it widely as a weed killer on corn fields since the early 1960s ... Atrazine can cause a skin allergy. If an allergy develops, future contact with low levels of atrazine can cause itching and ... People who have contaminated drinking water may be exposed to low levels of atrazine. Some low-level exposure to atrazine may ...
Atrazine is a common but controversial pre- and post-emergent herbicide used to control broadleaf and grass-like weeds in ... The use of atrazine is banned in Europe due to concerns over ... ... The use of atrazine is banned in Europe due to concerns over ... Atrazine that does not land on the top green growth of weeds falls to the soil and to be washed onto the soil surface and into ... Atrazine commonly stays in the top 6 inches of soil where it will continue to be absorbed over time by any roots in the ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Atrazine, Deethylatrazine, Diazinon, Nitrate, and Simazine. The ATSDR Interaction Profile succintly characterizes the ... Peer-review comments on the Interaction Profile for for Atrazine, Deethylatrazine, Diazinon, Nitrate, and SimazineCdc-pdf. [PDF ... EPA comments on the Interaction Profile for Atrazine, Deethylatrazine, Diazinon, Nitrate, and SimazineCdc-pdf. [PDF - 60KB] ... Responses to EPA comments on the Interaction Profile for Atrazine, Deethylatrazine, Diazinon, Nitrate, and SimazineCdc-pdf. [ ...
In fact, IARCs "Overall evaluation" of atrazine is: "Atrazine is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans."10 The ... We do, however, ask why NTP even considered using IARCs atrazine findings as the basis for possible atrazine review in the ... 20Rusiecki,J., et al., Cancer Incidence Among Pesticide Applicators Exposed to Atrazine in the Agricultural Health Study, ... "IARC evaluated atrazine in 199 and classified it as not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3). The working ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Atrazine (HSG 47, 1990) Atrazine (ICSC) Atrazine (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 53, ... ATRAZINE. (Group 3). For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation. VOL.: 73 (1999) (p. 59). CAS No.: 1912-24-9. Chem. ... Atrazine is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3). ... Atrazine is a triazine herbicide widely used on a variety of crops, notably maize, sorghum and sugar-cane, for the pre- and ...
The NTP Notices Information About Atrazine Violates IQA Standards. The NTP Notices information about atrazine and cancer ... The NTP Notice Misrepresents IARCs Atrazine Findings. According to the NTP Notice, atrazine was nominated for review by "NIEHS ... Yet that is what NTP currently intends to do with atrazine.. The other Petitioners are groups of growers who use atrazine. Any ... Atrazine and simazine are chemically similar herbicides. Consequently, any assessment of atrazines cancer risk in the 12th RoC ...
... atrazine is banned in the European Union for its documented toxic contamination of watersheds and destruction of amphibians. ... Atrazine in America. You might say that atrazine is American as apple pie. Developed in America, it was registered in 1958 and ... Many chemicals applied to crops and lawns wash off and enter nearby watersheds, and atrazine is no exception. In an extensive ... If you choose to apply an herbicide containing atrazine, take care not to use too much or spread it indiscriminately outside ...
The dipstick was then treated with atrazine and atrazine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (atra-HRP) to facilitate the ... By using dipstick technique, it was possible to detect atrazine concentration down to 0.1 ng/mL; with the FIA format, the ... The number of photons generated was inversely proportional to the atrazine concentration. In the flow injection analysis (FIA) ... Trace-Level Detection of Atrazine Using Immuno-Chemiluminescence: Dipstick and Automated Flow Injection Analyses Formats ...
served on the EPAs atrazine panel this past spring. "Given atrazines. consistent effects on freshwater vertebrates, it would ... potential hazards of atrazine, one of the most commonly-used herbicides. in the country, saying it will re-examine how the ... collected showing that atrazine has been found at levels above the. federal safety limit in drinking water in at least four ... atrazine on humans and I am very pleased to see that they are. emphasizing transparency in this evaluation process," said Jason ...
Predictably, atrazine review caught up in federal budget shenanigans. If youve been following the budget battle thats ... Atrazine, the culprit, cant be used in Europe because it sticks around in the water far too long for European standards. Yet ... Three of PANs leading issues - atrazine in the Midwest, methyl iodide in California, and endosulfan everywhere - were among ... It should come as no surprise then that the EPAs atrazine review is also targeted. ...
Atrazine, dairy pollution and sewage rules. Posted October 12, 2009 EPA considers new rules on atrazine. TheEnvironmental ... Atrazine alters frogs gender, study finds. A new study has found that male frogs exposed to the herbicide atrazine - one of ... Atrazine disrupts rat reproduction, study finds. The common and highly-used herbicide atrazine can act within the brain to ... U of M helps form atrazine remediation venture. An atrazine remediation technology based on the research of University of ...
Syngenta and attorneys for several community water systems agreed to settle litigation related to the herbicide atrazine for $ ... Syngenta settles atrazine claims. 05/25/12 9:51 AM By Sara Wyant ... not aware of any new scientific studies relating to atrazine, ... and distraction of protracted litigation and allow farmers to continue to realize the benefits of atrazine to agriculture, the ... Syngenta and attorneys for several community water systems agreed to settle litigation related to the herbicide atrazine for $ ...
MATRIX: Corn Oil ANALYTE: Atrazine RANGE OF DETECTION: 10 to 500 ppb MATERIALS: Atrazine RaPID Assay, Kit and Sample Diluent. ... No comments were found for Detection of atrazine in corn oil. Be the first to comment! ... MATERIALS: Atrazine RaPID Assay, Kit and Sample Diluent. Reagents: acetonitrile (pesticide grade). Equipment: 15 mL ... ANALYSIS: Dilute the acetonitrile extract 1:50 in Atrazine Sample Diluent using serological pipets (e.g. 0.1 mL extract plus ...
Atrazine exposure during embryonic development could cause later reproductive problems for female zebrafish, as well as ... An embryonic atrazine exposure results in reproductive dysfunction in adult zebrafish and morphological alterations in their ... Embryonic atrazine exposure resulted in a significant increase in progesterone levels in the 3 and 30 ppb groups. A significant ... Atrazine, an agricultural herbicide, is a suspected endocrine-disrupting chemical. It is used to kill broadleaf and grassy ...
Atrazine, a commonly found pesticide in U.S. drinking water, is linked to impaired sexual development, some cancers, birth ... Atrazine, a commonly found pesticide in U.S. drinking water, is linked to impaired sexual development, some cancers, birth ... EPA Reassesses Atrazine. Syngenta and other atrazine proponents insist that atrazine is safe for the simple fact that its been ... Atrazine Is a Common Water Contaminant. Atrazine is the second most commonly used herbicide in the U.S., and the most commonly ...
  • A restricted herbicide, atrazine is used primarily on crops, not around the home, and can be purchased and applied only by certified applicators. (berkeley.edu)
  • Abnormal gonads in a male Xenopus frog, the result of exposure to the herbicide atrazine. (berkeley.edu)
  • The Petition, filed November 25, 2002, requests correction of those parts of EPA's Environmental Risk Assessment stating that the herbicide atrazine causes endocrine effects in the environment. (thecre.com)
  • In 2004, a group of public utilities in Illinois took pesticide-giant Syngenta to court to answer for the pollution caused by its flagship herbicide atrazine . (panna.org)
  • BASEL, SWITZERLAND, May 25 - Syngenta and attorneys for several community water systems agreed to settle litigation related to the herbicide atrazine for $105 million. (agri-pulse.com)
  • The TED Talk above features Penelope Jagessar Chaffer, director of the documentary film "Toxic Baby," 1 and Tyrone Hayes, Ph.D., a professor of integrative biology at the University of California, who has dedicated most of his career to studying the health effects of the herbicide atrazine. (mercola.com)
  • The herbicide atrazine is one of the most commonly applied pesticides in the world. (pnas.org)
  • Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses. (nih.gov)
  • Early this month, California health officials declared Syngenta's flagship herbicide atrazine a reproductive toxicant, adding it to the Prop 65 list of chemicals known to cause cancer, birth defects or reproductive harm. (panna.org)
  • The common and highly-used herbicide atrazine can act within the brain to disrupt the cascade of hormone signals needed to initiate ovulation, finds a study with rats published online in the journal Biology of Reproduction. (freshwater.org)
  • Pseudomonas strain ADP metabolizes the herbicide atrazine via three enzymatic steps, encoded by the genes atzABC , to yield cyanuric acid, a nitrogen source for many bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Photo courtesy of Tom Brakefield/Stockbyte/Thinkstock The EPA is taking steps toward banning the popular herbicide atrazine, a known endocrine disruptor. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • Spurred by a petition beefed up with more than 60,000 signatures and emails, the EPA opened a Notice of Availability on September 14 for a possible ban on the popular herbicide atrazine. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • The EPA is taking steps toward banning the popular herbicide atrazine, a known endocrine disruptor. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • A federal district court recently held that cities and operators of drinking water plants in six states had standing to survive a motion to dismiss their class action complaint against a manufacturer of the herbicide atrazine, even though the plants' finished water did not exceed U.S. EPA's maximum contaminant level for atrazine. (taftlaw.com)
  • Plasmid pADP-1 was previously shown to encode AtzA, AtzB, and AtzC, which catalyze the sequential hydrolytic removal of s -triazine ring substituents from the herbicide atrazine to yield cyanuric acid. (asm.org)
  • Ecotoxicological effects of the herbicide atrazine and the insecticides endosulfan sulphate and chlorpyrifos were evaluated using a test battery comprising aquatic organisms from different trophic levels. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • presents the ecological risks posed by the use of the herbicide atrazine. (savethefrogs.com)
  • An extensive safety database has been developed for the chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The herbicide atrazine has been suggested to cause gonadal deformities in frogs and could possibly impact on reproduction. (usgs.gov)
  • Behki R, Topp E, Dick W, Germon P (1993) Metabolism of the herbicide atrazine by Rhodococcus strains. (springer.com)
  • Little information is available regarding the effects of atrazine in children. (cdc.gov)
  • Nevertheless, the effects of atrazine on frogs could be a sign that the herbicide is subtly affecting human sex hormones, too, interfering with androgens, such as testosterone, that control male sex characteristics. (berkeley.edu)
  • Concern has arisen over the possible endocrine-disrupting effects of atrazine on humans and wildlife. (noaa.gov)
  • Prof. Joe Cummins and Dr. Mae-Wan Ho review the evidence on the endocrine-disrupting and carcinogenic effects of atrazine, especially in the light of the non-linearity of biological activities, and call for a global ban of the herbicide. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The endocrine-disrupting effects of atrazine are not restricted to frogs. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The EPA said it will announce its specific plan for evaluating the effects of atrazine next month, and that the study would conclude in September 2010. (commondreams.org)
  • I think it is important for the EPA to evaluate the effects of atrazine on humans and I am very pleased to see that they are emphasizing transparency in this evaluation process," said Jason Rohr, a specialist in ecotoxicology at the University of South Florida who served on the EPA's atrazine panel this past spring. (commondreams.org)
  • Hayes' involvement with atrazine began when Novartis (which later became Syngenta) hired him to investigate the effects of atrazine on amphibians. (mercola.com)
  • These data are consistent with effects of atrazine observed in other vertebrate classes. (pnas.org)
  • In the present study, we examined the long-term effects of atrazine exposure on reproductive development and function in an all-male population of African clawed frogs ( Xenopus laevis ), generated by crossing ZZ females (sex-reversed genetic males) to ZZ males ( SI Materials and Methods ). (pnas.org)
  • This new study is Fenton's second paper showing low dose effects of atrazine metabolite mixtures. (sott.net)
  • These tissues seem to be particularly sensitive to the effects of atrazine and its breakdown products," Fenton said. (sott.net)
  • We examined the effects of atrazine on sexual development in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). (nih.gov)
  • The U.S. Geological Survey, the University of California at Berkeley and the University of South Florida have all published reports on the harmful effects of atrazine. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • She adds that this is the second paper to show low dose effects of atrazine metabolite mixtures. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Bai X, Sun C, Xie J, Song H, Zhu Q, Su Y, Fu Z (2015) Effects of atrazine on photosynthesis and defense response and the underlying mechanisms in Phaeodactylum tricornutum. (springer.com)
  • Baxter L, Brain RA, Hosmer AJ, Nema M, Müller KM, Solomon KR, Hanson ML (2015) Effects of atrazine on egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander ( Ambystoma maculatum ) and its endosymbiotic alga ( Oophila amblystomatis ). (springer.com)
  • And the health effects of Atrazine? (livingmaxwell.com)
  • A laboratory incubation experiment was set up to determine the effects of atrazine herbicide on the size and activity of the soil microbial biomass. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Even if one accepts the overstated effects of atrazine on crop yields, two of the three Syngenta papers that project economic impacts make the erroneous assumption that corn prices will remain constant regardless of crop yield. (synapse-energy.com)
  • EPA and Syngenta have reached agreement on some interim atrazine re-registration requirements under FIFRA and the FQPA. (thecre.com)
  • Atrazine, manufactured by the Swiss firm Syngenta, is primarily sprayed on cornfields and other major crops. (commondreams.org)
  • Swiss chemicals company Syngenta announced a proposed $US 105 million settlement in a class-action lawsuit brought by communities in six Midwestern U.S. states who claimed that atrazine - one of the most widely used herbicides in the nation - had contaminated their drinking water. (freshwater.org)
  • Under the terms of the agreement, Syngenta expressly denied liability and the plaintiffs acknowledged that they are not aware of any new scientific studies relating to atrazine, the company said in a statement. (agri-pulse.com)
  • This litigation began almost eight years ago when a group of community water systems claimed that Syngenta should pay to filter atrazine from their water supplies. (agri-pulse.com)
  • Syngenta described the settlement as a "business decision that will end the ongoing expense, uncertainty, and distraction of protracted litigation and allow farmers to continue to realize the benefits of atrazine to agriculture, the economy, and the environment. (agri-pulse.com)
  • In the U.S., atrazine use continued unabated, in large part due to powerful lobbying efforts by Syngenta. (mercola.com)
  • In 2005, Syngenta spent $250,000 on lobbying in Minnesota alone, to keep atrazine sales going. (mercola.com)
  • Syngenta, the company that sells Atrazine, says the current EPA standard is safe and that conscientious farming practices, such as planting buffer zones between streams and fields, will reduce the chance of water contamination. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • Syngenta, lead maker of atrazine, is reviewing the Purdue study and Tim Pastoor, principal scientist, tells Farm Progress that "this is a good study, they did everything by the book and it has been published in a very reputable journal," he notes. (farmprogress.com)
  • Pesticide giant Syngenta fought tooth and nail to keep atrazine off of the Prop 65 list, but scientists at the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) followed the science instead. (panna.org)
  • Syngenta sells atrazine, and Novartis and AstraZeneca sell aromatase inhibitors. (bcaction.org)
  • Another study of Syngenta factory workers found that employees exposed to atrazine had an 8.4-fold increase in prostate cancer compared to unexposed workers. (bcaction.org)
  • Syngenta produces this aromatase-promoting chemical, atrazine, and they try to downplay its negative effects in the environment and our health. (bcaction.org)
  • Documents obtained by the Center for Media and Democracy, recently unsealed as part of a major lawsuit against Syngenta, reveal how the global chemical company's PR team investigated the press and spent millions to spin news coverage and public perceptions in the face of growing concerns about potential health risks from the widely used weed-killer "atrazine. (prwatch.org)
  • Over a dozen municipal and county operators of water districts in Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Ohio, and Iowa were planning to sue Syngenta CP-whose U.S. headquarters is in Greensboro, North Carolina-and SAG for the costs associated with removing atrazine from their community's drinking water. (prwatch.org)
  • She repeated her request for a comment on plaintiffs' claim they could not afford to filter Atrazine from their water supplies and that Syngenta should pay for it. (prwatch.org)
  • The Switzerland agrochemical company Syngenta produces atrazine and sells 80 million pounds of it to the United States annually. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • Atrazine and other triazine herbicides drive the U.S. economy as much as $22 billion over a five-year period, according to a new series of studies by Syngenta. (croplife.com)
  • These subpoenas require grower associations to turn over volumes of information to the courts regarding their growers, including all correspondence related to atrazine, Syngenta and even the Kansas Corn Growers Association. (madisonrecord.com)
  • The plaintiffs alleged that Syngenta manufactured atrazine and sold it to farmers knowing it had a great potential to run off crop land and into surface waters that served as the drinking water providers' raw water supply. (taftlaw.com)
  • The plaintiffs seek to hold Syngenta liable for past and future costs to test, monitor, and treat their raw water for atrazine through GAC filtration systems and punitive damages. (taftlaw.com)
  • Syngenta moved to dismiss the lawsuit arguing that the drinking water providers lacked standing to pursue their claims because they failed to allege an injury in fact since their finished water had not exceeded the MCL for atrazine. (taftlaw.com)
  • Syngenta, the world's largest chemical manufacturer and maker of Atrazine, tried to convince Professor Hayes not to publish the results from his research, but he did not give in to their pressure. (livingmaxwell.com)
  • An Atrazine ban will also stop billions of dollars from leaving American shores, as currently it is the Swiss manufacturer of Atrazine (Syngenta) that is the primary recipient of the billions of dollars Americans spend on Atrazine each year. (all-creatures.org)
  • Produced by Swiss agrochemical company Syngenta, Atrazine has been banned in the European Union since 2004, but 80 million pounds of it are applied in the United States each year. (sfntoday.com)
  • The data was mostly, but not all, generated by Syngenta , the main manufacturer of atrazine. (huffpost.com)
  • In 2011, five papers sponsored by Syngenta, a European company that produces atrazine, claimed that the potent, low-cost herbicide has huge economic benefits. (synapse-energy.com)
  • According to the one Syngenta paper that uses a more sophisticated model, eliminating atrazine would result in a 4.4 percent reduction in corn production and an 8 percent rise in the price of corn. (synapse-energy.com)
  • Rather than focusing on how eliminating atrazine would benefit corn growers and their families-not only in terms of revenue, but in terms of avoided health and environmental risks-the Syngenta team focuses on the "losers" in an atrazine-free scenario. (synapse-energy.com)
  • Atrazine is a herbicide that is used to stop pre- and post-emergence broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as sorghum, maize, sugarcane, lupins, pine, and eucalypt plantations, and triazine-tolerant canola. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrazine is used to kill weeds, primarily on farms, but has also been used on highway and railroad rights-of-way. (cdc.gov)
  • Atrazine, when combined with emulsifiable agricultural oil and water is effective against post-emergent weeds. (ehow.com)
  • Atrazine is applied to agricultural fields or to crops to kill weeds. (cdc.gov)
  • Atrazine is an herbicide registered in the United States for the control of broadleaf weeds and some grassy weeds. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Many atrazine-tolerant mutations have begun to appear in weeds, and this tolerance is predominantly based on detoxifying atrazine by binding it to glutathione [2], a mechanism in naturally atrazine-tolerant corn [3]. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Atrazine is used worldwide, but its continued application is hampered by appearance of atrazine-tolerant weeds. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Atrazine is a common but controversial pre- and post-emergent herbicide used to control broadleaf and grass-like weeds in commercial farming fields. (gardenguides.com)
  • Atrazine, when sprayed onto the leaves and stems of weeds and undesirable grasses, disrupts the plant's ability to conduct photosynthesis. (gardenguides.com)
  • Atrazine that does not land on the top green growth of weeds falls to the soil and to be washed onto the soil surface and into the roots of the weeds. (gardenguides.com)
  • Atrazine is a triazine herbicide widely used on a variety of crops, notably maize, sorghum and sugar-cane, for the pre- and post-emergent control of broad-leaved weeds. (inchem.org)
  • Yes, atrazine will take out the weeds on your lawn, but understand the risks. (gardenguides.com)
  • Homeowners in the South are offered herbicides containing atrazine as a method of ridding their warm-weather lawns of weeds. (gardenguides.com)
  • One of the most common agricultural herbicides in the United States, some 80 million pounds of atrazine are applied across the country every year to control broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as corn and sugar cane. (sott.net)
  • Atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)- 1,3,5-triazine] is a herbicide used for controlling broad-leaf and grassy weeds and is relatively persistent in soils ( 51 ). (asm.org)
  • In the ensuing debate, students must analyze and interpret data as they present the viewpoints of various stakeholders, ranging from the landowners' right to apply atrazine to control weeds, to the responsibility of fisheries biologists and water quality specialists to protect the environment. (curriki.org)
  • Atrazine is a triazine herbicide used extensively in many parts of the world to control a broad variety of weeds, primarily on corn fields [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • As for weeds, the most popular herbicide, by far, was and still is atrazine, first registered for use in the United States in the late 1950s. (progressivereform.org)
  • The research adds to a growing body of literature on atrazine, an herbicide predominantly used to control weeds and grasses in crops such as corn and sugar cane. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Atrazine is used to kill broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops, such as corn, especially in the Midwest. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The triazines are a group of chemically similar herbicides including atrazine, cyanazine, and propazine, primarily used to control broadleaf weeds. (mdpi.com)
  • Atrazine, which is currently sprayed on millions of acres of U.S. cropland to control grass weeds, seems to conversely spur the growth of a protein known as aromatase that causes the body to produce more female hormones such as estrogen. (naturalnews.com)
  • Atrazine (ATZ) is an agrochemical that is still widely used in the Americas to control intrusive weeds in large monocultures. (springer.com)
  • While farmers use atrazine in smaller and smaller concentrations, it is still an important tool to control weeds, especially in environmentally friendly "conservation" farming practices. (madisonrecord.com)
  • Atrazine, a synthetic triazine herbicide commonly used to control grassy and broadleaf weeds in crops, is a major pollutant of soil and water ecosystems. (springer.com)
  • Atrazine is a herbicide against pre- and post-emergence broadleaf and grassy weeds. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • Atrazine (6-chloro- N -ethyl- N ′-(l-methylethyl)-l,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) is a herbicide of the triazine family used for controlling broadleaf and some grassy weeds in corn and sorghum. (springer.com)
  • Atrazine is an herbicide that was developed to control broadleaf and grassy weeds. (utah.gov)
  • EPA, [http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/atrazine.cfm]) Atrazine is the common name for an herbicide that is widely used to kill weeds. (utah.gov)
  • Syngenta's "Atrazine Benefits Team" ignores non-chemical or low-chemical alternatives to atrazine, including methods such as crop rotation, intercropping, enhanced crop competitiveness, and other techniques that have the advantage of not proliferating herbicide-resistant weeds. (synapse-energy.com)
  • Meanwhile, atrazine resistance has been detected in six of the ten most common weeds that contribute to weed pressure on corn. (synapse-energy.com)
  • In soil, atrazine is taken up by the plants growing in the soil or is broken down over a period of days to months. (cdc.gov)
  • Atrazine commonly stays in the top 6 inches of soil where it will continue to be absorbed over time by any roots in the vicinity. (gardenguides.com)
  • The roots of more newly established and mature weed plants will soak up the atrazine from the moist soil and metabolize it. (gardenguides.com)
  • When atrazine hits the thatch or soil surface, it will kill fescue seedlings near the time of germination. (gardenguides.com)
  • Unfortunately, atrazine persists for a year in the soil in cold, dry conditions. (gardenguides.com)
  • Use of atrazine fights weed resistance, reduces soil erosion and increases crop yield," according to the Triazine Network, an association of growers and researchers. (sott.net)
  • Bioremediation of atrazine-contaminated soil by repeated applications of atrazine-degrading bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • In a field experiment, mesocosms were filled with 350 kg soil containing 100 mg kg-1 atrazine, and inoculated one, four or eight times with an atrazine-degrading bacterial consortium that was produced in the fermenter. (nih.gov)
  • Similar results were obtained in a laboratory experiment using soil contaminated with 100 mg kg-1 [14C]atrazine. (nih.gov)
  • After 35 days, soil that was inoculated once with 10(8) cfu ml-1 of the consortium or with the atrazine-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. (nih.gov)
  • The sorption of atrazine followed the conventional linear isotherm reasonably well, indicating that sorption was driven largely by hydrophobic partitioning into soil organic matter. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The unique characteristics associated with the resistant-desorption fraction have important implications for risk assessment of atrazine-contaminated soil/sediment and should be taken into account in the regulation, management, and remediation of atrazine-contaminated sites. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This does not include the cost of additional soil erosion where tillage will be used to replace atrazine. (missouri.edu)
  • Best management practices that encourage infiltration of surface water into the soil will be most effective in reducing atrazine losses in runoff. (missouri.edu)
  • This is because atrazine moves primarily through solution in runoff water (the water phase) rather than attachment to soil particles (the sediment phase). (missouri.edu)
  • Either tank mix atrazine with another soil-applied herbicide to reduce the amount of atrazine applied or use other, non-atrazine herbicides. (missouri.edu)
  • Atrazine and related triazines are moderately persistent in soil [ 2 ], depending largely on soil environmental conditions [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Microbial metabolism has long been regarded as the most important mechanism of atrazine degradation in soil [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The bacterial strain in the soil samples had 20 mg/Kg atrazinend the degradation rates of the atrazine in those soil samples were above 99% within 20 d. (hindawi.com)
  • The studies found that atrazine increases U.S. corn output by 600 million bushels per year, triazines prevent up to 85 million metric tons of soil erosion per year and triazine herbicides help cut carbon dioxide emissions by up to 280,000 metric tons per year. (croplife.com)
  • The detection of atrazine in soil and reservoir sites is usually made by IR spectroscopy, ELISA, HPLC, UPLC, LC-MS and GC-MS techniques. (springer.com)
  • Aislabie J, Bej AK, Ryburn J, Lloyd N, Wilkins A (2005) Characterization of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans HIM an atrazine-degrading bacterium from agricultural soil New Zealand. (springer.com)
  • Amistadi MK, Hall JK, Bogus ER, Mumma RO (1997) Comparison of gas chromatography and immunoassay methods for the detection of atrazine in water and soil. (springer.com)
  • Soil amendment with trisodium citrate (Cs:Natz~50) allowed a slight augment in atrazine mineralization. (rcaap.pt)
  • These bioremediation treatments were also carried out in larger open soil microcosms proving to be efficient for the removal of atrazine from contaminated soils in only 5 days independent of citrate amendment. (rcaap.pt)
  • ADP and the respective orthologues from other soil bacteria, in order to try to get indications about the organization and evolution of atrazine catabolism in soilA atrazina tem sido utilizada mundialmente, desde 1952, sendo frequentemente detectada acima dos níveis estabelecidos pelas entidades reguladoras em águas de consumo. (rcaap.pt)
  • Armstrong DE, Chesters G, Harris RF (1967) Atrazine hydrolysis in soil. (springer.com)
  • Assaf NA, Turco RF (1994) Influence of carbon and nitrogen application on the mineralization of atrazine and its metabolites in soil. (springer.com)
  • Barriuso E, Koskinen WC (1996) Incorporating nonextractable atrazine residues into soil size fractions as a function of time. (springer.com)
  • Both earthworms accelerated atrazine degradation performance from 39.0% in sterile soils to 94.9%-95.7%, via neutralizing soil pH, consuming soil humus, altering bacterial community structure, enriching indigenous atrazine degraders and excreting the intestinal atrazine-degrading bacteria. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Rhodoplanes and Kaistobacter were identified as soil indigenous degraders for atrazine mineralization and stimulated by both earthworm species. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the distinct effects of two earthworm species on soil microbial community and atrazine degradation, offering technical supports to apply vermicomposting in effective soil bioremediation. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • From the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network [NEPTHN] Nationally Consistent Data and Measures [NCDM] atrazine indicator document version 10) Any atrazine that is washed from the soil into streams and other bodies of water will stay there for a long time because chemical breakdown is slow in rivers and lakes. (utah.gov)
  • The effects of particle size, organic matter content, crop residues and dissolved organic matter on the sorption kinetics of atrazine and isoproturon by clay soil. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Here, we investigate the effects of soil organic matter content, particle size distribution, dissolved organic matter and the presence of crop residues (wheat straw and ash) on the sorption of the herbicides atrazine and isoproturon by a clay soil. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • This experiment was of a factorial design (0, 5, and 50 μg g−1 soil of non-labelled atrazine and 6.6×103 Bq g−1 soil of 14C-labelled atrazine) x (0, 20, and 100 μg g−1 soil of urea-N) x (pasture or arable soil with a previous history of atrazine application). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bioremediation of atrazine-contaminated soil by forage grasses: transformation, uptake, and detoxification. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Berkeley The nation's top-selling weed killer, atrazine, disrupts the sexual development of frogs at concentrations 30 times lower than levels allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), raising concerns about heavy use of the herbicide on corn, soybeans and other crops in the Midwest and around the world. (berkeley.edu)
  • As Hayes later discovered, many atrazine-contaminated ponds in the Midwest contain native leopard frogs with the same abnormalities. (berkeley.edu)
  • Atrazine-exposed frogs don't have normal reproductive systems," he said. (berkeley.edu)
  • Hayes doubts that atrazine has such severe effects on humans, because the herbicide does not accumulate in tissue and humans don't spend their lives in water like frogs do. (berkeley.edu)
  • Controversy erupted over new findings that atrazine may be linked to global demise of frogs. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Atrazine was in the news recently in connection with the global demise of frogs. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • This was confirmed by fuller ecological evidence that atrazine is associated with hermaphroditism in frogs at levels an order of magnitude below the currently accepted standard [8,9]. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Dr. Tyrone Hayes has published several articles discussing tests by him that show advers endocrine effects on frogs exposed to atrazine. (thecre.com)
  • If Atrazine Harms Frogs and Rats, What Is It Doing to Children? (mercola.com)
  • His research showed that atrazine, even at the very low level of 0.1 part per billion (ppb), causes hermaphroditism in frogs. (mercola.com)
  • TH: In my lab, atrazine caused male frogs to grow ovaries and eggs. (bcaction.org)
  • Studies done on male frogs have shown that atrazine in concentrations of 2.5 parts per billion disrupts the endocrine system, leading to immunosuppression and hermaphroditism. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • Atrazine is the 21st century's DDT," says Save the Frogs Founder and Executive Director Kerry Kriger. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • Published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , the paper by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley found that African clawed frogs ( Xenopus laevis ) exposed to just 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) of atrazine for three years - a level below the 3 ppb allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in human drinking water - ended up losing their maleness and becoming chemically castrated. (naturalnews.com)
  • Of the 40 frogs that were included as part of the experiment, 30 could no longer reproduce after 36 months of exposure to atrazine. (naturalnews.com)
  • Only six of the 40 frogs were in any way normal at the conclusion of the study, suggesting an 85 percent damage rate resulting from exposure to atrazine at levels below what the federal government has deemed as "safe" for humans. (naturalnews.com)
  • All 40 of the frogs were, in fact, males, and no other factor besides the atrazine, at least as far as this particular study is concerned, could have impacted their transitions from male to female. (naturalnews.com)
  • Could it be that crop chemicals like atrazine are having the same effects on humans as they are on frogs, causing progressively more damage with each passing generation? (naturalnews.com)
  • Professor Tyrone Hayes, Endocrinologist at the University of California, reported from his research that frogs exposed to Atrazine were turning into hermaphrodites. (livingmaxwell.com)
  • Atrazine has been shown to cause immunosuppression, hermaphroditism and even complete sex reversal in male frogs at concentrations as low as 2.5 parts per billion. (all-creatures.org)
  • As humans and frogs share half their DNA, it is unfathomable to think that Atrazine is harmless to humans or the other species with whom we inhabit this planet. (all-creatures.org)
  • For example, lab studies in frogs indicates that low levels of atrazine may turn males into females . (huffpost.com)
  • It has been shown that atrazine affects the LH gene, which produces the hormone that triggers ovulation and plays a key role in follicle development. (purdue.edu)
  • Now, new research has shown that atrazine is causing an uptick in birth defects. (naturalnews.com)
  • Drinking water providers often find elevated concentrations of atrazine in their raw water supply during the planting season in late spring and early summer. (taftlaw.com)
  • And what Winchester found was that high concentrations of atrazine in the public water supply are to blame. (naturalnews.com)
  • Distinct peaks of atrazine did not coincide with fine grained (silt and clay-sized) sediment peaks and concentrations of atrazine remained elevated on the falling limb of the hydrograph as turbidity declined. (wku.edu)
  • This study evaluated the in vitro effect of three concentrations of atrazine, chlorpyrifos and endosulfan on the growth parameters of four non-toxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi strains. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Aspergillus section Flavi strains from agricultural soils are able to effectively grow in the presence of high concentrations of atrazine, chlorpyrifos and endosulfan under a wide range of MPa conditions. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Fenton points out that these findings may extend beyond atrazine alone, and may be relevant to other herbicides found in the same chlorotriazine family, including propazine and simazine. (sott.net)
  • EPA issued a notice in the Federal Register of June 6, 2016, concerning opening a comment period for the draft ecological risk assessments of atrazine, simazine, and propazine. (federalregister.gov)
  • Attached are EWG's comments to Environmental Protection Agency on the agency's draft human health risk assessment for atrazine and draft cumulative human health risk assessment for triazine herbicides (atrazine, simazine and propazine). (ewg.org)
  • for atrazine and simazine [ 17 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Ahel M, Evans KM, Fileman TW, Mantoura RFC (1992) Determination of atrazine and simazine in estuarine samples by high-resolution gas chromatography and nitrogen selective detection. (springer.com)
  • Behki RM, Khan SU (1994) Degradation of atrazine, propazione, simazine by Rhodococcus strain B-30. (springer.com)
  • Atrazine contamination of surface water (lakes, rivers, and streams) in the U.S. has been monitored by the EPA and has consistently exceeded levels of concern in two Missouri watersheds and one in Nebraska. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2017 survey of rural Wisconsin wells found widespread atrazine contamination. (wisconsin.gov)
  • However, the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP) has taken action to reduce atrazine use to prevent any more groundwater contamination. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The use of atrazine is banned in Europe due to concerns over groundwater contamination, the birth defects it imparts to animals and the medical complications that it can manifest in humans. (gardenguides.com)
  • The most widely used herbicide in U.S. history, atrazine is banned in the European Union for its documented toxic contamination of watersheds and destruction of amphibians. (gardenguides.com)
  • Furthermore, atrazine contamination is associated with demasculinization and feminization of amphibians in agricultural areas where atrazine is used ( 32 ) and directly correlated with atrazine contamination in the wild ( 7 , 9 , 33 , 34 ). (pnas.org)
  • The current maximum contamination level of atrazine allowed in drinking water is three parts per billion. (sott.net)
  • Although atrazine contamination of the groundwater is a serious issue, it appears to be a localized problem that develops as a result of the interaction of several site-specific conditions. (missouri.edu)
  • Poisoning the Well report shined a bright light on widespread contamination of American drinking water by the pesticide atrazine. (commondreams.org)
  • This is why the European Union banned the use of atrazine back in 2003, citing "ubiquitous and unpreventable" water contamination from its continued use on food crops. (naturalnews.com)
  • In the study, Dr. Winchester and his team found the levels of atrazine contamination in public water is at its highest during the months of May and June, when farmers are spraying down their crops with the herbicide. (naturalnews.com)
  • Atrazine has been banned by the European Union due to its persistent contamination of ground water. (naturalnews.com)
  • Atrazine was banned in the European Union in 2004 because of the problem of groundwater contamination. (tripod.com)
  • In spite of the findings by the European Union, and a growing number of reports in the United States of health problems believed linked to atrazine, the Natural Resources Defense Council accused the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency of ignoring the growing threat of atrazine contamination in surface and drinking water, especially in the central United States. (tripod.com)
  • In NRDC's new atrazine report we analyzed a mountain of data showing widespread water contamination from atrazine, a toxic herbicide. (huffpost.com)
  • Monitoring of atrazine levels in community water systems in 31 high-use states found that levels exceeded levels of concern for infant exposure during at least one year between 1993 and 2001 in 34 of 3670 community water systems using surface water, and in none of 14,500 community water systems using groundwater. (wikipedia.org)
  • AtzA is an atrazine-dechlorinating enzyme with fairly restricted substrate specificity and plays a main role in the hydrolysis of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine in soils and groundwater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Worlwide, atrazine is a leading agricultural chemical, and so extensively used that it has been identified as a significant pollutant in surface water, groundwater, in offshore areas and in the atmosphere. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • No developmental effects were seen in a study of mice and rats exposed to groundwater contaminants that included atrazine. (inchem.org)
  • In an extensive study, the U.S. Geological Survey found atrazine in some 75 percent of stream water and 40 percent of groundwater samples tested. (gardenguides.com)
  • Atrazine has been banned in Europe since 2003, and a 2010 U.S. government study found the chemical in 75 percent of stream water and almost 40 percent of groundwater samples taken in agricultural areas. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • But atrazine and its byproducts are known to be endocrine disrupters that are persistent in the environment, making their way into both surface water and groundwater supplies. (sott.net)
  • Public concern over the widespread use of atrazine centers on its detection in both surface and groundwater. (missouri.edu)
  • An extensive U.S. Geological Survey study found that approximately 75 percent of stream water and about 40 percent of all groundwater samples from agricultural areas contained atrazine, and according to the New York Times, an estimated 33 million Americans have been exposed to atrazine through their drinking water systems. (commondreams.org)
  • Atrazine is the most common and cost-effective herbicide used by farmers in the corn belt states, but it can pose problems for drinking water plants that rely primarily on surface waters, as opposed to groundwater, as their raw water supply source. (taftlaw.com)
  • Atrazine is one of the most commonly detected pesticides in rainwater, groundwater and tapwater in the USA and is used on corn, sugar, sorghum, yams, rice, christmas trees, and for lawn care. (all-creatures.org)
  • Flow rate, water quality parameters and suspended sediment concentrations were measured in Logsdon River, a ~10km karst conduit within the Turnhole Spring Groundwater Basin of Mammoth Cave National Park to determine characteristics of storm-period transport of sediment-sorbed atrazine through a conduit-flow karst aquifer. (wku.edu)
  • We are mammals, so I'm sure you are at least slightly disturbed, given that Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide in U.S. groundwater, rainwater and tapwater, and the USDA detected atrazine in 94% of American tap water samples. (savethefrogs.com)
  • Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide in American groundwater. (sfntoday.com)
  • The EPA's review has been criticized, and the safety of atrazine remains controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Kansas Corn Growers Association and the Triazine Network joined CRE in filing a joint Data Quality Act Petition requesting corrections to influential information in EPA's Final Registration Eligibility Science Chapter for Atrazine: Environmental Fate and Effects Chapter (April 22, 2002). (thecre.com)
  • EPA's statements do not meet the Data Quality Act's reliability, reproducibility and utility standards because there are no validated tests for determining whether atrazine causes environmental endocrine effects. (thecre.com)
  • CRE also notes that this agreement reemphasizes EPA's conclusion that atrazine is not a human carcinogen. (thecre.com)
  • The thrust of EPA's letter is to defer action on the Petition until EPA has finished action on the atrazine IRED. (thecre.com)
  • As explained in detail in the atrazine Data Quality Act Petition, the atrazine Environmental Risk Assessment is influential scientific information, and EPA's Data Quality Act Guidelines require that EPA ensure the reproducibility of all influential scientific information disseminated by the Agency. (thecre.com)
  • The NTP Notice also fails to mention EPA's plans to review atrazine with another cancer SAP once the Agricultural Health Study data become available. (hhs.gov)
  • As recently as June, Steve Bradbury, deputy office director of the EPA's office of Pesticide Programs, told the Huffington Post Investigative Fund "we have concluded that atrazine does not cause adverse effects to humans or the environment. (commondreams.org)
  • It should come as no surprise then that the EPA's atrazine review is also targeted. (panna.org)
  • EPA's own Scientific Advisory Panel has criticized the agency for underestimating the links between atrazine and certain cancers. (panna.org)
  • EPA's long overdue review of the herbicide is finally underway, and last month, the agency acknowledged that atrazine can harm wildlife and decrease plant biodiversity, even at very low levels. (panna.org)
  • Under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act, drinking water providers are obligated to test their finished water, meaning the final product after the processing of the raw water, to make sure it does not contain atrazine in concentrations above U.S. EPA's maximum contaminant level ("MCL") of 3 parts per billion. (taftlaw.com)
  • EPA's preferred method to remove atrazine from raw water is through an expensive granular activated carbon ("GAC") filtration system. (taftlaw.com)
  • Essentially, the independent panel disagrees with the EPA's assessment of Atrazine and believes that the EPA should change its officially position from "unlikely to be carcinogenic" to "inadequate information to assess carcinogenic potential. (livingmaxwell.com)
  • Atrazine is a triazine herbicide that is the second most commonly used herbicide in the United States, and as such has the potential to impact estuaries and the coastal zone, where most of the oceanic primary productivity occurs. (epa.gov)
  • Like atrazine, a related triazine herbicide, it acts by inhibiting photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2001[update], atrazine was the most commonly detected pesticide contaminating drinking water in the U.S. Studies suggest it is an endocrine disruptor, an agent that can alter the natural hormonal system. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in 2006 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had stated that under the Food Quality Protection Act "the risks associated with the pesticide residues pose a reasonable certainty of no harm", and in 2007, the EPA said that atrazine does not adversely affect amphibian sexual development and that no additional testing was warranted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damita Miles Orlando Mercier Atrazine "As of 2001, atrazine was the most commonly detected pesticide contaminating drinking water in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, since its introduction as a pesticide in the United States, bacteria capable of atrazine degradation have evolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrazine is harm you and because these sites may be sources of a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP), which means that exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • DES MOINES, Iowa - Atrazine continues to show up where it isn't supposed to be - in drinking water, according to the Pesticide Action Network. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • As a result, atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground, surface, and drinking water. (pnas.org)
  • Approximately 80 million pounds are applied annually in the United States alone, and atrazine is the most common pesticide contaminant of ground and surface water ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • But the most explosive charge was Hayes' belief, echoed by anti-pesticide activists, that atrazine could cause endocrine related developmental health problems in humans. (forbes.com)
  • Atrazine is the second-most commonly used pesticide in the United States. (panna.org)
  • Now it's time for EPA to catch up with the science on human health, and start taking steps to phase out the herbicide - by supporting farmers to step off the pesticide treadmill, and setting real targets to get atrazine out of our food system. (panna.org)
  • Atrazine is the most common pesticide found in ground and surface water, and has been found in rain water and snow. (bcaction.org)
  • Banned by the European Union, atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide in U.S. waters and is a known endocrine disruptor, which means that it affects human and animal hormones. (commondreams.org)
  • Atrazine season is here, and while it is great to see the U.S. EPA revisiting the registration of this pesticide, until they change monitoring policy high concentrations in drinking water will continue to be ignored," said Sass. (commondreams.org)
  • According to 2008 data from the USDA Pesticide Data Program, Atrazine has been found in 94% of of our water supply. (livingmaxwell.com)
  • For instance, an Atrazine ban would likely reduce the price differential between organic food and pesticide-laden conventional foods, benefitting the organic farmers who provide a valuable service to Americans by delivering us food that is safe to eat. (all-creatures.org)
  • Natural News ) Traces of atrazine, a popular weedkiller , have been detected in 94 percent of water supplies studied by the USDA, making it a more common contaminate than any other pesticide. (naturalnews.com)
  • This study provides an improved methodology for investigating the trade-offs between the health risks and economic benefits of using atrazine in the agricultural sector by incorporating public attitude to pesticide management in the analysis. (usu.edu)
  • In fact, more than a half million pounds of atrazine are precipitated in rainfall each year in the United States ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The United States uses about 80 million pounds of atrazine every year. (bcaction.org)
  • This provides the evolutionary pressure for the atzA , - B , and - C genes to permit bacterial growth on the more than one billion pounds of atrazine that have been applied to soils globally ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Once sprayed, more than a half million pounds of atrazine are swept up into the wind and come back in the form of rain and snowfall. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • Our findings and previous research suggest that a later-in-life effect of atrazine exposure could be due to the previously observed reduction in LH, providing a mechanism behind the observed reduction in spawning, atretic follicles and cystic ovarian degeneration," Freeman said. (purdue.edu)
  • Studies have examined the effect of atrazine on the metamorphic parameters of amphibians, however, the data are often contradictory. (epa.gov)
  • The effect of atrazine on the levels of carbohydrates, amino acids, potassium, phosphate and sodium contents in shoots and roots of bean plant were investigated. (scialert.net)
  • Studies suggest that atrazine is an endocrine disruptor that can cause hormone imbalance. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few studies are available that suggest that atrazine could affect pregnant women by causing their babies to grow more slowly than normal or by causing them to give birth early. (cdc.gov)
  • These results suggest that atrazine changed activity patterns of a wolf spider, which may result in altered foraging, survival, and reproduction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Animal studies indicate that the oral toxicity of thes-triazine herbicides, of which atrazine is the best known, is relatively low. (cdc.gov)
  • Atrazine has been tested for developmental toxicity in rats and rabbits. (inchem.org)
  • The toxicity associated with atrazine -- and its role in limiting reproduction in amphibians -- has been documented extensively. (gardenguides.com)
  • Effects of Nutrient Pre-Exposure on Atrazine Toxicity to Vallisneria americana Michx. (springer.com)
  • Nutrient pretreatment potentiated the toxicity of atrazine as determined by chlorophyll fluorescence activity. (springer.com)
  • The affected genes in this study correlate with findings in other studies, but Freeman and her team also identified a number of novel genes that are linked with functions previously associated with atrazine toxicity but for which genetic targets are not yet known. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In this research, we performed the Microtox Assay to investigate the acute toxicity of a significant number of triazines including atrazine, atraton, ametryne, bladex, prometryne, and propazine, and some of their degradation products including atrazine desethyl, atrazine deisopropyl, and didealkyled triazine. (mdpi.com)
  • The new synthesized CDSI material was found to be a viable option for reducing the toxicity of atrazine herbicide. (springer.com)
  • This review presents the toxicity, analytical techniques, abiotic degradation and microbial metabolism of atrazine. (springer.com)
  • We waited until the third generation, where no direct exposure (to atrazine) occurred, to ask if these epigenetic effects could be inherited, because there is no mechanism, no exposure, no toxicity that could explain a change in disease rates in the third generation. (naturalnews.com)
  • In the present study, the sorption and desorption of atrazine in five typical Chinese soils were examined. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Studies on the biodegradation of atrazine in soils contamined with a commercial. (rcaap.pt)
  • Anderson JR, Stephenson GR, Corke CT (1980) Atrazine and cyanazine activity in Ontario and Manitoba soils. (springer.com)
  • Baluch HU, Somasundaram L, Kanwar RS, Coats JR (1993) Fate of major degradation products of atrazine in Iowa soils. (springer.com)
  • Atrazine is one of the most commonly applied triazinic herbicides and frequently detected in agricultural soils. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Bioremediation of Atrazine- and BTX-contaminated soils : insights through molecular/physiological characterization. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Atrazine- and selected petroleum hydrocarbon (benzene, toluen~ and 0-, m- and p-xylene (BTX))-degrading associations were enriched and isolated"trom atrazine- and petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC)-contaminated KwaZuluNatal loamy and sandy soils, respectively. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • In the United States as of 2014, atrazine was the second-most widely used herbicide after glyphosate, with 76 million pounds of it applied each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrazine continues to be one of the most widely used herbicides in Australian agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrazine is among the most widely used of chemical herbicides. (ehow.com)
  • Atrazine is most widely used on corn followed by sorghum and sugarcane. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Atrazine, a widely used herbicide, has been on the market for more than 50 years, and has been subject to thousands of studies. (farmprogress.com)
  • Atrazine has been used widely in South Africa for the past 45 years, and our studies showed that Xenopus are doing equally fine in agricultural and nonagricultural areas," zoologist Louis du Preez of North-West University in South Africa noted in 2010 . (forbes.com)
  • Atrazine, a widely used weed killer, is an aromatase promoter. (bcaction.org)
  • Atrazine (ATZ) is a widely used herbicide that has the potential to contaminate the environment and cause deleterious effects on non-target organisms. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A new study shows that male rats prenatally exposed to low doses of atrazine, a widely used herbicide, are more likely to develop prostate inflammation and to go through puberty later than non-exposed animals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • About 64 to 80 million lbs of atrazine alone are used each year in the United States, making it one of the two most widely used pesticides in the country. (mdpi.com)
  • One of the most widely used chemicals that gets sprayed on conventionally-grown food is Atrazine, a toxic weed killer. (livingmaxwell.com)
  • Atrazine is a widely used herbicide developed for use in range and pastureland. (peerj.com)
  • Long-term administration of atrazine enhances the onset of reproductive senescence in female Sprague-Dawley (but not Fischer 344) rats, resulting in an earlier onset of persistent oestrus and tissue changes characteristic of long-term exposure to elevated oestrogen levels. (inchem.org)
  • Agency scientists also will conduct research for the first time examining whether atrazine interferes with the hormone and reproductive systems of humans and amphibians. (commondreams.org)
  • Jennifer Freeman, (center) an associate professor of toxicology in the School of Health Sciences, has found that atrazine exposure during embryonic development in zebrafish can cause later reproductive problems and physical deformations in their offspring. (purdue.edu)
  • Atrazine exposure during embryonic development could cause later reproductive problems for female zebrafish, as well as physical deformations in their offspring, according to new research from Purdue University . (purdue.edu)
  • This latest toxicology study from Purdue University reports to have found that atrazine "alters reproductive and neuroendocrine genes during embryonic development in fish. (farmprogress.com)
  • The present study demonstrates the reproductive consequences of atrazine exposure in adult amphibians. (pnas.org)
  • We examined sex ratios, testosterone levels, sexual dimorphism, reproductive behaviors, and fertility in males exposed to 2.5 ppb atrazine throughout the larval period and for up to 3 years after metamorphosis. (pnas.org)
  • Dr. Fenton, a reproductive endocrinologist, will be presenting the research findings in September to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, as part of its ongoing reassessment of atrazine. (sott.net)
  • The results shed new light on the way atrazine affects the female reproductive system and the persistence of these effects when adults are exposed. (freshwater.org)
  • Among fish, scientists have found that atrazine affects the reproductive process. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • The research, which is available online and will be featured on the cover of Reproductive Toxicology (Volume 30, Issue 4), found that the incidence of prostate inflammation went from 48 percent in the control group to 81 percent in the male offspring who were exposed to a mixture of atrazine and its breakdown products prenatally. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In addition, there is strong evidence that atrazine is an endocrine disrupting chemical ( EDC ), interfering with critical reproductive hormones even at extremely low levels . (huffpost.com)
  • Some people who drink water containing atrazine well in excess of the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for many years can experience problems with their cardiovascular system or reproductive difficulties. (utah.gov)
  • Evidence suggests that exposure to atrazine damages men and women's reproductive health, weakens immune systems in wildlife, and may contribute to the risk of cancer. (synapse-energy.com)
  • However, in their 2016 Refined Ecological Risk Assessment for Atrazine, it was stated that "it is difficult to make definitive conclusions about the impact of atrazine at a given concentration but multiple studies have reported effects to various endpoints at environmentally-relevant concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of photons generated was inversely proportional to the atrazine concentration. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Significant ETR reductions were also observed for plants exposed to an average of 11.4 μg L −1 atrazine after exposure to nutrients three times the ambient concentration in the St. Johns River. (springer.com)
  • The unpredictable nature of runoff and the seasonal peak concentration of atrazine in streams and rivers draining agricultural areas imply the need to minimize loss at the source. (missouri.edu)
  • The New York Times ' Charles Duhigg had reported in an August 2009 series called "Toxic Waters" on how huge spikes in atrazine concentration in drinking water were hidden from the American people and that scientists are concerned about atrazine's potential as an endocrine disruptor to affect hormone levels. (prwatch.org)
  • The bacterium used atrazine as sole nitrogen source (the initial concentration of atrazine is 100 mg/L), and its atrazine degradation rate reached 96.86% after 3 d. (hindawi.com)
  • There was also exceedingly weak correlation between the concentration of atrazine and suspended sediment, suggesting that if atrazine is sorbed to fine sediment particles this sorption involves only the fractions finer than 0.22 μm. (wku.edu)
  • However, amino acid content was reduced in shoot as compared to root wherein it got enhanced at 10 to 100 ppm atrazine concentration. (scialert.net)
  • A little growth stimulant effect was observed at 5 ppm concentration of atrazine in shoots and roots of bean plants. (scialert.net)
  • With an atrazine concentration of 30 mgr1, the highest specific growth rates, as determined by biomass (OD) changes, were recorded at 30DC and pH 4 although the rate§ at 25DC and pH 5 were comparable. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Some similar numerically-dominant bands characterized the aerobic and anaerobic atrazine-catabolizing associations although distinct differences were also recorded on the basis of the enrichment/isolation pH value and the concentration of the herbicide. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) for physiological fingerprinting was made with Biolog EcoPlates and highlighted the differences in the isolated aerobic atrazine-catabolizing associations depending on the enrichment pH and molecule concentration. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Regression models are developed to predict finished water atrazine concentration in high-risk community water supplies in the United States. (usu.edu)
  • Even with today's limits, levels of 40 ppb atrazine have been measured in rain and spring water in parts of the Midwest, while atrazine in agricultural runoff can be present at several parts per million. (berkeley.edu)
  • Atrazine is a commonly used herbicide in agricultural settings. (ehow.com)
  • Inexpensive and readily available, atrazine is found in many commercial herbicide brands for both agricultural and home use. (ehow.com)
  • It then acts in the atrazine is commonly found in the water collected shoots and leaves of the weed to stop from drinking water wells in some agricultural photosynthesis. (cdc.gov)
  • Atrazine is also registered for use on the following non-agricultural sites: lawns, golf courses, and sod farms [1]. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • EPA plans to convene another SAP on atrazine once the Agricultural Health Study is completed. (hhs.gov)
  • The NTP Notice announcing that NTP will immediately review atrazine for cancer fails to note that the NCI Agricultural Health Study of atrazine and cancer is not yet available and won't be for some time. (hhs.gov)
  • Atrazine, an agricultural herbicide, is a suspected endocrine-disrupting chemical. (purdue.edu)
  • TH: Atrazine was first produced by Geigy/Ciba-Geigy, and then they combined with Novartis, which sold both agricultural chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs at the time. (bcaction.org)
  • Given the pesticide's limited economic value and the fact that safer agricultural methods can be substituted to achieve similar results, NRDC recommends phasing out the use of atrazine, more effective atrazine monitoring, the adoption of farming techniques that can help minimize the use of atrazine to prevent it from running into waterways. (commondreams.org)
  • Here we investigated the sublethal effects atrazine may be playing on an agrobiont wolf spider that makes up a major component of agricultural spider communities in the Eastern United States. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A new study in Environmental Science reported that women who live in agricultural communities in Illinois experience much great menstrual cycle irregularities than women who live in Vermont, an area where Atrazine is sparingly used. (livingmaxwell.com)
  • Happily, many future-thinking farms , including many in atrazine-abundant regions like Illinois , are already getting ahead of the toxic curve with effective and affordable agricultural practices that avoid toxic chemicals. (huffpost.com)
  • Because of this application, atrazine is capable of entering water systems and sources through agricultural runoff. (utah.gov)
  • This is one reason why atrazine is commonly found in the water collected from drinking water wells in some agricultural regions. (utah.gov)
  • Surface water monitoring data from 20 high atrazine use watersheds found peak atrazine levels up to 147 parts per billion, with daily averages in all cases below 10 parts per billion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pure atrazine is an odorless, white powder that is not very volatile, reactive, or flammable and that will dissolve in water. (cdc.gov)
  • The findings come at a time when the EPA is re-evaluating allowable levels of atrazine in drinking water, which stand today at 3 parts per billion (ppb), and has drafted new criteria for the protection of aquatic life, limiting four-day average exposures to 12 ppb. (berkeley.edu)
  • This public health statement tells you about atrazine dissolve in water. (cdc.gov)
  • Atrazine reduced olfactory-mediated endocrine functions in salmon at levels commonly observed in polluted water [12]. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The agreement establishes a trigger for atrazine and its metabolites in "raw water" of 37.5 ppb on a 90-day rolling average. (thecre.com)
  • If their water supply is contaminated, they could breathe atrazine as they cook, bathe, or do laundry. (wisconsin.gov)
  • People who have contaminated drinking water may be exposed to low levels of atrazine. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The state and federal drinking water standards for atrazine are both set at 3 parts per billion (ppb). (wisconsin.gov)
  • We suggest you stop drinking water that contains more than 3 ppb of atrazine. (wisconsin.gov)
  • If levels of atrazine are very high (greater than 100 ppb) in your water, you may also need to avoid washing, bathing, or using the water for other purposes. (wisconsin.gov)
  • In drinking-water, the levels rarely exceed 1 m g/L. Surveys of various foods and feeds have generally indicated no detectable atrazine residue. (inchem.org)
  • If you are concerned as a consumer about atrazine in your drinking water, the Natural Resources Defense Council recommends using a simple water filter that fits on the tap. (gardenguides.com)
  • The announcement marks a departure from the agency's policies on atrazine during the Bush administration, when officials said that the concentrations of the herbicide measured in drinking water did not endanger public health. (commondreams.org)
  • As the Investigative Fund reported in a series of articles in August, the EPA failed to notify the public about data it had collected showing that atrazine has been found at levels above the federal safety limit in drinking water in at least four states. (commondreams.org)
  • D-Calif.) According to a senior staffer on the committee, Boxer's team encouraged the EPA to open a new analysis of the risks of atrazine and to keep the public informed about the levels of the weed-killer in drinking water. (commondreams.org)
  • At the very least," Rohr said, "the public should be notified when atrazine levels in their drinking water exceed the maximum contaminant level set by the EPA. (commondreams.org)
  • Atrazine , the culprit, can't be used in Europe because it sticks around in the water far too long for European standards. (panna.org)
  • The federally approved amount of atrazine in drinking water is 3 parts per billion, but workers can be exposed to larger levels, such as 30 parts per billion, and larger amounts may be present in surface water. (purdue.edu)
  • Atrazine is the second most commonly used herbicide in the U.S., and the most commonly found herbicide in U.S. ground, rain and drinking water. (mercola.com)
  • About three-quarters of the water samples contained Atrazine, although at lower levels than the limit set by the federal Environmental Protection Agency. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • The main thing we need to see is people speaking up and talking to both EPA, about reviewing their science on Atrazine, and also state officials in each of these states can take steps to monitor and safeguard drinking water. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • Evansville drinking water utility samples the Ohio River at their intake and analyze for Atrazine by immunoassay technique. (orsanco.org)
  • Atrazine has the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 3.0 ug/L set by the Safe Drinking Water Act for finished drinking water. (orsanco.org)
  • Recently, Australia's Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts-it's EPA-carefully reviewed Hayes latest study, from 2010, finding the lab work flawed and recommending no change to its conclusion that atrazine is safe as used. (forbes.com)
  • The scientists tested male rats using atrazine concentrations close to the regulated levels in drinking water sources. (sott.net)
  • Midwest farm communities are more likely than any others to have atrazine in their drinking water , and EPA hasn't stepped up to restrict the herbicide yet. (panna.org)
  • One study found that women who drank well water contaminated with atrazine were more likely to develop breast cancer than women who lived in the same area but were unexposed. (bcaction.org)
  • If women in the Midwest are taking an AI for breast cancer, it's very possible they are exposed to atrazine in their water. (bcaction.org)
  • But atrazine often washes into water supplies and has become among the most common contaminants in American reservoirs and other sources of drinking water. (freshwater.org)
  • An investigation by The New York Times has found that in some towns, atrazine concentrations in drinking water have spiked, sometimes for longer than a month. (freshwater.org)
  • Drinking water supplies in nine watersheds in northern Missouri contain atrazine levels higher than 3 parts per billion, the maximum contaminant level mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (missouri.edu)
  • Thus, the future of atrazine in these areas is uncertain, and more restrictions may be required to bring the water supplies back into compliance. (missouri.edu)
  • In this case, developed for a course in Issues in Environmental Biology, students learn that water samples collected from a local river show elevated levels of fecal bacteria and atrazine, one of the most commonly used herbicides in the United States. (curriki.org)
  • She wanted to know Syngenta's response to the allegation that the company, although it had the resources to do so, was refusing to aid communities seeking to remove atrazine from their water supplies. (prwatch.org)
  • Ivory had previously reported that replacing the sand filtration system used by many water districts with carbon filters to remove atrazine were difficult for cash-strapped utilities to afford, especially after the Wall Street crash. (prwatch.org)
  • He also asserted, among other things, that since 2005 no water system in the nation had an "annual" average atrazine content above the three parts-per-billion ("3 ppb") threshold set by the EPA. (prwatch.org)
  • The report reveals that all of the watersheds monitored by EPA and 80% of the drinking water sampled tested positive for atrazine. (commondreams.org)
  • Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), EPA has determined that an annual average of no more than 3 parts per billion (ppb) of atrazine may be present in drinking water. (commondreams.org)
  • One of the chief findings of the report was that this reliance on a "running annual average" allows levels of atrazine in drinking water to peak at extremely high concentrations. (commondreams.org)
  • Finally, both MIPs were used as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE) of atrazine from lake water, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. (mdpi.com)
  • Compared with commercial C 18 SPE sorbent (86.4%-94.8%), higher recoveries of atrazine in spiked lake water were obtained in the range of 90.1%-97.1% and 94.4%-101.9%, for both MIPs, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • Atrazine and its metabolites are present at high concentrations in many water supplies in agro-intensive areas. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Exploiting π-π Interactions to Design an Efficient Sorbent for Atrazine Removal from Water. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Atrazine and its byproducts are known to be relatively persistent in the environment, potentially finding their way into water supplies. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The doses of atrazine mixture given to the rats during the last five days of their pregnancy are close to the regulated levels in drinking water sources. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The exact connection to health outcomes is not defined, but we found gene alterations in our animal model when exposed to the level of atrazine that is deemed safe for drinking water ," said Jennifer Freeman, an assistant professor of toxicology in the School of Health Sciences. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The federally approved amount of atrazine is 3 parts per billion in drinking water. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The 3 ppb level is the current safe level in drinking water, and the larger amount of atrazine tested represents what a worker may be exposed to or may be present in surface water. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This is hardly new information, as research dating back to the early 1990s revealed that atrazine directly interferes with normal hormone production, both in animals and humans, as well as in amphibians who bear the brunt of it from runoff in water. (naturalnews.com)
  • The study found a significant association between atrazine concentrations in drinking water and prevalence of small-for-gestational-age births. (taftlaw.com)
  • However, the study's authors concluded that "it is not clear at present whether this association represents a true cause-effect relationship, as other co-occurring chemicals [herbicides acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor] in drinking water were significantly correlated with atrazine. (taftlaw.com)
  • The EPA s mission to protect human and environmental health will not be fulfilled so long as Atrazine continues to contaminate our land and water. (all-creatures.org)
  • Atrazine is particularly harmful to amphibians, many of which spend a portion or all of their lives in water. (all-creatures.org)
  • The vast majority of Americans are exposed to Atrazine via drinking water, ground water, rainfall and our food supply, so it is not surprising that Atrazine has indeed been linked to increased cancer rates in human communities surrounding heavy Atrazine usage. (all-creatures.org)
  • And for an estimated 7.6 million Americans , atrazine contaminates tap water supplies in amounts that potentially threaten human health. (naturalnews.com)
  • Adsorption of two widespread emerging water contaminants (atrazine and paracetamol) onto three different activated carbons was investigated. (upc.edu)
  • lower tolerance) were placed in distilled water for 20 minute and then in atrazine solutions. (unl.edu)
  • These areas overlap with populations of the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) that has a wide distribution in southern Africa and is found in most water-bodies including those where atrazine residues are detected. (usgs.gov)
  • Are you drinking atrazine in your tap water? (huffpost.com)
  • Atrazine has a half-life of several years (longer in colder climates), and can be detected in most streams and rivers of the U.S. Eventually, much of it gets to the Gulf of Mexico , where it continues its plant-killing spree of algae and other beneficial water plants that provide food and oxygen for aquatic life. (huffpost.com)
  • When tiger salamander larvae were raised for 2 weeks in water containing atrazine (20, 200 ppb) or chlorpyrifos (2, 20, 200 ppb) no increase in deaths was observed. (huffpost.com)
  • Rats treated for 5 months with atrazine-laced drinking water (30 or 300 µg/kg [ppb]) had associated insulin-resistance leading to obesity (Lim et al, 2009. (huffpost.com)
  • Risk-cost-benefit analysis of atrazine in drinking water from agricult" by A. A. Tesfamichael, A. Caplan et al. (usu.edu)
  • The predicted finished water atrazine concentrations are then used in a health risk assessment. (usu.edu)
  • Available information is inadequate to definitely state whether atrazine causes cancer in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • A Cancer Assessment Review Committee (CARC) sponsored by EPA has classified atrazine as not likely to be carcinogenic to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that atrazine is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, IARC found that "[t]here is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of atrazine. (hhs.gov)
  • For example, the IARC Monograph states with regard to these animal tests: "[T]here is strong evidence that the mechanism by which atrazine increases the incidence of mammary gland tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats is not relevant to humans. (hhs.gov)
  • 8 The IARC Monograph also states: "There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of atrazine. (hhs.gov)
  • In October, 2003, EPA concluded at the end of its multi-year review that atrazine is "not likely to be carcinogenic to humans. (hhs.gov)
  • In 2009, the EPA began a comprehensive new evaluation of atrazine to determine its effects on humans. (sott.net)
  • He shrugged off my concerns, convinced that atrazine had no effect on humans and dissipated from the environment rapidly anyway. (progressivereform.org)
  • The EPA, working with the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel, continues to evaluate scientific research regarding a potential link between atrazine and cancer in humans. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Atrazine increases aromatase and/or estrogen production in zebra fish, goldfish, caimans, alligators, turtles, quail and rats," warns Hayes, implying that humans and many other species of life are being similarly damaged by its ubiquitous presence. (naturalnews.com)
  • We exposed spiders to ecologically relevant doses of atrazine and monitored general activity patterns as well as mating behaviors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The doses of atrazine mixture given to the rats during the last five d. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Another point of view on the safety of atrazine and the related chemicals comes from the Triazine Network. (sott.net)
  • Kansas Corn and Grain Sorghum Association Executive Director Jere White, Kentucky Corn Growers Association Executive Director Laura Knoth, Missouri Corn Growers Association Executive Director Gary Marshall and Nebraska Corn Growers Association Excutive Director Scott Merritt also testified before the SAP on the importance of basing decisions on the safety of atrazine in solid, scientific data. (ncga.com)
  • Behki RM, Khan SU (1986) Degradation of atrazine by Pseudomonas: N -dealkylation and dehalogenation of atrazine and its metabolites. (springer.com)
  • This study investigated the roles and mechanisms of two earthworm species (epigeic Eisenia foetida and endogeic Amynthas robustus) in microbial degradation of atrazine. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In another study looking at combined data from 236 university corn field trials from 1986 to 2005, atrazine treatments showed an average of 5.7 bushels more per acre than alternative herbicide treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrazine is used on crops such as sugarcane, corn, identifies the most serious hazardous waste sites in pineapples, sorghum, and macadamia nuts, and on the nation. (cdc.gov)
  • Atrazine is a current-use herbicide, used largely on corn and sorghum in both the United States and Canada. (noaa.gov)
  • Efforts have been made to select or produce atrazine-tolerant mutants crops such as soybean that is otherwise difficult to rotate with atrazine-treated corn or potato. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Atrazine has been showing up in supermarket corn, and in beef and milk. (ibiblio.org)
  • Atrazine-treated corn is routinely fed to cattle. (ibiblio.org)
  • In 1985, 77% of the acres of field corn and 49% of the acres of sweet corn in Wisconsin were treated with atrazine. (wisconsin.gov)
  • No comments were found for Detection of atrazine in corn oil . (environmental-expert.com)
  • Atrazine is a staple product for producers, who use it as a critical tool for weed control in growing the vast majority of corn, sorghum and sugarcane in the United States. (sott.net)
  • Riechers and his colleagues focused on metabolic resistance to atrazine, a chemical that has been used for decades and is still sprayed on approximately 80 percent of the corn acreage in the United States, despite increasing resistance and concerns about environmental impacts. (phys.org)
  • Atrazine is used on about 65 percent of all corn acreage and 69 percent of all grain sorghum acreage in the United States, and Missouri mirrors this level of use. (missouri.edu)
  • In addition, atrazine and other triazine herbicides account for as many as 48,000 American jobs in corn production alone, according to the studies. (croplife.com)
  • During an Environmental Protection Agency Scientific Advisory Panel hearing on atrazine, the National Corn Growers Association, along with state corn association representatives from Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri and Nebraska, urged the use of sound science and real-world evidence in its decision making. (ncga.com)
  • Atrazine, the chemical weed killer used on tens of millions of acres of corn in the U.S., is hazardous to our health and to the environment. (synapse-energy.com)
  • The graph below illustrates the impact of eliminating atrazine on farm revenue from ten crops, including corn. (synapse-energy.com)
  • At that rate, Syngenta's atrazine-free scenario, with its 8 percent increase in the price of corn, would add only one penny to the cost of a quarter-pound burger, and a nickel to the cost of an 8-ounce steak. (synapse-energy.com)
  • The computed health risks are compared with the total economic surplus in the U.S. corn market for different atrazine application rates using estimated demand and supply functions developed in this work. (usu.edu)
  • Microbial populations exposed to synthetic chlorinated compounds, such as atrazine, often respond by producing enzymes that degrade these molecules. (asm.org)
  • Microbial bioaugmentation, an addition of sufficient contaminant degrading microorganisms, can be used to achieve more rapid atrazine degradation [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Previous studies have reported the identification, characterization of atrazine - degrading microbial strains [ 11 - 13 ], and the effect of cell immobilization for atrazine degradation [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Yet, only few studies have looked at fermentation of atrazine - degrading microbial strains. (hindawi.com)
  • Biodegradation of atrazine by microbial species is increasingly being recognized as an eco-friendly, economically feasible and sustainable bioremediation strategy. (springer.com)
  • In parallel, anaerobic microbial associations which targeted atrazine were also characterized. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • John P. Giesy, a professor of zoology at Michigan State University in East Lansing, and his colleagues found last year that, at large doses, atrazine ups production of the enzyme aromatase, which converts androgen hormones to estrogen hormones. (berkeley.edu)
  • Those findings were criticized on several grounds, but mainly on the basis that very low levels of atrazine produced a stronger impact than levels 250 times higher, and that the low levels of atrazine did not induce the cytochrome p450 enzyme aromatase [10]. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Atrazine "turns on" the enzyme aromatase, which converts testosterone into estrogen. (mercola.com)
  • We hypothesize that atrazine induces aromatase and promotes the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. (nih.gov)
  • Studies have also found that atrazine promotes aromatase in human cancer cell lines. (bcaction.org)
  • Anton F. Evans et al, Biochemical characterization of metabolism-based atrazine resistance inand identification of an expressedassociated with resistance, Plant Biotechnology Journal (2017). (phys.org)
  • This morphological change in the zebafish indicates that low levels of atrazine can stimulate development and alter the physiology of exposed individuals. (farmprogress.com)
  • Pathway for atrazine catabolism to cyanuric acid in Pseudomonas sp. (asm.org)
  • Functional analyses identified three new catabolic genes, atzD , atzE , and atzF, which participate in atrazine catabolism. (asm.org)
  • Electron microscopy revealed that, numerically, rods constituted the majority of the populations responsible for both atrazine and PHC catabolism. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Atrazine metabolites have been detected in farmers' urine, at levels up to 2,400 parts per billion. (bcaction.org)
  • In this context, the average reader would conclude that IARC found atrazine could cause human cancer because it caused lab-rat cancer. (hhs.gov)
  • Other research found atrazine is associated with impaired fertility and low sperm counts. (bcaction.org)
  • Atrazine chlorohydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of our current understanding of the genes and enzymes involved in atrazine degradation derives from studies using Pseudomonas strain ADP, in which the first three enzymatic steps in atrazine degradation have been defined ( 6 , 14 , 15 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • O principal objectivo deste trabalho era a avaliação da eficiência da bactéria degradadora de atrazina Pseudomonas sp. (rcaap.pt)
  • However, exposure to atrazine may occur at farms where it has been sprayed. (cdc.gov)
  • Some low-level exposure to atrazine may occur when treated crops are eaten or handled. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Atrazine is registered for use on range grasses for establishing permanent grass cover on rangelands and pastures under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in four states: Oklahoma, Nebraska, Texas, and Oregon. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Atrazine is considered moderately effective in killing grasses in the fescue family. (gardenguides.com)
  • Applying when rain is not anticipated and refraining from irrigation for several days after application increases the efficacy of atrazine on fescue and all warm season grasses. (gardenguides.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate leaf fluorescence as a nondestructive bioassay of the relative atrazine tolerance of 3 perennnial, warm-season grasses. (unl.edu)
  • The difference between the 2 readings provided a reliable measure with low variability of the relative atrazine tolerance of the grasses studied and was effective on greenhouse- and field-grown plants. (unl.edu)
  • The NTP Notice's characterization of IARC's finding on atrazine is also misleading and incomplete because IARC's "Overall evaluation" is not provided by the Notice. (hhs.gov)
  • Batra M, Pandey J, Suri CR, Jain RK (2009) Isolation and characterization of an atrazine-degrading Rhodococcus sp. (springer.com)
  • A risk characterization for atrazine: oncogenicity profile. (semanticscholar.org)
  • atrazine on their lawns. (ibiblio.org)
  • Many chemicals applied to crops and lawns wash off and enter nearby watersheds, and atrazine is no exception. (gardenguides.com)
  • For decades, farmers, lawn care workers and professional green thumbs have relied on the popular weed killer atrazine to protect their crops, golf courses and manicured lawns. (freshwater.org)
  • If you are exposed to atrazine, many factors chapter from the Toxicological Profile for Atrazine. (cdc.gov)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency today reversed its stance on the potential hazards of atrazine, one of the most commonly-used herbicides in the country, saying it will re-examine how the chemical affects human health. (commondreams.org)
  • Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. and probably the world. (nih.gov)
  • Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides and is produced and used in large quantity worldwide. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognizes atrazine, a commonly used herbicide, as an endocrine disrupting compound. (bioportfolio.com)
  • For the first time in its history, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has released a document that details extensive ecological harm caused by Atrazine , one of the world's most commonly used herbicides. (savethefrogs.com)
  • According to the EPA website, "Even though the panel agreed with EPA that the epidemiologic evidence does not strongly suggest a link between atrazine and cancer, the panel did not agree that a lack of strong evidence justifies a conclusion that atrazine is not likely to be a human carcinogen. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Freeman said continuing to investigate changes in genes associated with cancer is critical because there needs to be more information before determining if atrazine is a human carcinogen. (medicalxpress.com)
  • but in plants not affected by atrazine, it is broken down before it can have an effect on If atrazine enters the air, it can be broken down by photosynthesis. (cdc.gov)
  • Atrazine acts by inhibiting photosynthesis. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • As with its action on mature plants, atrazine blocks a young seedling's ability to conduct photosynthesis. (gardenguides.com)
  • Atrazine modifies the growth, enzymatic processes and photosynthesis in plants. (springer.com)
  • Rats, dogs,horses, or cattle fed dietary levels of more than 25 ppm of atrazine for extended periods did not exhibit adverse effects. (cdc.gov)
  • For atrazine, under a column titled "NOMINATION RATIONALE," this FOIA document states:"IARC Group 3 (1999) Sufficient evidence in animals (mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats but not Fischer 344 rats). (hhs.gov)
  • There do not appear to be qualitative differences in the metabolism of atrazine between the strains and species studied that would explain the fact that mammary gland tumours develop in Sprague-Dawley rats but not in Fischer 344 rats or CD-1 mice. (inchem.org)
  • Research Triangle Park North Carolina, - Male rats exposed before birth to low doses of the weedkiller atrazine are more likely to develop prostate inflammation and to go through puberty later than non-exposed animals, finds a new study conducted by federal government scientists. (sott.net)
  • This study on how atrazine affects male rats was led by Suzanne Fenton, PhD, and Jason Stanko, PhD, of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health. (sott.net)
  • The researchers found that the incidence of prostate inflammation went from 48 percent in the control group of rats to 81 percent in the male offspring who were exposed to a mixture of atrazine and its breakdown products before birth. (sott.net)
  • Atrazine causes prostate inflammation in male rats and dela. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In their study of animal models, the first generation of rats whose mother was exposed to atrazine weighed less than the control group. (naturalnews.com)
  • No increase in the incidence of tumors of any type was observed in male or female Fischer 344 rats, male or female CD-1 mice, or male Sprague-Dawley rats fed atrazine at a maximum tolerated level in their diet for 24 mo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Even a single dose of atrazine (200 mg/kg) given to male Wistar rats caused and increase in steroid hormone release within 15 minutes after dosing. (huffpost.com)
  • Rats fed atrazine-contaminated feed for 1 or 2 weeks (120 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg) had a dose-dependent reduction in sperm number and impaired daily sperm production. (huffpost.com)
  • Rats fed atrazine-contaminated feed (50 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg) for 25 days had a significant dos-dependent reduction in steroid production in the Leydig cells of the testes (Pogrmic et al, 2009. (huffpost.com)
  • Other issues, including questions about the potential for amphibian effects, will be addressed in another atrazine registration decision to be issued in October 2003 after SAP review. (thecre.com)
  • That contrasted with an EPA statement in July, when the agency updated its Web site to say: "atrazine does not adversely affect amphibian gonadal development… and EPA believes that no additional testing is warranted to address this issue. (commondreams.org)
  • Previous studies showed that atrazine adversely affects amphibian larval development. (pnas.org)
  • The present findings exemplify the role that atrazine and other endocrine-disrupting pesticides likely play in global amphibian declines. (pnas.org)
  • Under relentless attack by those touting Hayes' work, the EPA examined the frog allegations in 2007, concluding, "atrazine does not adversely affect amphibian gonadal development based on a review of laboratory and field studies, including studies submitted by the registrant and studies published in the scientific literature. (forbes.com)
  • The effective levels reported in the current study are realistic exposures that suggest that other amphibian species exposed to atrazine in the wild could be at risk of impaired sexual development. (nih.gov)
  • Atrazine seems to be most potent in amphibians, where it is active at levels as low as 0.1 ppb ( 6 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Then Novartis contracted with me to study if atrazine is an endocrine disruptor in amphibians. (bcaction.org)
  • Estimated 1991 emissions of atrazine to the air from usage in the U.S. and Canada (Map 3 from Exposure To Endocrine Disrupters From Long-Range Air Transport Of Pesticides ). (noaa.gov)
  • Mid-range estimate of the contribution to atmospheric deposition of Atrazine to Lake Michigan for the period March 5 - July 23, 1991 (grams deposited per km2 of source area), based on the analysis presented in Exposure To Endocrine Disrupters From Long-Range Air Transport Of Pesticides ). (noaa.gov)
  • A sub-analysis of results for farmers in Nebraska, the State in which the most detailed information on atrazine use was available, showed no excess risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma among farmers who had used atrazine for at least 15 years, after adjustment for use of other pesticides. (inchem.org)
  • For more information about the EPA risk assessment, please visit http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/atrazine/atrazine_update.htm . (bio-medicine.org)
  • On August 26th, I submitted this comment to the EPA as part of their official call for comments related to their 15-year review of Atrazine, which is one of the world's most common pesticides. (all-creatures.org)
  • Subsequently, in mineralization experiments of 14C-UL-ring-atrazine in the presence of the high doses (~20x and ~50xRD) of Primextra S-Gold, lower levels of 14CO2 were liberated for higher doses of the commercial formulation. (rcaap.pt)
  • One of the first researchers studying this found that alligator embryos exposed to atrazine had altered sexes and abnormal sex organs. (bcaction.org)
  • The researchers tested atrazine at three levels, 0.3 ppb, 3 ppb and 30 ppb, by exposing developing zebrafish embryos. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Zebrafish embryos were exposed to atrazine from 6 hours post-fertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf. (peerj.com)
  • Our RFC correctly argued that the National Toxicology Program ("NTP") violated the IQA Objectivity requirement by disseminating an incomplete statement of IARC's findings about atrazine and cancer. (hhs.gov)
  • For these reasons, the NTP statement about IARC's atrazine findings violates the IQA's requirements that information be disseminated in an accurate, clear, complete and unbiased manner. (hhs.gov)
  • Fenton will be presenting her research findings in September to the EPA, as part of its reassessment of atrazine. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Metabolomic pathway analyses are consistent with findings of other studies demonstrating disruption of amino acid and energy metabolism from atrazine exposure to non-target species. (epa.gov)
  • The President's Cancer Panel reported that (PDF) Atrazine "has been shown to affect mammary gland development in animal studies with some findings suggesting multigenerational effects. (livingmaxwell.com)
  • In 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency limited the product's availability to the public, but products containing atrazine are still offered over-the-counter. (gardenguides.com)
  • Farmers should care about any study related to atrazine for a number of reasons, first of which is that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has reopened review of the herbicide - again. (farmprogress.com)
  • These well-financed groups worked together last summer to garner enough attention to spur an unscheduled re-review of atrazine by the Environmental Protection Agency. (madisonrecord.com)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency will hold a Scientific Advisory Panel public meeting Tuesday, to review and consider the ecological risks from the use of Atrazine. (sfntoday.com)
  • Below is a MUST-WATCH video about Atrazine by The Huffington Post Investigative Fund. (livingmaxwell.com)
  • Atrazine enters the environment primarily through spraying on farm crops. (cdc.gov)
  • Certified herbicide workers (see Section 1.7) may exposed to a substance only when you come in spread atrazine on crops or croplands as a powder, contact with it. (cdc.gov)
  • The application of atrazine to crops reactions with other reactive chemicals in the air. (cdc.gov)
  • Birth defects and liver, kidney, and heart damage has been seen in animals exposed to high levels of atrazine. (cdc.gov)
  • Atrazine has also been shown to cause changes in blood hormone levels in animals that affected ovulation and the ability to reproduce. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to high levels of atrazine during pregnancy caused reduced survival of fetuses. (cdc.gov)
  • In an article in the April 16 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, developmental endocrinologist Tyrone B. Hayes, associate professor of integrative biology, and his colleagues report that atrazine at levels often found in the environment demasculinizes tadpoles and turns them into hermaphrodites - creatures with both male and female sexual characteristics. (berkeley.edu)
  • Levels as low as 0.1 parts per billion atrazine induced hermaphroditism. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Animal feeding studies indicate that exposure to high levels of atrazine over a long period of time causes tremors and heart and liver damage. (wisconsin.gov)
  • If an allergy develops, future contact with low levels of atrazine can cause itching and redness. (wisconsin.gov)
  • In this study, the fish were exposed during the 72-hour embryonic development time, which mirrors human prenatal development, to atrazine at levels of 0, 0.3, 3 or 30 parts per billion. (purdue.edu)
  • In looking at more than 35,000 genes in the genome, they found two genes were changed at three levels of atrazine exposure - 0.3 parts per billion, 3 parts per billion (the current federally approved safe level) and 30 parts per billion. (farmprogress.com)
  • Researchers at Purdue are also looking at the long-term effects of the fish exposed to these three atrazine levels as they grow and reproduce to link the development gene changes observed to potential adverse health outcomes. (farmprogress.com)
  • Male X. laevis suffered a 10-fold decrease in testosterone levels when exposed to 25 ppb atrazine. (nih.gov)
  • Electron transport rates (ETR) were significantly less (48-59%) for plants pretreated with low and ambient nutrient levels in the presence of an average of 107.5-128.1 μg L −1 atrazine. (springer.com)
  • Atrazine and other s -triazine compounds have been detected in ground and surface waters at levels exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level of 3 ppb ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Twenty watersheds sampled in 2007 and 2008 contained detectable levels of atrazine, and 16 of these had concentrations high enough to harm plants and wildlife. (tripod.com)
  • strain ADP was shown to degrade atrazine to cyanuric acid via three steps, the first of which is a dechlorination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrazine chlorohydrolase (AtzA), hydroxyatrazine ethylaminohydrolase (AtzB), and N -isopropylammelide isopropylaminohydrolase (AtzC) sequentially convert atrazine to cyanuric acid ( 6 , 14 , 15 , 48 ) (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)