A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A mixture of isomeric tritolyl phosphates. Used in the sterilization of certain surgical instruments and in many industrial processes.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.
The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.
A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.
A histamine H1 antagonist. It is used in hypersensitivity reactions, in rhinitis, for pruritus, and in some common cold remedies.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.

Influence of atracurium on the diaphragm mean action potential conduction velocity in canines. (1/168)

BACKGROUND: It has been shown that progressive neuromuscular blockade (NMB) affects the electromyogram power spectrum and compound muscle action potential duration in skeletal muscle. These measures are linked to the mean muscle action potential conduction velocity (APCV), but no studies have confirmed a relation between the mean APCV and NMB. The aim of this study was to determine whether diaphragm mean APCV is affected by NMB. METHODS: The effects of NMB on diaphragm mean APCV were evaluated in five mongrel dogs. Progressive NMB was induced by slow intravenous infusion of atracurium. During spontaneous breathing, the diaphragm mean APCV was determined by electromyogram signals, in the time and frequency domains. The magnitude of NMB was quantified by the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential and by changes in muscle shortening during supramaximal stimulation of the phrenic nerve. RESULTS: Progressive NMB was associated with a decrease in diaphragm mean APCV. At approximately 70% reduction in the compound muscle action potential amplitude, diaphragm mean APCV had decreased more than 20%. Recovery after NMB was characterized by a restoration of the mean APCV to control values. CONCLUSION: This study shows that progressive NMB paralyzes motor units within the diaphragm in an orderly manner, and the blockade first affects muscle fibers with high APCV before it affects fibers with lower APCV.  (+info)

The infusion rate of mivacurium or atracurium for cesarean section compared with gynecological procedures. (2/168)

Mivacurium is mainly metabolized by plasma cholinesterase, whereas atracurium is removed by Hofman elimination. The purpose of this study was to compare the infusion rate of atracurium and mivacurium in maintaining surgical relaxation, and to compare their recovery indices between parturients and non-pregnant women. Muscle relaxation was maintained by the continuous infusion of relaxants to retain the first response of train-of-four (TOF) at 5% of control. When mivacurium was used, Bolus-T5 (duration from the end of mivacurium bolus injection to 5% single twitch recovery) was measured. After discontinuing the infusion, the recovery index was measured. The infusion rate of mivacurium, not atracurium, was significantly lower in parturients and Bolus-T5 of parturients was significantly longer than that of non-pregnant women. There was no significant difference in the recovery indices of both relaxants. The authors concluded that the infusion rate of mivacurium in maintaining muscle relaxation in parturients should be reduced compared to the rate in non-pregnant women and measuring Bolus-T5 may be helpful in determining the infusion rate to maintain muscle relaxation.  (+info)

Comparison of a new piezoelectric train-of-four neuromuscular monitor, the ParaGraph, and the Relaxometer mechanomyograph. (3/168)

The ParaGraph is a new device for monitoring neuromuscular function using a piezoelectric motion sensor. In 20 patients, monitoring of neuromuscular block produced by cisatracurium 0.1 mg kg-1 was compared using the ParaGraph and a Relaxometer 2 mechanomyograph. The ParaGraph was quick to set up, and easy to operate and interpret. There were no significant differences in the time to 100% depression of T1/T0, time to 25% recovery of T1/T0 or time to recovery of T1/T0 from 25% to 75%, measured by the two monitors. When the difference between the two monitors was plotted against the average of the two measurements, the limits of agreement for T1/T0 (-42.95, +53.98%) and the train-of-four ratio, T4/T1 (-0.28, +0.21) were too wide to allow the values given by the two monitors for individual patients to be used interchangeably.  (+info)

Cisatracurium neuromuscular block at the adductor pollicis and the laryngeal adductor muscles in humans. (4/168)

We have compared the dose-response relationship (n = 30) and time course of neuromuscular block (n = 20) of cisatracurium at the laryngeal adductor and the adductor pollicis muscles. ED95 values for cisatracurium were 66.8 (95% confidence interval 61.3-72.3) micrograms kg-1 at the larynx and 45.2 (42.1-48.3) micrograms kg-1 at the adductor pollicis muscle (P < 0.0001). After administration of cisatracurium 0.1 mg kg-1, onset time was 2.7 (2.2-3.2) min at the larynx and 3.9 (3.0-4.8) min at the adductor pollicis (P < 0.0001). Time to 95% recovery of the first twitch of the TOF was 26.9 (20.1-33.7) min and 45.6 (39.7-51.5) min, respectively (P < 0.0001). We found that the laryngeal adductors were more resistant to the action of cisatracurium than the adductor pollicis muscle, but onset and recovery were faster at the larynx.  (+info)

A comparison of continuous infusion of vecuronium and atracurium in midline and paramedian laparotomies. (5/168)

This was a study to compare continuous intravenous infusion of atracurium with continuous intravenous infusion of vecuronium for intraoperative muscle relaxation in 62 ASA I / II patients. Scheduled for laparotomies and pelvic surgeries under general anaesthesia. They were randomly allocated in two groups to receive either vecuronium infusion of 50 microg/kg/hour following a bolus dose of 0.1 microg/kg, or atracurium infusion of 400 microg/kg/hour following a bolus dose of 0.5 microg/kg. The mean infusion dose of atracurium was 478 +/- 44.11 microg/kg/hour and that of vecuronium was 63.2 +/- 74 microg/kg/hour for adequate muscle relaxation. The depth of neuromuscular blockade was monitored by using peripheral nerve stimulator so that only one twitch of train of four was present, resistance to ventilation, surgical relaxation and haemodynamic changes. Vecuronium infusions produced more haemodynamic stability than atracurium infusions. Vecuronium produced lesser change in systolic blood pressure (mean change of 3. 46 +/- 3.33%) from baseline values as compared to atracurium (mean change of 5.81 +/- 3.73%) from baseline values ( p < 0.01) which was statistically significant. The difference in mean pulse rate change from baseline value in the atracurium group (4.78 +/- 2.745%) was less than that in the vecuronium group (5.99 +/- 2.67%), which was not statistically significant. Spontaneous recovery was faster with vecuronium (540.94 +/- 76.46 seconds) as compared to atracurium (596. 33 +/- 72.48 seconds). 84.4% of patients who received vecuronium fell within good to very good category of muscle relaxation as compared to 63.3% in atracurium group. There were no cost benefits when either agents were used in infusion form.  (+info)

The incidence and mechanisms of pharyngeal and upper esophageal dysfunction in partially paralyzed humans: pharyngeal videoradiography and simultaneous manometry after atracurium. (6/168)

BACKGROUND: Residual neuromuscular block caused by vecuronium alters pharyngeal function and impairs airway protection. The primary objectives of this investigation were to radiographically evaluate the swallowing act and to record the incidence of and the mechanism behind pharyngeal dysfunction during partial neuromuscular block. The secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of atracurium on pharyngeal function. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers were studied while awake during liquid-contrast bolus swallowing. The incidence of pharyngeal dysfunction was studied by fluoroscopy. The initiation of the swallowing process, the pharyngeal coordination, and the bolus transit time were evaluated. Simultaneous manometry was used to document pressure changes at the tongue base, the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, and the upper esophageal sphincter. After control recordings, an intravenous infusion of atracurium was administered to obtain train-of-four ratios (T4/T1) of 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80, followed by recovery to a train-of-four ratio of more than 0.90. RESULTS: The incidence of pharyngeal dysfunction was 6% during the control recordings and increased (P < 0.05) to 28%, 17%, and 20% at train-of-four ratios 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80, respectively. After recovery to a train-of-four ratio of more than 0.90, the incidence was 13%. Pharyngeal dysfunction occurred in 74 of 444 swallows, the majority (80%) resulting in laryngeal penetration. The initiation of the swallowing reflex was impaired during partial paralysis (P = 0.0081). The pharyngeal coordination was impaired at train-of-four ratios of 0.60 and 0.70 (P < 0.01). A marked reduction in the upper esophageal sphincter resting tone was found, as well as a reduced contraction force in the pharyngeal constrictor muscles. The bolus transit time did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: Partial neuromuscular paralysis caused by atracurium is associated with a four- to fivefold increase in the incidence of misdirected swallowing. The mechanism behind the pharyngeal dysfunction is a delayed initiation of the swallowing reflex, impaired pharyngeal muscle function, and impaired coordination. The majority of misdirected swallows resulted in penetration of bolus to the larynx.  (+info)

Dose requirements of infusions of cisatracurium or rocuronium during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. (7/168)

We investigated the influence of mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the dose requirements of cisatracurium or rocuronium used as a continuous infusion. We studied eight patients given cisatracurium and nine given rocuronium. They were ASA class III and IV and scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Neuromuscular transmission was monitored electromyographically. After recovery of T1/T0 to 10%, a cisatracurium infusion or a rocuronium infusion was started at a rate of 1.5 or 10 micrograms kg-1 min-1, respectively, and adjusted to maintain T1/T0 at 15%. Infusion rate and duration were recorded before, during and after CPB in each patient and the mean infusion rates were calculated. One-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between the cisatracurium infusion rates before, during and after CPB: A T1/T0 of 15% could be achieved with a mean infusion rate of 1.1, 0.75 and 0.98 micrograms kg-1 min-1 before, during and after CPB, respectively. There was no significant difference between the rocuronium infusion rates before, during and after CPB. The mean rocuronium infusion rate required to maintain T1/T0 at 15% throughout the procedure was 4.1 micrograms kg-1 min-1. Cisatracurium infusion rates should be halved during CPB. Even after CPB, requirements are reduced. The same tendency occurs with rocuronium, but the changes in infusion rate were not statistically significant.  (+info)

Preanesthetic train-of-four fade predicts the atracurium requirement of myasthenia gravis patients. (8/168)

BACKGROUND: The most sensitive diagnostic criterion of myasthenia gravis is a decrement in the muscular response to repetitive stimulation. The authors hypothesized that myasthenia gravis patients who show a train-of-four ratio (T4/T1) < 0.9 in the preanesthetic period will have increased sensitivity to nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents compared with myasthenia gravis patients with preanesthetic T4/T1 > or = 0.9. METHODS: After institutional review board approval was obtained, 20 electrophysiologically documented myasthenia gravis patients were studied. Current pyridostigmine therapy was continued until the morning of surgery. Before induction of anesthesia, neuromuscular transmission was recorded from the hypothenar muscles using electromyography with train-of-four stimulation of the ulnar nerve. According to the T4/T1 ratio, patients were assigned to the "normal" group (T4/T1 > or = 0.9) or the "decrement" group (T4/T1 < 0.9). After induction of intravenous anesthesia, the effective dose to achieve a 95% neuromuscular blockade (ED95) for atracurium was assessed with a cumulative bolus technique. Postoperatively, pyridostigmine was titrated to obtain a T4/T1 > 0.75 and to treat residual myasthenic symptoms. RESULTS: In 14 patients, preanesthetic T4/T1 was > or = 0.9 (normal), whereas 6 patients presented with T4/T1 < 0.9 (decrement). Decrement patients had a lower ED95 of 0.07 +/- 0.03 mg/kg atracurium (mean +/- SD) compared with normal patients with an ED95 of 0.24 +/- 0.11 mg/kg atracurium (P = 0.002). All patients were extubated within 30 min after surgery. Postoperative pyridostigmine infusion did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for atracurium is significantly reduced in myasthenia gravis patients with a T4/T1 ratio < 0.9 before anesthesia. This study indicates that routine neuromuscular monitoring in myasthenia gravis patients should be extended into the preinduction period to identify patients who require less atracurium.  (+info)

Dennis M. Fisher, P. Claver Canfell, Mark R. Fahey, Judith I. Rosen, Stephen M. Rupp, Lewls B. Sheiner, Ronald D. Miller; Elimination of Atracurium in Humans: Contribution of Hofmann Elimination and Ester Hydrolysis versus Organ-based Elimination. Anesthesiology 1986;65(1):6-12. Download citation file:. ...
Serious and fatal adverse reactions including gasping syndrome can occur in neonates and infants treated with benzyl alcohol-preserved drugs, including Cisatracurium Besylate Injection (10 mL multiple-dose vials). This warning is not applicable to the 5 mL and 20 mL Cisatracurium Besylate Injection single-dose vials because these vials do not contain benzyl alcohol. The gasping syndrome is characterized by central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, and gasping respirations.. When prescribing the 10 mL multiple-dose Cisatracurium Besylate Injection vials in infants consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources including Cisatracurium Besylate Injection (multiple-dose vials contain 9 mg of benzyl alcohol per mL) and other drugs containing benzyl alcohol. The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which serious adverse reactions may occur is not known [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].. The use of 10 mL Cisatracurium Besylate Injection ...
A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was performed in 40 patients (ASA class I-III) treated with atracurium to ascertain whether histamine release caused hemodynamic or cutaneous changes. The treated group of 20 patients was premedicated with the H1 antagonist dimetindene (0.2 mg/kg) and the H2 antagonist ranitidine (1.25 mg/kg); the control group of 20 patients received saline. Six minutes after the induction of anesthesia with thiopental/fentanyl, patients received atracurium 0.5 mg/kg over 5 s. Plasma histamine levels were measured fluorometrically 5 min after administration of thiopental/fentanyl and 2 and 5 min after atracurium. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were recorded every 2 min. Histamine levels (0.24 ng/mL) did not change significantly after thiopental/fentanyl. In the control group, 2 min after injection of atracurium, plasma histamine levels were 0.76 +/- 0.76 ng/mL, and in the antihistamine-treated group, 0.39 +/- 0.24 ng/mL (P , 0.05 control versus treated), ...
The Hofmann rearrangement is the organic reaction of a primary amide to a primary amine with one fewer carbon atom. The reaction is named after its discoverer - August Wilhelm von Hofmann. This reaction is also sometimes called the Hofmann degradation, and should not be confused with the Hofmann elimination. The reaction of bromine with sodium hydroxide forms sodium hypobromite in situ, which transforms the primary amide into an intermediate isocyanate. The formation of an intermediate nitrene is not possible because it implies also the formation of an hydroxamic acid as a byproduct, which has never been observed. The intermediate isocyanate is hydrolyzed to a primary amine, giving off carbon dioxide. Base abstracts an acidic N-H proton, yielding an anion. The anion reacts with bromine in an α-substitution reaction to give an N-bromoamide. Base abstraction of the remaining amide proton gives a bromoamide anion. The bromoamide anion rearranges as the R group attached to the carbonyl carbon ...
Administration of atracurium in dogs undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy with a standardised ventilation pattern did not result in clinically important differences in selected
Hofmann S, Everaars J, Schweiger O, Frenzel M, Bannehr L, Cord AF (2017) Modelling patterns of pollinator species richness and diversity using satellite image texture. PLOS ONE [https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185591]. Zimmermann A, Knecht H, Haesler R, Zissel G, Gaede K, Hofmann S, Nebel A, Mueller-Quernheim J, Schreiber S, Fischer A (in press) Atopobium and Fusobacterium as novel candidates for sarcoidosis associated microbiota. European Respiratory Journal 50: 1600746 [doi: 10.1183/13993003.00746-2016]. Hofmann S, Stöck M, Zheng Y, Ficetola GF, Li J, Scheidt U, Schmidt J (2017) Molecular Phylogenies indicate a Paleo-Tibetan Origin of Himalayan Lazy Toads (Scutiger). Scientific Reports 7:3308; press release in Englisch, Deutsch and Koreanisch [https://doi:10.1038/s41598-017-03395-4].. Hofmann S, Fritzsche P, Miehe G (2016) First record of Elaphe dione from high altitude in Western Sichuan reveals high intraspecific differentiation. Salamandra 52:273-277.. Mohapatra P, Schulz KD, ...
Product Overview: Cisatracurium Besylate is a nondepolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant for intravenous administration. Cisatracurium Besylate acts on cholinergic receptors, blocking neuromuscular transmission. This action is antagonized by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors ...
SINO PHARMACEUTICAL EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT (LIAOYANG) CO., LTD. - Cisatracurium Besylate Powder exporter from China. We are Chinas leading Cisatracurium Besylate Powder manufacturer, supplier in Liaoyang, Liaoning, China at best and latest prices.
A 7-month-old, 7-kg infant received 6 mg cisatracurium intravenously after induction of anesthesia with nitrous oxide and halothane. There was no change in heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure obtained with the cuff on the upper arm, or skin color, but when the surgery was concluded, neuromuscular block persisted to the extent that no posttetanic count could be elicited. The infant received midazolam and mechanical ventilation in the recovery room. One hundred minutes after the dose of 0.86 mg/kg cisatracurium, a very slight response of the adductor pollicis to stimulation of the ulnar nerve with 2 Hz, a train-of-four (TOF) every 60 s was documented by the Datex neuromuscular transmission monitor electromyogram in the uncalibrated mode. One hundred and ten minutes after the bolus of cisatracurium, four responses to the TOF were recorded. At this time, the patients diaphragm, fingers, and toes were moving spontaneously. Propofol was administered by infusion to produce immobility. During the ...
Find information on Atracurium (Tracrium) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing implications, mechanism of action, half life, administration, and more. Davis Drug Guide PDF.
Both overfeeding and underfeeding of intensive care unit (ICU) patients are associated with worse outcomes. A reliable estimation of the energy expenditure (EE) of ICU patients may help to avoid these phenomena. Several factors that influence EE have been studied previously. However, the effect of neuromuscular blocking agents on EE, which conceptually would lower EE, has not been extensively investigated. We studied a cohort of adult critically ill patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and treatment with continuous infusion of cisatracurium for at least 12 h. The study aimed to quantify the effect of cisatracurium infusion on EE (primary endpoint). EE was estimated based on ventilator-derived VCO2 (EE in kcal/day = VCO2 × 8.19). A subgroup analysis of septic and non-septic patients was performed. Furthermore, the effects of body temperature and sepsis on EE were evaluated. A secondary endpoint was hypercaloric feeding (| 110% of EE) after cisatracurium infusion. In total, 122 patients
I Have Something to Tell You by Regan Hofmann - For ten years, Regan Hofmann lived a double life. To the world, she was a woman from Princeton who went to prep...
Professional guide for Cisatracurium Besylate. Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more.
Cisatracurium Besylate reference guide for safe and effective use from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (AHFS DI).
Intraoperative Course. I. Monitoring requirements. 1. What electrocardiogram leads will you monitor? Explain.. 2. Could the Dinamap, pulse oximetry, and end-tidal CO2 take the place of an arterial catheter?. 3. If an arterial catheter is used, are pulse oximetry and end-tidal oximetry necessary?. II. Choices and management of anesthesia. 1. Would you use etomidate for induction? Explain.. 2. What is your choice for induction? Explain your rationale.. 3. What steps will you take to prevent the hypertensive response to laryngoscopy and intubation?. 4. Why is this important?. 5. Would halothane be a good choice for maintenance? Explain.. 6. Is narcotic only anesthesia preferred? Explain.. 7. Compare the circulatory effects of these drugs.. 8. Relate these choices to postoperative planning.. III. Management of muscle relaxation. 1. Would an atracurium infusion be your choice?. 2. What would determine dose requirements?. 3. How will you monitor effect?. 4. When will you reverse paralysis, and how ...
Hofmann, W., Baumert, A., & Schmitt, M. (2005). Heute haben wir Hitler im Kino gesehen: Evaluation der Wirkung des Films der Untergang auf Schüler und Schülerinnen der neunten und zehnten Klasse [Today we saw Hitler at the cinema: Evaluation of the effects of the film Der Untergang (downfall) on ninth and tenth grade students]. Zeitschrift für Medienpsychologie, 17, 132-146. doi:10.1026/1617-6383.17.4.132 ...
Hofmann, W., Baumert, A., & Schmitt, M. (2005). Heute haben wir Hitler im Kino gesehen: Evaluation der Wirkung des Films der Untergang auf Schüler und Schülerinnen der neunten und zehnten Klasse [Today we saw Hitler at the cinema: Evaluation of the effects of the film Der Untergang (downfall) on ninth and tenth grade students]. Zeitschrift für Medienpsychologie, 17, 132-146. doi:10.1026/1617-6383.17.4.132 ...
Dr. Hofmann first synthesized the compound in 1938, while researching ergot derivatives as a chemist for Sandoz Pharmaceuticals in Basel. The substance was tested on lab animals with no interesting results, so like hundreds of ...
Chimera, 1959, Reproduction Oil Painting original hand painted by Hans Hofmann. Affordable art for anyone - Museum Quality - FREE Shipping.
Unveiled at Autopromotec 2015 - Bologna - the renewed series geodyna wheel balancers Hofmann, with touchscreen monitor and automatic non-contact data entry.. ...
This study investigated optimal dose of combination of Rocuronium and Cisatracurium through monitoring neuromuscular relaxation during surgery.
Our custom labels are of the highest quality - clear, crisp and easy to read. They come in a range of colours and sizes, and are produced to meet the demands of harsh environments or temperature extremes.
Thesis, English, Comparison of Kinemyography with Electromyography Neuromuscular Monitoring in Pediatric Patients Receiving Cisatracurium or Rocuronium during General Anesthesia for Abdel Aziz Mohammed Abdel Rahmn
Find information on Cisatracurium (Nimbex) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing implications, mechanism of action, half life, administration, and more. Davis Drug Guide PDF.
Meine wissenschaftlichen Publikationen findest Du hier: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=sachse-seeboth+c. 1. Low heritability in pharmacokinetics of talinolol: a pharmacogenetic twin study on the heritability of the pharmacokinetics of talinolol, a putative probe drug of MDR1 and other membrane transporters. Matthaei J, Tzvetkov MV, Gal V, Sachse-Seeboth C, Sehrt D, Hjelmborg JB, Hofmann U, Schwab M, Kerb R, Brockmöller J. Genome Med. 2016 Nov 8;8(1):119.. 2. Heritability of Caffeine Metabolism: Environmental Effects Masking Genetic Effects on CYP1A2 Activity but Not on NAT2. Matthaei J, Tzvetkov MV, Strube J, Sehrt D, Sachse-Seeboth C, Hjelmborg JB, Möller S, Halekoh U, Hofmann U, Schwab M, Kerb R, Brockmöller J. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Dec;100(6):606-616. doi: 10.1002/cpt.444. Epub 2016 Sep 23.. 3. Heritability of metoprolol and torsemide pharmacokinetics. Matthaei J, Brockmöller J, Tzvetkov MV, Sehrt D, Sachse-Seeboth C, Hjelmborg JB, Möller S, Halekoh U, Hofmann U, Schwab M, ...
The herbs boosted her milk production to a couple of ounces per day. Hofmann froze her milk in the hope that shed be able to share it with a baby some day.. After four months, Hofmann added domperidome to her daily routine of pumping and herbs. This medication has long been used to treat stomach disorders but had the side effect of causing lactation. After adding domperidome, Hofmanns milk production ballooned to upwards of 10 ounces per day.. The only thing that is missing when you induce lactation is that you dont get the colostrum in the first couple of days. Other than that, my breast milk is the same as anyone else that has given birth, Hofmann said. ...
In Reply:-We thank Drs. Donati and Plaud for pointing out the error in Figure 2in our published study. [1] Unfortunately, this calculation error not only escaped our attention, but also the attention of the reviewers. However, this error does not change our conclusions. The isobolographic analysis still demonstrates a synergistic interaction with respect to the neuromuscular blocking activity of the rocuronium and cisatracurium combination (Figure 1). The experimentally determined ED50(and 95% confidence interval) for the combination was 36.8 (35-38)[micro sign]g/kg for rocuronium and 8.7 (8.3-9.1)[micro sign]g/kg for cisatracurium. The theoretic additive ED50(and 95% confidence interval) was calculated to be 55.5 (53.3-57.7)[micro sign]g/kg for rocuronium and 13.1 (12.6-13.6)[micro sign]g/kg for cisatracurium. The confidence intervals of these points do not overlap, and the results of a Student t test for potency ratio were significant (P , 0.001), indicating synergism. The fractional ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
April 19, 1943, Hoffmann performed a self-experiment to determine the true effects of LSD, intentionally ingesting 0.25 milligrams (250 micrograms) of the substance, an amount he predicted to be a threshold dose (an actual threshold dose is 20 micrograms).[7] Less than an hour later, Hofmann experienced sudden and intense changes in perception. He asked his laboratory assistant to escort him home and, as use of motor vehicles was prohibited because of wartime restrictions, they had to make the journey on a bicycle. On the way, Hoffmans condition rapidly deteriorated as he struggled with feelings of anxiety, alternating in his beliefs that the next-door neighbor was a malevolent witch, that he was going insane, and that the LSD had poisoned him. When the house doctor arrived, however, he could detect no physical abnormalities, save for a pair of incredibly dilated pupils. Hofmann was reassured, and soon his terror began to give way to a sense of good fortune and enjoyment, as he later wrote... ...
Dr. Jonathan Reiner, Cheneys cardiologist, asked Dr. Lewis Hofmann, Cheneys White House physician, to arrange for the potassium test to be repeated tonight (see (Late Afternoon) September 11, 2001). Consequently, while he is accompanying Cheney as the vice president is being flown by helicopter to Camp David (see Shortly After 10:00 p.m. September 11, 2001), Hofmann passes Cheney a note, informing him that he needs to provide another sample of blood. Cheney, though, refuses to do so. Not tonight, Lew, you can have it in the morning, he says. Whether he is aware of the results of the test on his blood sample from this morning and the possible danger he is in are unstated ...
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Lukas Hofmann: Bio. Download PDF Portfolio here.. [email protected] In the course of collecting some information to write this bio, we let out one of the Black beauty stick insects, Peruphasma schultei. Pinny legs, one by one, up his Kenzo sweater, juice-pink vestigial wings. As if to propose an axiom to start speaking about the work again, he says, It looks so nice on the sweater. But we could always say that - this sweater looks nice on you or you look nice on that sweater.. Although Hofmann {*93} works mainly in the field of performance, his artistic practice reaches out to various other fields and media: he relates to the artistic milieu as well as the world of fashion, where he is occasionally active as a stylist and model, and he is also busy as a curator.. As an artist who grew up in Prague during the 90s and who is now staging performances across the countries of an increasingly unstable European Union, contingency and informality are reoccurring elements in the narrative of ...
The Horse is a beautiful book that gets right to the heart of these stunning animals, exploring everything from their behavior within a herd, to the myths and legends we associate with them, and their striking physicality. It concludes with sections on their varied colors and markings, and a charming chapter on their : Parragon, Incorporated.
davical_https is a Docker image for a DAViCal server based on Debian 10 (davical, awl, php, apache, postgresql, perl). DAViCal is a server for shared calendars implementing the CalDAV protocol. The calendars are stored in the iCalendar format ...
We supply a range of Nitrogen Inflation Units that are fully automatic and enhances productivity, as it allows you to continue with other activities.
Thanks & regards, Avinash Joshi On 1/31/08, Frank.Hofmann at sun.com ,Frank.Hofmann at sun.com, wrote: , On Thu, 31 Jan 2008, Antonello Cruz wrote: , , , James Carlson wrote: , ,, Seeing those submitters go to the relevant community or project , ,, mailing list with a proposed patch (or better yet a pointer to a , ,, webrev) would be greatly preferred, and if we can gently guide them , ,, there when they mistakenly post changes here, thatd be good. , , Quick question: Do the contributors have access to the tools to generate , , webrevs? , , If youve got a full opensolaris source tree, youll find it in: , , usr/src/tools/scripts/webrev.sh , , FrankH. , _______________________________________________ , request-sponsor mailing list , request-sponsor at opensolaris.org , -- Sent from Gmail for mobile , mobile.google.com Thanks & Regards, Avinash Joshi AM106IT015 Department of Information Technology Amrita School of Engineering Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham Amritapuri Campus Clappana P.O., Kollam 690 ...
Professor for Protein Crystallography, Ruhr-University Bochum - Geciteerd door 4.105 - Structural Biology - Biophysics - Protein Biochemistry - Photosynthesis
If there is anything funnier than the tight-fisted and terminally ungallant Brecht, it is surely the fuming, violently aroused Fuegi, remorselessly tracking the couple through an evening: but one should ask oneself if it would have made the blindest bit of difference to his curmudgeonliness if Bies skirts had been looser, the champagne had been cold. Brecht had urbanely tipped the waiter and the two had had it away at her aunts. The answer, obviously, is no. Always first there is Fuegis rancour.. Fuegis besetting rage at Brecht regularly leads him into inconsistency. All his leitmotifs - money, for instance - are stunningly badly handled. Another obsession is with Brechts wardrobe and particularly his spectacles, but I defy any reader to say whether it is because they are cheap or expensive or cheap-looking. He simply has it in for Brecht, and it shows: If he had made a lot of money from Threepenny, it did not look to her as if he had invested any of it into clothes: his suit was shabby, ...
Cleanliness is one the biggest draws of living with cats. So, if you start to detect a bad odor from your cat, you need to take notice. In most cases, foul feline smells are a sign that something is seriously wrong. ...
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This book offers a comprehensive survey of basic elements of nuclear dynamics at low energies and discusses similarities to mesoscopic systems. It addresses systems with finite excitations of their internal degrees of freedom, so that their collective motion exhibits features typical for transport processes in small and isolated systems.
OBJECTIVES. The objectives of this study were the evaluation of the intraoperatory analgesia of remifentanil in dogs, comparing with fentanyl and a placebo solution, and the study of the hemodynamic and respiratory response and the patient recovery after two hours of anesthesia.. MATERIALS. Seven beagles dogs ASA I were anesthetized three times. All dogs were anaesthetized with medetomidine (10 mcg/kg IV), propofol (3 mg/kg IV, sevoflurane and atracurium (150 mcg/kg IV every 30 minutes. Three different analgesic protocols were evaluated: RMF: (remifentanil: 0,5 mcg/kg IV + 0,25 mcg/kg/min. FEN (2 mcg/kg IV + 0,1 mcg/kg/min IV). PCB (glucosade fluid infusion). In all cases the following postanesthetic analgesic protocol was used: morphine (0,2 mg/kg IM) and meloxicam (0,2 mg/kg IV) 20 minutes before the end of the procedure. Several cardiovascular and respiratory variables were studied every 5 minutes. Pain response was observed evaluated with a pinch with a forceps in the back paws. Recovery ...
Literature References: Prepn: Hofmann, Ber. 10, 213 (1877); Maximoff, US 2053095 (1935 to Azodal Co.). Prepn of salt: DE 562392 (1933 to Chem.-Pharm. Fabrik Hubold & Bartsch). See also Colour Index vol. 4 (3rd ed., 1971) p 4019; H. J. Conns Biological Stains, R. D. Lillie, Ed. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 9th ed., 1977) p 87. ...
Rintoul, S. R. , Sparrow, M. , Meredith, M. P. , Wadley, V. , Speer, K. , Hofmann, E. , Summerhayes, C. , Urban, E. , Bellerby, R. , Ackley, S. , Alverson, K. , Ansorge, I. , Aoki, S. , Azzolini, R. , Beal, L. , Belbeoch, M. , Bergamasco, A. , Biuw, M. , Boehme, L. , Budillon, G. , Campos, L. , Carlson, D. , Cavanagh, R. , Charpentier, E. , Chul Shin, H. , Coffin, M. , Constable, A. , Costa, D. , Cronin, M. , De Baar, H. , De Broyer, C. , De Bruin, T. , De Santis, L. , Butler, E. , Dexter, P. , Drinkwater, M. , England, M. , Fahrbach, E. , Fanta, E. , Fedak, M. , Finney, K. , Fischer, A. , Frew, R. , Garzoli, S. , Gernandt, H. , Gladyshev, S. , Gomis, D. , Gordon, A. , Gunn, J. , Gutt, J. , Haas, C. , Hall, J. , Heywood, K. , Hill, K. , Hindell, M. , Hood, M. , Hoppema, M. , Hosie, G. , Howard, W. , Joiris, C. , Kaleschke, L. , Kang, S. H. , Kennicutt, M. , Klepikov, A. , Lembke-Jene, L. , Lovenduski, N. , Lytle, V. , Mathieu, P. P. , Moltmann, T. , Morrow, R. , Muelbert, M. , Murphy, E. , ...
Direct analysis of underivatized amino acids in plant extracts by LC-MS-MS. In: M.A. Alterman, P. Hunziker (Eds.) Amino Acid Analysis, Humana Press, New York, 2012, 317 - 328, ISBN 978-1-61779-444-5.. N.D. Jablonowski, A. Linden, S. Köppchen, B. Thiele, D. Hofmann, W. Mittelstaedt, T. Pütz, P. Burauel ...
Bousquet, J., Agache, I., Blain, H., Jutel, M., Ventura, M. T., Worm, M., Del Giacco, S., Benetos, A., Bilo, M. B., Czarlewski, W., Abdul Latiff, A. H., Al-Ahmad, M., Angier, E., Annesi-Maesano, I., Atanaskovic-Markovic, M., Bachert, C., Barbaud, A., Bedbrook, A., Bennoor, K. S., Berghea, E. C., Bindslev-Jensen, C., Bonini, S., Bosnic-Anticevich, S., Brockow, K., Brussino, L., Camargos, P., Canonica, G. W., Cardona, V., Carreiro-Martins, P., Carriazo, A., Casale, T., Caubet, J-C., Cecchi, L., Cherubini, A., Christoff, G., Chu, D. K., Cruz, A. A., Dokic, D., El-Gamal, Y., Ebisawa, M., Eberlein, B., Farrell, J., Fernandez-Rivas, M., Fokkens, W. J., Fonseca, J. A., Gao, Y., Gavazzi, G., Gawlik, R., Gelincik, A., Gemicioğlu, B., Gotua, M., Guérin, O., Haahtela, T., Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K., Hoffmann, H. J., Hofmann, M., Hrubisko, M., lenaIllario, M., Irani, C., Ispayeva, Z., Ivancevich, J. C., Julge, K., Kaidashev, I., Khaitov, M., Knol, E., Kraxner, H., Kuna, P., Kvedariene, V., Lauerma, A., Le, ...
M. Vondráček, L. Cornils, J. Minár, J. Warmuth, M. Michiardi, C. Piamonteze, L. Barreto, J. A. Miwa, M. Bianchi, Ph. Hofmann, L. Zhou, A. Kamlapure, A. A. Khajetoorians, R. Wiesendanger, J.-L. Mi, B.-B. Iversen, S. Mankovsky, St. Borek, H. Ebert, M. Sch¨uler, T. Wehling, J. Wiebe, J. Honolka ...
M. Vondráček, L. Cornils, J. Minár, J. Warmuth, M. Michiardi, C. Piamonteze, L. Barreto, J. A. Miwa, M. Bianchi, Ph. Hofmann, L. Zhou, A. Kamlapure, A. A. Khajetoorians, R. Wiesendanger, J.-L. Mi, B.-B. Iversen, S. Mankovsky, St. Borek, H. Ebert, M. Sch¨uler, T. Wehling, J. Wiebe, J. Honolka ...
Purpose: To compare the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion conditions produced by propofol and a thiopental - low dose atracurium combination. Methods: In a randomized controlled double blind study, 120 premedicated patients were allocated into four groups. After pre-oxygenation, anesthesia was induced as follows: 1 μg · kg-1 fentanyl, 2.5 mg · kg-1 propofol (group I); 1 μg · kg-1 fentanyl, 5 mg · kg-1 thiopental (group II); 1 μg · kg-1 fentanyl, 5 mg · kg-1 thiopental, 0,05 mg · kg-1 or 0.1 mg · kg-1 atracurium (groups III and IV respectively). The LMA was inserted by a blinded anesthesiologist who also assessed the following insertion conditions on a three point scale; jaw relaxation, biting, gagging, coughing, presence of laryngospasm, adequacy of airway patency, number of attempts at insertion and overall insertion conditions. Results: There was no difference in insertion conditions between groups I, III and IV. Group II produced the worst overall conditions (P , 0.05). There ...
en] We studied the effects of intravenous ephedrine on the onset time and the intubating conditions 2 min after a bolus dose of cisatracurium (0.15 mg kg-1). Thirty patients anaesthetized with sufentanil and propofol were randomly divided in 2 groups to receive either ephedrine (70 micrograms.kg-1) or saline, 5 s before propofol. Cisatracurium was administered after loss of consciousness. Neuromuscular block was assessed at the adductor pollicis using accelography. Tracheal intubation was performed 2 min after cisatracurium injection and rated as excellent, good, poor or bad. At intubation, neuromuscular block (% height of control T1) was greater in patients receiving ephedrine (36.1 +/- 25.8% vs 57.9 +/- 25.1%) (mean +/- SD). The frequency of excellent intubating conditions was higher after ephedrine (86.6%) than after saline (40.0%). The onset time of cisatracurium was shorter after ephedrine (167 +/- 64.8 s vs 234.9 +/- 63.1 s). Thus, a low dose of ephedrine given before induction of ...
Background: Given the importance of the effect of muscle relaxants on the extubation time in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients, we sought to assess the difference in time to extubation and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay between the primary bolus doses of Pancuronium and Cisatracurium without using the maintenance dose of them during surgery.Methods: This double blind clinical trial divided 110 patients into two equal groups receiving either Cisatracurium or Pancuronium. The patients surgical and cardiopulmonary bypass variables were evaluated, and the extubation time and ICU length of stay were compared between the two groups.Results: There was no difference between the two groups regarding the depth of anesthesia, train-offour (TOF) scores at the beginning of anesthesia, and the surgical and cardiopulmonary bypass variables. However, the Cisatracurium patients were extubated earlier and had a shorter ICU length of stay than the Pancuronium patients.Conclusion: An
Dr. R. Jeffrey Hofmann, a board certified ophthalmologist, specializes in ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery including laser and cosmetic surgery. He has been a fellow of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery since 1987 (see www.ASOPRS.org). Dr. Hofmann is a full-time staff member at Rhode Island Hospital, Miriam Hospital, and Hasbro Childrens Hospital, as well as Director of the Oculoplastic Surgery Clinic at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Providence. He is a Clinical Assistant Professor of Surgery at Browns Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University and teaches medical students and residents.. Dr. Hofmann graduated summa cum laude from Tulane University, and went on to receive his medical degree with distinction - Alpha Omega Alpha - from Tulane University School of Medicine. He interned at Barnes Hospital in St. Louis, MO, and completed his residency in Ophthalmology at Washington University in St. Louis. He then pursued ...
THE man who synthesised LSD and became the first person to ever have an acid trip has died at the age of 102.. Swiss scientist Albert Hofmann died of a heart attack at his home in Basel yesterday, a friend and colleague said.. Dr Hofmann was working as a chemist in Basel when he synthesised lysergic acid diethylamide.. On April 19, 1943, he took the substance before cycling home. That day has become known among aficionados as Bicycle Day as it was while he was riding home that he experienced the most intense symptoms brought on by the drug. Dr Hofmann was also the first person to synthesise psilocybin, the active constituent of magic mushrooms. He also discovered the hallucinogenic principles of Ololiuqui (Morning Glory), lysergic acid amide and lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide. He disapproved of the appropriation of LSD by the youth movements of the 1960s, but regretted that its potential uses had not been explored ...
Artacil (50 mg) 10mg/1ml - 5ml Injection (Atracurium) drug information. Find its price or cost, dose, when to use, how to use, side effects, adverse effects, substitutes. It is manufactured by Neon Laboratories Limited.
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If you become pregnant while taking Amlodipine Besylate, tell your doctor immediately.. You should not take this medicine while you are pregnant.. Tell your doctor if, for any reason, you have not taken your medicine exactly as prescribed.. Otherwise your doctor may think that it was not effective and change your treatment unnecessarily.. Be sure to keep all of your doctors appointments so that your progress can be checked. Do this even if you feel well.. People with high blood pressure often do not notice any signs of this problem. But it is important to keep track of your progress. Your doctor will want to check your blood pressure and your kidney and liver function from time to time.. If you are going to have surgery, tell your doctor and anaesthetist that you are taking Amlodipine Besylate.. Amlodipine Besylate may affect some medicines you receive during surgery.. If you are about to be started on any new medicine, remind your doctor and pharmacist that you are taking Amlodipine ...
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Intraoperative Course. I. Selection of monitoring. 1. How will you assess the adequacy of renal perfusion during surgery? Explain.. 2. Is a pulmonary artery catheter necessary? Explain.. 3. After placement of a pulmonary artery catheter, pulmonary artery pressure is 55/32 mmHg, and the pulmonary artery occlusion pressure is 28 mmHg. What is your interpretation?. 4. Would you want additional information? Explain.. 5. What is your treatment?. II. Choice of anesthetic agents. 1. Is ketamine appropriate for induction? Explain.. 2. What is your choice for induction? Explain.. 3. What is your choice for maintenance? Give reasons.. 4. How do you control hypertension at the time of clamping?. 5. Does heart failure or renal insufficiency affect your selection of agents? Explain.. III. Management of muscle relaxation. 1. Is atracurium an appropriate muscle relaxant in this patient? Explain.. No. Atracurium is intermediate-acting, and is not significantly metabolized by the kidneys or the liver, as it is ...
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In chemistry, you dont solve things like that; you just recall the right class of reactions (Hofmann elimination in this case) and apply that knowledge. You can hardly expect to rediscover that from the first principles. Knowledge about other classes of organic compounds and their behavior in the presence of a base is not particularly helpful either. It is not until much later that those seemingly random pieces of data start to fit into a bigger picture.. As for the mechanism, it is all there in your second picture. Indeed, that $\ce{OH-}$ would readily snatch a proton from an ammonium cation $\ce{NH4+}$, only there is no ammonium, it is a substituted ammonium, and we dont have any H linked directly to N. So we go for the next best thing and grab a proton from some carbon in $\beta$ position, simultaneously with the formation of a double bond.. Note the reversed regiochemical preferences as compared to Zaitsev-type elimination, which has a different mechanism, usually involving the appearance ...
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General anesthesia is a drug-induced reversible state where neuromuscular blockade (NMB), hypnosis, and analgesia (jointly denoted by depth of anesthesia - DoA) are guaranteed. This thesis concerns mathematical modeling and feedback control of the effect of the muscle relaxants atracurium and rocuronium, the hypnotic propofol, and the analgesic remifentanil. It is motivated by the need to reduce incidences of awareness and overdose-related post-operative complications that occur in standard clinical practice. A major challenge for identification in closed-loop is the poor excitation provided by the feedback signal. This applies to the case of drugs administered in closed-loop. As a result, the standard models for the effect of anesthetics appear to be over-parameterized. This deteriorates the result of system identification and prevents individualized control.. In the first part of the thesis, minimally parameterized models for the single-input single-output NMB and the multiple-input ...
SEATTLE (AP) - Though Genette Hofmann is still using her brain, last month she donated a bit of it - to science.Hofmann needed the surgery - her Seattle surgeon was looking deep into her brain, where he found the trigger for the epileptic seizures that had disrupted her life for 30 years. But to get there, he teased out a bit of healthy tissue the size of a lima bean, and with her blessing quickly sent it to some researchers, who were eager to study brain cells while they were still alive.Thats how Hofmann joined a long line of epilepsy patients whove helped scientists reveal basic secrets of the brain - knowledge that could pay off in better ways to measure consciousness in brain-injury patients and new treatme
So how do you measure stress in a sea urchin? Stress in a cold-blooded, living-in-the-ocean kind of organism is something that threatens its physiological integrity, Hofmann explains. It messes up the way that it works. To understand exactly how stressful low pHs levels can be, she asks a number of questions of her tanks full of sea urchin larvae, whose developing skeletons are visible under a microscope: How are you doing in there? Are you building your skeleton? Are you making your body? And as she asks those questions, she also wants to know the costs: Are you having to use more of your energy to develop because its hard to deal with these low pHs? To find out, Hofmann photographs them under a microscope and measures their skeletons.. What we find, Hofmann explains, is that the larvae that develop in low pH or high CO2 as compared to standard conditions tend to be smaller at any given time. The CO2 causes a developmental delay. We cant quite tell if theyre going to be smaller ...
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Dave Grohl was really easy to talk to and I liked hanging out in the studio with him, I got to play on a track on their record and Pat Smear their guitarist gave me a ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
PubMed comprises more than 27 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
D.A. Bardwell, C.S. Adjiman, Y.A. Arnautova, E. Bartashevich, S.X.M. Boerrigter, D.E. Braun, A.J. Cruz-Cabeza, G.M. Day, R.G. Della Valle, G.R. Desiraju, B.P. van Eijck, J.C. Facelli, M.B. Ferraro, D. Grillo, M. Habgood, D.W.M. Hofmann, F. Hofmann, K.V.J. Jose, P.G. Karamertzanis, A.V. Kazantsev, J. Kendrick, L.N. Kuleshova, F.J.J. Leusen, A.V. Maleev, A.J. Misquitta, S. Mohamed, R.J. Needs, M.A. Neumann, D. Nikylov, A.M. Orendt, R. Pal, C.C. Pantelides, C.J. Pickard, L.S. Price, S.L. Price, H.A. Scheraga, J. van de Streek, T.S. Thakur, S. Tiwari, E. Venuti, I.K. ...
But I wouldnt mess mixing in another unknown (ethanol) into the already messy Hoffmann rearrangement reaction of phthalimide. This is why I wrote that Id aim for nice, clean isatoic anhydride from the rearrangement. (It is a useful compound in itself.) Then, in a second step Id have the anhydride react with the methanol (or ethanol). This step is really high-yielding and clean, yield is reportedly around 90% with MeOH, somewhat lower with EtOH - if my memory is right. ...
The stunning new building at St. Michael, which is at least 10 times the size of the old building, is a musicians dream: traditional cruciform plan, all hard surfaces (no carpet), organ and choir high at the west end of the nave. Our work involved moving the parishs old organ to the new building, separating the pipes into two sections to fit around the new window, building new enclosures and oak casework, rebuilding the console to conform more closely to AGO standards, adding several ranks of pipes, and rescaling and revoicing the old pipes to suit the new location and acoustics.. Traditions and experience have their own value. The organ in St. Michaels old building, by Herman Boettcher & Sons, showed the same fine attention to woodworking detail, use of quality new components, and clever and economical reuse of old material as some of the organs of Otto Hofmann, one of my mentors and models. Mr. Hofmann, a peer of Mr. Boettcher and a founding member and past president of the International ...
Environmental psychologist, interested in how the (built and natural) environment affects human behaviour and wellbeing, and in the design and evaluation of public participation in urban planning.
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Interestingly enough, I was thinking about Hofmann a few days ago when I was biking through my beautiful neighborhood, taking in the glory of all the floral colors and every shade of green. I laughed to myself that it was like I was celebrating centenarian Hofmann -- who was still living the last I had read -- by reenacting Bicycle Day. I made a mental note to follow up on him later, though I forgot. As it turns out, that happened to be the day he died ...
I suppose what I was afraid of was that the sleek monumentality of such a book as a Collected Poems would somehow countermand and extinguish the scrappiness, the impurity, the profane improvisatoriness (the wax flowers, the trick with the river, the medias res of the embalmed corpse) of what seems to me Lowells greatest and most living work. That the fascinating equivocation between process and product, between hard and soft, would be upset. That this particular open book, so long in the making, would no longer provide the insect with any sort of bearable habitat.. The Collected Poems is a large and handsome production, especially where the page layout is concerned. Its pale Cambridge blue jacket is rather unexpected, and the Life Studies-era photograph of a slightly worried-looking Lowell in preppy clothes - collar and tie and sleeveless sweater - twisted half-upright in what looks like a deckchair, against a background of slumped books on shelves, sends the wrong message to, as it were, a ...
Words starting with A (page 107): atopic, atopies, atopy, atoxic, atrabiliar, atrabilious, atrabiliousness, atracurium, atrament, atramental, atramentous, atraments, atrazine, atremble, atresia, atresic, atretic, atria, atrial, atrioventricular...
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... (marketed by King Pharmaceuticals under the brand name Skelaxin) is a muscle relaxant used to relax muscles and relieve pain caused by strains, sprains, and other musculoskeletal conditions. Its exact mechanism of action is not known, but it may be due to general central nervous system depression. It is considered to be a moderately strong muscle relaxant, with relatively low incidence of side effects. Skelaxin is available in an 800 mg scored tablet. Possible side effects include nausea, vomiting, drowsiness and CNS side effects, such as dizziness, headache, and irritability. The metabolism of metaxalone involves the liver cytochrome P450 system. Based on the information in the labeling, patients receiving metaxalone therapy and physicians prescribing metaxalone are directed to take precaution when coadministering it with other medications involving the P450 system.[1][2] Because of potential for side effects, this drug is considered high risk in the elderly. As of 2015[update] the ...
While botulinum toxin is generally considered safe in a clinical setting, there can be serious side effects from its use. The use of botulinum toxin A in cerebral palsy children is safe in the upper and lower limb muscles.[5][6] Most commonly, botulinum toxin can be injected into the wrong muscle group or with time spread from the injection site, causing temporary paralysis of unintended muscles. Side effects from cosmetic use generally result from unintended paralysis of facial muscles. These include partial facial paralysis, muscle weakness, and trouble swallowing. Side effects are not limited to direct paralysis however, and can also include headaches, flu-like symptoms, and allergic reactions.[41] Just as cosmetic treatments only last a number of months, paralysis side-effects can have the same durations.[citation needed] At least in some cases, these effects are reported to dissipate in the weeks after treatment.[citation needed] Bruising at the site of injection is not a side effect of the ...
... is a centrally acting muscle relaxant. It can be used as an antidote for strychnine poisoning. Mephenesin however presents with the major drawbacks of having a short duration of action and a much greater effect on the spinal cord than the brain, resulting in pronounced respiratory depression at clinical doses and therefore a very low therapeutic index. It is especially dangerous and potentially fatal in combination with alcohol and other depressants.[1] Mephenesin was used by Bernard Ludwig and Frank Berger to synthesize meprobamate, the first tranquilizer to see widespread clinical use. Mephenesin is no longer available in North America but is used in France, Italy and a few other countries.[2] Its use has largely been replaced by the related drug methocarbamol, which is better absorbed.[3] Mephenesin may be an NMDA receptor antagonist.[4] ...
Cis-atracurium is very similar to atracurium except it is more potent and has a weaker tendency to cause histamine release.[2] ... Atracurium (Tracrium) 90 30 min or less[9] *hypotension, transiently,[9] by release of histamine ... Mivacurium, atracurium, and doxacurium have greater N-N distance and molecular length than d-tubocurarine even when bent. To ... Atracurium, the resulting molecule, breaks down spontaneously in the body to inactive compounds and being especially useful in ...
Because of the enhancement of inhibition in the CNS, most spasmolytic agents have the side effects of sedation, drowsiness and may cause dependence with long-term use. Several of these agents also have abuse potential, and their prescription is strictly controlled.[22][23][24] The benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, interact with the GABAA receptor in the central nervous system. While it can be used in patients with muscle spasm of almost any origin, it produces sedation in most individuals at the doses required to reduce muscle tone.[5] Baclofen is considered to be at least as effective as diazepam in reducing spasticity, and causes much less sedation. It acts as a GABA agonist at GABAB receptors in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in hyperpolarization of neurons expressing this receptor, most likely due to increased potassium ion conductance. Baclofen also inhibits neural function presynaptically, by reducing calcium ion influx, and thereby reducing the release of excitatory ...
Atracurium. *Barbiturates (e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental). *BNC-210. *Bungarotoxins (e.g., α-bungarotoxin, κ- ...
The usual dose of 350 mg is unlikely to engender prominent side effects other than somnolence, and mild to significant euphoria or dysphoria, but the euphoria is generally short-lived due to the fast metabolism of carisoprodol into meprobamate and other metabolites; the euphoria derived is, according to new research, most likely due to carisoprodol's inherent, potent anxiolytic effects that are far stronger than those produced by its primary metabolite, meprobamate, which is often misblamed for the drug-seeking associated with carisoprodol, as carisoprodol itself is responsible for the significantly more intense CNS effects than meprobamate alone. Carisoprodol has a unique mechanism of action, qualitatively different from that of meprobamate (Miltown). The medication is well-tolerated and without adverse effects in the majority of patients for whom it is indicated. In some patients, however, and/or early in therapy, carisoprodol can have the full spectrum of sedative side effects and can impair ...
... atracurium. Atracurium itself was invented at Strathclyde University and licensed to Burroughs Wellcome Co., Research Triangle ... To address this issue, a program was initiated to investigate the individual isomer constituents of atracurium to identify and ... Stiller RL, Cook DR, Chakravorti S (1985). "In vitro degradation of atracurium in human plasma". Br J Anaesth. 57 (11): 1085- ... now part of GlaxoSmithKline) by combining the name "atracurium" with "cis" [hence cisatracurium] because the molecule is one of ...
Fodale V, Santamaria LB (July 2002). "Laudanosine, an atracurium and cisatracurium metabolite". Eur J Anaesthesiol. 19 (7): 466 ... Laudanosine or N-methyltetrahydropapaverine is a recognized metabolite of atracurium and cisatracurium. Laudanosine decreases ... to be produced consequent to chemodegradable metabolism of clinically administered doses of cisatracurium or atracurium. ...
The orientation of the two O atoms in the bridge is to the THIQ side of the carbonyl C=O group, whereas in Atracurium the O ... Unlike the potency of the cis-cis isomer of Atracurium (also known as 51W89 and eventually marketed as the drug cisatracurium ... Atracurium's groups are "reversed ester" linkages. This makes ester hydrolysis degradation by plasma cholinesterase more ... Having ten methoxy -OCH3 groups, mivacurium is a more potent neuromuscular blocking drug than Atracurium, which has eight, but ...
... is a class of prescription drugs in India appearing as an appendix to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 introduced in 1945. These are drugs which cannot be purchased over the counter without the prescription of a qualified doctor.The manufacture and sale of all drugs are covered under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules. It is revised at times based on the advice of the Drugs Technical Advisory Board, part of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization[1] in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The most recent schedule H (2006) lists 536 drugs from abacavir to zuclopenthixol.[2] However, enforcement of Schedule H laws in India is lax, compared to the more restrictive Schedule X, for which a mandatory documentation trail must be maintained.[3] ...
Scientists later developed atracurium, vecurnoium, rocuronium, suxamethonium and pancuronium. Gallamine triethiodide is ... atracurium and cisatracurium. The choice among these NMBA depends on availability, cost and patient parameters that affect drug ...
... may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of atracurium besilate. "chlortetracycline , C22H23ClN2O8 ...
"Mild hypothermia alters propofol pharmacokinetics and increases the duration of action of atracurium". Anesth Analg. 80 (5): ...
... and Heart Rate after Rapid Paralysis with Atracurium in Cats". Can Anaesth Soc J. 32 (6): 618-621. doi:10.1007/BF03011408. PMID ...
Thus if full sedation alone is ineffective, people may be paralyzed with drugs such as atracurium. Paralysis allows the ...
The nondepolarizing muscle relaxants pancuronium, cisatracurium, atracurium, mivacurium, vecuronium and rocuronium also do not ...
Benzylisoquinolines, such as atracurium and tubocurarine, the other major group of neuromuscular blocking agents Ted Lin; Tim ...
Mouw RJ, Klumper F, Hermans J, Brandenburg HC, Kanhai HH (1999). "Effect of atracurium or pancuronium on the anemic fetus ...
Anaphylaxis Non-depolarizing muscle relaxants Histamine release e.g. Atracurium and Mivacurium Anaphylaxis Another potentially ... Decamethonium Non-depolarizing muscle relaxants Short acting Mivacurium Rapacuronium Intermediate acting Atracurium ...
Histamine release e.g. Atracurium and Mivacurium. *Anaphylaxis. Another potentially disturbing complication where neuromuscular ...
Examples of skeletal muscle relaxants in use today are pancuronium, rocuronium, vecuronium, cisatracurium, atracurium, ...
Agonists are gyrase inhibitors like ciprofloxacin and non-steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents like atracurium as well as ...
A muscle relaxant such as atracurium would be administered after this, though this would not strictly be a part of coinduction ...
... atracurium, and cisatracurium. Succinylcholine is a widely used muscle relaxant drug which acts by activating, instead of ...
Unlike the pH- and temperature-dependent chemodegradation seen with atracurium and cisatracurium, the inactivation of ... of successful predecessor bistetrahydroisoquinolinium neuromuscular blocking drugs development projects such as atracurium ( ...
The molecular formula C65H82N2O18S2 (molar mass: 1243.49 g/mol) may refer to: Atracurium besilate Cisatracurium besilate This ...
"Comparative evaluation of atracurium dosed on ideal body weight vs. total body weight in morbidly obese patients". British ...
... atracurium besilate) Trelegy (fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium, and vilanterol inhalation powder) Treximet (sumatriptan and ...
Atracurium is available as a generic medication. Atracurium is a medication used in addition to other medications in to provide ... Atracurium besilate, also known as atracurium besylate, is a medication used in addition to other medications to provide ... Dewar first named this compound "33A74" before its eventual emergence in the clinic as atracurium. Atracurium was the ... and came to be known as atracurium. "Atracurium Besylate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the ...
Atracurium besilate/povidone iodine. Anaphylactic reactions and contact allergy: 3 case reports ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Atracurium Besylate-DBL is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Atracurium Besylate-DBL is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Atracurium Besylate-DBL. Atracurium. Atracurium Besilate is reported as an ingredient of Atracurium ... Atracurium Besylate-DBL. Atracurium Besylate-DBL may be available in the countries listed below. ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Atracurium Besylate Bedford is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Atracurium Besylate Bedford is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Atracurium Besylate Bedford. Atracurium. Atracurium Besilate is reported as an ingredient of Atracurium ...
Atracurium Besylate Injection: Generic equivalent of Tracrium. New approved drug details including side effects, uses and ... Atracurium Besylate Injection. The following drug information is obtained from various newswires, published medical journal ... Preserved and unpreserved forms of Atracurium Besylate Injection, an intermediate duration muscle relaxant, have been approved ...
Atracurium Besylate) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... TRACRIUM Injection, 10 mg atracurium besylate in each mL. 5-mL Single-Use Vial (50 mg atracurium besylate per vial). Tray of 10 ... TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) Injection is a sterile, nonpyrogenic aqueous solution. Each mL contains 10 mg atracurium ... TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) should be administered intravenously. DO NOT GIVE TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) BY ...
Atracurium should not prevent a mother from breast feeding her baby shortly after recovering from an anesthesia if she is in ... Atracurium. Drug Summary. 1996 Full text (in our servers) *Spigset O. Anaesthetic agents and excretion in breast milk. Acta ... Pharmacokinetics of atracurium besylate in healthy patients (after a single i.v. bolus dose). Br J Anaesth. 1983 Abstract ... Atracurium should not prevent a mother from breast feeding her baby shortly after recovering from an anesthesia if she is in ...
ED50 of Cis-atracurium for Laryngeal Mask Incubation in General Anesthesia. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Wang X, Huang K, Yan H, Lan F, Yao D, Li Y, Xue J, Wang T. The median effective dose (ED50) of cis-Atracurium for laryngeal ... Administration method of cis-atracurium: the dose of the first patient is 0.15 mg / kg, and the ratio between adjacent doses is ... Administration method of cis-atracurium: the dose of the first patient is 0.15 mg / kg, and the ratio between adjacent doses is ...
Atracurium is classified as an intermediate-duration non-depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent. ... Atracurium besylate[1] is a neuromuscular-blocking drug or skeletal muscle relaxant in the category of non-depolarizing ... This may occur if atracurium is injected immediately after thiopentone. Respiratory effects In standard doses, atracurium ... Histamine release may occur with doses of atracurium greater than 0.6 mg/kg. Histamine may also be released if atracurium ...
Atracurium besilate/thiopental sodium. Hand oedema and cyanosis following accidental arterial injection: case report ...
Atracurium) drug information. Find its price or cost, dose, when to use, how to use, side effects, adverse effects, substitutes ... Drug Name : Atracurium. Atracurium(Atracurium Besylate Injection ) generic Artacil (50 mg) is a neuromuscular-blocking agent, ... Other Trade Names for Atracurium. India : Oflomac-DX (0.3%w/v/1%w/v) , Pyricort (0.3%w/v /0.1%w/v) , Gatiquin-P (3%w/v /0.1%w/v ... Artacil (50 mg) (Atracurium) Drug Price and Information. Artacil (50 mg) is a neuromuscular-blocking agent, used as an adjuvant ...
Atracurium (a-tra-KURE-ee-um). Relaxes muscles during surgery or other medical procedures.. Brand Name(s): Atracurium Besylate ... Do not use it if you had an allergic reaction to atracurium besylate. How to Use This Medicine: Injectable. *Your doctor will ... Some medicines can affect how atracurium works. Tell your doctor if you are taking any of the following: *Antibiotics such as ... Novaplus, PremierPro RX atracurium besylate There may be other brand names for this medicine. When This Medicine Should Not Be ...
DYNAMICS OF ATRACURIUM INFUSION You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the ... J. Ebert, J. Proctor; DYNAMICS OF ATRACURIUM INFUSION. Anesthesiology 1984;61(3):A292. ...
Comparative Toxicity of Atracurium and Metocurine in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes. *V. Nigrović, J. Klaunig, S. L. Smith, N. E. ... Bronchospasm following the use of atracurium. @article{Sale1983BronchospasmFT, title={Bronchospasm following the use of ... Harmless cutaneous reactions associated with the use of atracurium. A report of 1200 anaesthetics. ... atracurium}, author={J. P. Sale}, journal={Anaesthesia}, year={1983}, volume={38} }. *J. P. Sale ...
atracurium ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ...
Atracurium besylate Density MSDS Formula Use,If You also need to Atracurium besylate Other information,welcome to contact us. ... ChemicalBook provide Chemical industry users with Atracurium besylate Boiling point Melting point, ... Atracurium Dibesylate;Tracur;Wellcome 33A74;ATRACURIUM BESILATE;ATRACURIUM BESYLATE. ... Atracurium besylate Usage And Synthesis. Skeletal muscle relaxant for anesthesia. Atracurium Besilate is a kind of skeletal ...
Unlike atracurium and five other available component isomers in the atracurium mixture, cisatracurium does not produce ... One was equipotent and the three "R-series" isomers were more potent than atracurium. All six isomers and atracurium were ... Bolus intravenous administration of each of the five isomers of atracurium and atracurium itself produced decreases in arterial ... of the atracurium mixture, as a neuromuscular blocking agent that was 1.5 times more potent than atracurium, had neuromuscular ...
The generic ingredient in ATRACURIUM BESYLATE PRESERVATIVE FREE is atracurium besylate. There are sixteen drug master file ... NDA 074633 describes ATRACURIUM BESYLATE PRESERVATIVE FREE, which is a drug marketed by Aurobindo Pharma Ltd, Baxter Hlthcare, ... Additional details are available on the ATRACURIUM BESYLATE PRESERVATIVE FREE profile page. ...
... in the atracurium and cisatracurium groups, respectively (P = .72). ICU length or stay was 18 d (IQR 8-34 d) in the atracurium ... 166 for atracurium (data for atracurium and cisatracurium from Lexicomp Online, Lexi-Drugs, www.lexi.com, Accessed December 2, ... Comparison of Cisatracurium Versus Atracurium in Early ARDS. Leanne Moore, Charles Joseph Kramer, Sophie Delcoix-Lopes, Ariel M ... Comparison of Cisatracurium Versus Atracurium in Early ARDS. Leanne Moore, Charles Joseph Kramer, Sophie Delcoix-Lopes, Ariel M ...
The aim of this randomised trial was to assess the effect of urethral infusion of atracurium besylate in dogs and cats with ... Effect of urethral infusion of atracurium besylate on manual bladder expression in dogs and cats with spinal cord injuries: a ... Effect of urethral infusion of atracurium besylate on manual bladder expression in dogs and cats with spinal cord injuries: a ... Urethral infusion of atracurium facilitates manual bladder expression in dogs and cats with urinary retention secondary to ...
In the control group, 2 min after injection of atracurium, plasma histamine levels were 0.76 +/- 0.76 ng/mL, and in the ... Six minutes after the induction of anesthesia with thiopental/fentanyl, patients received atracurium 0.5 mg/kg over 5 s. Plasma ... A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was performed in 40 patients (ASA class I-III) treated with atracurium to ... A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was performed in 40 patients (ASA class I-III) treated with atracurium to ...
... atracurium explanation free. What is atracurium? Meaning of atracurium medical term. What does atracurium mean? ... Looking for online definition of atracurium in the Medical Dictionary? ... atracurium. Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia. atracurium. [at″rah-cūr´e-um] a neuromuscular blocking agent of intermediate ... Atracurium , definition of atracurium by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/atracurium ...
atracurium ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... Atracurium (besylate) is a intermediate-duration non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, delivered by bolus injection in ...
Conclusion: The combination of fentanyl-thiopental with low dose atracurium (0.05 or 0.1 mg · kg-1) provided conditions ... Laryngeal mask insertion using thiopental and low dose atracurium: A comparison with propofol. ... kg-1 atracurium (groups III and IV respectively). The LMA was inserted by a blinded anesthesiologist who also assessed the ... low dose atracurium combination. Methods: In a randomized controlled double blind study, 120 premedicated patients were ...
Find information on Atracurium (Tracrium) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing ... www.drugguide.com/ddo/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/109671/11.0/atracurium. Quiring C, Sanoski CA, Vallerand AH. Atracurium. Daviss ... atracurium is a sample topic from the Daviss Drug Guide. To view other topics, please sign in or purchase a subscription. ... Atracurium has no effect on consciousness or pain threshold. Adequate anesthesia/analgesia should always be used when ...
... also known as atracurium besylate, is a medication used in addition to other medications to provide skeletal muscle relaxation ...
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atracurium was found in Anesthesia Central. Anesthesia Central is an all-in-one web and mobile solution for treating patients ...
Atracurium is not considered suitable for operations of long duration. It can cause hypotension secondary to histamine release ...
Find information on Atracurium (Tracrium) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing ... atracurium is a sample topic from the Daviss Drug Guide. To view other topics, please log in or purchase a subscription. ... Atracurium has no effect on consciousness or pain threshold. Adequate anesthesia/analgesia should always be used when ... "Atracurium." Daviss Drug Guide, 16th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2020. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency ...
  • This study aimed to compare outcomes in severe ARDS patients treated with cisatracurium versus atracurium. (rcjournal.com)
  • Subjects treated with cisatracurium versus atracurium were compared. (rcjournal.com)
  • Eighteen subjects (24%) were treated with atracurium, whereas 58 (76%) were treated with cisatracurium. (rcjournal.com)
  • Specifically, improvement of P aO 2 /F IO 2 was a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 65 (25-162) in the atracurium group and 66 (IQR 16-147) in the cisatracurium group ( P = .65). (rcjournal.com)
  • Ventilator-free days at day 28 were 13 d (IQR 0-22 d) and 15 d (IQR 8-21 d) in the atracurium and cisatracurium groups, respectively ( P = .72). (rcjournal.com)
  • ICU length or stay was 18 d (IQR 8-34 d) in the atracurium group and 15 d (IQR 9-22 d) in the cisatracurium group ( P = .34). (rcjournal.com)
  • Among subjects with early severe ARDS, the utilization of atracurium versus cisatracurium within 72 h of admission was not associated with significant differences in clinical outcomes. (rcjournal.com)
  • Particularly, atracurium and one of its 10 isomers, cisatracurium, have been used in clinical practice. (rcjournal.com)
  • Prior studies showed that plasma concentrations of laudanosine are lower with cisatracurium than those seen with atracurium. (rcjournal.com)
  • 12 Furthermore, histamine release upon administration of atracurium, with its consequent cutaneous flushing, hypotension, and tachycardia, were not described with the use of cisatracurium. (rcjournal.com)
  • Atracurium 's limited clinical utility for the future was presaged with the marketing approval of cisatracurium in 1995 under the tradename of Nimbex . (netlibrary.cc)
  • Cisatracurium is the R - cis R - cis isomer component of the ten stereoisomers that comprise atracurium . (netlibrary.cc)
  • [ 7 ] The pharmacodynamic and adverse effects profile of cisatracurium proved to be superior to that of atracurium , which rapidly led to decline in the use of atracurium . (netlibrary.cc)
  • A comparison of the efficacy of cisatracurium and atracurium in kidney transplantation operation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cisatracurium is a new intermediate-acting benzylisoquinolinium neuromuscular blocking agent that is one of the ten stereoisomers contained in atracurium besylate . (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aimed to compare the efficacy of cisatracurium and atracurium in the aspect of intubation and maintenance dosages, hemodynamic response after intubation and cost effectiveness between the two agents in kidney transplant patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • Tracheal intubation and maintenance of muscle relaxant with each drug were administered in 23 of each group- atracurium as control (C) while cisatracurium was the study (S) group. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although the cisatracurium cost was higher than atracurium , from the cost-minimization analysis , it turned out to be lower per case. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study reports the comparative pharmacology of the six isomers and atracurium that led to the selection of one isomer, cisatracurium (Nimbex, 51W89) for clinical development. (cornell.edu)
  • Cardiovascular effects and plasma histamine concentrations were determined after a bolus injection of cisatracurium or atracurium. (cornell.edu)
  • Atracurium and all of the isomers, except cisatracurium, produced cardiovascular effects after intravenous bolus administration at large doses (700-4,800 micrograms/kg). (cornell.edu)
  • In contrast to atracurium, there were no changes in plasma histamine concentrations associated with the administration of doses of cisatracurium equivalent to 60X the NMB ED95 (62 +/- 8 micrograms/kg). (cornell.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cisatracurium has neuromuscular blocking effects identical to those of atracurium, is more potent, and does not produce cardiovascular effects or increase plasma histamine concentrations. (cornell.edu)
  • Cisatracurium is one of the ten isomers of the parent molecule, atracurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, cisatracurium represents approximately 15% of the atracurium mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generic name cisatracurium was conceived by scientists at Burroughs Wellcome Co. (now part of GlaxoSmithKline) by combining the name "atracurium" with "cis" [hence cisatracurium] because the molecule is one of the three cis-cis isomers comprising the ten isomers of the parent, atracurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • As is evident with the parent molecule, atracurium, cisatracurium is also susceptible to degradation by Hofmann elimination and ester hydrolysis as components of the in vivo metabolic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the metabolites of cisatracurium via Hofmann elimination is laudanosine - see the atracurium page for further discussion of the issue regarding this metabolite. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two reverse ester linkages in the bridge between the two isoquinolinium groups make atracurium and cisatracurium poor targets for plasma cholinesterase, unlike mivacurium which has two conventional ester linkages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atracurium besilate, also known as atracurium besylate, is a medication used in addition to other medications to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combination between atracurium besilate and inhalation anesthetic gases, such as an alkyl halide, isoflurane and halothane may enhance the neuromuscular blocking effects. (chemicalbook.com)
  • People suffering from severe cardiovascular disease are more sensitive to the atracurium besilate-induced transient hypotension so it is recommended to apply a slow and graded intravenous injection for administration. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Injectable atracurium besilate is indicated as an adjunct to general anesthesia during surgical procedures to release striated muscle and facilitate endotracheal intubation and assisted ventilation. (coffeefoodies.com)
  • Atracurium besilate should not be used for intramuscular injection as it may cause tissue irritation and there is no clinical data available for this route of administration. (coffeefoodies.com)
  • The injectable solution of atracurium besilate should not be mixed in the same syringe or administered simultaneously with the same needle to alkaline solutions (eg barbiturate solutions). (coffeefoodies.com)
  • As with all curars, monitoring of neuromuscular functions (monitoring) is recommended when using atracurium besilate to individually adjust the dosage. (coffeefoodies.com)
  • An initial dose of atracurium besilate of 0.3 to 0.6 mg / kg (depending on the duration of the desired curarization) administered as a bolus is recommended. (coffeefoodies.com)
  • Intermittent IV injection: During prolonged surgical procedures, neuromuscular blockade may be maintained by maintenance doses of 0.1 to 0.2 mg / kg of atracurium besilate. (coffeefoodies.com)
  • TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) is an intermediate-duration, nondepolarizing, skeletal muscle relaxant for intravenous administration. (rxlist.com)
  • TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) Injection is a sterile, nonpyrogenic aqueous solution. (rxlist.com)
  • TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) slowly loses potency with time at the rate of approximately 6% per year under refrigeration (5° C). TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) Injection should be refrigerated at 2° to 8° C (36° to 46° F) to preserve potency. (rxlist.com)
  • Rate of loss in potency increases to approximately 5% per month at 25° C (77° F). Upon removal from refrigeration to room temperature storage conditions (25° C/ 77° F), use TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) Injection within 14 days, even if rerefrigerated. (rxlist.com)
  • TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) is indicated, as an adjunct to general anesthesia , to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation . (rxlist.com)
  • To avoid distress to the patient, TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) should not be administered before unconsciousness has been induced. (rxlist.com)
  • TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) should not be mixed in the same syringe , or administered simultaneously through the same needle, with alkaline solutions (e.g., barbiturate solutions). (rxlist.com)
  • TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) should be administered intravenously. (rxlist.com)
  • DO NOT GIVE TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) BY INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION. (rxlist.com)
  • Intramuscular administration of TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) may result in tissue irritation and there are no clinical data to support this route of administration. (rxlist.com)
  • As with other neuromuscular blocking agents, the use of a peripheral nerve stimulator will permit the most advantageous use of TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) , minimizing the possibility of overdosage or underdosage, and assist in the evaluation of recovery. (rxlist.com)
  • A dose of TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) of 0.4 to 0.5 mg/kg (1.7 to 2.2 times the ED 95 ), given as an intravenous bolus injection, is the recommended initial dose for most patients. (rxlist.com)
  • TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) is potentiated by isoflurane or enflurane anesthesia. (rxlist.com)
  • however, if TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) is first administered under steady state of isoflurane or enflurane, the initial dose of TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) should be reduced by approximately one third, i.e., to 0.25 to 0.35 mg/kg, to adjust for the potentiating effects of these anesthetic agents. (rxlist.com)
  • With halothane, which has only a marginal (approximately 20%) potentiating effect on TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) , smaller dosage reductions may be considered. (rxlist.com)
  • Doses of TRACRIUM (atracurium besylate) of 0.08 to 0.10 mg/kg are recommended for maintenance of neuromuscular block during prolonged surgical procedures. (rxlist.com)
  • ATRACURIUM (Tracrium, Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC) is an intermediate-duration, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent introduced into clinical anesthesia in the early 1980s. (asahq.org)
  • Atracurium itself was invented at Strathclyde University and licensed to Burroughs Wellcome Co., Research Triangle Park, NC, for further development and subsequent marketing as Tracrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • A prospective, randomised, and blinded study of postoperative pulmonary complications after atracurium , vecuronium and pancuronium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • atracurium and mivacurium produce minor changes in cardiovascular variables whereas vecuronium and rocuronium are associated with a high degree of cardiostability. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It was shown that increased anti-AChR antibody levels were associated with increased sensitivity to vecuronium (Nilsson & Meretoja, 1990), but no relation between anti-AChR antibody levels and atracurium requirements was found (Hayashida et ah, 2000). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Drugs include atracurium 0.5 mg/kg, mivacurium 0.15 mg/kg, rocuronium 1.0 mg/kg, and vecuronium 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg injected over 60 sec. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The elimination half-lives at standard dosages are 60-100 minutes, and the duration of paralysis is 30-60 minutes, except in the case of atracurium and vecuronium , which have shorter duration of action: ~20-30 minutes. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Among the newer agents, mivacurium and atracurium have been reported to stimulate the most histamine release. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • What is a major side effect of Cis-Atracurium and Mivacurium? (brainscape.com)
  • Preserved and unpreserved forms of Atracurium Besylate Injection, an intermediate duration muscle relaxant, have been approved for marketing. (centerwatch.com)
  • Atracurium(Atracurium Besylate Injection ) generic Artacil (50 mg) is a neuromuscular-blocking agent, used as an adjuvant in anesthesia. (medindia.net)
  • M2 EQUITYBITES-May 21, 2012-Sagent Pharmaceuticals Inc unveils skeletal muscle relaxant drug Atracurium Besylate Injection(C)2012 M2 COMMUNICATIONS http://www. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In our case, the arterial injection of thiopental and atracurium were accidently applied from the superficial ventral area of the hand. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Atracurium (besylate) is a intermediate-duration non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, delivered by bolus injection in to a vein. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Atracurium besylate solutions for infusion can be prepared by mixing the atracurium besylate solution for injection with a suitable dilution solvent (see below) to obtain an atracurium besylate concentration of 5 mg / ml. (coffeefoodies.com)
  • Administration of anticholinesterase agents (neostigmine, pyridostigmine) may be used to antagonize the action of atracurium once the patient has demonstrated some spontaneous recovery from neuromuscular block. (drugguide.com)
  • 0.05), but did not decrease further after the administration of atracurium. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Data were recorded before administration of atracurium or saline, and at 2, 5, and 10 min thereafter. (1library.net)
  • Administration of atracurium in dogs undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy with a standardised ventilation pattern did not result in clinically important differences in selected cardiovascular and respiratory variables and surgical times in comparison with non-relaxed dogs. (1library.net)
  • Six minutes after the induction of anesthesia with thiopental/fentanyl, patients received atracurium 0.5 mg/kg over 5 s. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Plasma histamine levels were measured fluorometrically 5 min after administration of thiopental/fentanyl and 2 and 5 min after atracurium. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • We conclude that atracurium caused modest histamine release in our patients but that the decrease in arterial blood pressure may have been due, in part, to thiopental. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Purpose: To compare the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion conditions produced by propofol and a thiopental - low dose atracurium combination. (nus.edu.sg)
  • 1 μg · kg-1 fentanyl, 5 mg · kg-1 thiopental, 0,05 mg · kg-1 or 0.1 mg · kg-1 atracurium (groups III and IV respectively). (nus.edu.sg)
  • Conclusion: The combination of fentanyl-thiopental with low dose atracurium (0.05 or 0.1 mg · kg-1) provided conditions comparable with those of propofol for LMA insertion. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The aim of this randomised trial was to assess the effect of urethral infusion of atracurium besylate in dogs and cats with signs of urinary retention secondary to lesions affecting spinal cord segments T3-L3. (bmj.com)
  • Animals were subsequently treated in a blinded fashion by the same operator with urethral infusion of 2-4 ml of either a solution of 0.5 mg/ml of atracurium (treatment group) or placebo (control group) and, after five minutes, a second attempt was made to induce bladder emptying by manual compression and a post-treatment score assigned. (bmj.com)
  • Urethral infusion of atracurium facilitates manual bladder expression in dogs and cats with urinary retention secondary to spinal cord injuries. (bmj.com)
  • Use in infusion: After an initial bolus of atracurium, neuromuscular block can be maintained, during prolonged surgical procedures, by continuous intravenous infusion of atracurium of 0.3 to 0.6 mg / kg / h. (coffeefoodies.com)
  • In cardiopulmonary surgery with extra-corporeal circulation, atracurium besylate may be administered as an infusion, using the recommended infusion rates. (coffeefoodies.com)
  • Hypothermia induced at 25-26 ° C reduces the rate of degradation of atracurium, therefore, complete neuromuscular block can be maintained by decreasing the infusion rate by approximately half. (coffeefoodies.com)
  • Pharmacokinetics of atracurium during continuous infusion. (springer.com)
  • Anaesthesia will be maintained with Sevoflurane adjusted between 1-2% in an air ⁄ oxygen mix (FiO2 0.6), fentanyl infusion at 1-2 μg.kg/h and atracurium infusion at 0.5 mg.kg/ h. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • observed differential rates of enzyme hydrolysis and speculated that the identification and isolation of atracurium isomers that are hydrolyzed rapidly may allow the development of a neuromuscular blocking agent with similar kinetics to succinylcholine. (asahq.org)
  • Although the effect of atracurium is potentiated (approximately 35%) by anesthesia with isoflurane or enflurane, an identical initial dose of atracurium besylate (0.3 to 0.6 mg / kg) may be administered for intubation provided its administration precedes that of these inhaled anesthetics. (coffeefoodies.com)
  • Assessment of the presynaptic effect of atracurium. (meta.org)
  • The present experiments were designed to study the effect of atracurium on the contractile responses produced by repetitive motor nerve stimulation and by depolarizing drugs in frog, chick and rat skeletal muscle-nerve preparations, using electrophysiological and neurochemical techniques. (meta.org)
  • The presynaptic effect of atracurium was assessed using train-of-four (2 Hz) and tetanic stimulation (50 Hz) in isolated chick and rat neuromuscular junctions. (meta.org)
  • A further measure of the presynaptic effect of atracurium was examined by studying its effect on the uptake of labelled choline, 3H-methylcholine, in the control preparations. (meta.org)
  • The effect of atracurium on postjunctional contractile responses of the chick isolated biventer cervicis skeletal muscle was studied using cholinergic drugs such as acetylcholine and tetraethylammonium. (meta.org)
  • As the secondary pharmacology of atracurium was being developed, it became clear that the primary clinical disadvantage of atracurium was likely to be its propensity to elicit histamine release. (wikipedia.org)
  • The manufacture of atracurium besylate results in these isomers being produced in unequal amounts but with a consistent ratio. (rxlist.com)
  • Atracurium besylate [ 1 ] is a neuromuscular-blocking drug or skeletal muscle relaxant in the category of non-depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking drugs , used adjunctively in anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation . (netlibrary.cc)
  • Atracurium was the culmination of a rational approach to drug design to produce the first non-depolarizing non-steroidal skeletal muscle relaxant that undergoes chemodegradation in vivo . (netlibrary.cc)
  • Administration method of cis-atracurium: the dose of the first patient is 0.15 mg / kg, and the ratio between adjacent doses is 1.5. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Histamine release may occur with doses of atracurium greater than 0.6 mg/kg. (anaesthesiauk.com)
  • In standard doses, atracurium rarely causes problems with bronchospasm. (anaesthesiauk.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Atracurium has four chiral centers and the marketed product is a mixture of ten optical and geometric isomers. (cornell.edu)
  • DI-fusion Clinical evaluation of atracurium besylate requirement for a. (ac.be)
  • Because atracurium undergoes Hofmann elimination as a primary route of chemodegradation, one of the major metabolites from this process is laudanosine, a tertiary amino alkaloid reported to be a modest CNS stimulant with epileptogenic activity and cardiovascular effects such a hypotension and bradycardia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, because laudanosine is cleared primarily via renal excretion, a cat study modelling anephric patients went so far as to corroborate that EEG changes, when observed, were evident only at plasma concentrations 8 to 10 times greater than those observed in humans during infusions of atracurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atracurium is broken down to inactive metabolites by (minor) ester hydrolysis and spontaneous Hoffman elimination (major pathway) to Laudanosine. (anaesthesiauk.com)
  • Atracurium is classified as an intermediate-duration non-depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent. (netlibrary.cc)
  • However, when the initial dose of atracurium is administered after stable anesthesia with isoflurane or enflurane, the dose of atracurium should be reduced by one-third. (coffeefoodies.com)
  • RESULTS: Like atracurium, all six isomers produced dose-dependent neuromuscular block (NMB). (cornell.edu)
  • What is the intubating dose of Cis-Atracurium? (brainscape.com)
  • Harmless cutaneous reactions associated with the use of atracurium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was performed in 40 patients (ASA class I-III) treated with atracurium to ascertain whether histamine release caused hemodynamic or cutaneous changes. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Atracurium ist als Zusatz zur allgemeinen Anästhesie indiziert, um Muskelrelaxation während chirurgischer Eingriffe oder mechanischer Beatmung zu erzeugen und auch die endotracheale Intubation zu erleichtern. (china-sinoway.com)
  • In all patients midazolam was given as premedication and anesthesia was induced with fentanyl and thiopentone and tracheal intubation was performed with atracurium 0.5 mg kg-1. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bronchospasm has been reported on occasion with the use of atracurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of the S,Trans-S', Trans isomers, the NMB effects, i.e., onset times (range 2.6 +/- 0.2 min to 4.7 +/- 0.3 min) and total durations (range 9.9 +/- 1.4 min to 14 +/- 0.9 min), of the other five isomers were very similar to that atracurium. (cornell.edu)
  • Atracurium is in the neuromuscular-blocker family of medications and is of the non-depolarizing type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atracurium besylate was first synthesized in 1974 by George H. Dewar, [ 2 ] a pharmacist and a medicinal chemistry doctoral candidate in John B. Stenlake's medicinal chemistry research group in the Department of Pharmacy at Strathclyde University , Scotland . (netlibrary.cc)
  • Although atracurium produces few direct circulatory effects, the absence of vagal blocking activity makes the patient vulnerable to bradycardias during anaesthesia. (anaesthesiauk.com)
  • The vagal ID50:NMB ED95 ratios for atracurium and the six isomers ranged from 2 to 27. (cornell.edu)
  • Are hypotension and rash after atracurium really caused by histamine release? (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Additional details are available on the ATRACURIUM BESYLATE PRESERVATIVE FREE profile page. (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • The generic ingredient in ATRACURIUM BESYLATE PRESERVATIVE FREE is atracurium besylate . (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • 0.05 control versus treated), suggesting that pretreatment with antihistamines may attenuate atracurium-induced histamine release. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Assess respiratory status continuously throughout therapy with atracurium. (drugguide.com)
  • Influence of atracurium on selected cardiovascular and respiratory variables and surgical times in dogs undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy with a standardised ventilation pattern P. Rauser, M. Crha, A. Sivkova, J. Zapletalova, N. Korytarova Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic ABSTRACT: Respiratory and cardiovascular changes in normocapnic dogs undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy are described in this report. (1library.net)
  • The effect of pretreatment with magnesium sulfate on the neuromuscular block after atracurium administration was studied. (bvsalud.org)
  • After stabilisation, atracurium 0.4 mg/kg (ATR group, n = 20) or saline 0.04 ml/kg (SAL group, n = 20) was administered intravenously. (1library.net)
  • This study was undertaken to determine the neuromuscular blocking profiles, the effects on the autonomic nervous system, and the potential of atracurium and the six available isomers to produce cardiovascular effects in anesthetized cats. (asahq.org)
  • Atracurium besylate is a complex molecule containing four sites at which different stereochemical configurations can occur. (rxlist.com)
  • Because Hofmann elimination is a temperature- and plasma pH-dependent process, cisatracurium's rate of degradation in vivo is highly influenced by body pH and temperature just as it is with the parent molecule, atracurium: thus, an increase in body pH favors the elimination process,[citation needed] whereas a decrease in temperature slows down the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atracurium is known to be the muscle relaxant of choice in end stage renal disease patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • citation needed] See the atracurium page for information on Hofmann elimination in vivo versus the Hofmann degradation chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use of sufentanil and atracurium anesthesia in a patient with acute porphyria undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. (thefreedictionary.com)