A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Intratracheal anesthesia is a technique where anesthetic agents are directly instilled into the trachea to induce or maintain general anesthesia, often used in emergency situations, veterinary medicine, or when conventional methods of administration are not feasible.
The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A mixture of isomeric tritolyl phosphates. Used in the sterilization of certain surgical instruments and in many industrial processes.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.
The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.
A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.

Influence of atracurium on the diaphragm mean action potential conduction velocity in canines. (1/168)

BACKGROUND: It has been shown that progressive neuromuscular blockade (NMB) affects the electromyogram power spectrum and compound muscle action potential duration in skeletal muscle. These measures are linked to the mean muscle action potential conduction velocity (APCV), but no studies have confirmed a relation between the mean APCV and NMB. The aim of this study was to determine whether diaphragm mean APCV is affected by NMB. METHODS: The effects of NMB on diaphragm mean APCV were evaluated in five mongrel dogs. Progressive NMB was induced by slow intravenous infusion of atracurium. During spontaneous breathing, the diaphragm mean APCV was determined by electromyogram signals, in the time and frequency domains. The magnitude of NMB was quantified by the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential and by changes in muscle shortening during supramaximal stimulation of the phrenic nerve. RESULTS: Progressive NMB was associated with a decrease in diaphragm mean APCV. At approximately 70% reduction in the compound muscle action potential amplitude, diaphragm mean APCV had decreased more than 20%. Recovery after NMB was characterized by a restoration of the mean APCV to control values. CONCLUSION: This study shows that progressive NMB paralyzes motor units within the diaphragm in an orderly manner, and the blockade first affects muscle fibers with high APCV before it affects fibers with lower APCV.  (+info)

The infusion rate of mivacurium or atracurium for cesarean section compared with gynecological procedures. (2/168)

Mivacurium is mainly metabolized by plasma cholinesterase, whereas atracurium is removed by Hofman elimination. The purpose of this study was to compare the infusion rate of atracurium and mivacurium in maintaining surgical relaxation, and to compare their recovery indices between parturients and non-pregnant women. Muscle relaxation was maintained by the continuous infusion of relaxants to retain the first response of train-of-four (TOF) at 5% of control. When mivacurium was used, Bolus-T5 (duration from the end of mivacurium bolus injection to 5% single twitch recovery) was measured. After discontinuing the infusion, the recovery index was measured. The infusion rate of mivacurium, not atracurium, was significantly lower in parturients and Bolus-T5 of parturients was significantly longer than that of non-pregnant women. There was no significant difference in the recovery indices of both relaxants. The authors concluded that the infusion rate of mivacurium in maintaining muscle relaxation in parturients should be reduced compared to the rate in non-pregnant women and measuring Bolus-T5 may be helpful in determining the infusion rate to maintain muscle relaxation.  (+info)

Comparison of a new piezoelectric train-of-four neuromuscular monitor, the ParaGraph, and the Relaxometer mechanomyograph. (3/168)

The ParaGraph is a new device for monitoring neuromuscular function using a piezoelectric motion sensor. In 20 patients, monitoring of neuromuscular block produced by cisatracurium 0.1 mg kg-1 was compared using the ParaGraph and a Relaxometer 2 mechanomyograph. The ParaGraph was quick to set up, and easy to operate and interpret. There were no significant differences in the time to 100% depression of T1/T0, time to 25% recovery of T1/T0 or time to recovery of T1/T0 from 25% to 75%, measured by the two monitors. When the difference between the two monitors was plotted against the average of the two measurements, the limits of agreement for T1/T0 (-42.95, +53.98%) and the train-of-four ratio, T4/T1 (-0.28, +0.21) were too wide to allow the values given by the two monitors for individual patients to be used interchangeably.  (+info)

Cisatracurium neuromuscular block at the adductor pollicis and the laryngeal adductor muscles in humans. (4/168)

We have compared the dose-response relationship (n = 30) and time course of neuromuscular block (n = 20) of cisatracurium at the laryngeal adductor and the adductor pollicis muscles. ED95 values for cisatracurium were 66.8 (95% confidence interval 61.3-72.3) micrograms kg-1 at the larynx and 45.2 (42.1-48.3) micrograms kg-1 at the adductor pollicis muscle (P < 0.0001). After administration of cisatracurium 0.1 mg kg-1, onset time was 2.7 (2.2-3.2) min at the larynx and 3.9 (3.0-4.8) min at the adductor pollicis (P < 0.0001). Time to 95% recovery of the first twitch of the TOF was 26.9 (20.1-33.7) min and 45.6 (39.7-51.5) min, respectively (P < 0.0001). We found that the laryngeal adductors were more resistant to the action of cisatracurium than the adductor pollicis muscle, but onset and recovery were faster at the larynx.  (+info)

A comparison of continuous infusion of vecuronium and atracurium in midline and paramedian laparotomies. (5/168)

This was a study to compare continuous intravenous infusion of atracurium with continuous intravenous infusion of vecuronium for intraoperative muscle relaxation in 62 ASA I / II patients. Scheduled for laparotomies and pelvic surgeries under general anaesthesia. They were randomly allocated in two groups to receive either vecuronium infusion of 50 microg/kg/hour following a bolus dose of 0.1 microg/kg, or atracurium infusion of 400 microg/kg/hour following a bolus dose of 0.5 microg/kg. The mean infusion dose of atracurium was 478 +/- 44.11 microg/kg/hour and that of vecuronium was 63.2 +/- 74 microg/kg/hour for adequate muscle relaxation. The depth of neuromuscular blockade was monitored by using peripheral nerve stimulator so that only one twitch of train of four was present, resistance to ventilation, surgical relaxation and haemodynamic changes. Vecuronium infusions produced more haemodynamic stability than atracurium infusions. Vecuronium produced lesser change in systolic blood pressure (mean change of 3. 46 +/- 3.33%) from baseline values as compared to atracurium (mean change of 5.81 +/- 3.73%) from baseline values ( p < 0.01) which was statistically significant. The difference in mean pulse rate change from baseline value in the atracurium group (4.78 +/- 2.745%) was less than that in the vecuronium group (5.99 +/- 2.67%), which was not statistically significant. Spontaneous recovery was faster with vecuronium (540.94 +/- 76.46 seconds) as compared to atracurium (596. 33 +/- 72.48 seconds). 84.4% of patients who received vecuronium fell within good to very good category of muscle relaxation as compared to 63.3% in atracurium group. There were no cost benefits when either agents were used in infusion form.  (+info)

The incidence and mechanisms of pharyngeal and upper esophageal dysfunction in partially paralyzed humans: pharyngeal videoradiography and simultaneous manometry after atracurium. (6/168)

BACKGROUND: Residual neuromuscular block caused by vecuronium alters pharyngeal function and impairs airway protection. The primary objectives of this investigation were to radiographically evaluate the swallowing act and to record the incidence of and the mechanism behind pharyngeal dysfunction during partial neuromuscular block. The secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of atracurium on pharyngeal function. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers were studied while awake during liquid-contrast bolus swallowing. The incidence of pharyngeal dysfunction was studied by fluoroscopy. The initiation of the swallowing process, the pharyngeal coordination, and the bolus transit time were evaluated. Simultaneous manometry was used to document pressure changes at the tongue base, the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, and the upper esophageal sphincter. After control recordings, an intravenous infusion of atracurium was administered to obtain train-of-four ratios (T4/T1) of 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80, followed by recovery to a train-of-four ratio of more than 0.90. RESULTS: The incidence of pharyngeal dysfunction was 6% during the control recordings and increased (P < 0.05) to 28%, 17%, and 20% at train-of-four ratios 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80, respectively. After recovery to a train-of-four ratio of more than 0.90, the incidence was 13%. Pharyngeal dysfunction occurred in 74 of 444 swallows, the majority (80%) resulting in laryngeal penetration. The initiation of the swallowing reflex was impaired during partial paralysis (P = 0.0081). The pharyngeal coordination was impaired at train-of-four ratios of 0.60 and 0.70 (P < 0.01). A marked reduction in the upper esophageal sphincter resting tone was found, as well as a reduced contraction force in the pharyngeal constrictor muscles. The bolus transit time did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: Partial neuromuscular paralysis caused by atracurium is associated with a four- to fivefold increase in the incidence of misdirected swallowing. The mechanism behind the pharyngeal dysfunction is a delayed initiation of the swallowing reflex, impaired pharyngeal muscle function, and impaired coordination. The majority of misdirected swallows resulted in penetration of bolus to the larynx.  (+info)

Dose requirements of infusions of cisatracurium or rocuronium during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. (7/168)

We investigated the influence of mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the dose requirements of cisatracurium or rocuronium used as a continuous infusion. We studied eight patients given cisatracurium and nine given rocuronium. They were ASA class III and IV and scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Neuromuscular transmission was monitored electromyographically. After recovery of T1/T0 to 10%, a cisatracurium infusion or a rocuronium infusion was started at a rate of 1.5 or 10 micrograms kg-1 min-1, respectively, and adjusted to maintain T1/T0 at 15%. Infusion rate and duration were recorded before, during and after CPB in each patient and the mean infusion rates were calculated. One-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between the cisatracurium infusion rates before, during and after CPB: A T1/T0 of 15% could be achieved with a mean infusion rate of 1.1, 0.75 and 0.98 micrograms kg-1 min-1 before, during and after CPB, respectively. There was no significant difference between the rocuronium infusion rates before, during and after CPB. The mean rocuronium infusion rate required to maintain T1/T0 at 15% throughout the procedure was 4.1 micrograms kg-1 min-1. Cisatracurium infusion rates should be halved during CPB. Even after CPB, requirements are reduced. The same tendency occurs with rocuronium, but the changes in infusion rate were not statistically significant.  (+info)

Preanesthetic train-of-four fade predicts the atracurium requirement of myasthenia gravis patients. (8/168)

BACKGROUND: The most sensitive diagnostic criterion of myasthenia gravis is a decrement in the muscular response to repetitive stimulation. The authors hypothesized that myasthenia gravis patients who show a train-of-four ratio (T4/T1) < 0.9 in the preanesthetic period will have increased sensitivity to nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents compared with myasthenia gravis patients with preanesthetic T4/T1 > or = 0.9. METHODS: After institutional review board approval was obtained, 20 electrophysiologically documented myasthenia gravis patients were studied. Current pyridostigmine therapy was continued until the morning of surgery. Before induction of anesthesia, neuromuscular transmission was recorded from the hypothenar muscles using electromyography with train-of-four stimulation of the ulnar nerve. According to the T4/T1 ratio, patients were assigned to the "normal" group (T4/T1 > or = 0.9) or the "decrement" group (T4/T1 < 0.9). After induction of intravenous anesthesia, the effective dose to achieve a 95% neuromuscular blockade (ED95) for atracurium was assessed with a cumulative bolus technique. Postoperatively, pyridostigmine was titrated to obtain a T4/T1 > 0.75 and to treat residual myasthenic symptoms. RESULTS: In 14 patients, preanesthetic T4/T1 was > or = 0.9 (normal), whereas 6 patients presented with T4/T1 < 0.9 (decrement). Decrement patients had a lower ED95 of 0.07 +/- 0.03 mg/kg atracurium (mean +/- SD) compared with normal patients with an ED95 of 0.24 +/- 0.11 mg/kg atracurium (P = 0.002). All patients were extubated within 30 min after surgery. Postoperative pyridostigmine infusion did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for atracurium is significantly reduced in myasthenia gravis patients with a T4/T1 ratio < 0.9 before anesthesia. This study indicates that routine neuromuscular monitoring in myasthenia gravis patients should be extended into the preinduction period to identify patients who require less atracurium.  (+info)

Atracurium is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBDA) that is used in anesthesia practice to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery. It works by competitively inhibiting the binding of acetylcholine to nicotinic receptors at the motor endplate, thereby preventing muscle contraction.

Atracurium has a rapid onset and intermediate duration of action, making it useful for a variety of surgical procedures. It is also known for its unique property of being broken down by Hofmann elimination, a non-enzymatic degradation process that occurs at physiological pH and temperature, which makes it independent of hepatic or renal function. This makes atracurium a useful option in patients with compromised liver or kidney function.

However, atracurium can cause histamine release, which may lead to hypotension, tachycardia, and bronchospasm, especially with rapid bolus administration. Therefore, it is usually administered by continuous infusion or intermittent boluses, titrated to the desired level of muscle relaxation.

It's important to note that atracurium should only be administered under the supervision of anesthesia professionals and used in accordance with the recommended dosages and monitoring guidelines to ensure patient safety.

Neuromuscular non-depolarizing agents are a type of muscle relaxant medication used in anesthesia and critical care settings to facilitate endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, and to prevent muscle contractions during surgery. These agents work by competitively binding to the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, without activating them, thereby preventing the initiation of muscle contraction.

Examples of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents include:

* Vecuronium
* Rocuronium
* Pancuronium
* Atracurium
* Cisatracurium
* Mivacurium

These medications have a reversible effect and their duration of action can be prolonged in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function, acid-base imbalances, electrolyte abnormalities, or in those who are taking other medications that interact with these agents. Therefore, it is important to monitor the patient's neuromuscular function during and after the administration of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.

Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are a class of drugs that act on the neuromuscular junction, the site where nerve impulses transmit signals to muscles to cause contraction. NMBAs prevent the transmission of these signals, leading to muscle paralysis. They are used in medical settings during surgical procedures and mechanical ventilation to facilitate intubation, control ventilation, and prevent patient movement. It is important to note that NMBAs do not have any effect on consciousness or pain perception; therefore, they are always used in conjunction with anesthetics and analgesics.

NMBAs can be classified into two main categories based on their mechanism of action:

1. Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: These drugs, such as succinylcholine, cause muscle fasciculations (brief, involuntary contractions) before inducing paralysis. They work by binding to the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction and depolarizing the membrane, which results in muscle paralysis. However, the continuous depolarization also causes desensitization of the receptors, leading to a loss of effectiveness over time. Depolarizing NMBAs have a relatively short duration of action.
2. Non-depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: These drugs, such as rocuronium, vecuronium, and pancuronium, do not cause muscle fasciculations. They work by binding to the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction without depolarizing the membrane, which prevents the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles and leads to paralysis. Non-depolarizing NMBAs have a longer duration of action compared to depolarizing NMBAs.

Close monitoring of neuromuscular function is essential when using NMBAs to ensure adequate reversal of their effects before the patient regains consciousness. This can be achieved through the use of nerve stimulators, which assess the degree of blockade and help guide the administration of reversal agents when necessary.

Vecuronium Bromide is a neuromuscular blocking agent, which is a type of medication that acts on the muscles to cause paralysis. It is used in anesthesia during surgery to provide skeletal muscle relaxation and to facilitate endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Vecuronium Bromide works by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses at the neuromuscular junction, the site where nerves meet muscles. This results in temporary paralysis of the muscles, allowing for controlled muscle relaxation during surgical procedures. It is a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant and is considered to have a intermediate duration of action.

Pancuronium is defined as a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, which is used in anesthesia practice to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery. It works by competitively inhibiting the binding of acetylcholine to nicotinic receptors at the motor endplate, thereby preventing muscle contraction. Pancuronium has a intermediate duration of action and is often used for routine surgical procedures requiring muscle relaxation. It is administered intravenously and is typically reversed with an anticholinesterase agent such as neostigmine at the conclusion of surgery.

Isoquinolines are not a medical term per se, but a chemical classification. They refer to a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring. This structure is similar to that of quinoline, but with the nitrogen atom located at a different position in the ring.

Isoquinolines have various biological activities and can be found in some natural products, including certain alkaloids. Some isoquinoline derivatives have been developed as drugs for the treatment of various conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. However, specific medical definitions related to isoquinolines typically refer to the use or effects of these specific drugs rather than the broader class of compounds.

Neostigmine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called cholinesterase inhibitors. It works by blocking the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body, leading to an increase in its levels at the neuromuscular junction. This helps to improve muscle strength and tone by enhancing the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles.

Neostigmine is primarily used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, a neurological disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. It can also be used to reverse the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants administered during surgery. Additionally, neostigmine may be used to diagnose and manage certain conditions that cause decreased gut motility or urinary retention.

It is important to note that neostigmine should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential side effects, which can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased salivation, sweating, and muscle cramps. In some cases, it may also cause respiratory distress or cardiac arrhythmias.

Edrophonium is a type of medication called an anticholinesterase agent. It works by blocking the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body that is important for muscle contraction. This results in an increase in the amount of acetylcholine available to stimulate muscle contraction.

Edrophonium is used as a diagnostic aid in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. It is also used to reverse the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, which are medications that are sometimes given during surgery to temporarily paralyze muscles.

Edrophonium is administered intravenously (through a vein) and its effects usually begin within 30 seconds to 1 minute after injection and last for about 5 to 10 minutes. Common side effects of edrophonium include sweating, increased salivation, and muscle twitching. More serious side effects, such as seizures or cardiac arrest, can occur but are rare.

It is important to note that edrophonium should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause serious side effects if not used properly.

Succinylcholine is a neuromuscular blocking agent, a type of muscle relaxant used in anesthesia during surgical procedures. It works by inhibiting the transmission of nerve impulses at the neuromuscular junction, leading to temporary paralysis of skeletal muscles. This facilitates endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation during surgery. Succinylcholine has a rapid onset of action and is metabolized quickly, making it useful for short surgical procedures. However, its use may be associated with certain adverse effects, such as increased heart rate, muscle fasciculations, and potentially life-threatening hyperkalemia in susceptible individuals.

Androstanols are a class of steroid compounds that contain a skeleton of 17 carbon atoms arranged in a particular structure. They are derived from androstane, which is a reduced form of testosterone, a male sex hormone. Androstanols have a variety of biological activities and can be found in various tissues and bodily fluids, including sweat, urine, and blood.

In the context of medical research and diagnostics, androstanols are sometimes used as biomarkers to study various physiological processes and diseases. For example, some studies have investigated the use of androstanol metabolites in urine as markers for prostate cancer. However, more research is needed to establish their clinical utility.

It's worth noting that while androstanols are related to steroid hormones, they do not have the same hormonal activity as testosterone or other sex hormones. Instead, they may play a role in cell signaling and other regulatory functions within the body.

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the specialized synapse or chemical communication point, where the motor neuron's nerve terminal (presynaptic element) meets the muscle fiber's motor end plate (postsynaptic element). This junction plays a crucial role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation.

At the NMJ, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the presynaptic nerve terminal into the synaptic cleft, following an action potential. Acetylcholine then binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the muscle fiber, leading to the generation of an end-plate potential. If sufficient end-plate potentials are generated and summate, they will trigger an action potential in the muscle fiber, ultimately causing muscle contraction.

Dysfunction at the neuromuscular junction can result in various neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis, where autoantibodies attack acetylcholine receptors, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue.

Neuromuscular depolarizing agents are a type of muscle relaxant used in anesthesia and critical care medicine. These drugs work by causing depolarization of the post-synaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction, which is the site where nerve impulses are transmitted to muscles. This results in the binding of the drug to the receptor and the activation of ion channels, leading to muscle contraction.

The most commonly used depolarizing agent is suxamethonium (also known as succinylcholine), which has a rapid onset and short duration of action. It is often used during rapid sequence intubation, where there is a need for immediate muscle relaxation to facilitate endotracheal intubation.

However, the use of depolarizing agents can also lead to several side effects, including increased potassium levels in the blood (hyperkalemia), muscle fasciculations, and an increase in intracranial and intraocular pressure. Therefore, these drugs should be used with caution and only under the close supervision of a trained healthcare provider.

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

Neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is a pharmacological state in which the communication between nerves and muscles is interrupted by blocking the neuromuscular junction, thereby preventing muscle contraction. This condition can be achieved through the use of certain medications called neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs). These drugs are commonly used during surgical procedures to facilitate endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, and to prevent patient movement and minimize potential injury during surgery. NMBs are classified into two main categories based on their mechanism of action: depolarizing and non-depolarizing agents.

Depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents, such as succinylcholine, work by activating the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, causing a sustained depolarization and muscle contraction followed by flaccid paralysis. Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents, such as rocuronium, vecuronium, pancuronium, and atracurium, bind to the receptors without activating them, thereby preventing acetylcholine from binding and transmitting the signal for muscle contraction.

Clinical monitoring of neuromuscular blockade is essential to ensure proper dosing and avoid complications such as residual curarization, which can lead to respiratory compromise in the postoperative period. Monitoring techniques include peripheral nerve stimulation and train-of-four (TOF) assessment to evaluate the depth of neuromuscular blockade and guide the administration of reversal agents when appropriate.

Enflurane is a volatile halogenated ether that was commonly used as an inhalational general anesthetic agent. Its chemical formula is C3H2ClF5O. It has been largely replaced by newer and safer anesthetics, but it is still occasionally used in certain clinical situations due to its favorable properties such as rapid onset and offset of action, stable hemodynamics, and low blood solubility. However, it can cause adverse effects such as respiratory depression, arrhythmias, and neurotoxicity, particularly with prolonged use or high doses. Therefore, its use requires careful monitoring and management by anesthesia professionals.

Inhalational anesthesia is a type of general anesthesia that is induced by the inhalation of gases or vapors. It is administered through a breathing system, which delivers the anesthetic agents to the patient via a face mask, laryngeal mask airway, or endotracheal tube.

The most commonly used inhalational anesthetics include nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane. These agents work by depressing the central nervous system, causing a reversible loss of consciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation.

The depth of anesthesia can be easily adjusted during the procedure by changing the concentration of the anesthetic agent. Once the procedure is complete, the anesthetic agents are eliminated from the body through exhalation, allowing for a rapid recovery.

Inhalational anesthesia is commonly used in a wide range of surgical procedures due to its ease of administration, quick onset and offset of action, and ability to rapidly adjust the depth of anesthesia. However, it requires careful monitoring and management by trained anesthesia providers to ensure patient safety and optimize outcomes.

Nitrous oxide, also known as laughing gas, is a colorless and non-flammable gas with a slightly sweet odor and taste. In medicine, it's commonly used for its anesthetic and pain reducing effects. It is often used in dental procedures, surgery, and childbirth to help reduce anxiety and provide mild sedation. Nitrous oxide works by binding to the hemoglobin in red blood cells, which reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, but this effect is usually not significant at the low concentrations used for analgesia and anxiolysis. It's also considered relatively safe when administered by a trained medical professional because it does not cause depression of the respiratory system or cardiovascular function.

Intratracheal anesthesia refers to the administration of anesthetic agents directly into the trachea. This type of anesthesia is typically used in specific medical procedures, such as bronchoscopy or airway surgery, where it is necessary to achieve adequate anesthesia and analgesia of the airways while avoiding systemic effects.

Intratracheal anesthesia is usually delivered through a specialized device called a laryngoscope, which is used to visualize the vocal cords and introduce a narrow tube (endotracheal tube) into the trachea. Once the endotracheal tube is in place, anesthetic gases or liquids can be administered directly into the airways, providing rapid onset of action and minimal systemic absorption.

It's important to note that intratracheal anesthesia should only be performed by trained medical professionals, as there are potential risks associated with this procedure, including damage to the airway, respiratory compromise, and other complications.

Opium is defined as the dried latex obtained from incisions made in the unripe seedpods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). It contains a number of alkaloids, including morphine, codeine, and thebaine. Opium has been used for its pain-relieving, euphoric, and sedative effects since ancient times. However, its use is highly regulated due to the risk of addiction and other serious side effects.

The Ulnar nerve is one of the major nerves in the forearm and hand, which provides motor function to the majority of the intrinsic muscles of the hand (except for those innervated by the median nerve) and sensory innervation to the little finger and half of the ring finger. It originates from the brachial plexus, passes through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues down the forearm, where it runs close to the ulna bone. The ulnar nerve then passes through the Guyon's canal in the wrist before branching out to innervate the hand muscles and provide sensation to the skin on the little finger and half of the ring finger.

Halothane is a general anesthetic agent, which is a volatile liquid that evaporates easily and can be inhaled. It is used to produce and maintain general anesthesia (a state of unconsciousness) during surgical procedures. Halothane is known for its rapid onset and offset of action, making it useful for both induction and maintenance of anesthesia.

The medical definition of Halothane is:

Halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) is a volatile liquid general anesthetic agent with a mild, sweet odor. It is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in surgical procedures due to its rapid onset and offset of action. Halothane is administered via inhalation and acts by depressing the central nervous system, leading to a reversible loss of consciousness and analgesia.

It's important to note that Halothane has been associated with rare cases of severe liver injury (hepatotoxicity) and anaphylaxis (a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction). These risks have led to the development and use of alternative general anesthetic agents with better safety profiles.

The anesthesia recovery period, also known as the post-anesthetic care unit (PACU) or recovery room stay, is the time immediately following anesthesia and surgery during which a patient's vital signs are closely monitored as they emerge from the effects of anesthesia.

During this period, the patient is typically observed for adequate ventilation, oxygenation, circulation, level of consciousness, pain control, and any potential complications. The length of stay in the recovery room can vary depending on the type of surgery, the anesthetic used, and the individual patient's needs.

The anesthesia recovery period is a critical time for ensuring patient safety and comfort as they transition from the surgical setting to full recovery. Nurses and other healthcare providers in the recovery room are specially trained to monitor and manage patients during this vulnerable period.

Tritolyl phosphates are not a medical term, but rather a class of industrial chemicals. They are organophosphate esters made from the reaction of toluene with phosphoric acid. These chemicals have various uses, including as plasticizers, flame retardants, and hydraulic fluids.

Exposure to high levels of tritolyl phosphates can cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. However, they are not typically considered a significant health concern at the low levels encountered in most occupational or environmental settings. There is no known medical condition specifically associated with "tritolyl phosphates."

Glycopyrrolate is an anticholinergic medication that works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a chemical messenger in the body. It reduces the secretions of certain organs and is used to treat various conditions such as peptic ulcers, reducing saliva production during surgical procedures, preventing motion sickness, and managing some symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

In medical terms, glycopyrrolate is a competitive antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. It has a particular affinity for the M1, M2, and M3 receptor subtypes. By blocking these receptors, it inhibits the parasympathetic nervous system's effects on various organs, leading to decreased glandular secretions (such as saliva, sweat, and gastric acid), slowed heart rate, and relaxation of smooth muscles in the digestive tract and bronchioles.

Glycopyrrolate is available in oral, intravenous, and topical forms and should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, drowsiness, and urinary retention.

Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine medication used to relieve symptoms of allergies, such as sneezing, runny nose, and itchy or watery eyes. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic reactions. Diphenhydramine can also be used to treat motion sickness, insomnia, and symptoms of the common cold.

In addition to its antihistamine effects, diphenhydramine also has anticholinergic properties, which means it can help to reduce secretions in the nose and throat, and may have a drying effect on the mouth and eyes. It is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, liquid, and topical creams or ointments.

It's important to note that diphenhydramine can cause drowsiness, so it should be used with caution when operating heavy machinery or driving a vehicle. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to speak with a healthcare provider before taking this medication.

In medical terms, the thumb is referred to as "pollex" and it's the first digit of the hand, located laterally to the index finger. It's opposable, meaning it can move opposite to the other fingers, allowing for powerful gripping and precise manipulation. The thumb contains two phalanges bones - the distal and proximal - and is connected to the hand by the carpometacarpal joint, which provides a wide range of motion.

Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine medication that is used to relieve allergic symptoms caused by hay fever, hives, and other allergies. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. Chlorpheniramine is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, syrup, and injection.

Common side effects of chlorpheniramine include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and dizziness. It may also cause more serious side effects such as rapid heartbeat, difficulty breathing, and confusion, especially in elderly people or those with underlying medical conditions. Chlorpheniramine should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider, particularly in children, pregnant women, and people with medical conditions such as glaucoma, enlarged prostate, and respiratory disorders.

It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully when taking chlorpheniramine, as taking too much can lead to overdose and serious complications. If you experience any unusual symptoms or have concerns about your medication, it is best to consult with a healthcare provider.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

Atracurium is available as a generic medication. Atracurium is a medication used in addition to other medications in to provide ... Atracurium besilate, also known as atracurium besylate, is a medication used in addition to other medications to provide ... Dewar first named this compound "33A74" before its eventual emergence in the clinic as atracurium. Atracurium was the ... and came to be known as atracurium. "Atracurium Besylate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the ...
Atracurium: The recommended clinical dosage of atracurium for adults is to "dose to effect" approach to ensure muscle ... Non-depolarizing drug Atracurium: Atracurium is commonly associated with histamine-related symptoms, most notably flushing and ... Ritz ML, Derian A (2023). "Atracurium". StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. PMID 29763171. Retrieved 2023- ...
... atracurium. Atracurium itself was invented at Strathclyde University and licensed to Burroughs Wellcome Co., Research Triangle ... To address this issue, a program was initiated to investigate the individual isomer constituents of atracurium to identify and ... now part of GlaxoSmithKline) by combining the name "atracurium" with "cis" [hence cisatracurium] because the molecule is one of ... Part 6. Stereochemical studies on atracurium and related polyalkylene di-esters". Eur J Med Chem. 19 (5): 441-450. Dear GJ, ...
Fodale V, Santamaria LB (July 2002). "Laudanosine, an atracurium and cisatracurium metabolite". Eur J Anaesthesiol. 19 (7): 466 ... Laudanosine or N-methyltetrahydropapaverine is a recognized metabolite of atracurium and cisatracurium. Laudanosine decreases ... to be produced consequent to chemodegradable metabolism of clinically administered doses of cisatracurium or atracurium. ...
The orientation of the two O atoms in the bridge is to the THIQ side of the carbonyl C=O group, whereas in atracurium the O ... Unlike the potency of the cis-cis isomer of atracurium (also known as 51W89 and eventually produced as the drug cisatracurium ... Atracurium's groups are "reversed ester" linkages. This makes ester hydrolysis degradation by plasma cholinesterase more ... Having ten methoxy -OCH3 groups, mivacurium is a more potent neuromuscular blocking drug than atracurium (which has eight), but ...
Cis-atracurium is very similar to atracurium except it is more potent and has a weaker tendency to cause histamine release. ... Mivacurium, atracurium, and doxacurium have greater N-N distance and molecular length than d-tubocurarine even when bent. To ... Atracurium, the resulting molecule, breaks down spontaneously in the body to inactive compounds and being especially useful in ... In the development of atracurium the main idea was to make use of Hofmann elimination of the muscle relaxant in vivo. When ...
... may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of atracurium besilate. "chlortetracycline , C22H23ClN2O8 ...
"Anaphylaxis Is More Common with Rocuronium and Succinylcholine than with Atracurium". Anesthesiology. 122 (1): 39-45. doi: ...
"Mild hypothermia alters propofol pharmacokinetics and increases the duration of action of atracurium". Anesth Analg. 80 (5): ...
... and Heart Rate after Rapid Paralysis with Atracurium in Cats". Can Anaesth Soc J. 32 (6): 618-621. doi:10.1007/BF03011408. PMID ...
Thus if full sedation alone is ineffective, people may be paralyzed with drugs such as atracurium. Paralysis allows the ...
The nondepolarizing muscle relaxants pancuronium, cisatracurium, atracurium, mivacurium, vecuronium and rocuronium also do not ...
Benzylisoquinolines, such as atracurium and tubocurarine, the other major group of neuromuscular blocking agents Ted Lin; Tim ...
Mouw RJ, Klumper F, Hermans J, Brandenburg HC, Kanhai HH (1999). "Effect of atracurium or pancuronium on the anemic fetus ...
Anaphylaxis Non-depolarizing muscle relaxants Histamine release e.g. Atracurium and Mivacurium Anaphylaxis Another potentially ... Decamethonium Non-depolarizing muscle relaxants Short acting Mivacurium Rapacuronium Intermediate acting Atracurium ...
"Comparative evaluation of atracurium dosed on ideal body weight vs. total body weight in morbidly obese patients". British ...
Agonists are gyrase inhibitors like ciprofloxacin and non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents like atracurium as well as ...
A muscle relaxant such as atracurium would be administered after this, though this would not strictly be a part of coinduction ...
... atracurium, and cisatracurium. Succinylcholine is a widely used muscle relaxant drug which acts by activating, instead of ...
Unlike the pH- and temperature-dependent chemodegradation seen with atracurium and cisatracurium, the inactivation of ... of successful predecessor bistetrahydroisoquinolinium neuromuscular blocking drugs development projects such as atracurium ( ...
The molecular formula C65H82N2O18S2 (molar mass: 1243.49 g/mol) may refer to: Atracurium besilate Cisatracurium besilate This ...
The group held that the Syrian Interim Government was responsible for the accidental injection of atracurium besilate into 75 ...
... atracurium MeSH D03.438.531.085.077 - bicuculline MeSH D03.438.531.085.666 - papaverine MeSH D03.438.531.085.666.850 - ...
Mumps vaccine Varicella vaccine Atracurium Neostigmine Suxamethonium Vecuronium Complementary: Pyridostigmineα Vecuroniumα ... Recommended for some high-risk populations Recommended only for immunization programmes with certain characteristics atracurium ...
Additionally, the use of nondepolarizing neuromusclar blocking agents (NMBA), such as doxacurium or atracurium, have been ...
Atozine Oral atracurium besilate (INN) atreleuton (INN) atriciguat (INN) Atridox atrimustine (INN) atrinositol (INN) Atrohist ...
... atracurium besilate) Trelegy Ellipta (fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium, and vilanterol inhalation powder) Treximet ( ...
M03AA04 Dimethyltubocurarine M03AB01 Suxamethonium M03AC01 Pancuronium M03AC02 Gallamine M03AC03 Vecuronium M03AC04 Atracurium ...
The molecular formula C21H27NO4 (molar mass: 357.44 g/mol) may refer to: Laudanosine, a toxic metabolite of atracurium and ...
Lei-Dab7 N-methyl-laudanosine N-Me-bicuculline Pancuronium Atracurium 1-ethyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-on 6,7-dichloro-3-( ...
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Breastfeeding/Statistics and Research ... Breastfeeding ... National Library of Medicine ... The LactMed® database contains information on drugs and other chemicals ...
Atracurium does not prevent a mother from breast feeding her baby shortly after recovering from anesthesia if she is awake ... Main tradenames from several countries containing Atracurium Besilate, Atracurium Besylate in its composition:. List of 29 ... We do not have alternatives for Atracurium Besilate, Atracurium Besylate since it is relatively safe. ... Atracurium. Drug Summary. 1996 Full text (in our servers) *Spigset O. Anaesthetic agents and excretion in breast milk. Acta ...
Consider using an atracurium product that has no benzyl alcohol preservative. ... No information is available on the use of atracurium during breastfeeding. Because it is short acting, highly polar and poorly ... Atracurium - Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed). Atracurium - Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed). ... No information is available on the use of atracurium during breastfeeding. Because it is short acting, highly polar and poorly ...
... BESYLATE. Approved Use. Atracurium Besylate Injection, USP is indicated, as an adjunct to general anesthesia, to ... Leakage of LDH was directly related to the concentration of atracurium in the medium (250 to 800 microM). When atracurium was ... Atracurium Created by admin. on Wed Jul 05 23:48:54 UTC 2023. , Edited by admin. on Wed Jul 05 23:48:54 UTC 2023. ... ATRACURIUM Created by admin. on Wed Jul 05 23:48:54 UTC 2023. , Edited by admin. on Wed Jul 05 23:48:54 UTC 2023. ...
Atracurium is not considered suitable for operations of long duration. It can cause hypotension secondary to histamine release ...
Find information on Atracurium (Tracrium) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing ... "Atracurium." Daviss Drug Guide, 18th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2023. Pediatrics Central, peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/ ... view/Davis-Drug-Guide/109671/all/atracurium. Vallerand AHA, Sanoski CAC, Quiring CC. Atracurium. Daviss Drug Guide. F.A. Davis ... Atracurium has no effect on consciousness or pain threshold. Adequate anesthesia/analgesia should always be used when ...
ATRACURIUM BESYLATE (UNII: 40AX66P76P) (ATRACURIUM - UNII:2GQ1IRY63P) ATRACURIUM BESYLATE. 10 mg in 1 mL. ... ATRACURIUM BESYLATE (UNII: 40AX66P76P) (ATRACURIUM - UNII:2GQ1IRY63P) ATRACURIUM BESYLATE. 10 mg in 1 mL. ... Atracurium Besylate Injection USP, each mL containing 10 mg atracurium besylate, is supplied as follows:. Unit of Sale. ... No atracurium dosage adjustments are required for patients with renal disease.. An initial atracurium besylate dose of 0.3 to ...
Atracurium This medication is a neuromuscular-blocking agent, used as an adjuvant in anesthesia. This medication provides ...
7.5 Alfentanil and Atracurium. ZOFRAN does not alter the respiratory depressant effects produced by alfentanil or the degree of ... neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium. Interactions with general or local anesthetics have not been studied. ...
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Interactions between Atracurium and Lorazepam. Home Uncategorized Interactions between Atracurium and Lorazepam ... Interactions between Atracurium and Lorazepam. Posted On May 7, 2023 at 7:34 am by admin / No Comments ... In some cases, lorazepam may alter the effects of atracurium. It is also important to inform your doctor about all other ... it is important to let your doctor know before undergoing surgery that may require the use of atracurium or similar medications ...
7.5 Alfentanil and Atracurium 8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy 8.2 Lactation 8.4 Pediatric Use 8.5 Geriatric Use 8.6 ... 7.5 Alfentanil and Atracurium Ondansetron does not alter the respiratory depressant effects produced by alfentanil or the ... degree of neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium. Interactions with general or local anesthetics have not been studied. ...
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Detailed drug Information for A-Methapred. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.. ...
Atracurium mg/mL Date Time Initial, 1-1/2 x 1/2from our assortment of labels and stickers at United Ad Label. ... Anesthesia Label, Atracurium mg/mL Date Time Initial, 1-1/2 x 1/2 ... Anesthesia Label, Atracurium mg/mL Date Time Initial, 1-1/2 x 1/2 ...
COMPARISON BETWEEN HEMODYNAMIC CHANGES OF ATRACURIUM AND CISATRACURIUM IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING CABG SURGERY Authors. * Muhammad ... Atracurium, Cisatracurium, Diastolic blood pressure, Hemodynamic effects, Heart rate, Mean arterial pressure, Systolic blood ... Objective: To compare the hemodynamic effects of Atracurium versus Cisatracurium in Cardiac Patients Undergoing coronary artery ... Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was better maintained with cisatracurium than atracurium. Also Mean arterial pressure ...
Atracurium. Esterase. Mephobarbital-s. CYP: mixed/unknown. Benazepril. Renal. Mianserin. CYP2D6. Bromazepam. CYP: mixed/unknown ...
Brand: Atracurium Besylate InjectionGeneric: Atracurium Besylate Injection. *Brand: NimbexGeneric: Cisatracurium Besylate ...
Atracurium 11. View Price View Price 334. Atracurium Besilate. 2. View Price - ...
Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers such as mivacurium, atracurium, rocuronium, pancuronium, cisatracurium, and vecuronium. ...
Severe anaphylactic reaction to cisatracurium during anesthesia with cross-reactivity to atracurium ...
  • Commercially available midazolam hydrochloride injection (Versed®) and atracurium besylate injection (Tracrium,® Glaxo Wellcome) were used to prepare four different drug combinations in 5% dextrose injection. (ijpc.com)
  • Atracurium besilate, also known as atracurium besylate, is a medication used in addition to other medications to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atracurium is a muscle relaxant and is used mainly as part of the anaesthetic procedure for surgery. (who.int)
  • This thesis concerns mathematical modeling and feedback control of the effect of the muscle relaxants atracurium and rocuronium, the hypnotic propofol, and the analgesic remifentanil. (avhandlingar.se)
  • To compare the effect of Low Dose Atracurium versus Low Dose Rocuronium on quality of intubation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomies. (pakmedinet.com)
  • 28 September 2014 - A World Health Organization (WHO) assessment of the cause of the death of 15 children in rural Idleb, northern Syria, has concluded that the most likely cause of the event was the incorrect use of a drug called Atracurium as a diluent for measles/rubella vaccine. (who.int)
  • The Atracurium ampoules were incorrectly added to vaccination packs prepared in one district vaccine distribution centre in Idleb governorate and distributed to four vaccination teams on the second day of the measles campaign. (who.int)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical stability and chemical compatibility of midazolam hydrochloride and atracurium besylate for intravenous coadministration at concentrations normally encountered in clinical practice. (ijpc.com)
  • The final concentration of midazolam (as the hydrochloride salt) and of atracurium (as the besylate salt) was 0.1 or 0.5 mg/mL and 1 or 5 mg/mL, respectively. (ijpc.com)
  • The chemical stability of midazolam and atracurium in combination was evaluated using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay, capable of simultaneous analysis of both compounds, developed in our laboratory. (ijpc.com)
  • Midazolam was detected using an ultraviolet detector and atracurium with a fluorescence detector. (ijpc.com)
  • Midazolam hydrochloride and atracurium besylate are physically stable and chemically compatible for up to three hours at room temperature under normal fluorescent lighting at the concentrations used in this study and may be coinfused at a ysite without loss of potency. (ijpc.com)
  • Indeed, because laudanosine is cleared primarily via renal excretion, a cat study modelling anephric patients went so far as to corroborate that EEG changes, when observed, were evident only at plasma concentrations 8 to 10 times greater than those observed in humans during infusions of atracurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The total dose of administered atracurium was 40 mg and total duration of anesthesia was 360 minutes. (ekja.org)
  • Assess respiratory status continuously throughout therapy with atracurium. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We anesthetized her with atracurium under the monitoring of an accelerograph and she did not represent any prolonged respiratory paralysis postoperatively. (ekja.org)
  • Risk of environmental impact of atracurium cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. (janusinfo.se)
  • All evidence available to the assessment team indicates that the incorrect use of Atracurium as a diluent was the cause of the deaths. (who.int)
  • Fortunately, both for the public and for atracurium, rapid initial investigations irrefutably failed to find any overt or EEG evidence for a connection between atracurium administration and epileptogenic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of anticholinesterase agents (neostigmine, pyridostigmine) may be used to antagonize the action of atracurium once the patient has demonstrated some spontaneous recovery from neuromuscular block. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Administration of Atracurium in a Patient Recovering from Organophosphate Poisoning. (ekja.org)
  • Atracurium has previously been found in the aquatic environment in Sweden. (janusinfo.se)
  • We did not extubate her in the operating room in spite of complete recovery from atracurium to preoperative status because her lung condition was not very good preoperatively and severe necK flexion was done for the anastomosis. (ekja.org)
  • Atracurium is in the neuromuscular-blocker family of medications and is of the non-depolarizing type. (wikipedia.org)
  • We administered atracurium 10 mg twice initially and then gave additional 5 mg boluses when the TOF ratio became greater than 0.5. (ekja.org)
  • Atracurium Besylate Injection, USP is indicated, as an adjunct to general anesthesia, to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. (ncats.io)
  • An atracurium besylate dose of 0.4 to 0.5 mg/kg (1.7 to 2.2 times the ED95), given as an intravenous bolus injection, is the recommended initial dose for most patients. (ncats.io)
  • Atracurium Besylate Injection USP is a sterile, non-pyrogenic aqueous solution. (nih.gov)
  • Atracurium besylate injection slowly loses potency with time at the rate of approximately 6% per year under refrigeration (5°C). Atracurium besylate injection should be refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) to preserve potency. (nih.gov)
  • Rate of loss in potency increases to approximately 5% per month at 25°C (77°F). Upon removal from refrigeration to room temperature storage conditions (25°C / 77°F), use atracurium besylate injection within 14 days even if rerefrigerated. (nih.gov)
  • An initial atracurium dose of 0.4 to 0.5 mg/kg generally produces maximum neuromuscular block within 3 to 5 minutes of injection, with good or excellent intubation conditions within 2 to 2.5 minutes in most patients. (nih.gov)
  • Atracurium Besilate Injection belongs to a group of medicines called muscle relaxants. (gmsanjivani.com)
  • We are China supplier for Atracurium Besylate raw material, a muscle relaxant pharmaceutical raw material acts as a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent. (inopha.net)
  • Consider using an atracurium product that has no benzyl alcohol preservative. (nih.gov)
  • Use of atracurium besylate from multiple dose vials containing benzyl alcohol as a preservative is contraindicated. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • Cisatracurium in different doses versus atracurium during general anesthesia for abdominal surgery. (ncats.io)
  • To compare the hemodynamic effects of Atracurium versus Cisatracurium in Cardiac Patients Undergoing coronary artery bypass graft Surgery. (pafmj.org)
  • Group-A patients were induced with 0.5mg/kg of Atracurium, followed by infusion @ 10μg/kg/min whereas group C patients received Cisatracurium @ 0.2mg/kg at induction, followed by infusion @ 2μg/kg/min during the maintainence phase. (pafmj.org)
  • Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was better maintained with cisatracurium than atracurium. (pafmj.org)
  • The duration of neuromuscular block produced by atracurium is approximately one-third to one-half the duration of block by d-tubocurarine, metocurine, and pancuronium at initially equipotent doses. (nih.gov)
  • Atracurium is an intermediate-duration, nondepolarizing, skeletal muscle relaxant for intravenous administration. (ncats.io)
  • Atracurium besylate is a nondepolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Inhibition of the neuromuscular acetylcholine receptor with atracurium activates FOXO/DAF-16-induced longevity. (nih.gov)
  • Atracurium can be used most advantageously if muscle twitch response to peripheral nerve stimulation is monitored to assess degree of muscle relaxation. (nih.gov)
  • Atracurium: Theophylline decreases the effect of muscle relaxant. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Atracurium is a muscle relaxant and is used mainly as part of the anaesthetic procedure for surgery. (who.int)
  • Administration of anticholinesterase agents (neostigmine, pyridostigmine) may be used to antagonize the action of atracurium once the patient has demonstrated some spontaneous recovery from neuromuscular block. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • As with other nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers, the time to onset of paralysis decreases and the duration of maximum effect increases with increasing atracurium doses. (nih.gov)
  • Repeated administration of maintenance doses of atracurium has no cumulative effect on the duration of neuromuscular block if recovery is allowed to begin prior to repeat dosing. (nih.gov)
  • We also perform custom synthesis and purification of Atracurium Impurity V (Mixture of Diastereomers) impurity from mg to gm scale. (blogspot.com)
  • paromomycin increases effects of atracurium by pharmacodynamic synergism. (medscape.com)
  • Fortunately, both for the public and for atracurium, rapid initial investigations irrefutably failed to find any overt or EEG evidence for a connection between atracurium administration and epileptogenic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atracurium is in the neuromuscular-blocker family of medications and is of the non-depolarizing type. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you are currently taking lorazepam, it is important to let your doctor know before undergoing surgery that may require the use of atracurium or similar medications. (lorazepamum.com)
  • The neuromuscular blocking action of atracurium is enhanced in the presence of potent inhalation anesthetics. (nih.gov)
  • Because atracurium undergoes Hofmann elimination as a primary route of chemodegradation, one of the major metabolites from this process is laudanosine, a tertiary amino alkaloid reported to be a modest CNS stimulant with epileptogenic activity and cardiovascular effects such a hypotension and bradycardia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, lorazepam may alter the effects of atracurium. (lorazepamum.com)
  • Assess respiratory status continuously throughout therapy with atracurium. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To avoid distress to the patient, atracurium should not be administered before unconsciousness has been induced. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • Indeed, because laudanosine is cleared primarily via renal excretion, a cat study modelling anephric patients went so far as to corroborate that EEG changes, when observed, were evident only at plasma concentrations 8 to 10 times greater than those observed in humans during infusions of atracurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atracurium was approved for medical use in the United States in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Atracurium Besylate Market is finely segmented by considering the most important and responsive aspects of the respective market. (timestechpharma.com)