A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The name "prickly burweed" is sometimes used but causes confusion with AMSINCKIA.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain ATRACTYLOSIDE which inhibits ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain ATRACTYLOSIDE.
A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
A thrombin receptor subtype that couples to HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS resulting in the activation of a variety of signaling mechanisms including decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP, increased TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES and increased PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.
A G-protein-coupled, proteinase-activated receptor that is expressed in a variety of tissues including ENDOTHELIUM; LEUKOCYTES; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. The receptor is activated by TRYPSIN, which cleaves off the N-terminal peptide from the receptor. The new N-terminal peptide is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The uncleaved receptor can also be activated by the N-terminal peptide present on the activated THROMBIN RECEPTOR and by small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal sequence.
A class of receptors that are activated by the action of PROTEINASES. The most notable examples are the THROMBIN RECEPTORS. The receptors contain cryptic ligands that are exposed upon the selective proteolysis of specific N-terminal cleavage sites.
A family of proteinase-activated receptors that are specific for THROMBIN. They are found primarily on PLATELETS and on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. Activation of thrombin receptors occurs through the proteolytic action of THROMBIN, which cleaves the N-terminal peptide from the receptor to reveal a new N-terminal peptide that is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The receptors signal through HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. Small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal peptide sequence can also activate the receptor in the absence of proteolytic activity.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase in rat liver mitochondria by added 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. (1/184)

The effect of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine on nucleoside diphosphate kinase of isolated rat liver mitochondria has been studied. This is done by monitoring the increase in the rate of oxygen uptake by nucleoside diphosphate (TDP, UDP, CDP or GDP) addition to mitochondria in state 4. It is shown that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibits the mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of about 10 microM as measured for each tested nucleoside diphosphate. It is also shown that high concentrations of GDP prevent 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibition of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase.  (+info)

Carboxyatractyloside increases the effect of oleate on mitochondrial permeability transition. (2/184)

Addition of a low concentration of carboxyatractyloside (0.075 microM) renders mitochondria susceptible to the opening of the non-specific pore by 5 microM oleate, in a cyclosporin A-sensitive fashion. Matrix Ca2+ efflux as well as collapse of the transmembrane potential reveal permeability transition. The effect of oleate is reached after the titration, by carboxyatractyloside, of 38 pmol of adenine nucleotide translocase per mg mitochondrial protein. We propose that permeability transition may result from an additive action of carboxyatractyloside plus oleate on the ADP/ATP carrier.  (+info)

The mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator from Dictyostelium discoideum. Functional characterization and DNA sequencing. (3/184)

The mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) catalyses the exchange of ATP and ADP between the mitochondria and the cytosol. We have cloned and sequenced the gene encoding the Dictyostelium discoideum ANT (DdANT) and analysed its transcriptional regulation. The single copy D. discoideum ant gene encodes a protein of 309 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 33,469 Da and a pI of 9.85. These values are comparable to those of ANTs from mammals, insects and fungi. The long N-terminal extension characteristic of plant ANT is absent in DdANT. The protein coding region of the D. discoideum ant gene is interrupted by three introns. Polyclonal antibodies directed against the beef heart mitochondrial ANT or its C-terminal peptide recognized the D. discoideum protein. Northern blot analysis revealed that the expression of the D. discoideum ant gene decreased rapidly during the first hours of multicellular development but the amount of protein remained stable throughout differentiation.  (+info)

Studies on the adenine nucleotide translocase from rat liver mitochondria. Isolation, partial characterization and immunochemical properties of carboxyatractylate-binding protein. (4/184)

1. Solubility of mitochondrial membranes in various solvent systems was determined quantitatively. The most effective agent was the anionic detergent, sodium dodecylsulphate, which solubilizes 90% of the protein at the concentration of 0.1% followed by Triton X-100 (70%), sodium deoxycholate (60%), Brij 56 (50%), and guanidine hydrochloride (40%) at a concentration of 2 M. 2. Affinity chromatography of a clear 0.1% sodium dodecylsulphate solution of digitonized mitochondria on Sepharose 4B containing carboxyatractylate always resulted in the separation of two fractions, one of which was not retained by the column and the other which could be obtained after elution with 2% sodium dodecylsulphate. 3. The retained protein showed a high binding specificity for ATP and [3H]atractylate when compared with the unretained fraction. The amount of bound [3H]atractylate or carboxyatractylate-sensitive binding of ATP was 10.5 +/- 4 nmol/mg protein, and 22 +/- 8 nmol/mg protein, respectively. 4. The major component within the retained fraction, comprising 85% of the total weight, was protein, followed by phospholipids (14%) and approximately 1% triglycerides. Sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a major (95%) and a minor (5%) component with an apparent molecular weight of 26000 +/- 1000 and 8300 +/- 400, respectively. The gels did not stain for carbohydrates. Ultracentrifugal analysis showed a single, symmetrical boundry. 5. Double immunodiffusion analysis gave a single precipitin line with the corresponding antiserum. [14C]ADP exchange of digitonin particles was completely inhibited by an antiserum to the carboxyatractylate binding protein fraction, whereas the adenine nucleotide transport of intact mitochondria remained unaffected. In the presence of specific immunoglobulins state-3 respiration rate of digitonin particles was prolonged and reduced by approximately 25%. State-4 respiration rate was unaffected.  (+info)

Functional consequences of the sustained or transient activation by Bax of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. (5/184)

The overexpression of Bax kills cells by a mechanism that depends on induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) (Pastorino, J. G., Chen, S.-T., Tafani, M., Snyder, J. W., and Farber, J. L. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 7770-7775). In the present study, purified, recombinant Bax opened the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP). Depending on its concentration, Bax had two distinct effects. At a concentration of 125 nM, Bax caused the release of the intermembranous proteins cytochrome c and adenylate kinase and the release from the matrix of sequestered calcein, effects prevented by the inhibitor of the PTP cyclosporin A (CSA). At this concentration of Bax, there was no detectable mitochondrial swelling or depolarization. These effects of low Bax concentrations are interpreted as the consequence of transient, non-synchronous activation of the PTP followed by a prompt recovery of mitochondrial integrity. By contrast, Bax concentrations between 250 nM and 1 microM caused a sustained opening of the PTP with consequent persistent mitochondrial swelling and deenergization (the MPT). CSA prevented the MPT induced by Bax. Increasing concentrations of calcium caused a greater proportion of the mitochondria to undergo the MPT in the presence of Bax. Importantly, two known mediators of apoptosis, ceramide and GD3 ganglioside, potentiated the induction by Bax of the MPT. The data imply that Bax mediates the opening of the mitochondrial PTP with the resultant release of cytochrome c from the intermembranous space.  (+info)

Dual responses of CNS mitochondria to elevated calcium. (6/184)

Isolated brain mitochondria were examined for their responses to calcium challenges under varying conditions. Mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored by following the distribution of tetraphenylphosphonium ions in the mitochondrial suspension, mitochondrial swelling by observing absorbance changes, calcium accumulation by an external calcium electrode, and oxygen consumption with an oxygen electrode. Both the extent and rate of calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling and depolarization varied greatly depending on the energy source provided to the mitochondria. When energized with succinate plus glutamate, after a calcium challenge, CNS mitochondria depolarized transiently, accumulated substantial calcium, and increased in volume, characteristic of a mitochondrial permeability transition. When energized with 3 mM succinate, CNS mitochondria maintained a sustained calcium-induced depolarization without appreciable swelling and were slow to accumulate calcium. Maximal oxygen consumption was also restricted under these conditions, preventing the electron transport chain from compensating for this increased proton permeability. In 3 mM succinate, cyclosporin A and ADP plus oligomycin restored potential and calcium uptake. This low conductance permeability was not effected by bongkrekic acid or carboxyatractylate, suggesting that the adenine nucleotide translocator was not directly involved. Fura-2FF measurements of [Ca(2+)](i) suggest that in cultured hippocampal neurons glutamate-induced increases reached tens of micromolar levels, approaching those used with mitochondria. We propose that in the restricted substrate environment, Ca(2+) activated a low-conductance permeability pathway responsible for the sustained mitochondrial depolarization.  (+info)

Bcl-2 and Bax regulate the channel activity of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator. (7/184)

Bcl-2 family protein including anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) or pro-apoptotic (Bax) members can form ion channels when incorporated into synthetic lipid bilayers. This contrasts with the observation that Bcl-2 stabilizes the mitochondrial membrane barrier function and inhibits the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC). Here we provide experimental data which may explain this apparent paradox. Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), the most abundant inner mitochondrial membrane protein, can interact in artificial lipid bilayers to yield an efficient composite channel whose electrophysiological properties differ quantitatively and qualitatively from the channels formed by Bax or ANT alone. The formation of this composite channel can be observed in conditions in which Bax protein alone has no detectable channel activity. Cooperative channel formation by Bax and ANT is stimulated by the ANT ligand atractyloside (Atr) but inhibited by ATP, indicating that it depends on the conformation of ANT. In contrast to the combination of Bax and ANT, ANT does not form active channels when incorporated into membranes with Bcl-2. Rather, ANT and Bcl-2 exhibit mutual inhibition of channel formation. Bcl-2 prevents channel formation by Atr-treated ANT and neutralizes the cooperation between Bax and ANT. Our data are compatible with a menage a trois model of mitochondrial apoptosis regulation in which ANT, the likely pore forming protein within the PTPC, interacts with Bax or Bcl-2 which influence its pore forming potential in opposing manners.  (+info)

Antibody evidence for different conformational states of ADP, ATP translocator protein isolated from mitochondria. (8/184)

Consistent with the previously proposed reorientation mechanism for the ADP,ATP translocator protein of mitochondria, evidence has now been obtained for the existence of two distinct conformational states of the isolated translocator protein. Previous studies indicated that when the mitochondrial translocator protein is in the c-state(i.e., when its binding site faces the cytosol side) the protein binds primarily the ligand carboxyatractylate (CAT), and when the translocator protein is in the m-state(i.e., when its binding site faces the mitochondrial matrix) the translocator protein binds primarily bongkrekate. Direct evidence for this formulation has now come from the application of antibodies to the isolated translocator protein-ligand complex. Two antibodies were produced against the ADP,ATP translocator protein isolated from beef heart mitochondria. One antibody, which was produced against the protein isolated as the CAT-binding protein complex, was found to be highly specific for that complex and did not react with the protein in the conformation state conferred by the bongkrekate ligand. This antibody did not cover the CAT-binding site, as evidenced by the exchange of unlabeled CAT with [35S]CAT bound to the translocator protein. However, the same antibody inhibited a transition of the protein from the c-state to the m-state, as evidenced by an inhibition of the displacement of[35S]CAT by bongkrekate (added jointly with ADP). It appears, therefore, that the antibody immobilized the translocator protein in the c-state. The second antibody produced against the (somewhat less pure) ADP,ATP translocator protein, isolated as the bongkrekate-binding protein complex, did not react with the CAT-binding protein. Thus, the second antibody appeared to be specific for the translocator protein in the m-state. Neither antibody inhibited mitochondrial ADP,ATP transport.  (+info)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Inhibitors of the ATP/ADP antiporter suppress stimulation of mitochondrial respiration and H,sup,+,/sup, permeability by palmitate and anionic detergents. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Applying atractyloside for inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthesis at a concentration of 1 μM reduced cellular ATP levels by approximately 30%, mimicking the energy status of aged RPE (Fig. 1). The amount of lactate detected in the conditioned medium after three days of culture was 2.77 mg/mL (±0.11, n = 6) for untreated cells and 3.51mg/mL (±0.12, n = 6) for cells cultured in the presence of atractyloside. Thus, the cells are able to partially compensate for the atractyloside-induced reduction of mitochondrial ATP supply by nonmitochondrial ATP generation. Consequently, ATP synthesis is affected more than 30%. In addition to moderately reduced cellular ATP levels, we intended to induce conditions of increased oxidative stress. To this end, the cells were treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH). Neither treatment with atractyloside or tBH alone nor the combination of both induced significant changes in the morphology of the cells (data not shown). No increase of LDH leakage to the ...
ID PTT1 preliminary; circular DNA; SYN; 5025 BP. XX AC IG9906; XX DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 11, Created) DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 12, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE E. coli plasmid vector pTT1 - complete. XX KW cloning vector. XX OS Cloning vector OC Artificial sequences; Cloning vehicles. XX RN [1] RC pTT1 from pKK233-2 RC pTT3 from pTT1 & pUCP18 RC pTT3deltaS from pTT3 RC pTT4 from pTT3deltaS RC pPZ1 from pNM480 & pUCP19 RC pPZ2 from pNM481 & pUCP19 RC pPZ3 from pNM482 & pUCP19 RC pPZ10 from pNM480 & pTT4 RC pPZ20 from pNM481 & pTT4 RC pPZ30 from pNM482 & pTT4 RC pRZ1 from pDF202 & pPZ3 RA Schweizer H.P.; RT Improved broad-host-range lac-based plasmid vectors for the RT isolation and characterization of protein fusions in Pseudomonas RT aeruginosa; RL Gene 103:87-92(1991). XX CC Created by Moore, July 1995, under contract with NCBI. CC NM (pTT1) CC CM (yes) CC NA (ds-DNA) CC TP (circular) CC ST () CC TY (plasmid) CC SP () CC HO (E.coli) CC CP () CC FN (cloning) CC SE () CC PA (pKK233-2)(pUCP18) CC BR ...
Annual total of UK resident banks (inc. Central Bank) sterling and all foreign currency outward foreign direct investment current transactions profits & losses from non resident branches (in sterling millions) vis-a-vis North America, South America & Caribbean not seasonally adjusted ...
Atractyloside (ATR) is a natural, toxic glycoside and an effective ADP/ATP translocase inhibitor. Atractyloside is synthesized by some plant species in the daisy family e.g. Callilepis laureola, Xanthium strumarium, Iphiona alsoeri, and Pascalia glauca. The poisonous effect of the distaff thistle (and by extension atractyloside) is well documented in history. The plant growing in the Mediterranean region was often used for suicide or murder. Examples of accidental poisoning are documented in Italy and Algeria in 1955 and 1975 respectively, where children have eaten parts of the plant. Although Ed Lefranc[who?] isolated Atractyloside in 1868 from Atractylis gummifera, the structure was identified 100 years later. Atractyloside is a hydrophilic glycoside. A modified glucose is linked to the hydrophobic diterpene atractyligenin by a β1-glycosidic bond. A carboxyl group is positioned at the C4 position in the axial position. The glucose part is esterified with isovaleric acid on the C2 atom, and ...
Mitochondrial carriers are believed widely to be homodimers both in the inner membrane of the organelle and in detergents. The dimensions and molecular masses of the detergent and protein-detergent micelles were measured for yeast ADP/ATP carriers in a range of different detergents. The radius of the carrier at the midpoint of the membrane, its average radius, its Stokes radius, its molecular mass, and its excluded volume were determined. These parameters are consistent with the known structural model of the bovine ADP/ATP carrier and they demonstrate that the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers are monomeric in detergents. Therefore, models of substrate transport have to be considered in which the carrier operates as a monomer rather than as a dimer.. ...
The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier imports ADP from the cytosol and exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix. The carrier cycles by an unresolved mechanism between the cytoplasmic state, in which the carrier accepts ADP from the cytoplasm, and the matrix state, in which it accepts ATP from the mitochondrial matrix. Here we present the structures of the yeast ADP/ATP carriers Aac2p and Aac3p in the cytoplasmic state. The carriers have three domains and are closed at the matrix side by three interdomain salt-bridge interactions, one of which is braced by a glutamine residue. Glutamine braces are conserved in mitochondrial carriers and contribute to an energy barrier, preventing the conversion to the matrix state unless substrate binding occurs. At the cytoplasmic side a second salt-bridge network forms during the transport cycle, as demonstrated by functional analysis of mutants with charge-reversed networks. Analyses of the domain structures and properties of the interdomain interfaces indicate ...
Attorney General Larry Long today announced a settlement with Merck & Co. Inc, Shering-Plough Corporation, and a joint venture of the two companies, MSP Singapore Company, LLC. The Assurance of Voluntary Compliance resolves an investigation into the companies lengthy delay releasing negative results from the clinical trial called Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholsterolemia Enhances Atherosclerosis Regression (ENHANCE). In this study, the cholesterol lowering drug Vytorin® (a combination of the drug Zetia® and simvastatin) was no more effective reducing formation of plaque in carotid arteries than the cheap, generically available cholesterol lowering drug simvastatin. Although ENHANCE ended May 2006, a partial reporting of negative results did not occur until January 2008 and complete results were not published until the following April. Prior to release of study results, Vytorin had been heavily promoted in direct-to-consumer advertisements. ...
In brown-fat mitochondria, fatty acids induce thermogenic uncoupling through activation of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). However, even in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1−/− mice, fatty-acid-induced uncoupling exists. In the present investigation, we used the inhibitor CAtr (carboxyatractyloside) to examine the involvement of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat mitochondria. We found that the contribution of ANT to fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in UCP1−/− brown-fat mitochondria was minimal (whereas it was responsible for nearly half the fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in liver mitochondria). As compared with liver mitochondria, brown-fat mitochondria exhibit a relatively high (UCP1-independent) basal respiration (proton leak). Unexpectedly, a large fraction of this high basal respiration was sensitive to CAtr, whereas in liver mitochondria, basal respiration was CAtr-insensitive. Total ANT protein ...
Red Cocklebur Weevils are in the subfamily Dryophthorinae (of previous BOTW fame), whose members are often described as football-shaped and who some entomologists have promoted to full family status. RCWs (Rhodobaenus quinquepunctatus) are also called (not surprisingly, Latin Scholars) Five-spotted billbugs.. The two other genus members in North America north of the Rio Grande are the excellently-named R. tredecimpunctatus, the 13-spotted/Ironweed curculio (which is also called cocklebur weevil and which has a more extensive range across America than the RCW), and R. pustulosus (no common name, but do Google pustulosis), which sneaks over the border from Mexico.. ...
Pigs rooting and grazing in cocklebur infested places are the most often poisoned domestic species, with those weighing between 20-50 pounds being the most susceptible. Poisoning also affects cattle, sheep, horses, and fowl.. The plant is most hazardous at the seedling stage because of its toxicity as well as palatability. Ingestion of young seedlings in the amount of 0.75% of the animals weight may result in clinical signs of toxicosis in a few hours and death in 24-48 hours. Approximately 500 seedlings was lethal to a 40-pound pig. The seeds are poisonous at 0.3% of animal weight but are seldom eaten because of their spiny capsule. Occasionally the eating of the ripe spiny capsules is said to result in intestinal obstruction. Mature plants, however, are seldom eaten, perhaps because of their bitterness and rough texture.. Toxic Principle ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator. 1 synonym for adenine: A. What are synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator?
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
Slc25a13 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 13 (Slc25a13), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg.
Slc25a4 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4 (cDNA clone, (10ug), 10 µg.
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody validated for WB, IP and tested in Human. With 2 independent reviews. Immunogen corresponding to…
Download this stock image: Molecule of Adenosine Triphosphate ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism - B5R0WK from Alamys library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors.
SLC25A31 antibody (solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 31) for ELISA, WB. Anti-SLC25A31 pAb (GTX87816) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
米酵菌酸的毒性很強。其抑制ADP/ATP轉運酶(英语:ADP/ATP translocase)(又稱粒線體ADP/ATP載體)的作用,使粒線體合成的ATP無法離開粒線體,因而未能提供細胞其他部份的能量[8]。2019年發現了米酵菌酸和ADP/ATP轉運酶的結合結構,顯示米酵菌酸鍵結於轉運酶的受質結合處,使得粒線體基質內的ATP無法與轉運酶結合[9]。 ...
Looking for online definition of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in the Medical Dictionary? adenine nucleotide translocator 1 explanation free. What is adenine nucleotide translocator 1? Meaning of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 medical term. What does adenine nucleotide translocator 1 mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitroalkenes confer acute cardioprotection via adenine nucleotide translocase. AU - Nadtochiy, Sergiy M.. AU - Zhu, Qiuyu. AU - Urciuoli, William. AU - Rafikov, Ruslan. AU - Black, Stephen M.. AU - Brookes, Paul S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2012/1/27. Y1 - 2012/1/27. N2 - Electrophilic nitrated lipids (nitroalkenes) are emerging as an important class of protective cardiovascular signaling molecules. Although species such as nitro-linoleate (LNO 2) and nitro-oleate can confer acute protection against cardiac ischemic injury, their mechanism of action is unclear. Mild uncoupling of mitochondria is known to be cardioprotective, and adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1) is a key mediator of mitochondrial uncoupling. ANT1 also contains redox-sensitive cysteines that may be targets for modification by nitroalkenes. Therefore, in this study we tested the hypothesis that nitroalkenes directly modify ANT1 and that nitroalkene-mediated ...
Diabetes increases myocardial FA oxidation and MVO2, but underlying mechanisms are partially understood. We used perfused hearts, permeabilized fibers (fibers) and isolated mitochondria from diabetic db/db mice to assess mitochondrial (MITO) uncoupling and to elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. MITO uncoupling and reduced cardiac efficiency (CE) was absent in hearts perfused with glucose alone. However, in db/db hearts perfused with 1.0 mM Palmitate and 11mM glucose, RPP was reduced by 31% p, 0.02, MVO2 was increased by 45% p, 0.03, and CE reduced by 51% p,0.004. In fibers, state 3 respirations with palmitoyl carnitine were similar (16.4±1.3 and 16.7±1.5 nmol/min/mg), but ATP production rates were reduced by 36% in db/db fibers so that ATP/O ratios were 1.5±0.2 in db/db vs. 2.5±0.1 in controls (p,0.005), indicating FA-induced mitochondrial uncoupling. H2O2 production was also increased by 2.6 fold (p,0.001) in isolated db/db MITO exposed to the complex 1 substrate pyruvate. To ...
Graham BH et al. (1997) A mouse model for mitochondrial myopathy and cardiomyopathy resulting from a deficiency in the heart/muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator.. [^] ...
Vector ConstructionMouse cDNA for the adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (inner mitochondrial membrane transporter). It was cloned into the multiple cloning site of pAC-CMV-pLpA. The resulting plasmid was cotransfected into HEK293 cells with plasmid pJM17 which contains the Ad5 genome. Homologous recombination between the two plasmids resulted in the replacement of the Ad5 early region 1 with the mouse cDNA for Ant2, generating a replication deficient recombinant virus. ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The effect of calcium on the translocation of adenine nucleotides in rat liver mitochondria. by Armando Gómez-Puyou et al.
The difficulties encountered in the crystallization of membrane proteins in a form suitable for X-ray analysis have stimulated the development of algorithms to predict, from primary amino acid...
Listado de los mejores Minecraft servidores ordenado por tipo-juego Custom Biomes. Agregue su servidor en nuestra lista Top o compre publicidad.
Bongkrekic acid (BKA) is a strong inhibitor of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), inducing inhibition of adenosine triphosphate synthesis. We designed and synthesized simplified benzene-ring-containing BKA analogs. The key reaction is the one-pot double Sonogashira reaction, which forms the main skeleton. The analogs were efficiently synthesized in 8-10 longest linear sequence steps. This synth ...
Fig. 6. Demonstration of elaboration of mRNA for ExoU in infected lung tissue of mice. RT-PCR of lung tissue from mice infected with either the exoU+ PAO1(pUCP19exoUspcU) strain or the parental strain carrying the cloning vector, PAO1(pUCP19). mRNA from tissue was reverse transcribed and amplified with primers specific to the rpoB gene to yield a product of 314 bp or with primers specific to the exoU gene to yield a product of 428 bp. Molecular weight markers on the left are oligonucleotides differing by 100 bp. ...
The bioactive lipid intermediate palmitoyl CoA (PCoA) can inhibit mitochondrial ADP/ATP transport, though the physiological relevance of this regulation remains unclear. We questioned whether myocardial ischemia provides a pathological setting in which PCoA regulation of ADP/ATP transport would be beneficial, and secondly, whether the chronically elevated lipid content within the diabetic heart could make mitochondria less sensitive to the effects of PCoA. PCoA acutely decreased ADP-stimulated state 3 respiration and increased the apparent Km for ADP twofold. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of PCoA in control mitochondria was 22 µM. This inhibitory effect of PCoA on respiration was blunted in diabetic mitochondria, with no significant difference in the Km for ADP in the presence of PCoA, and an increase in the IC50 to 32 µM PCoA. The competitive inhibition by PCoA was localised to the phosphorylation apparatus, particularly the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC). During ischemia, the AAC imports
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
limits any growth of weeds to a height over six inches, and such growth of weeds is hereby declared to be a ... and public health. The word weeds, as used in this section, ... and dwarf; the goldenrod weed; and the cocklebur weed. All rank vegetable growth ...
Protein name: VNUT Aliases: N/D Substrates: purine nucleotides Transport type: electrogenic, Cl- dependent Tissue and cellular expression: brain (neurons), adrenal, thyroid Subcellular expression: synaptic vesicle Disease: none Locus: 20q13.33 Sequence ID: NP_071365.3, Gene ID: 63910 ...
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is composed of five intramitochondrial enzyme complexes (complexes I to V) that are responsible for producing the majority of the ATP required for normal cellular function. Assembly and maintenance of OXPHOS requires the coordinate regulation of nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes. The mtDNA encodes 12 OXPHOS subunits, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs, which provide the core elements for OXPHOS function and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The nuclear DNA is responsible for synthesizing approximately 70 OXPHOS subunits, transporting them to the mitochondria via chaperone proteins, ensuring their passage across the mitochondrial inner membrane, and coordinating their proper processing and assembly. OXPHOS is regulated by a wide variety of factors and processes that include hormone levels, oxygen supply, ion gradients, membrane transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocase that supplies ADP for conversion to ATP, transcription factors that alter the ...
Cardiolipin is found predominantly in the membranes of mitochondria and bacteria. It is a unique diphosphatidylglycerol containing four acyl groups. In animal tissues 80% of the acyl groups are composed of linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)).The identification of Barth′s syndrome, a disease associated with abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of cardiolipin causing cardiomyopathy and neutropenia, has displayed the importance of cardiolipin in mitochondrial functionality. Cardiolipin effects mitochondrial bioenergetics by providing essential structural and functional support to proteins localized within the mitochondria. Specifically, interaction of cardiolipin with cytochrome oxidase and adenine nucleotide translocase is required in order for both of these mitochondrial enzymes to maintain activity.Cardiolipin has been shown to perform a role in a number of other specific biological activities, including oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, cholesterol translocation and gene
In plants, ATP is mainly regenerated in mitochondria and chloroplasts, but with the exception of vacuoles, virtually each organelle (Geigenberger et al., 2010) and the apoplast (Roux and Steinebrunner, 2007) has to be provided with this metabolite. Due to the substantial molecular size of adenylates and due to the high charge of this class of molecules, corresponding membranes must harbor specific proteins that allow transport across this physical barrier. PM-ANT1 fulfils basic criteria required for ATP transporters as this protein exhibits high structural similarity to the well-characterized ADP/ATP carriers AAC1-3, which reside in the inner mitochondrial membrane (Figure 1; Haferkamp et al., 2002), shows three METS, and possess the highly conserved RRRMMM motif (Figure 1) critical for ATP transport (Nelson et al., 1993; Nelson and Douglas, 1993). Thus, it was not surprising to observe that PM-ANT1 transports adenylates (Figure 2C, Table 1) and fully legitimates the position of PM-ANT1 as one ...
Previous positions. Assistant Professor, University of Copenhagen (Frederiksberg, Denmark, 2014-2018). Post-doctoral researcher, John Innes Centre (Norwich, UK, 2011-2014). Post-doctoral fellow, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, USA, 2010-2011). Post-doctoral researcher, University of Copenhagen (Frederiksberg, Denmark, 2008-2010). Academic degrees. PhD in Plant Biotechnology, University of Copenhagen, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology (Frederiksberg, Denmark, 2008). Licenciatura in Chemistry, PUCP University, Chemistry Department (Lima, Peru, 2004). Bachelor in Science, PUCP University, Faculty of Sciences and Engineering (Lima, Peru, 2003). ...
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MitoPT-25:MITOCHONDRIAL PERMEABILITY TRANSITION KIT from AbD Serotec,Request Info,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Mitochondrial swelling assay (PTP opening) - posted in Cell Biology: Hello.Anyone here with experience with the mitochondrial swelling assay for the measurement of the opening of the permeability transition pore? Im using the method that evaluates the decrease in absorbance at 540 nm. Im working with a fungus and theres nothing in the literature about this. I get a weird profile (see attachment).1) the temporal dynamics are quite different from what is ob...
It is about 10 times more potent than its analog atractyloside. While atractyloside is effective in the inhibition of oxidative ... "Probing the interactions of carboxy-atractyloside and atractyloside with the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier". Structure. ... Along with atractyloside, it is also one of the main poisonous substances in the Atractylis gummifera thistle. Kedrov A, ... Luciani S, Martini N, Santi R (September 1971). "Effects of carboxyatractyloside a structural analogue of atractyloside on ...
Bruni A, Luciani S, Contessa AR (March 1964). "Inhibition by atractyloside of the binding of adenine-nucleotides to rat-liver ... The first family, which includes atractyloside (ATR) and carboxyatractyloside (CATR), binds to the ADP/ATP translocase from the ... uncovered an inhibitory effect of atractyloside on the energy-transfer system (oxidative phosphorylation) and ADP binding sites ... Kunji ER, Harding M (September 2003). "Projection structure of the atractyloside-inhibited mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier of ...
The plant has a history of use in folk medicine, but it is very toxic due to the presence of atractyloside and ... The toxicity of Chamaeleon gummifer is thought to be caused by two related glycosides, atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside. ...
... a phonological feature in linguistics Atractyloside, a toxin and inhibitor of "ADP/ATP translocase" Arithmetical transfinite ...
Additionally, the preparation of plants with atractyloside in some traditional medicines affects the atractyloside content. The ... Atractyloside (ATR) is a natural, toxic glycoside present in numerous plant species worldwide in the daisy family including ... Atractyloside is found in numerous plant species in the daisy family e.g. Atractylis gummifera, Callilepis laureola, Xanthium ... Atractyloside is a hydrophilic glycoside. A modified glucose is linked to the hydrophobic diterpene atractyligenin by a β1- ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
Additionally, the preparation of plants with atractyloside in some traditional medicines affects the atractyloside content. The ... Atractyloside (ATR) is a natural, toxic glycoside present in numerous plant species worldwide in the daisy family including ... Atractyloside is found in numerous plant species in the daisy family e.g. Atractylis gummifera, Callilepis laureola, Xanthium ... Atractyloside is a hydrophilic glycoside. A modified glucose is linked to the hydrophobic diterpene atractyligenin by a β1- ...
ETDEWEB / Search Results / Interaction of ADP, atractyloside, and gummiferin on the ADP translocase of the inner mitochondrial ... "Interaction of ADP, atractyloside, and gummiferin on the ADP translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane." France. ... Vignais, P V, Vignais, P M, Defaye, G, Lauquin, G, Doussiere, J, Chabert, J, & Brandolin, G. Interaction of ADP, atractyloside ... Interaction of ADP, atractyloside, and gummiferin on the ADP translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane ...
The Biochemistry and Toxicity of Atractyloside: A Review. Stewart, Michael J.; Steenkamp, Vanessa ...
atractyloside is a glycoside found in certain plants that leads to herbal poisoning worldwide wspecially in africa and, Hire ... Atractyloside is a glycoside found in certain plants that leads to herbal poisoning worldwide, wspecially in Africa and the ...
Atractyloside Potassium Salt CAS 102130-43-8 FOB Price: US $ 1300-1500 / KG. Min. Order: 1 KG ...
atractyloside;. AAC2,. ADP/ATP carrier 2 from S. cerevisiae;. MTSES,. 2-sulfonatoethyl-methanethiosulfonate;. KPi,. potassium ...
Effects of carnitine and atractyloside on canine cardiac electrical activity.. R. F. Gilmour, Eric Williams, B. B. Farmer, D. P ... Gilmour, R. F., Williams, E., Farmer, B. B., & Zipes, D. P. (1981). Effects of carnitine and atractyloside on canine cardiac ... Gilmour, R. F. ; Williams, Eric ; Farmer, B. B. ; Zipes, D. P. / Effects of carnitine and atractyloside on canine cardiac ... Sodium atractyloside (750 mumol/10 min ia) did not produce electrogram changes. We conclude that 1) carnitine does not ...
Effects of atractyloside and palmitoyl coenzyme A on calcium transport in cardiac mitochondria. Archives of Biochemistry and ... Effects of atractyloside and palmitoyl coenzyme A on calcium transport in cardiac mitochondria. / Asimakis, G. K.; Sordahl, ... Asimakis, G. K., & Sordahl, L. A. (1977). Effects of atractyloside and palmitoyl coenzyme A on calcium transport in cardiac ... Asimakis, G. K. ; Sordahl, Louis A. / Effects of atractyloside and palmitoyl coenzyme A on calcium transport in cardiac ...
Atractyloside was frequently reported to be a toxic substance of Xanthii Fructus. The toxic mechanisms of atractyloside were ... 2.3.1. Preparation of Exposure Solution of Atractyloside Potassium Salt for In Vitro Assay. Atractyloside potassium salt (AL), ... Moreover, toxic effects induced by atractyloside might be mediated by its in vivo metabolite, which could not happen in our in ... D. K. Obatomi, N. T. K. Thanh, S. Brant, and P. H. Bach, "The toxic mechanism and metabolic effects of atractyloside in ...
Cholinergic synaptic vesicles from Torpedo marmorata contain an atractyloside‐binding protein related to the mitochondrial ADP/ ... Stadler, H., & Fenwick, E. M. (1983). Cholinergic synaptic vesicles from Torpedo marmorata contain an atractyloside‐binding ... Cholinergic synaptic vesicles from Torpedo marmorata contain an atractyloside‐binding protein related to the mitochondrial ADP/ ...
iNOS-mediated cardioprotection was not abolished by atractyloside. Reperfusion-induced production of oxygen-derived free ...
Atractyloside. ATP D.S.. ATP detecting system. BP. 3-bromopyruvate. CF. Cystic fibrosis ...
Stewart MJ, Steenkamp V (2000) The biochemistry and toxicity of atractyloside: a review. Ther Drug Monit 22(6):641-649PubMed ... Obatomi DK, Bach PH (1998) Biochemistry and toxicology of the diterpenoid glycoside atractyloside. Food Chem Toxicol 36(4):335- ... Atractyloside-induced release of cathepsin B, a protease with caspase-processing activity. FEBS Lett 438(3):150-158PubMed ... Fluorometric titration of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier protein in muscle homogenate with atractyloside derivatives. Anal ...
It is about 10 times more potent than its analog atractyloside. While atractyloside is effective in the inhibition of oxidative ... "Probing the interactions of carboxy-atractyloside and atractyloside with the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier". Structure. ... Along with atractyloside, it is also one of the main poisonous substances in the Atractylis gummifera thistle. Kedrov A, ... Luciani S, Martini N, Santi R (September 1971). "Effects of carboxyatractyloside a structural analogue of atractyloside on ...
The reaction was carried out on ice and stopped after 10 sec by 100 μM atractyloside. The reaction mixture was then centrifuged ... 2,8-3H]Adenosine 5′-diphosphate ([3H]ADP) trisodium salt and atractyloside were purchased from Sigma. Rat anti-2,4- ...
Biochemistry and toxicology of the diterpenoid glycoside atractyloside. Food Chem Toxicol. 1998;36:335-46.View ArticlePubMed ... Carboxyatractyloside potassium salt (C31H43O18S2K3) was purchased from Merck (Merck Millipore, Taiwan). Atractyloside potassium ... A validated method for quantifying atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside in blood by HPLC-HRMS/MS, a non-fatal case of ... Comparative analysis of the contents of carboxyatractyloside and atractyloside in Xanthii Fructus and its processed products. ...
In case of an ANT deficiency, addition of atractyloside will have little or no effect on this oxidation rate. A decreased ... Incubation 5 measures the pyruvate oxidation rate in the presence of atractyloside. In the absence of exogenous ADP (incubation ... Because ATP cannot be transported through the mitochondrial membrane, atractyloside will further inhibit this residual ... mol/L atractyloside, pH 7.4. To regenerate ADP by creatine kinase in the 600g supernatant, 20 mmol/L creatine was added to all ...
Next, atractyloside was added that almost totally abolished the succinate dependent respiration. Such a strong control of ... Further additions: ADP 1 mM, Rot: 10 [micro]M rotenone, Succ: 10 mM succinate, Atr: 0.1 mM atractyloside, Ant: 10 [micro]M ... The antimycin-sensitive respiration in the presence of atractyloside ([V.sub.atr] - [V.sub.ant]) was considered to represent ... atractyloside, antimycin A, TMPD, ascorbate, EDTA, glucose, Triton X-100, tris, PEP, and NADP were from Sigma. 2.2. Human Study ...
Infusion of atractyloside (50 μM) significantly decreased basal rates of O2 uptake by 13% to a rate of 112 ± 3 μmol/g/h (n = 4, ... KCN (2 mM, A) or atractyloside (50 μM, B) dissolved in buffer (pH 7.4) was infused as indicated by arrows. Nicotine was infused ... Atractyloside is an effective inhibitor of this translocase (Klingenberg, 1976); therefore, perfused livers were infused with ... Infusion of atractyloside, potassium cyanide, or glucagon blocked the nicotine-induced increase in respiration. Intracellular ...
The cytotoxic activities of atractyloside III and hinesol were relatively weak [with mean (±SD) IC50 of and μg/ml, resp.]. The ... Other minor constituents include atractyloside A, atractyloside F, atractyloquinone, and atractylochromene (Figure 3) [24, 36]. ... and atractyloside III (less than 1%) were investigated in CL-6 cells using MTT assay (manuscript in preparation). In addition, ...
2. Stewart MJ, Steenkamp V. The biochemistry and toxicity of atractyloside: a review. Ther Drug Monit (2000) 22:641-9. doi: ...
... mouse cortex lysates were supplemented with 50 mM atractyloside. Samples were analyzed immediately, or time points were frozen ...
Main Item: atractyloside A, Hederagenin, Ingenol, Dioscin, Lathyrol, Epoxylathyrol, alpha-h. Business Type: Manufacturer ...
Atractyloside, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opener also negated PAR1(1-26) cardioprotection. The ...
Atractyloside / analogs & derivatives * Atractyloside / pharmacology * Biological Transport / drug effects * Bongkrekic Acid / ...
... atractyloside, a known MPTP opener, abrogated the protective effects of curculigoside. On the whole, the present study ...
... atractyloside, another mitochondrial PTP opener, decreased transient KCa current frequency and amplitude (Fig. 3, C and D). ... and atractyloside (Atr, 100 μM; n = 4). *P , 0.05 vs. control. #P , 0.05 vs. TNF-α. ...
Guanine nucleotide transport by atractyloside-sensitive and -insensitive carriers in isolated heart mitochondria ...
Identification of atractyloside by LC-ESI-MS in alleged herbal poisoning  Steenkamp, PA; Harding, NM; Van Heerden, FR; Van Wyk ... An LC-MS screening method was developed to detect the presence of atractyloside (ATR), the toxic principle of a commonly used ...
Stewart MJ, Steenkamp V. The biochemistry and toxicity of atractyloside: a review. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 2000, 22:641- ... This can be explained by the pathologic action of atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside, which involves inhibition of ... The toxic effect of this plant arises from 2 diterpenoid toxicants causing toxicity-atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside- ...
  • Atractyloside, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opener also negated PAR1(1-26) cardioprotection. (ahajournals.org)
  • naloxone (non-selective opioid receptor antagonist), naltrindole (a delta-opioid receptor antagonist), SB216763 (a glycogen synthase kinase 3beta inhibitor, GSK-3beta inhibitor), or atractyloside (a mitochondrial permeability transition pore opener, mPTP opener). (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aimed to investigate the effects of selective opener (Atractyloside glycoside, ATR) and inhibitor (Cyclosporine A, CsA) of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) on a CDDP-resistant HCC cell line (SK-Hep1 cells). (ijbs.com)
  • Two specific inhibitors of the adenine nucleotide translocation, gummiferin (GUM), identified to 4-carboxyatractyloside and atractyloside (ATR), were labeled with /sup 35/S and their binding properties to whole mitochondria and inner mitochondrial membrane vesicles used to monitor changes of membrane conformation induced by ADP. (osti.gov)
  • The toxicity of Xanthii Fructus is usually considered to be associated with two diterpenoids glycosides, atractyloside (AL) and carboxyatractyloside (CAL). (hindawi.com)
  • While atractyloside is effective in the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, carboxyatractyloside is considered to be more effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of carboxyatractyloside on the ADP/ATP translocase are not reversed by increasing the concentration of adenine nucleotides, unlike its counterpart atractyloside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eleven compounds including carboxyatractyloside, atractyloside and chlorogenic acid corresponding to eleven individual changed peaks were tentatively identified by matching with empirical molecular formulae and mass fragments, as well as literature data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside partially inhibited nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) by isolated vesicles of Frankia strain EAN1pec. (unh.edu)
  • To determine carboxyatractyloside and atractyloside in Xanthii Fructus by HPLC. (bvsalud.org)
  • Carboxyatractyloside showed a good linearity within the range of 0.0972-1.944 microg and atractyloside showed a good linearity within the range of 0.1030-2.060 microg. (bvsalud.org)
  • In biochemical studies of mitochondria, the effect of atractyloside on the ADP/ATP transport was recognized even before the actual transporter was identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palmitoyl CoA (PCoA) and the adenine translocase inhibitor atractyloside (ATR) appear to produce a similar effect in discharging accumulated calcium from cardiac mitochondria. (utmb.edu)
  • Asimakis, GK & Sordahl, LA 1977, ' Effects of atractyloside and palmitoyl coenzyme A on calcium transport in cardiac mitochondria ', Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics , vol. 179, no. 1, pp. 200-210. (utmb.edu)
  • Site of action of atractyloside in mitochondria. (elsevier.com)
  • Skeletal muscle mitochondria harvested after nitrate supplementation displayed an improvement in oxidative phosphorylation efficiency (P/O ratio) and a decrease in state 4 respiration with and without atractyloside and respiration without adenylates. (nih.gov)
  • Butacaine does not alter either the total number of atractyloside-sensitive binding sites of depleted mitochondria, or the affinity of these sites for ADP or ATP under conditions where a partial inhibition of the rate of adenine nucleotide translocation is observed. (biochemj.org)
  • Atractyloside (ATR) is a natural, toxic glycoside present in numerous plant species worldwide in the daisy family including Atractylis gummifera and Callilepis laureola, and it's used for a variety of therapeutic, religious, and toxic purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atractyloside is a hydrophilic glycoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atractyloside is a glycoside found in certain plants that leads to herbal poisoning worldwide, wspecially in Africa and the Mediterranean regions. (mywordsolution.com)
  • Atractyloside potassium salt is a toxic diterpenoid glycoside isolated from the fruits of Xanthium sibiricum . (medchemexpress.com)
  • A. gummifera is a thistle belonging to the Asteraceae family that produces the ent-kaurane diterpenoid glycoside atractyloside (ATR). (dmu.ac.uk)
  • Atractyloside potassium salt is the potassium salt of atractyloside, which inhibits oxidative phosphorylation by blocking the transfer of adenosine nucleotides through the mitochondrial membrane. (mfrbee.com)
  • Infusion of atractyloside, potassium cyanide, or glucagon blocked the nicotine-induced increase in respiration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Atractyloside potassium salt is a powerful and specific inhibitor of mitochondrial ADP/ATP transport . (medchemexpress.com)
  • Atractyloside potassium salt inhibits chloride channels from mitochondrial membranes of rat heart. (medchemexpress.com)
  • The aglycone is the basis of subclassification into saponin or steroidal glycosides (including steroidal cardiac glycosides [defined as cardioactive steroids in Chap. 64 ], cyanogenic glycosides, anthraquinone glycosides), and others such as atractyloside and salicin. (mhmedical.com)
  • The MPT inhibitor bongkrekic acid ( 14 ) inhibits cell death, while the MPT inducer atractyloside ( 9 ) renders the cell more susceptible to cell death. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, the anti-infarct effect by M-Post was also totally blocked by the MPTP opener atractyloside (26.3 +/- 5.2%, P (bvsalud.org)
  • It has been proposed that electrophysiological changes following coronary artery occlusion result from inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocase and that these changes can be reduced by carnitine infusion or reproduced by infusion of K+-atractyloside. (elsevier.com)
  • 3) to result from a preferen- tial inhibition by the analog for non-en- ergy-linked membrane-bound ATPase. (pdfslide.net)
  • Atractyloside (20 μM/l), an adenine nucleotide translocase inhibitor, caused changes similar to those in the A-R group, suggesting a role of MPT in A-R injury. (elsevier.com)
  • During normal perfusion, intra-arterial infusion of K+-atractyloside (750 mumol/10 min) or equimolar KCl produced similar reversible flattening of perfused zone electrograms. (elsevier.com)
  • The chemical structure and charge distribution of atractyloside is similar to that of ADP: the sulfate groups correspond to the phosphate groups, the glucose part corresponds to the ribose part, and the hydrophobic atractyligenine residue corresponds to the hydrophobic purine residue of ADP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effect of atractyloside and insulin on glucose metabolism in rat diaphragm muscle in vitro]. (naver.com)
  • Effect of atractyloside on glucose and glutamate metabolism in the rat cerebral cortex in vitro]. (naver.com)
  • The development of assays for atractyloside and its localisation in rat tissue. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Effects of carnitine and atractyloside on canine cardiac electrical activity. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, in untreated old rats mitochondrial respiration was not blocked by atractyloside. (antiagingreports.com)
  • Along with atractyloside, it is also one of the main poisonous substances in the Atractylis gummifera thistle. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine if uncoupling proteins (UCP2 or UCP3), or ANT activity contributed to MITO uncoupling in db/db hearts, 500μM GDP and 5μM atractyloside (ATR) were sequentially added to fibers at state 4 respiration conditions (1μg/mL oligomycin). (ahajournals.org)
  • Atractyloside is found in numerous plant species in the daisy family e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the preparation of plants with atractyloside in some traditional medicines affects the atractyloside content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, atractyloside poisoning has been challenging to verify and quantify toxicologically, though recent literature has described such methods within acceptable standards of forensic science. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is about 10 times more potent than its analog atractyloside. (wikipedia.org)
  • After high profile accidental poisonings-children in Italy and Algeria ate parts of the plant in 1955 and 1975, respectively-renewed interest in atractyloside resulted in future research. (wikipedia.org)