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Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase in rat liver mitochondria by added 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. (1/184)

The effect of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine on nucleoside diphosphate kinase of isolated rat liver mitochondria has been studied. This is done by monitoring the increase in the rate of oxygen uptake by nucleoside diphosphate (TDP, UDP, CDP or GDP) addition to mitochondria in state 4. It is shown that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibits the mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of about 10 microM as measured for each tested nucleoside diphosphate. It is also shown that high concentrations of GDP prevent 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibition of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase.  (+info)

Carboxyatractyloside increases the effect of oleate on mitochondrial permeability transition. (2/184)

Addition of a low concentration of carboxyatractyloside (0.075 microM) renders mitochondria susceptible to the opening of the non-specific pore by 5 microM oleate, in a cyclosporin A-sensitive fashion. Matrix Ca2+ efflux as well as collapse of the transmembrane potential reveal permeability transition. The effect of oleate is reached after the titration, by carboxyatractyloside, of 38 pmol of adenine nucleotide translocase per mg mitochondrial protein. We propose that permeability transition may result from an additive action of carboxyatractyloside plus oleate on the ADP/ATP carrier.  (+info)

The mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator from Dictyostelium discoideum. Functional characterization and DNA sequencing. (3/184)

The mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) catalyses the exchange of ATP and ADP between the mitochondria and the cytosol. We have cloned and sequenced the gene encoding the Dictyostelium discoideum ANT (DdANT) and analysed its transcriptional regulation. The single copy D. discoideum ant gene encodes a protein of 309 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 33,469 Da and a pI of 9.85. These values are comparable to those of ANTs from mammals, insects and fungi. The long N-terminal extension characteristic of plant ANT is absent in DdANT. The protein coding region of the D. discoideum ant gene is interrupted by three introns. Polyclonal antibodies directed against the beef heart mitochondrial ANT or its C-terminal peptide recognized the D. discoideum protein. Northern blot analysis revealed that the expression of the D. discoideum ant gene decreased rapidly during the first hours of multicellular development but the amount of protein remained stable throughout differentiation.  (+info)

Studies on the adenine nucleotide translocase from rat liver mitochondria. Isolation, partial characterization and immunochemical properties of carboxyatractylate-binding protein. (4/184)

1. Solubility of mitochondrial membranes in various solvent systems was determined quantitatively. The most effective agent was the anionic detergent, sodium dodecylsulphate, which solubilizes 90% of the protein at the concentration of 0.1% followed by Triton X-100 (70%), sodium deoxycholate (60%), Brij 56 (50%), and guanidine hydrochloride (40%) at a concentration of 2 M. 2. Affinity chromatography of a clear 0.1% sodium dodecylsulphate solution of digitonized mitochondria on Sepharose 4B containing carboxyatractylate always resulted in the separation of two fractions, one of which was not retained by the column and the other which could be obtained after elution with 2% sodium dodecylsulphate. 3. The retained protein showed a high binding specificity for ATP and [3H]atractylate when compared with the unretained fraction. The amount of bound [3H]atractylate or carboxyatractylate-sensitive binding of ATP was 10.5 +/- 4 nmol/mg protein, and 22 +/- 8 nmol/mg protein, respectively. 4. The major component within the retained fraction, comprising 85% of the total weight, was protein, followed by phospholipids (14%) and approximately 1% triglycerides. Sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a major (95%) and a minor (5%) component with an apparent molecular weight of 26000 +/- 1000 and 8300 +/- 400, respectively. The gels did not stain for carbohydrates. Ultracentrifugal analysis showed a single, symmetrical boundry. 5. Double immunodiffusion analysis gave a single precipitin line with the corresponding antiserum. [14C]ADP exchange of digitonin particles was completely inhibited by an antiserum to the carboxyatractylate binding protein fraction, whereas the adenine nucleotide transport of intact mitochondria remained unaffected. In the presence of specific immunoglobulins state-3 respiration rate of digitonin particles was prolonged and reduced by approximately 25%. State-4 respiration rate was unaffected.  (+info)

Functional consequences of the sustained or transient activation by Bax of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. (5/184)

The overexpression of Bax kills cells by a mechanism that depends on induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) (Pastorino, J. G., Chen, S.-T., Tafani, M., Snyder, J. W., and Farber, J. L. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 7770-7775). In the present study, purified, recombinant Bax opened the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP). Depending on its concentration, Bax had two distinct effects. At a concentration of 125 nM, Bax caused the release of the intermembranous proteins cytochrome c and adenylate kinase and the release from the matrix of sequestered calcein, effects prevented by the inhibitor of the PTP cyclosporin A (CSA). At this concentration of Bax, there was no detectable mitochondrial swelling or depolarization. These effects of low Bax concentrations are interpreted as the consequence of transient, non-synchronous activation of the PTP followed by a prompt recovery of mitochondrial integrity. By contrast, Bax concentrations between 250 nM and 1 microM caused a sustained opening of the PTP with consequent persistent mitochondrial swelling and deenergization (the MPT). CSA prevented the MPT induced by Bax. Increasing concentrations of calcium caused a greater proportion of the mitochondria to undergo the MPT in the presence of Bax. Importantly, two known mediators of apoptosis, ceramide and GD3 ganglioside, potentiated the induction by Bax of the MPT. The data imply that Bax mediates the opening of the mitochondrial PTP with the resultant release of cytochrome c from the intermembranous space.  (+info)

Dual responses of CNS mitochondria to elevated calcium. (6/184)

Isolated brain mitochondria were examined for their responses to calcium challenges under varying conditions. Mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored by following the distribution of tetraphenylphosphonium ions in the mitochondrial suspension, mitochondrial swelling by observing absorbance changes, calcium accumulation by an external calcium electrode, and oxygen consumption with an oxygen electrode. Both the extent and rate of calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling and depolarization varied greatly depending on the energy source provided to the mitochondria. When energized with succinate plus glutamate, after a calcium challenge, CNS mitochondria depolarized transiently, accumulated substantial calcium, and increased in volume, characteristic of a mitochondrial permeability transition. When energized with 3 mM succinate, CNS mitochondria maintained a sustained calcium-induced depolarization without appreciable swelling and were slow to accumulate calcium. Maximal oxygen consumption was also restricted under these conditions, preventing the electron transport chain from compensating for this increased proton permeability. In 3 mM succinate, cyclosporin A and ADP plus oligomycin restored potential and calcium uptake. This low conductance permeability was not effected by bongkrekic acid or carboxyatractylate, suggesting that the adenine nucleotide translocator was not directly involved. Fura-2FF measurements of [Ca(2+)](i) suggest that in cultured hippocampal neurons glutamate-induced increases reached tens of micromolar levels, approaching those used with mitochondria. We propose that in the restricted substrate environment, Ca(2+) activated a low-conductance permeability pathway responsible for the sustained mitochondrial depolarization.  (+info)

Bcl-2 and Bax regulate the channel activity of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator. (7/184)

Bcl-2 family protein including anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) or pro-apoptotic (Bax) members can form ion channels when incorporated into synthetic lipid bilayers. This contrasts with the observation that Bcl-2 stabilizes the mitochondrial membrane barrier function and inhibits the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC). Here we provide experimental data which may explain this apparent paradox. Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), the most abundant inner mitochondrial membrane protein, can interact in artificial lipid bilayers to yield an efficient composite channel whose electrophysiological properties differ quantitatively and qualitatively from the channels formed by Bax or ANT alone. The formation of this composite channel can be observed in conditions in which Bax protein alone has no detectable channel activity. Cooperative channel formation by Bax and ANT is stimulated by the ANT ligand atractyloside (Atr) but inhibited by ATP, indicating that it depends on the conformation of ANT. In contrast to the combination of Bax and ANT, ANT does not form active channels when incorporated into membranes with Bcl-2. Rather, ANT and Bcl-2 exhibit mutual inhibition of channel formation. Bcl-2 prevents channel formation by Atr-treated ANT and neutralizes the cooperation between Bax and ANT. Our data are compatible with a menage a trois model of mitochondrial apoptosis regulation in which ANT, the likely pore forming protein within the PTPC, interacts with Bax or Bcl-2 which influence its pore forming potential in opposing manners.  (+info)

Antibody evidence for different conformational states of ADP, ATP translocator protein isolated from mitochondria. (8/184)

Consistent with the previously proposed reorientation mechanism for the ADP,ATP translocator protein of mitochondria, evidence has now been obtained for the existence of two distinct conformational states of the isolated translocator protein. Previous studies indicated that when the mitochondrial translocator protein is in the c-state(i.e., when its binding site faces the cytosol side) the protein binds primarily the ligand carboxyatractylate (CAT), and when the translocator protein is in the m-state(i.e., when its binding site faces the mitochondrial matrix) the translocator protein binds primarily bongkrekate. Direct evidence for this formulation has now come from the application of antibodies to the isolated translocator protein-ligand complex. Two antibodies were produced against the ADP,ATP translocator protein isolated from beef heart mitochondria. One antibody, which was produced against the protein isolated as the CAT-binding protein complex, was found to be highly specific for that complex and did not react with the protein in the conformation state conferred by the bongkrekate ligand. This antibody did not cover the CAT-binding site, as evidenced by the exchange of unlabeled CAT with [35S]CAT bound to the translocator protein. However, the same antibody inhibited a transition of the protein from the c-state to the m-state, as evidenced by an inhibition of the displacement of[35S]CAT by bongkrekate (added jointly with ADP). It appears, therefore, that the antibody immobilized the translocator protein in the c-state. The second antibody produced against the (somewhat less pure) ADP,ATP translocator protein, isolated as the bongkrekate-binding protein complex, did not react with the CAT-binding protein. Thus, the second antibody appeared to be specific for the translocator protein in the m-state. Neither antibody inhibited mitochondrial ADP,ATP transport.  (+info)

*ADP/ATP translocase

Bruni A, Luciani S, Contessa AR (March 1964). "Inhibition by atractyloside of the binding of adenine-nucleotides to rat-liver ... The first family, which includes atractyloside (ATR) and carboxyatractyloside (CATR), binds to the ADP/ATP translocase from the ... uncovered an inhibitory effect of atractyloside on the energy-transfer system (oxidative phosphorylation) and ADP binding sites ... Kunji ER, Harding M (2003-09-26). "Projection structure of the atractyloside-inhibited mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier of ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... atractyloside MeSH D02.455.849.291.206 --- diterpenes, abietane MeSH D02.455.849.291.228 --- diterpenes, clerodane MeSH D02.455 ...

*Category:Alkene derivatives

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Applying atractyloside for inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthesis at a concentration of 1 μM reduced cellular ATP levels by approximately 30%, mimicking the energy status of aged RPE (Fig. 1). The amount of lactate detected in the conditioned medium after three days of culture was 2.77 mg/mL (±0.11, n = 6) for untreated cells and 3.51mg/mL (±0.12, n = 6) for cells cultured in the presence of atractyloside. Thus, the cells are able to partially compensate for the atractyloside-induced reduction of mitochondrial ATP supply by nonmitochondrial ATP generation. Consequently, ATP synthesis is affected more than 30%. In addition to moderately reduced cellular ATP levels, we intended to induce conditions of increased oxidative stress. To this end, the cells were treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH). Neither treatment with atractyloside or tBH alone nor the combination of both induced significant changes in the morphology of the cells (data not shown). No increase of LDH leakage to the ...
ID PTT1 preliminary; circular DNA; SYN; 5025 BP. XX AC IG9906; XX DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 11, Created) DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 12, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE E. coli plasmid vector pTT1 - complete. XX KW cloning vector. XX OS Cloning vector OC Artificial sequences; Cloning vehicles. XX RN [1] RC pTT1 from pKK233-2 RC pTT3 from pTT1 & pUCP18 RC pTT3deltaS from pTT3 RC pTT4 from pTT3deltaS RC pPZ1 from pNM480 & pUCP19 RC pPZ2 from pNM481 & pUCP19 RC pPZ3 from pNM482 & pUCP19 RC pPZ10 from pNM480 & pTT4 RC pPZ20 from pNM481 & pTT4 RC pPZ30 from pNM482 & pTT4 RC pRZ1 from pDF202 & pPZ3 RA Schweizer H.P.; RT "Improved broad-host-range lac-based plasmid vectors for the RT isolation and characterization of protein fusions in Pseudomonas RT aeruginosa"; RL Gene 103:87-92(1991). XX CC Created by Moore, July 1995, under contract with NCBI. CC NM (pTT1) CC CM (yes) CC NA (ds-DNA) CC TP (circular) CC ST () CC TY (plasmid) CC SP () CC HO (E.coli) CC CP () CC FN (cloning) CC SE () CC PA (pKK233-2)(pUCP18) CC BR ...
Annual total of UK resident banks (inc. Central Bank) sterling and all foreign currency outward foreign direct investment current transactions profits & losses from non resident branches (in sterling millions) vis-a-vis North America, South America & Caribbean not seasonally adjusted ...
Atractyloside (ATR) is a natural, toxic glycoside and an effective ADP/ATP translocase inhibitor. Atractyloside is synthesized by some plant species in the daisy family e.g. Callilepis laureola, Xanthium strumarium, Iphiona alsoeri, and Pascalia glauca. The poisonous effect of the distaff thistle (and by extension atractyloside) is well documented in history. The plant growing in the Mediterranean region was often used for suicide or murder. Examples of accidental poisoning are documented in Italy and Algeria in 1955 and 1975 respectively, where children have eaten parts of the plant. Although Ed Lefranc[who?] isolated Atractyloside in 1868 from Atractylis gummifera, the structure was identified 100 years later. Atractyloside is a hydrophilic glycoside. A modified glucose is linked to the hydrophobic diterpene atractyligenin by a β1-glycosidic bond. A carboxyl group is positioned at the C4 position in the axial position. The glucose part is esterified with isovaleric acid on the C2 atom, and ...
Mitochondrial carriers are believed widely to be homodimers both in the inner membrane of the organelle and in detergents. The dimensions and molecular masses of the detergent and protein-detergent micelles were measured for yeast ADP/ATP carriers in a range of different detergents. The radius of the carrier at the midpoint of the membrane, its average radius, its Stokes radius, its molecular mass, and its excluded volume were determined. These parameters are consistent with the known structural model of the bovine ADP/ATP carrier and they demonstrate that the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers are monomeric in detergents. Therefore, models of substrate transport have to be considered in which the carrier operates as a monomer rather than as a dimer.. ...
The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier imports ADP from the cytosol and exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix. The carrier cycles by an unresolved mechanism between the cytoplasmic state, in which the carrier accepts ADP from the cytoplasm, and the matrix state, in which it accepts ATP from the mitochondrial matrix. Here we present the structures of the yeast ADP/ATP carriers Aac2p and Aac3p in the cytoplasmic state. The carriers have three domains and are closed at the matrix side by three interdomain salt-bridge interactions, one of which is braced by a glutamine residue. Glutamine braces are conserved in mitochondrial carriers and contribute to an energy barrier, preventing the conversion to the matrix state unless substrate binding occurs. At the cytoplasmic side a second salt-bridge network forms during the transport cycle, as demonstrated by functional analysis of mutants with charge-reversed networks. Analyses of the domain structures and properties of the interdomain interfaces indicate ...
Attorney General Larry Long today announced a settlement with Merck & Co. Inc, Shering-Plough Corporation, and a joint venture of the two companies, MSP Singapore Company, LLC. The Assurance of Voluntary Compliance resolves an investigation into the companies lengthy delay releasing negative results from the clinical trial called Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholsterolemia Enhances Atherosclerosis Regression (ENHANCE). In this study, the cholesterol lowering drug Vytorin® (a combination of the drug Zetia® and simvastatin) was no more effective reducing formation of plaque in carotid arteries than the cheap, generically available cholesterol lowering drug simvastatin. Although ENHANCE ended May 2006, a partial reporting of negative results did not occur until January 2008 and complete results were not published until the following April. Prior to release of study results, Vytorin had been heavily promoted in direct-to-consumer advertisements. ...
In brown-fat mitochondria, fatty acids induce thermogenic uncoupling through activation of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). However, even in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1−/− mice, fatty-acid-induced uncoupling exists. In the present investigation, we used the inhibitor CAtr (carboxyatractyloside) to examine the involvement of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat mitochondria. We found that the contribution of ANT to fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in UCP1−/− brown-fat mitochondria was minimal (whereas it was responsible for nearly half the fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in liver mitochondria). As compared with liver mitochondria, brown-fat mitochondria exhibit a relatively high (UCP1-independent) basal respiration (proton leak). Unexpectedly, a large fraction of this high basal respiration was sensitive to CAtr, whereas in liver mitochondria, basal respiration was CAtr-insensitive. Total ANT protein ...
Red Cocklebur Weevils are in the subfamily Dryophthorinae (of previous BOTW fame), whose members are often described as "football-shaped" and who some entomologists have promoted to full family status. RCWs (Rhodobaenus quinquepunctatus) are also called (not surprisingly, Latin Scholars) Five-spotted billbugs.. The two other genus members in North America north of the Rio Grande are the excellently-named R. tredecimpunctatus, the 13-spotted/Ironweed curculio (which is also called cocklebur weevil and which has a more extensive range across America than the RCW), and R. pustulosus (no common name, but do Google "pustulosis"), which sneaks over the border from Mexico.. ...
Pigs rooting and grazing in cocklebur infested places are the most often poisoned domestic species, with those weighing between 20-50 pounds being the most susceptible. Poisoning also affects cattle, sheep, horses, and fowl.. The plant is most hazardous at the seedling stage because of its toxicity as well as palatability. Ingestion of young seedlings in the amount of 0.75% of the animals weight may result in clinical signs of toxicosis in a few hours and death in 24-48 hours. Approximately 500 seedlings was lethal to a 40-pound pig. The seeds are poisonous at 0.3% of animal weight but are seldom eaten because of their spiny capsule. Occasionally the eating of the ripe spiny capsules is said to result in intestinal obstruction. Mature plants, however, are seldom eaten, perhaps because of their bitterness and rough texture.. Toxic Principle ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator. 1 synonym for adenine: A. What are synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator?
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody validated for WB, IP and tested in Human. With 2 independent reviews. Immunogen corresponding to…
Download this stock image: Molecule of Adenosine Triphosphate ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism - B5R0WK from Alamys library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors.
SLC25A31 antibody (solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 31) for ELISA, WB. Anti-SLC25A31 pAb (GTX87816) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Looking for online definition of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in the Medical Dictionary? adenine nucleotide translocator 1 explanation free. What is adenine nucleotide translocator 1? Meaning of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 medical term. What does adenine nucleotide translocator 1 mean?
Diabetes increases myocardial FA oxidation and MVO2, but underlying mechanisms are partially understood. We used perfused hearts, permeabilized fibers (fibers) and isolated mitochondria from diabetic db/db mice to assess mitochondrial (MITO) uncoupling and to elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. MITO uncoupling and reduced cardiac efficiency (CE) was absent in hearts perfused with glucose alone. However, in db/db hearts perfused with 1.0 mM Palmitate and 11mM glucose, RPP was reduced by 31% p, 0.02, MVO2 was increased by 45% p, 0.03, and CE reduced by 51% p,0.004. In fibers, state 3 respirations with palmitoyl carnitine were similar (16.4±1.3 and 16.7±1.5 nmol/min/mg), but ATP production rates were reduced by 36% in db/db fibers so that ATP/O ratios were 1.5±0.2 in db/db vs. 2.5±0.1 in controls (p,0.005), indicating FA-induced mitochondrial uncoupling. H2O2 production was also increased by 2.6 fold (p,0.001) in isolated db/db MITO exposed to the complex 1 substrate pyruvate. To ...
Graham BH et al. (1997) A mouse model for mitochondrial myopathy and cardiomyopathy resulting from a deficiency in the heart/muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator.. [^] ...
Vector ConstructionMouse cDNA for the adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (inner mitochondrial membrane transporter). It was cloned into the multiple cloning site of pAC-CMV-pLpA. The resulting plasmid was cotransfected into HEK293 cells with plasmid pJM17 which contains the Ad5 genome. Homologous recombination between the two plasmids resulted in the replacement of the Ad5 early region 1 with the mouse cDNA for Ant2, generating a replication deficient recombinant virus. ...
The difficulties encountered in the crystallization of membrane proteins in a form suitable for X-ray analysis have stimulated the development of algorithms to predict, from primary amino acid...
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Bongkrekic acid (BKA) is a strong inhibitor of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), inducing inhibition of adenosine triphosphate synthesis. We designed and synthesized simplified benzene-ring-containing BKA analogs. The key reaction is the one-pot double Sonogashira reaction, which forms the main skeleton. The analogs were efficiently synthesized in 8-10 longest linear sequence steps. This synth ...
Fig. 6. Demonstration of elaboration of mRNA for ExoU in infected lung tissue of mice. RT-PCR of lung tissue from mice infected with either the exoU+ PAO1(pUCP19exoUspcU) strain or the parental strain carrying the cloning vector, PAO1(pUCP19). mRNA from tissue was reverse transcribed and amplified with primers specific to the rpoB gene to yield a product of 314 bp or with primers specific to the exoU gene to yield a product of 428 bp. Molecular weight markers on the left are oligonucleotides differing by 100 bp. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
limits any growth of weeds to a height over six inches, and such growth of weeds is hereby declared to be a ... and public health. The word weeds, as used in this section, ... and dwarf; the goldenrod weed; and the cocklebur weed. All rank vegetable growth ...
Protein name: VNUT Aliases: N/D Substrates: purine nucleotides Transport type: electrogenic, Cl- dependent Tissue and cellular expression: brain (neurons), adrenal, thyroid Subcellular expression: synaptic vesicle Disease: none Locus: 20q13.33 Sequence ID: NP_071365.3, Gene ID: 63910 ...
Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is composed of five intramitochondrial enzyme complexes (complexes I to V) that are responsible for producing the majority of the ATP required for normal cellular function. Assembly and maintenance of OXPHOS requires the coordinate regulation of nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes. The mtDNA encodes 12 OXPHOS subunits, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs, which provide the core elements for OXPHOS function and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The nuclear DNA is responsible for synthesizing approximately 70 OXPHOS subunits, transporting them to the mitochondria via chaperone proteins, ensuring their passage across the mitochondrial inner membrane, and coordinating their proper processing and assembly. OXPHOS is regulated by a wide variety of factors and processes that include hormone levels, oxygen supply, ion gradients, membrane transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocase that supplies ADP for conversion to ATP, transcription factors that alter the ...
Cardiolipin is found predominantly in the membranes of mitochondria and bacteria. It is a unique diphosphatidylglycerol containing four acyl groups. In animal tissues 80% of the acyl groups are composed of linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)).

The identification of Barth′s syndrome, a disease associated with abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of cardiolipin causing cardiomyopathy and neutropenia, has displayed the importance of cardiolipin in mitochondrial functionality. Cardiolipin effects mitochondrial bioenergetics by providing essential structural and functional support to proteins localized within the mitochondria. Specifically, interaction of cardiolipin with cytochrome oxidase and adenine nucleotide translocase is required in order for both of these mitochondrial enzymes to maintain activity.

Cardiolipin has been shown to perform a role in a number of other specific biological activities, including oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, cholesterol translocation and gene
In plants, ATP is mainly regenerated in mitochondria and chloroplasts, but with the exception of vacuoles, virtually each organelle (Geigenberger et al., 2010) and the apoplast (Roux and Steinebrunner, 2007) has to be provided with this metabolite. Due to the substantial molecular size of adenylates and due to the high charge of this class of molecules, corresponding membranes must harbor specific proteins that allow transport across this physical barrier. PM-ANT1 fulfils basic criteria required for ATP transporters as this protein exhibits high structural similarity to the well-characterized ADP/ATP carriers AAC1-3, which reside in the inner mitochondrial membrane (Figure 1; Haferkamp et al., 2002), shows three METS, and possess the highly conserved RRRMMM motif (Figure 1) critical for ATP transport (Nelson et al., 1993; Nelson and Douglas, 1993). Thus, it was not surprising to observe that PM-ANT1 transports adenylates (Figure 2C, Table 1) and fully legitimates the position of PM-ANT1 as one ...
Previous positions. Assistant Professor, University of Copenhagen (Frederiksberg, Denmark, 2014-2018). Post-doctoral researcher, John Innes Centre (Norwich, UK, 2011-2014). Post-doctoral fellow, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, USA, 2010-2011). Post-doctoral researcher, University of Copenhagen (Frederiksberg, Denmark, 2008-2010). Academic degrees. PhD in Plant Biotechnology, University of Copenhagen, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology (Frederiksberg, Denmark, 2008). Licenciatura in Chemistry, PUCP University, Chemistry Department (Lima, Peru, 2004). Bachelor in Science, PUCP University, Faculty of Sciences and Engineering (Lima, Peru, 2003). ...
Mitochondrial swelling assay (PTP opening) - posted in Cell Biology: Hello.Anyone here with experience with the mitochondrial swelling assay for the measurement of the opening of the permeability transition pore? Im using the method that evaluates the decrease in absorbance at 540 nm. Im working with a fungus and theres nothing in the literature about this. I get a weird profile (see attachment).1) the temporal dynamics are quite different from what is ob...

Interaction of ADP, atractyloside, and gummiferin on the ADP translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane (Technical Report)...Interaction of ADP, atractyloside, and gummiferin on the ADP translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane (Technical Report)...

ETDEWEB / Search Results / Interaction of ADP, atractyloside, and gummiferin on the ADP translocase of the inner mitochondrial ... "Interaction of ADP, atractyloside, and gummiferin on the ADP translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane." France. ... Vignais, P V, Vignais, P M, Defaye, G, Lauquin, G, Doussiere, J, Chabert, J, & Brandolin, G. Interaction of ADP, atractyloside ... Interaction of ADP, atractyloside, and gummiferin on the ADP translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/etdeweb/biblio/4938824

Atractyloside is a glycoside found in certain plants that, Ask an ExpertAtractyloside is a glycoside found in certain plants that, Ask an Expert

atractyloside is a glycoside found in certain plants that leads to herbal poisoning worldwide wspecially in africa and, Hire ... Atractyloside is a glycoside found in certain plants that leads to herbal poisoning worldwide, wspecially in Africa and the ...
more infohttp://www.mywordsolution.com/question/atractyloside-is-a-glycoside-found-in-certain/928931

Effects of carnitine and atractyloside on canine cardiac electrical activity.<...Effects of carnitine and atractyloside on canine cardiac electrical activity.<...

Effects of carnitine and atractyloside on canine cardiac electrical activity.. R. F. Gilmour, Eric Williams, B. B. Farmer, D. P ... Gilmour, R. F., Williams, E., Farmer, B. B., & Zipes, D. P. (1981). Effects of carnitine and atractyloside on canine cardiac ... Gilmour, R. F. ; Williams, Eric ; Farmer, B. B. ; Zipes, D. P. / Effects of carnitine and atractyloside on canine cardiac ... Sodium atractyloside (750 mumol/10 min ia) did not produce electrogram changes. We conclude that 1) carnitine does not ...
more infohttps://indiana.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/effects-of-carnitine-and-atractyloside-on-canine-cardiac-electric-2

Effects of atractyloside and palmitoyl coenzyme A on calcium transport in cardiac mitochondria<...Effects of atractyloside and palmitoyl coenzyme A on calcium transport in cardiac mitochondria<...

Effects of atractyloside and palmitoyl coenzyme A on calcium transport in cardiac mitochondria. Archives of Biochemistry and ... Effects of atractyloside and palmitoyl coenzyme A on calcium transport in cardiac mitochondria. / Asimakis, G. K.; Sordahl, ... Asimakis, G. K., & Sordahl, L. A. (1977). Effects of atractyloside and palmitoyl coenzyme A on calcium transport in cardiac ... Asimakis, G. K. ; Sordahl, Louis A. / Effects of atractyloside and palmitoyl coenzyme A on calcium transport in cardiac ...
more infohttps://researchexperts.utmb.edu/en/publications/effects-of-atractyloside-and-palmitoyl-coenzyme-a-on-calcium-tran

In Vitro Cytotoxicity and In Vivo Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Xanthii Fructus and Its Processed ProductIn Vitro Cytotoxicity and In Vivo Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Xanthii Fructus and Its Processed Product

Atractyloside was frequently reported to be a toxic substance of Xanthii Fructus. The toxic mechanisms of atractyloside were ... 2.3.1. Preparation of Exposure Solution of Atractyloside Potassium Salt for In Vitro Assay. Atractyloside potassium salt (AL), ... Moreover, toxic effects induced by atractyloside might be mediated by its in vivo metabolite, which could not happen in our in ... D. K. Obatomi, N. T. K. Thanh, S. Brant, and P. H. Bach, "The toxic mechanism and metabolic effects of atractyloside in ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/403491/

Cholinergic synaptic vesicles from Torpedo marmorata contain an atractyloside‐binding protein related to the mitochondrial ADP...Cholinergic synaptic vesicles from Torpedo marmorata contain an atractyloside‐binding protein related to the mitochondrial ADP...

Cholinergic synaptic vesicles from Torpedo marmorata contain an atractyloside‐binding protein related to the mitochondrial ADP/ ... Stadler, H., & Fenwick, E. M. (1983). Cholinergic synaptic vesicles from Torpedo marmorata contain an atractyloside‐binding ... Cholinergic synaptic vesicles from Torpedo marmorata contain an atractyloside‐binding protein related to the mitochondrial ADP/ ...
more infohttps://pure.mpg.de/pubman/faces/ViewItemOverviewPage.jsp?itemId=item_3034340

Herbal Hepatotoxicity | Springer for Research & DevelopmentHerbal Hepatotoxicity | Springer for Research & Development

Stewart MJ, Steenkamp V (2000) The biochemistry and toxicity of atractyloside: a review. Ther Drug Monit 22(6):641-649PubMed ... Obatomi DK, Bach PH (1998) Biochemistry and toxicology of the diterpenoid glycoside atractyloside. Food Chem Toxicol 36(4):335- ... Atractyloside-induced release of cathepsin B, a protease with caspase-processing activity. FEBS Lett 438(3):150-158PubMed ... Fluorometric titration of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier protein in muscle homogenate with atractyloside derivatives. Anal ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-43806-1_12

Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase is modified oxidatively during aging | PNASMitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase is modified oxidatively during aging | PNAS

The reaction was carried out on ice and stopped after 10 sec by 100 μM atractyloside. The reaction mixture was then centrifuged ... 2,8-3H]Adenosine 5′-diphosphate ([3H]ADP) trisodium salt and atractyloside were purchased from Sigma. Rat anti-2,4- ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/95/22/12896?ijkey=99b83145af0b97b13c94757001713b15deabef6a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Comparison of the toxicities, bioactivities and chemical profiles of raw and processed Xanthii Fructus | BMC Complementary and...Comparison of the toxicities, bioactivities and chemical profiles of raw and processed Xanthii Fructus | BMC Complementary and...

Biochemistry and toxicology of the diterpenoid glycoside atractyloside. Food Chem Toxicol. 1998;36:335-46.View ArticlePubMed ... Carboxyatractyloside potassium salt (C31H43O18S2K3) was purchased from Merck (Merck Millipore, Taiwan). Atractyloside potassium ... A validated method for quantifying atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside in blood by HPLC-HRMS/MS, a non-fatal case of ... Comparative analysis of the contents of carboxyatractyloside and atractyloside in Xanthii Fructus and its processed products. ...
more infohttps://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-016-0994-3

Measurement of the energy-generating capacity of human muscle mitochondria: diagnostic procedure and application to human...Measurement of the energy-generating capacity of human muscle mitochondria: diagnostic procedure and application to human...

In case of an ANT deficiency, addition of atractyloside will have little or no effect on this oxidation rate. A decreased ... Incubation 5 measures the pyruvate oxidation rate in the presence of atractyloside. In the absence of exogenous ADP (incubation ... Because ATP cannot be transported through the mitochondrial membrane, atractyloside will further inhibit this residual ... mol/L atractyloside, pH 7.4. To regenerate ADP by creatine kinase in the 600g supernatant, 20 mmol/L creatine was added to all ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Measurement+of+the+energy-generating+capacity+of+human+muscle+...-a0209353130

Proliferation of Human Primary Myoblasts Is Associated with Altered Energy Metabolism in Dependence on Ageing In Vivo and In...Proliferation of Human Primary Myoblasts Is Associated with Altered Energy Metabolism in Dependence on Ageing In Vivo and In...

Next, atractyloside was added that almost totally abolished the succinate dependent respiration. Such a strong control of ... Further additions: ADP 1 mM, Rot: 10 [micro]M rotenone, Succ: 10 mM succinate, Atr: 0.1 mM atractyloside, Ant: 10 [micro]M ... The antimycin-sensitive respiration in the presence of atractyloside ([V.sub.atr] - [V.sub.ant]) was considered to represent ... atractyloside, antimycin A, TMPD, ascorbate, EDTA, glucose, Triton X-100, tris, PEP, and NADP were from Sigma. 2.2. Human Study ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Proliferation+of+Human+Primary+Myoblasts+Is+Associated+with+Altered+...-a0515125642

Plus itPlus it

Infusion of atractyloside (50 μM) significantly decreased basal rates of O2 uptake by 13% to a rate of 112 ± 3 μmol/g/h (n = 4, ... KCN (2 mM, A) or atractyloside (50 μM, B) dissolved in buffer (pH 7.4) was infused as indicated by arrows. Nicotine was infused ... Atractyloside is an effective inhibitor of this translocase (Klingenberg, 1976); therefore, perfused livers were infused with ... Infusion of atractyloside, potassium cyanide, or glucagon blocked the nicotine-induced increase in respiration. Intracellular ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/301/3/930

Frontiers | Treatment of Acute Liver Failure in Resource-Constrained Settings without Transplantation Facilities Can Be...Frontiers | Treatment of Acute Liver Failure in Resource-Constrained Settings without Transplantation Facilities Can Be...

2. Stewart MJ, Steenkamp V. The biochemistry and toxicity of atractyloside: a review. Ther Drug Monit (2000) 22:641-9. doi: ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2016.00031/full

Bcl-xL regulates mitochondrial energetics by stabilizing the inner membrane potential | JCBBcl-xL regulates mitochondrial energetics by stabilizing the inner membrane potential | JCB

... mouse cortex lysates were supplemented with 50 mM atractyloside. Samples were analyzed immediately, or time points were frozen ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/195/2/263.long

Abstract 3510: PAR1(1-26): The Putative Signal Peptide of Protease-Activated Receptor 1 Confers Potent Protection From...Abstract 3510: PAR1(1-26): The Putative Signal Peptide of Protease-Activated Receptor 1 Confers Potent Protection From...

Atractyloside, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opener also negated PAR1(1-26) cardioprotection. The ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/120/Suppl_18/S813.2

ADP/ATP translocase - WikipediaADP/ATP translocase - Wikipedia

Bruni A, Luciani S, Contessa AR (March 1964). "Inhibition by atractyloside of the binding of adenine-nucleotides to rat-liver ... The first family, which includes atractyloside (ATR) and carboxyatractyloside (CATR), binds to the ADP/ATP translocase from the ... uncovered an inhibitory effect of atractyloside on the energy-transfer system (oxidative phosphorylation) and ADP binding sites ... Kunji ER, Harding M (2003-09-26). "Projection structure of the atractyloside-inhibited mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ADP/ATP_translocase

Curculigoside attenuates myocardial ischemia‑reperfusion injury by inhibiting the opening of the mitochondrial permeability...Curculigoside attenuates myocardial ischemia‑reperfusion injury by inhibiting the opening of the mitochondrial permeability...

... atractyloside, a known MPTP opener, abrogated the protective effects of curculigoside. On the whole, the present study ...
more infohttps://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4513

Plus itPlus it

... atractyloside, another mitochondrial PTP opener, decreased transient KCa current frequency and amplitude (Fig. 3, C and D). ... and atractyloside (Atr, 100 μM; n = 4). *P , 0.05 vs. control. #P , 0.05 vs. TNF-α. ...
more infohttp://ajpcell.physiology.org/content/290/4/C964

WHO EMRO | Prognostic factors of Atractylis gummifera L. poisoning, Morocco | Volume 19, issue 11 | EMHJ volume 19, 2013WHO EMRO | Prognostic factors of Atractylis gummifera L. poisoning, Morocco | Volume 19, issue 11 | EMHJ volume 19, 2013

Stewart MJ, Steenkamp V. The biochemistry and toxicity of atractyloside: a review. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 2000, 22:641- ... This can be explained by the pathologic action of atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside, which involves inhibition of ... The toxic effect of this plant arises from 2 diterpenoid toxicants causing toxicity-atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside- ...
more infohttp://www.emro.who.int/emhj-vol-19-2013/11/prognostic-factors-of-atractylis-gummifera-l-poisoning-morocco.html

Lessons from Microglia Aging for the Link between Inflammatory Bone Disorders and Alzheimers DiseaseLessons from Microglia Aging for the Link between Inflammatory Bone Disorders and Alzheimer's Disease

K. Vancompernolle, F. van Herreweghe, G. Pynaert et al., "Atractyloside-induced release of cathepsin B, a protease with caspase ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2015/471342/ref/
  • It has been proposed that electrophysiological changes following coronary artery occlusion result from inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocase and that these changes can be reduced by carnitine infusion or reproduced by infusion of K+-atractyloside. (elsevier.com)
  • During normal perfusion, intra-arterial infusion of K+-atractyloside (750 mumol/10 min) or equimolar KCl produced similar reversible flattening of perfused zone electrograms. (elsevier.com)
  • Infusion of atractyloside, potassium cyanide, or glucagon blocked the nicotine-induced increase in respiration. (aspetjournals.org)