Identification of Atractylodes plants in Chinese herbs and formulations by random amplified polymorphic DNA. (1/30)AIM: An efficient, precise, and sensitive method for identifying Atractylodes plants has been established and will contribute significantly to quality control and scientific analysis in Chinese traditional medicine. METHODS: Twenty primers were applied for setting up the RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) markers of Atractylodes plants, Atractylodes lancea DC (A lancea DC), Atractylodes japonica Koidz (A japonica K), and Atractylodes ovata DC (A ovata DC). The primer OPF03, OPF05, and OPF14 could discriminate them successfully. The results were also able to apply on the Chinese formulations with Atractylodes purchased from local markets. RESULTS: RAPD was used to investigate phylogenetic relationships among and within closely related species. RAPD analysis reflects heritable changes in the nucleotides sequence in both the coding and noncoding regions, because it is conducted directly from the DNA level. This work first conducted RAPD analysis of Atractylodes plants to establish their RAPD makers. CONCLUSION: The RAPD markers could be applied extensively in the Chinese herbal formulations. (+info)
Glycosides of Atractylodes japonica. (2/30)From the water-soluble portion of the methanol extract of the fresh rhizome of Atractylodes japonica, five new sesquiterpenoid glycosides, including a compound having a secoguaiane skeleton, and a new aromatic compound glycoside were isolated together with ten known compounds. Their structures were clarified by spectral investigation. (+info)
Glycosides of Atractylodes lancea. (3/30)Five sesquiterpenoid glycosides (two guaiane-type glycosides and three eudesmane-type glucosides) and a glucoside of an acetylene derivative were newly isolated from the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of Atractylodes lancea rhizome together with 26 known compounds. Their structures were characterized as atractyloside A 14-O-beta-D-fructofuranoside, (1S,4S,5S,7R,10S)-10,11,14-trihydroxyguai-3-one 11-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (5R,7R,10S)-isopterocarpolone beta-D-glucopyranoside, cis-atractyloside I, (2R,3R,5R,7R,10S)-atractyloside G 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and (2E,8E)-2,8-decadiene-4,6-diyne-1,10-diol 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic investigation. The presence of six characteristic guaiane-type glucosides in both rhizomes of A. lancea and Atractylodes japonica suggested a close chemotaxonomic relationship between them. (+info)
Glycosides of Atractylodes ovata. (4/30)A new coumarin glycoside and a new glycoside of an acetylene derivative were isolated from the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of Atractylodes ovata rhizome together with eight known compounds. Their structures were characterized as scopoletin beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and (2E)-2-decene-4,6-diyne-1,8-diol 8-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, respectively, based on chemical and spectroscopic investigations. A comparison of the polar constituents among Atractylodes japonica, Atractylodes lancea, and A. ovata is led to the conclusion that A. ovata is distinguishable from A. lancea and A. japonica, as also shown by phylogenetic analysis. (+info)
Comparative pharmacokinetic behavior of glycyrrhetic acid after oral administration of glycyrrhizic acid and Gancao-Fuzi-Tang. (5/30)Comparative pharmacokinetic profiles of glycyrrhetic acid (GA), glycyrrhizic acid (GL) and Gancao-Fuzi-Tang (KF) after oral administration of GL and KF were studied. Plasma samples taken from rats were acidified with acetic acid and GA was extracted with isopropanol-ethyl ether (1 : 1). Separation of GA was performed on a C(18) column with the detection wavelength set at 254 nm. The mobile phase was methanol-acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (58 : 18 : 24 : 1 v/v). The results showed that the mean residence time and area under the curve of GA in KF-administered rats were 27.6+/-1.5 h and 122.8+/-46.7 microg.h/ml respectively, which were significantly different from those in GL-administered rats (15.0+/-2.0 h and 40.9+/-9.6 microg.h/ml, respectively). The results suggest the increased effect of GA after oral administration of KF in comparison with GL. (+info)
Atractylodes japonica suppresses lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. (6/30)Atractylodes japonica has traditionally been used for the treatment of pain and arthritis. The effect of Atractylodes japonica against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), nitric oxide detection, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) immunoassay in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. The aqueous extract of Atractylodes japonica suppressed nitric oxide production and PGE2 synthesis by inhibition of the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated enhancement of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNAs expressions in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results suggest that Atractylodes japonica exerts anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects probably by suppression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expressions. (+info)
A new acetylenic compound from the rhizomes of Atractylodes chinensis and its absolute configuration. (7/30)A new acetylenic compound "atractyloyne", (3S,4E,6E,12E)-1-isovaleryloxy-tetradeca-4,6,12-triene-8,10-diyne-3,14-diol (1) was isolated from the rhizomes of Atractylodes chinensis (Compositae) together with a known compound (4E,6E,12E)-3-isovaleryloxy-tetradeca-4,6,12-triene-8,10-diyne-1,14-diol (2). These structures were determined on the basis of the spectroscopic data and chemical evidence, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by the modified 2-methoxy-2-trifluoromethylphenylacetic acid (MTPA) method. (+info)
Identification of medicinal Atractylodes based on ITS sequences of nrDNA. (8/30)Dried rhizomes of five species of Atractylodes (A. japonica, A. macrocephala, A. lancea, A. chinensis, and A. koreana), Compositae, have been used as crude drugs mainly for the treatment of stomach disorders and for their diuretic properties in Chinese and Japanese traditional medicines. The identification of the botanical origins of these crude drugs is generally difficult from their morphological and chemical features only. In this study, for identification with more reliable, nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of five species of medicinal Atractylodes were sequenced. As a result, specific ITS genotypes were recognized by each species. The four species (A. japonica, A. macrocephala, A. lancea, and A. chinensis) prescribed in Chinese and Japanese Pharmacopoeias as botanical origins of crude Atractylodes drugs could be distinguished by their ITS sequences because they had difference genotypes on the ITS sequences. However, the genotype of A. koreana was the same as that of A. chinensis. Additionally, hybrids between A. lancea and A. chinensis were also recognized as nucleotide additives on their ITS sequences. In this study, several morphological characteristics were researched by their genotype, too. As this result, the hybrids recognized from the genetic analysis had intermediate morphological characteristics between A. lancea and A. chinensis. It was also recognized that A. lancea and A. chinensis except for their hybrids were significant differences. It is therefore suggested that ITS sequences of nrDNA would be useful for the identification of the crude drugs derived from Atractylodes species and their interspecific hybridizations. (+info)
Atractylodes is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants in the family Asteraceae, native to East Asia. There are two main species that are used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), namely Atractylodes lancea and Atractylodes chinensis. These plants are known as "Bai Zhu" and "Cang Zhu," respectively, in TCM.
The rhizomes of these plants are used in TCM for their medicinal properties. They are believed to have various benefits, such as boosting the immune system, improving digestion, regulating menstruation, and alleviating diarrhea. Some studies suggest that Atractylodes may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine the safety and efficacy of using Atractylodes for medicinal purposes.
It's important to note that herbal remedies can interact with other medications and may have side effects, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any herbal supplements.
Eudesmane is a subclass of sesquiterpenes, which are organic compounds consisting of three isoprene units and having the molecular formula C15H24. Sesquiterpenes are derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) in the mevalonate pathway and are biosynthesized through a series of enzymatic reactions.
Eudesmane sesquiterpenes are characterized by a unique carbon skeleton with a cyclohexane ring fused to a bicyclic system consisting of a cyclopentane and a cyclobutane ring. They can be found in various plants, fungi, and insects, and some eudesmane derivatives have been shown to possess biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties.
Eudesmane sesquiterpenes can exist in different forms, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters, depending on the functional groups attached to the carbon skeleton. Some examples of eudesmane sesquiterpenes include α-eudesmol, β-eudesmol, and eudesma-1,4-diene.
A rhizome is not typically used as a medical term, but it is a term borrowed from botany that has been adopted in some areas of medicine, particularly in psychiatry and psychotherapy.
In its original botanical sense, a rhizome is a horizontal stem of a plant that grows underground, often sending out roots and shoots from its nodes. This growth pattern is contrasted with that of a root system, which grows downward, and a stem system, which grows upward.
In psychiatry and psychotherapy, the term "rhizome" has been used as a metaphor to describe a non-hierarchical and decentralized approach to understanding mental processes and subjectivity. The rhizome model emphasizes the complexity, multiplicity, and interconnectedness of these processes, and rejects simplistic or reductionist explanations that focus on a single cause or origin. Instead, it encourages a more holistic and dynamic view of mental life, one that is open to multiple perspectives and interpretations.
It's important to note that the use of the term "rhizome" in this context is metaphorical and not medical in the strict sense. It is a way of thinking about mental processes and subjectivity that has been influenced by poststructuralist and feminist theories, among others.
A "threatened abortion" is a medical term used to describe a situation in which there are symptoms that suggest an impending miscarriage, such as vaginal bleeding and/or cramping during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed and the fetal heartbeat is still present. This condition is estimated to occur in up to 20-30% of all pregnancies, and while it can be a source of anxiety for pregnant individuals, it does not necessarily mean that a miscarriage will definitely occur.
It's important to note that if you are experiencing any symptoms of a threatened abortion, you should contact your healthcare provider right away for evaluation and guidance on how to manage the situation. They may recommend bed rest, pelvic rest, or other treatments to help support the pregnancy and reduce the risk of miscarriage.
Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes, which are large and diverse group of naturally occurring organic compounds derived from isoprene, a five-carbon molecule. Sesquiterpenes are composed of three isoprene units, making them 15-carbon structures. They are synthesized in plants, fungi, and some insects, and can be found in various essential oils, resins, and other natural products.
Guaiane is a subclass of sesquiterpenes characterized by a particular carbon skeleton structure. Guaiane-type sesquiterpenes contain a unique bicyclic ring system with a five-membered ring fused to a seven-membered ring. This class of compounds includes various natural products, some of which have been found to exhibit biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effects.
Examples of guaiane sesquiterpenes include:
1. Guaiol: A compound found in the wood of the guaiacum tree, it has been used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties.
2. Bulnesin: A compound isolated from the bulnesia sarmientoi tree, it has shown potential as an anticancer agent.
3. Elephantopusin: A compound found in elephantopus mollis, it has been studied for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
It is important to note that while these compounds have demonstrated biological activities, further research is necessary to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications.
Chinese herbal drugs, also known as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), refer to a system of medicine that has been practiced in China for thousands of years. It is based on the belief that the body's vital energy, called Qi, must be balanced and flowing freely for good health. TCM uses various techniques such as herbal therapy, acupuncture, dietary therapy, and exercise to restore balance and promote healing.
Chinese herbal drugs are usually prescribed in the form of teas, powders, pills, or tinctures and may contain one or a combination of herbs. The herbs used in Chinese medicine are typically derived from plants, minerals, or animal products. Some commonly used Chinese herbs include ginseng, astragalus, licorice root, and cinnamon bark.
It is important to note that the use of Chinese herbal drugs should be under the guidance of a qualified practitioner, as some herbs can interact with prescription medications or have side effects. Additionally, the quality and safety of Chinese herbal products can vary widely depending on the source and manufacturing process.
List of Asteraceae genera
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Shi Quan Da Bu Wan
Soups in East Asian culture
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Sì miào wán
Dit da jow
List of virus species
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- Atractylodes CO2 is a rhizome and an important medicinal herb found in many classical Chinese medical prescriptions. (originalswissaromatics.com)
- Cang Zhu (Atractylodes Rhizome, Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae,蒼術 / 苍术) - 1 lb is backordered and will ship as soon as it is back in stock. (theherbdepot.ca)
- Atractylodes Rhizome clears away wind & dampness, activates spleen and promotes sweating. (theherbdepot.ca)
- Ingredients: Bupleurum root (chai hu), Dong quai root (dang gui),Chinese peony root without bark (bai shao), Bai-zhu atractylodes rhizome (bai zhu). (sunten.com)
- Study on the Origin Traceability of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (sioc-journal.cn)
- We explored the characteristics of mineral elements of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (sioc-journal.cn)
- Yu, Z 2010, ' Anticancer effects and mechanisms of sesquiterpene compounds isolated from Atractylodes Macrocephala in B16 melanoma cells ', The 9th Meeting of the Consortium for Globalization of Chinese Medicine (CGCM) = 第九屆中藥全球化聯盟國際研討會, 23/08/10 - 25/08/10 pp. (edu.hk)
- Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot tips of Chinese medicinal plant Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (usda.gov)
- Atractylodes ovata (Thunb. (theferns.info)
- Atractylodes has an aromatic, slightly acrid, non toxic and sweet and it is a little sticky when chewed. (acupunctureandbeauty.ie)
- Alisma and Atractylodes (AA) is a classic traditional Chinese medicinal formula that first appeared in the "Synopsis of Prescriptions of the Golden Chamber. (hindawi.com)
- Atractylodes is a group of flowering plants native to eastern Asia. (wellkasa.app)
- People use atractylodes for stomach pain, common cold, lung cancer, obesity, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses. (wellkasa.app)
- Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting: Atractylodes might slow blood clotting and increase the risk of bleeding. (wellkasa.app)
- Check out WRI's NEW Complete Collection PLUS+ , a "Living" Resource, to find out more about choosing atractylodes from both a scientific and an energetic perspective. (whiterabbitinstituteofhealing.com)
Native to eastern1
- Atractylodes is native to eastern Asia. (wikipedia.org)
- Taking atractylodes might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding disorders. (wellkasa.app)
- Atractylodes might increase the effects of hexobarbital. (wellkasa.app)
- Taking atractylodes along with medications that also slow blood clotting might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding. (wellkasa.app)
- Atractylodes might slow blood clotting. (wellkasa.app)
- The Herb is distinguished from bái zhú which is the white atractylodes rhizome from Atractylodes macrocephala, which is typically a cultivated plant , whereas Cāng zhú more often tends to be collected from the wild. (thenaturalherbalist.com)
- Astragalus Root (Premium Grade), Bai-Zhu Atractylodes Rhizome, and Siler Root. (herbspro.com)
- codonopsis root, astragalus root, bighead atractylodes rhizome, prepared licorice root, Chinese angelica root, motherwort, tangerine peel, cimicifuga rhizome, bupleurum root. (tcmtreatment.com)
- Atractylodes rhizome is Byaku-jutsu. (bvsalud.org)
Shen Ling Bai Zhu San1
- Shen Ling Bai Zhu San (Ginseng & Atractylodes), 2oz. (goldenneedleonline.com)
- 1. Two separate medicines come under the heading of Atractylodes: White ( Bai Zhu ) and Dark ( Cang Zhu ). (medicinetraditions.com)
- These include astragalus, codonopsis, atractylodes and Siberian eleuthero root. (vitanetonline.com)
- Atractylodes japonica is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in). (pfaf.org)
- Ginseng and Atractylodes. (acupuncture-and-chinese-medicine.com)
- 3. Poor digestion, nausea, loose bowels from Spleen weakness with Damp, Atractylodes Bai Zhu with Orange or Tangerine peel. (medicinetraditions.com)
- El rizoma de Atractylodes es Byaku-jutsu. (bvsalud.org)
- Alismatis rhizoma decoction ( AD ), a classic traditional Chinese medicinal formula used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebral diseases, consists of the combination of Alisma orientalis and Atractylodes macrocephala [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The same can be said of the combination of White and Dark Atractylodes. (medicinetraditions.com)
- Flora of China Vol. 20-21 Page 39 苍术属 cang shu shu Atractylodes Candolle English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
- 3. The two Atractylodes are similar to the Inula (Elecampane) and Costus combination often used in Tibet and India. (medicinetraditions.com)