Multisubunit enzyme complexes that synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE from energy sources such as ions traveling through channels.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
An enzyme that activates arginine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.19.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An enzyme that activates lysine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.6.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.12.
An enzyme that activates methionine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.10.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Mercury-containing benzoic acid derivatives.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
An enzyme that activates glutamic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.17.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP into a series of (2'-5') linked oligoadenylates and pyrophosphate in the presence of double-stranded RNA. These oligonucleotides activate an endoribonuclease (RNase L) which cleaves single-stranded RNA. Interferons can act as inducers of these reactions. EC 2.7.7.-.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
An enzyme that activates tryptophan with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.2.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.
The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The process of embryo initiation in culture from vegetative, non-gametic, sporophytic, or somatic plant cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

F0 complex of the Escherichia coli ATP synthase. Not all monomers of the subunit c oligomer are involved in F1 interaction. (1/160)

The antigenic determinants of mAbs against subunit c of the Escherichia coli ATP synthase were mapped by ELISA using overlapping synthetic heptapeptides. All epitopes recognized are located in the hydrophilic loop region and are as follows: 31-LGGKFLE-37, 35-FLEGAAR-41, 36-LEGAAR-41 and 36-LEGAARQ-42. Binding studies with membrane vesicles of different orientation revealed that all mAbs bind to everted membrane vesicles independent of the presence or absence of the F1 part. Although the hydrophilic region of subunit c and particularly the highly conserved residues A40, R41, Q42 and P43 are known to interact with subunits gamma and epsilon of the F1 part, the mAb molecules have no effect on the function of F0. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that the F1 part and the mAb molecule(s) are bound simultaneously to the F0 complex suggesting that not all c subunits are involved in F1 interaction. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that this interaction is fixed, which means that subunits gamma and epsilon do not switch between the c subunits during catalysis and furthermore, a complete rotation of the subunit c oligomer modified with mAb(s) along the stator of the F1F0 complex, proposed to be composed of at least subunits b and delta, seems to be unlikely.  (+info)

Chemical mechanism of ATP synthase. Magnesium plays a pivotal role in formation of the transition state where ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate. (2/160)

The chemical mechanism by which ATP synthases catalyze the synthesis of ATP remains unknown despite the recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structures of two forms of the F(1) catalytic sector (subunit stoichiometry, alpha(3)beta(3)gammadeltaepsilon). Lacking is critical information about the chemical events taking place at the catalytic site of each beta-subunit in the transition state. In an earlier report (Ko, Y. H., Bianchet, M. A., Amzel, L.M., and Pedersen, P. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 18875-18881), we provided evidence for transition state formation in the presence of Mg(2+), ADP, and orthovanadate (V(i)), a photoreactive phosphate analog with a trigonal bipyramidal geometry resembling that of the gamma-P of ATP in the transition state of enzymes like myosin. In the presence of ultraviolet light and O(2,) the MgADP.V(i)-F(1) complex was cleaved within the P-loop (GGAGVGKT) of a single beta-subunit at alanine 158, implicating this residue as within contact distance of the gamma-P of ATP in the transition state. Here, we report that ADP, although facilitating transition state formation, is not essential. In the presence of Mg(2+) and V(i) alone the catalytic activity of the resultant MgV(i)-F(1) complex is inhibited to nearly the same extent as that observed for the MgADP. V(i)-F(1) complex. Inhibition is not observed with ADP, Mg(2+), or V(i) alone. Significantly, in the presence of ultraviolet light and O(2,) the MgV(i)-F(1) complex is cleaved also within the P-loop of a single beta-subunit at alanine 158 as confirmed by Western blot analyses with two different antibodies, by N-terminal sequence analyses, and by quantification of the amount of unreacted beta-subunits. These novel findings indicate that Mg(2+) plays a pivotal role in transition state formation during ATP synthesis catalyzed by ATP synthases, a role that involves both its preferential coordination with P(i) and the repositioning of the P-loop to bring the nonpolar alanine 158 into the catalytic pocket. A reaction scheme for ATP synthases depicting a role for Mg(2+) in transition state formation is proposed here for the first time.  (+info)

Catalytic activities of mitochondrial ATP synthase in patients with mitochondrial DNA T8993G mutation in the ATPase 6 gene encoding subunit a. (3/160)

We investigated the biochemical phenotype of the mtDNA T8993G point mutation in the ATPase 6 gene, associated with neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), in three patients from two unrelated families. All three carried >80% mutant genome in platelets and were manifesting clinically various degrees of the NARP phenotype. Coupled submitochondrial particles prepared from platelets capable of succinate-sustained ATP synthesis were studied using very sensitive and rapid luminometric and fluorescence methods. A sharp decrease (>95%) in the succinate-sustained ATP synthesis rate of the particles was found, but both the ATP hydrolysis rate and ATP-driven proton translocation (when the protons flow from the matrix to the cytosol) were minimally affected. The T8993G mutation changes the highly conserved residue Leu(156) to Arg in the ATPase 6 subunit (subunit a). This subunit, together with subunit c, is thought to cooperatively catalyze proton translocation and rotate, one with respect to the other, during the catalytic cycle of the F(1)F(0) complex. Our results suggest that the T8993G mutation induces a structural defect in human F(1)F(0)-ATPase that causes a severe impairment of ATP synthesis. This is possibly due to a defect in either the vectorial proton transport from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix or the coupling of proton flow through F(0) to ATP synthesis in F(1). Whatever mechanism is involved, this leads to impaired ATP synthesis. On the other hand, ATP hydrolysis that involves proton flow from the matrix to the cytosol is essentially unaffected.  (+info)

Supercomplexes in the respiratory chains of yeast and mammalian mitochondria. (4/160)

Around 30-40 years after the first isolation of the five complexes of oxidative phosphorylation from mammalian mitochondria, we present data that fundamentally change the paradigm of how the yeast and mammalian system of oxidative phosphorylation is organized. The complexes are not randomly distributed within the inner mitochondrial membrane, but assemble into supramolecular structures. We show that all cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is bound to cytochrome c reductase (complex III), which exists in three forms: the free dimer, and two supercomplexes comprising an additional one or two complex IV monomers. The distribution between these forms varies with growth conditions. In mammalian mitochondria, almost all complex I is assembled into supercomplexes comprising complexes I and III and up to four copies of complex IV, which guided us to present a model for a network of respiratory chain complexes: a 'respirasome'. A fraction of total bovine ATP synthase (complex V) was isolated in dimeric form, suggesting that a dimeric state is not limited to S.cerevisiae, but also exists in mammalian mitochondria.  (+info)

Differential regulation of exonic regulatory elements for muscle-specific alternative splicing during myogenesis and cardiogenesis. (5/160)

Muscle-specific isoform of the mitochondrial ATP synthase gamma subunit (F(1)gamma) was generated by alternative splicing, and exon 9 of the gene was found to be lacking particularly in skeletal muscle and heart tissue. Recently, we reported that alternative splicing of exon 9 was induced by low serum or acidic media in mouse myoblasts, and that this splicing required de novo protein synthesis of a negative regulatory factor (Ichida, M., Endo, H., Ikeda, U., Matsuda, C., Ueno, E., Shimada, K., and Kagawa, Y. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8492-8501; Hayakawa, M., Endo, H., Hamamoto, T., and Kagawa, Y. (1998) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 251, 603-608). In the present report, we identified a cis-acting element on the muscle-specific alternatively spliced exon of F(1)gamma gene by an in vivo splicing system using cultured cells and transgenic mice. We constructed a F(1)gamma wild-type minigene, containing the full-length gene from exon 8 to exon 10, and two mutants; one mutant involved a pyrimidine-rich substitution on exon 9, whereas the other was a purine-rich substitution, abbreviated as F(1)gamma Pu-del and F(1)gamma Pu-rich mutants, respectively. Based on an in vivo splicing assay using low serum- or acid-stimulated splicing induction system in mouse myoblasts, Pu-del mutation inhibited exon inclusion, indicating that a Pu-del mutation would disrupt an exonic splicing enhancer. On the other hand, the Pu-rich mutation blocked muscle-specific exon exclusion following both inductions. Next, we produced transgenic mice bearing both mutant minigenes and analyzed their splicing patterns in tissues. Based on an analysis of F(1)gamma Pu-del minigene transgenic mice, the purine nucleotide of this element was shown to be necessary for exon inclusion in non-muscle tissue. In contrast, analysis of F(1)gamma Pu-rich minigene mice revealed that the F(1)gamma Pu-rich mutant exon had been excluded from heart and skeletal muscle of these transgenic mice, despite the fact mutation of the exon inhibited muscle-specific exon exclusion in myotubes of early embryonic stage. These results suggested that the splicing regulatory mechanism underlying F(1)gamma pre-mRNA differed between myotubes and myofibers during myogenesis and cardiogenesis.  (+info)

Catalytic site forms and controls in ATP synthase catalysis. (6/160)

A suggested minimal scheme for substrate binding by and interconversion of three forms of the catalytic sites of the ATP synthase is presented. Each binding change, that drives simultaneous interchange of the three catalytic site forms, requires a 120 degrees rotation of the gamma with respect to the beta subunits. The binding of substrate(s) at two catalytic sites is regarded as sufficing for near maximal catalytic rates to be attained. Although three sites do not need to be filled for rapid catalysis, during rapid bisite catalysis some enzyme may be transiently present with three sites filled. Forms with preferential binding for ADP and P(i) or for ATP are considered to arise from the transition state and participate in other steps of the catalysis. Intermediate forms and steps that may be involved are evaluated. Experimental evidence for energy-dependent steps and for control of coupling to proton translocation and transition state forms are reviewed. Impact of relevant past data on present understanding of catalytic events is considered. In synthesis a key step is suggested in which proton translocation begins to deform an open site so as to increase the affinity for ADP and P(i), that then bind and pass through the transition state, and yield tightly bound ATP in one binding change. ADP binding appears to be a key parameter controlling rotation during synthesis. In hydrolysis ATP binding to a loose site likely precedes any proton translocation, with proton movement occurring as the tight site form develops. Aspects needing further study are noted. Characteristics of the related MgADP inhibition of the F(1) ATPases that have undermined many observations are summarized, and relations of three-site filling to catalysis are assessed.  (+info)

The epsilon subunit of bacterial and chloroplast F(1)F(0) ATPases. Structure, arrangement, and role of the epsilon subunit in energy coupling within the complex. (7/160)

Recent studies show that the epsilon subunit of bacterial and chloroplast F(1)F(0) ATPases is a component of the central stalk that links the F(1) and F(0) parts. This subunit interacts with alpha, beta and gamma subunits of F(1) and the c subunit ring of F(0). Along with the gamma subunit, epsilon is a part of the rotor that couples events at the three catalytic sites sequentially with proton translocation through the F(0) part. Structural data on the epsilon subunit when separated from the complex and in situ are reviewed, and the functioning of this polypeptide in coupling within the ATP synthase is considered.  (+info)

The rotary binding change mechanism of ATP synthases. (8/160)

The F(0)F(1) ATP synthase functions as a rotary motor where subunit rotation driven by a current of protons flowing through F(0) drives the binding changes in F(1) that are required for net ATP synthesis. Recent work that has led to the identification of components of the rotor and stator is reviewed. In addition, a model is proposed to describe the transmission of energy from four proton transport steps to the synthesis of one ATP. Finally, some of the requirements for efficient energy coupling by a rotary binding change mechanism are considered.  (+info)

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ITV has appointed travel management company ATPI as its sole travel management company (TMC) in the UK. The multi-year contract sees ATPI take responsibility for travel logistics, with a keen eye on supporting the organisation reach its sustainability targets. Working to create the biggest shows with the smallest environmental footprint, ATPIs sustainability and technology credentials, global footprint, years of experience in production travel and moving large groups of people, were all factors supporting the appointment. ATPI will work closely with ITV to
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1IJP: Structure of Ala(20) --> Pro/Pro(64) --> Ala substituted subunit c of Escherichia coli ATP synthase in which the essential proline is switched between transmembrane helices.
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Last year, the University of Waikato and NeSI collaborated on a masters paper to provide a practical hands-on introduction to using national-scale research facility such as NeSI. Cristal Bader, an honours student studying enzyme kinetics and using molecular dynamics at University of Waikato, was one of the first participants in that pilot paper. Building on the knowledge and skills she gained in the paper, Cristal was able to use NeSIs Mahuika supercomputer to computationally model the enzyme she was studying.. Participating in the paper enabled Cristal to use her computational research as part of her honours thesis, and has also equipped her with valuable skills to take forward into her research career. We asked Cristal to share some of the highlights of her experience taking the paper and accessing NeSI as a first-time user.. * * * * * * * * * * The University of Waikato ran a supercomputing paper for the first time this year, so I took it as part of my honours degree. The course took 12 ...
Free medical insurance ,a href= http://www.clsecurities.com/mutualfunds.html ,500 mg ciprofloxacin,/a, Narrating their plight, one of the ostracized child said, Two years ago, our father died of AIDS and subsequently our mother too got infected, and she succumbed to AIDS last month. We used to live with our relatives in the village, but they also threw us out. Our father was a truck driver and after contracting AIDS, the treatment continued for almost 8-9 months. However, there was no tangible improvement in his health conditions. Soon after this, our uncles and other relatives spread rumour that our entire family is infected by the disease and forced us to move out of the village ...
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ATP Synthase : First Look The following images attempt to illustrate how ATP synthase produces ATP and emphasize the key steps in this process. Clicking on each of the thumbnail images will bring up a larger, labeled version of the described scene.. To see the Flash movie for the following sequence of images, click here.. ...
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ATP synthase link the phosphorylation of ADP to ETC during chemiosmosis,resulting in the production of ATP Impermeable to H+ to allow formation and maintenance of ...
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鈉鉀泵可以將細胞外相對細胞内較低濃度的鉀離子送進細胞,並將細胞内相對細胞外較低濃度的鈉離子送出細胞。經由以具放射性的鈉、鉀離子標定,可以發現鈉、鉀離子都會經過這個通道,鈉、鉀離子的濃度在細胞膜兩側也都是相互依賴的,所以顯示了鈉、鉀離子都可以經過這個載體運輸。目前已知鈉鉀泵需消耗ATP,並可以將三個鈉離子送出細胞,同時將兩個鉀離子送進細胞。 鈉鉀泵在1950年被丹麥的科學家延斯·斯科(Jens Skou)發現,它代表了我們對離子進出細胞的認識的一個重要的里程碑。它也在細胞刺激上有著重要的意義,像神經細胞的衝動,就是用鈉鉀泵幫助維持細胞電位使神經衝動得以傳輸。 ...
鈉鉀泵可以將細胞外相對細胞内較低濃度的鉀離子送進細胞,並將細胞内相對細胞外較低濃度的鈉離子送出細胞。經由以具放射性的鈉、鉀離子標定,可以發現鈉、鉀離子都會經過這個通道,鈉、鉀離子的濃度在細胞膜兩側也都是相互依賴的,所以顯示了鈉、鉀離子都可以經過這個載體運輸。目前已知鈉鉀泵需消耗ATP,並可以將三個鈉離子送出細胞,同時將兩個鉀離子送進細胞。 鈉鉀泵在1950年被丹麥的科學家延斯·斯科(Jens Skou)發現,它代表了我們對離子進出細胞的認識的一個重要的里程碑。它也在細胞刺激上有著重要的意義,像神經細胞的衝動,就是用鈉鉀泵幫助維持細胞電位使神經衝動得以傳輸。 ...
Ahmad Z. Identification of Phosphate Binding Residues in the Catalytic Sites of Escherichia coli ATP Synthase. Poster presented at 6th Annual Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Conference; Kirksville, MO; November 1, 2014.. Ahmad Z. Significance of α-subunit VISITDG Sequence Residues in the Catalytic Sites of Escherichia coli ATP Synthase. Poster presented at the FASEB Experimental Biology 2014 Conference; San Diego, CA; April 26-30, 2014. Abstract published in FASEB J. 2014 Apr;28(1): Supplement LB247.. Barrett KL [student], Kondrashov P, Kondrashova T, Clay IS [student], Johnson J. Image Recognition and Development of Hands-on Sonographic Skills by First-Year Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine Students as Assessed by Practical Ultrasound Skill Assessment Exam. Poster presented at the 3rd Annual Missouri Osteopathic Student and Post-graduate Research Symposium; Missouri Osteopathic Annual Convention; Branson, MO; April 30-May 4, 2014.. Baum KR [student], Pannu M [student], Choudhry ...
Press release - business news - Global 3D Printing Titanium Market 2018 -Cristal, OSAKA Titanium, Fengxiang Titanium Material & Powder - published on openPR.com
1. In previous studies regulation of the F1F0-ATPase of mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase) has been demonstrated in rat cardiomyocytes, canine mycocardium and skeletal muscle from children. The aim of the present study was to examine regulation of ATP synthase in human myocardium in response to different metabolic states.. 2. Biopsy material was obtained from 10 children undergoing cardiac surgery. Mitochondria in the post-nuclear supernatant were incubated under different metabolic conditions for 15 min and then broken by sonication. ATP synthase was measured spectrophotometrically using a coupled enzyme assay.. 3. ATP synthase can be rapidly measured in sonicated preparations of heart mitochondria from children. We show that direct regulation at the level of ATP synthase occurs in these mitochondria. ATP synthase capacity is decreased in response to blocking of the respiratory chain by cyanide (mimicking anoxia) or uncoupling of mitochondria, falling to 76% and 66% of control values ...
Read Genetics Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Proteins by Homework Help Classof1 with Rakuten Kobo. The mitochondrial ATP synthase is composed of multiple proteins, and some of these proteins are encoded by genes in the...
This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the gamma subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. This gene also has a pseudogene on chromosome 14.
Les proteïnes HMG (High Mobility Group) són un grup de proteïnes cromosòmiques no histones que van ser anomenades així degut a la seva mobilitat electroforètica. Aquest conjunt de proteïnes està dividit en tres grans subfamílies: les HMGA, les HMGB i les HMGN. Les proteïnes HMGA poden modificar la conformació espacial del DNA, regulant (positivament o negativament) lexpressió de nombrosos gens i influint en molts processos cel·lulars normals com ara el creixement, proliferació, diferenciació i mort cel·lular, i la reparació del DNA. També estan relacionades amb diferents processos patològics, entre ells lobesitat, la diabetis, larteriosclerosi i el càncer. Sha observat com, en molts tipus de càncers, hi ha una sobre-expressió daquestes proteïnes. Se sap que la interacció HMGA-DNA es dóna a través duns motius dunió al DNA anomenats AT-hooks, els quals suneixen a regions riques en adenines (A) i timines (T) del DNA. En les proteïnes HMGA es troben tres motius ...
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ATP, which stands for adenosine triphosphate, is the sole source of energy for all human metabolism, yet very little of this fuel is actually stored in the body. ANSWER:Electrons gain energy as they move down the chain. When ADP and Pi are bound to ATP synthetase, the excess of protons (H+) that has formed outside of the mitochondria (an H+ gradient) moves back into the mitochondrion through the enzyme complex. In the first, intermediate compounds of the central routes of metabolism are diverted from further catabolism and are channeled into pathways that usually lead to the formation of the relatively small molecules that serve as the building blocks, or precursors, of macromolecules. Passage of protons (H+) through it from inside to outside generates ATP. Which energy system produces ATP at the slowest rate? Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle) In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate enters … Most of the ATP in cells is produced by the enzyme ATP synthase, which converts ...
Cristal Therapeutics is a clinical stage biopharma company developing the next generation nanomedicines based on its proprietary CriPec platform to treat various diseases, including cancer.. ...
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creation: Norine Team, [CRIStAL (UMR CNRS 9189), ex-LIFL, France, Charles Viollette Institute, ProBioGEM team, Lille, France, University of Lille, France] ...
name[Sonia Martínez] image[https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-XmZ9aFDWolQ/V7LMOZRuxoI/AAAAAAAAHOA/ufg1VU9TGT0kcEJADl_dZSqMWY4Q2a0OACLcB/s1600/perf_author.jpg] description[Niña elegida de corazón, parte del Poder de Tres y habitante de Tree Hill. Gema de Cristal tecnológica... de ahí que sea Informática. Cocreadora veces algo perdida de esta nuestra comunidad. La clave de la vida está en el baile y en los clásicos Disney. Punto.] twitter[https://twitter.com/Inmakia] instagram[https://instagram.com/inmakia] facebook[http://www.facebook.com/inmakiascosplay] linkedin[https://www.linkedin.com/in/sonia-mart%C3%ADnez-mart%C3%ADn-40476b51 ...
ATP5C1 (ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, gamma polypeptide 1), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
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Every pound counts when you have to carry all of your weight on your back, and the same goes for your dog. Dry dog food is heavy, and the best way to cut weight from your pack (or your dogs), is to switch to dehydrated food for backpacking trips. A 10 pound box of Honest Kitchen dog food makes 40 pounds of human-grade dog kibble. All you have to do is add water while youre on the trail. It is made in the USA and comes in chicken, turkey, or beef.. Hiking with dogs is a fabulous way to get some exercise and get outside, and its the perfect opportunity to explore and bond with your favorite companion. With some extra gear and a little advanced preparation, youll be tail-ready in no time ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predictive validity of the CriSTAL tool for short-term mortality in older people presenting at Emergency Departments: a prospective study. AU - Cardona, Magnolia. AU - Lewis, Ebony. AU - Kristensen, Mette R.. AU - Skjøt-Arkil, Helene. AU - Ekmann, Anette A.. AU - Nygaard, Hanne H.. AU - Turner, Robin M.. AU - Garden, Frances. AU - Alkhouri, Hatem. AU - Asha, Stephen Edward. AU - Mackenzie, John. AU - Perkins, Margaret. AU - Suri, Sam. AU - Holdgate, Anna. AU - Winoto, Luis. AU - Chang, David C. W.. AU - Luxan, Blanca Gallego. AU - McCarthy, Sally. AU - Petersen, John A.. AU - Jensen, Birgitte N.. AU - Mogensen, Christian Backer. AU - Hillman, Ken. AU - Brabrand, Mikkel. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - PurposeTo determine the validity of the Australian clinical prediction tool Criteria for Screening and Triaging to Appropriate aLternative care (CRISTAL) based on objective clinical criteria to accurately identify risk of death within 3 months of admission among older ...
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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chemical energy currency of biology, is synthesized in eukaryotic cells primarily by the mitochondrial ATP synthase. ATP synthases operate by a rotary catalytic mechanism where proton translocation through the membrane-inserted FO region is coupled to ATP synthesis in the catalytic F1 region via rotation of a central rotor subcomplex. We report here single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) analysis of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase. Combining cryo-EM data with bioinformatic analysis allowed us to determine the fold of the a subunit, suggesting a proton translocation path through the FO region that involves both the a and b subunits. 3D classification of images revealed seven distinct states of the enzyme that show different modes of bending and twisting in the intact ATP synthase. Rotational fluctuations of the c8-ring within the FO region support a Brownian ratchet mechanism for proton-translocation-driven rotation in ATP synthases.. ...
The human ATP5C1 gene encodes the gamma subunit of an enzyme called mitochondrial ATP synthase. This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes adenosine triphosphate(ATP) synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, F0, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the gamma subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. This gene also has a pseudogene on chromosome 14. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
Looking for ATP synthase? Find out information about ATP synthase. An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphate and adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate during oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria... Explanation of ATP synthase
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ETC: Advanced Look --, 4.) ATP Synthase ATP synthase is considered a part of the electron transport chain, but it is not involved in the transport of electrons. ATP synthase uses the proton gradient created by the ETC to synthesize ATP. Clicking on each of the thumbnail images will bring up a larger, labeled version of the described scene.. To see the Flash movie for the following sequence of images, click here.. ...
Despite its limited resolution, this structural model is squarely consistent with the two-half-channel hypothesis outlined above and also helps to rationalize a wide range of biochemical data pertaining to the mechanism and inhibition of the enzyme. By construction, the structure shows one of the proton-binding sites in the c-ring in proximity to both Arg145, the crucial arginine in TM4 of subunit a, and Gln201 in TM5 (Fig. 6 A). The Cα-Cα distance from Glu58 to Arg145 (8 Å) is indeed consistent with a salt bridge, and that to Gln201 (13 Å) implies this same interaction would be feasible if Arg145 and Gln201 were swapped, as has been suggested for the E. coli ATP synthase (Ishmukhametov et al., 2008; Bae and Vik, 2009). A nontrivial finding, however, is that this c-ring binding site is aligned with a series of residues on subunit a that have been inferred to be exposed to the aqueous half-channel on the P side of the membrane (Fig. 6 A). Specifically, these are positions whose equivalent in ...
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Dario Teixeira wrote: , Hi, , , Suppose I have a value of type Story.t, fairly complex in its definition. , I wish to store this value in a DB (like Postgresql) for posterity. , At the moment, I am storing in the DB the marshalled representation , of the data; whenever I need to use it again in the Ocaml programme , I simply fetch it from the DB and unmarshal it. , , This works fine; there is however one nagging problem: the marshalled , representation is brittle. If Story.t changes even slightly, I will , no longer be able to retrieve values marshalled with the old version. It is even theoretically a very difficult problem. There have been some publications by Cristal, Moscova, Gallium people at INRIA. Assuming you have no abstract types, no objects, and no closures, and no polymorphisms i.e. that there is a *.ml source file containing all the type definitions. Then the types are composed by base types (int, string, ...), sums, records, and perhaps arrays. Then you could consider what are the ...
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Well, I think I dont need to take a look at my christal ball to be able to see that you are going to be stiff all over soon. Well at least the arms. And face. The book is going to be such a hit and you will have to stand for so much photos… You have to stard training right now or smiling will get hard. ;-). My best wishes from Spain. Im sure the book will be a SUPER HIT. And you will be great in photos (arm up or not). Hey, Im thinking… Maybe you are creating a new way of posing, in saome weeks this could be trendy. ;-). I hope I didnt write anything wrong, my english is not good enough for this. Just in case, I write it also in spanish, just in case someone can translate it to you.. Querida Bakerella. Creo que no necesito sacar mi bola de cristal para poder decirte que pronto vas a tener unas agujetas tremendas. Por lo menos en los brazos. Y tal vez en la cara. El libro va a ser un éxito tan tremendo y te van a hacer tantas fotos… que vas a tener que empezar a entrenar ya o te ...
filtered_set; syntelog; UniRef90: B6T754_MAIZE ATP12 ATPase n=3 (Andropogoneae) Exp=2e-145; maizesequence.org: Uniprot/SPTREMBL:B6TXI2; ATP12 ATPase , Uniprot/SPTREMBL:B6T754; ATP12 ATPase , UniGene:Zm.76376; LOC100282414 , UniGene:Zm.145495; TSA: Zea mays contig46830 mRNA sequence , UniGene:Zm.128987; Hypothetical protein LOC100193204 , RefSeq_peptide:NP_001148797; LOC100282414 , RefSeq_dna:NM_001155325; LOC100282414 (IDP705) mRNA , GO:0043461; proton-transporting ATP synthase complex assembly , GO:0005515; protein binding , EntrezGene:100282414; ...
Construction of a first atomic model for an intact bacterial ATP synthase allows for a structural understanding of the roles of individual amino acids in the mechanism of ATP synthesis.
O-Desmethyl N-Desmethyl Venlafaxine ;. N-Desmethyl Desvenlafaxine ;. N,O-Didesmethyl Venlafaxine ;. 4-[2-(Methylamino)-1-(1-hydroxycyclohexyl) ethyl]phenol ;. CAS # 135308-74-6 ;. C15H23NO2 ;. MW: 249.35 ;. ...
Nizatidine N-Desmethyl Metabolite ;. N-Desmethyl Nizatidine ;. N2-Monodesmethyl Nizatadine ;. N-[2-[[[2-[(Dimethylamino)methyl]-4-thiazolyl]methyl]thio]ethyl]-2-nitro-1,1-ethenediamine ;. CAS # 82586-78-5 ;. C11H19N5O2S2 ;. MW: 317.43 ;. ...
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Influential bioenergetics and enzyme kinetics researcher Harvey S. Penefsky passed away in July at the age of 92. Penefskys kinetic insights shaped the understanding of the mechanism of ATP synthase. This research provided the groundwork for Paul D. Boyer, who elucidated the enzymatic mechanism of ATP synthase. ...
ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F0 complex, subunit c3 (subunit 9) genome duplicate b [Source:ZFIN;Acc:ZDB-GENE-020814-1 ...
目的:探讨甲状腺微小癌(TMC)的临床特点、诊断及手术方式。方法:回顾性分析2011年1月-2014年6月间经手术及病理证实262例TMC患者的临床资料,并选取90例同期手术治疗的甲状腺良性甲状腺结节(BTN)患者的资料进行对比分析。结果:262例TMC患者中,乳头状癌260例,滤泡状癌1例,未分化癌1例;术中冷冻切片确诊246例(93.9%);合并结节性甲状腺肿126例(48.09%),甲状腺腺瘤18例(6.87%),慢性淋巴细胞性甲状腺炎27例(10.30%),甲状腺功能亢进3例(1.15%)。与BTN患者比较,TMC患者超声显示低回声、沙砾样钙化、血流信号丰富、高TI-RADS分级的比率明显高于BTN组(均P|0.05);高分辨超声对TMC诊断的灵敏度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值分别为83.88%、80.50%、91.73%、65.97%。所有患者均行手术治疗,包括患侧腺叶+峡部切除术73例,患侧腺叶+峡部+对侧次全切除术153例
What is Peak ATP? What does it do and how does it work? What is the preferred dosage? Are there any good studies in humans to support it?
structure of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase complexed with the atp analog amppnp. شناساگرها. ... Clarias batrachus upregulates glutamine synthetase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase III during exposure to high external ... inactivation of the amidotransferase activity of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase by the antibiotic acivicin ... "Role of conserved residues within the carboxy phosphate domain of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase". Biochemistry 35 (45): 14352- ...
... atp synthetase complexes MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500 - proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500.249 ... electron transport complex iii MeSH D08.811.600.317 - fatty acid synthetase complex MeSH D08.811.600.391 - glycine ... electron transport complex i MeSH D08.811.600.250.500.750 - electron transport complex ii MeSH D08.811.600.250.500.750.500 - ... photosystem i protein complex MeSH D08.811.600.710.750 - photosystem ii protein complex MeSH D08.811.600.715 - polyketide ...
... open conformational change of the sigma N-RNA polymerase complex around the glutamine synthetase gene promoter requires ATP and ... to form an open complex with RNA polymerase in order to activate glnA transcription. The closed -> ...
CPSase large subunit ATP-binding domain. the structure of biotin carboxylase, mutant e288k, complexed with atp ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine (EC 6.3.5.5) or ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (mitochondria, urea cycle). *Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (cytosol, pyrimidine metabolism ... Clarias batrachus upregulates glutamine synthetase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase III during exposure to high external ...
... which is used by ATP synthetase to form ATP. The core complex is anchored in the cell membrane, consisting of one unit of RC ... The D1 and D2 proteins occur as a heterodimer that form the reaction core of PSII, a multisubunit protein-pigment complex ... Deisenhofer J, Epp O, Miki K, Huber R, Michel H (December 1984). "X-ray structure analysis of a membrane protein complex. ... The Type II photosynthetic apparatus in non-oxygenic bacteria consists of light-harvesting protein-pigment complexes LH1 and ...
... leucyl-tRNA synthetase is indispensable in its interaction with arginyl-tRNA synthetase in the multi-tRNA synthetase complex". ... a member of the class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of L-leucine ... It is found in the cytoplasm as part of a multisynthetase complex and interacts with the arginine tRNA synthetase through its C ... "Genetic dissection of protein-protein interactions in multi-tRNA synthetase complex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (8): ...
... believed mechanism for synthetase activity is that first glutathione and Mg2+-ATP bind to the enzyme in a ternary complex where ... Its C-terminal domain is a synthetase and has an ATP-grasp family fold that is usually found in carbon-nitrogen ligases. The N- ... Oza SL, Wyllie S, Fairlamb AH (September 2006). "Mapping the functional synthetase domain of trypanothione synthetase from ... Structurally the synthetase and amidase domains are bound together by three residues of Glu-650-Asp-651-Glu-652 through ...
GS catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of glutamate with ammonia to yield glutamine.[4] The hydrolysis of ATP drives[8] ... The AT:PIID complex will activate GS by deadenylylation.[24] The AT:PIIA and AT:PIID complexes are allosterically regulated in ... Each adenylylation requires an ATP and complete inhibition of GS requires 12 ATP. Deadenylylation by AT involves phosphorolytic ... Glutamine synthetase (GS) (EC 6.3.1.2)[3] is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing ...
The synthetase first binds ATP and the corresponding amino acid (or its precursor) to form an aminoacyl-adenylate, releasing ... Feb 2017). "The complex evolutionary history of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases". Nucleic Acids Res. 45 (3): 1059-1068. doi:10.1093/ ... Lee SW, Cho BH, Park SG, Kim S (August 2004). "Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complexes: beyond translation". Journal of Cell ... Beside their lack of overall sequence and structure similarity, class I and class II synthetases feature different ATP ...
PDB: 1RY2​; Jogl G, Tong L (February 2004). "Crystal structure of yeast acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase in complex with AMP". ... The adenine ring of AMP/ATP is held in a hydrophobic pocket create by residues Ile (512) and Trp (413). The source for the ... In mammals, the cytoplasmic-nuclear synthetase (AceCS1) is activated by SIRT1 while the mitochondrial synthetase (AceCS2) is ... Acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) or Acetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.1) involved in metabolism of acetate. It is in the ...
... molecule which is known to inhibit Complex IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain which effectively reduces ATP ... Three enzymes are known to synthesize H 2S: cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine β-synthetase (CBS) and 3- ...
... and another that produces ATP from ADP. Plants have the type that produces ATP (ADP-forming succinyl-CoA synthetase). Several ... ISBN 978-0-7167-2009-6. Schmidt-Rohr K (2020). "Oxygen Is the High-Energy Molecule Powering Complex Multicellular Life: ... An assessment of the total ATP yield with newly revised proton-to-ATP ratios provides an estimate of 29.85 ATP per glucose ... The GTP that is formed by GDP-forming succinyl-CoA synthetase may be utilized by nucleoside-diphosphate kinase to form ATP (the ...
The long chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase (or synthetase) is an enzyme of the ligase family that activates the oxidation of complex ... There are two distinct paths in the large central pathway of the tunnel in the complex structure, which includes the "ATP path ... The ATP binding site is connected to an ATP path that is a hydrophobic channel in the fatty acid-binding tunnel. The fatty acid ... Within the active site the negatively charged oxygen on the fatty acid attacks the alpha phosphate on ATP, forming an ATP-long ...
Succinate is generated from succinyl-CoA by the enzyme succinyl-CoA synthetase in a GTP/ATP-producing step: Succinyl-CoA + NDP ... RET at mitochondrial respiratory complex 1, the complex normally preceding SDH in the electron transport chain, leads to ROS ... where it is known as respiratory complex II. This enzyme complex is a 4 subunit membrane-bound lipoprotein which couples the ... Respiratory complex II: Role in cellular physiology and disease. 1827 (5): 578-587. doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2013.01.004. PMID ...
5-F-UMP is thought to become a suicide inhibitor for thymidylate synthetase and plays an important role in tumor growth ... Uridylate (UMP) is later converted to UDP via phosphorylation by UMP kinase and ATP and then nucleoside diphosphate kinase ... In other pyrimidine auxotrophs that do not have this bifunctional enzyme, usually less complex organisms, two separate enzymes ... UTP can then be aminated through catalysis by cytidine triphosphate synthetase to from CTP. The reaction of orotic acid ( ...
At low glucose levels: CoA is acetylated using acetate by acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), also coupled with ATP hydrolysis. ... It is catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Other conversions between pyruvate and acetyl-CoA are possible. For ... and the energy released is captured in the form of 11 ATP and one GTP per acetyl group. GTP is the equivalent of ATP and they ... "ACLY ATP citrate lyase [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-06. Ragsdale, S. W. (2004 ...
During their experiments with rat liver cells, Hoagland and Zamecnik noticed that in the presence of ATP, amino acids associate ... These enzymes were named aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. Incidentally, this lab's discovery of tRNA supported the theory of ... with heat soluble RNA, which was later named transfer RNA (tRNA). This amino acid and tRNA complex was later called aminoacyl- ...
Characterization of homo- and heterodinuclear complexes of Zn(II) and Ln(III) ions with a tridentate Schiff-base ligand. ... Explanation of the mechanism of interaction between SARS coronavirus helicase/ATPase and ATP and design of potential inhibitors ... Design of novel leulcyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors based on self-made aminoacyl-tRNA synthase inhibitor database. ... Elucidation of geometry of UO4− ion, formed upon dissociation of some complex uranyl anions. These and other studies resulted ...
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes consume ATP in the attachment tRNA to amino acids, forming aminoacyl-tRNA complexes. ... ATP analogs are also used in X-ray crystallography to determine a protein structure in complex with ATP, often together with ... Due to the strength of the ATP-Mg2+ interaction, ATP exists in the cell mostly as a complex with Mg2+ bonded to the phosphate ... For every ATP transported out, it costs 1 H+. Producing one ATP costs about 3 H+. Therefore, making and exporting one ATP ...
... the electron transport chain protein complexes, and ATP synthase. ADP acts as an activator. The mitochondria contains its own ... succinyl-CoA synthetase, fumarase, and malate dehydrogenase. The urea cycle is facilitated by carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I ... These complexes are complex I (NADH:coenzyme Q oxidoreductase), complex II (succinate:coenzyme Q oxidoreductase), complex III ( ... The energy is used in order to rotate ATP synthase which facilitates the passage of a proton, producing ATP. A pH difference ...
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes consume ATP in the attachment tRNA to amino acids, forming aminoacyl-tRNA complexes. ... Due to the strength of the ATP-Mg2+ interaction, ATP exists in the cell mostly as a complex with Mg2+. bonded to the phosphate ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP ... ATP analogs are also used in X-ray crystallography to determine a protein structure in complex with ATP, often together with ...
In 2019, a full length structure of human ACLY in complex with the substrates coenzyme A, citrate and Mg.ADP was determined by ... ACLY forms a homotetramer with a rigid citrate synthase homology (CSH) module, flanked by four flexible acetyl-CoA synthetase ... "Entrez Gene: ATP citrate lyase". Guay C, Madiraju SR, Aumais A, Joly E, Prentki M (December 2007). "A role for ATP-citrate ... ATP citrate synthase (also ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)) is an enzyme that in animals represents an important step in fatty acid ...
... which converts glutamine synthetase from active form to the inactive form. Conversely, the complex PII-AMP and AMPylators ... A Class III Fic AMPylator NmFic of N. meningtidis is also found to modify AMPylate GyrB at the conserved tyrosine for ATP ... which contributes in complex regulation of nitrogen metabolism through AMPylation of glutamine synthetase that was intruduced ... Recently, there is a N6pATP that contains an alkynyl tag (propargyl) at the N6 position of the adenine of ATP. This N6pATP ...
... synthetase Polyadenylate nucleotidyltransferase Polyadenylate polymerase Polyadenylate synthetase Polyadenylic acid polymerase ... NTP polymerase RNA adenylating enzyme AMP polynucleotidylexotransferase ATP-polynucleotide adenylyltransferase ATP: ... The protein is the final addition to a large protein complex that also contains smaller assemblies known as the cleavage and ... After cleavage of the 3' signaling region that directs the assembly of the complex, polyadenylate polymerase (PAP) adds the ...
Evidence for an enzyme complex". J. Biol. Chem. 257 (12): 6908-15. PMID 7085612. Wall L; Meighen EA (1986). "Subunit structure ... an acyl-protein thioester The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, acid, and protein, whereas its 3 products are AMP, ... This enzyme is also called acyl-protein synthetase. Riendeau D, Rodriguez A, Meighen E (1982). "Resolution of the fatty acid ... is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + an acid + protein ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + ...
In a condensation reaction, enzyme GAR synthetase, along with glycine and ATP, activates the glycine carboxylase group of 5-PRA ... Molecules as complex as RNA must have arisen from small molecules whose reactivity was governed by physico-chemical processes. ... Enzyme SAICAR synthetase, along with amino group from aspartate forms an amide bond to create N-succinyl-5-aminoimidazale-4- ... The precursors for RNA are GTP, CTP, UTP and ATP, which is a major source of energy in group-transfer reactions. Scientists ...
Complex molecules such as RNA must have emerged from relatively small molecules whose reactivity was governed by physico- ... The first three enzymes of the process are all coded by the same gene in CAD which consists of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase ... Conversely, PRPP and ATP act as positive effectors that enhance the enzyme's activity. Modulating the pyrimidine metabolism ... "Entrez Gene: CAD carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase". "Entrez Gene: DHODH ...
The nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), a multi-modular enzyme complex, minimally contains repeating, tri-domains ( ... Enzyme characterization by, for example, ATP-pyrophosphate exchange assays for substrate specificity, in silico substrate- ... NRPS, NRPS-like or NRPS-PKS complexes also exist and have domain variations, additions and/or exclusions. The A-domains have 8 ... Modular Peptide Synthetases Involved in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthesis 1997 The enduracidin biosynthetic gene cluster from ...
These complexes can bind to the TOC complex on the outer chloroplast membrane using GTP energy.[38] ... After a chloroplast polypeptide is synthesized on a ribosome in the cytosol, ATP energy can be used to phosphorylate, or add a ... special tRNA synthetases, etc.. You can help by adding to it. (January 2013) ... Chloroplast polypeptide chains probably often travel through the two complexes at the same time, but the TIC complex can also ...
The energy stored in these electrochemical gradients is then converted into ATP by ATP synthase.[86] This process is a form of ... 13 June 2017). "A Complex Endomembrane System in the Archaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis Tapped by Nanoarchaeum equitans". Frontiers ... such as Hsp70 and glutamine synthetase I;[67][69] however, the phylogeny of these genes was interpreted to reveal interdomain ... Phototrophic archaea use light to produce chemical energy in the form of ATP. In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps ...
Cytochrome b6f complex. *Electron transport chain. *Fatty acid synthetase complex. *Glycine decarboxylase complex ... or beta-subunit mutations exhibits similar phenotypes because mutations in either subunit alter TFP complex expression and ... or beta-subunit mutations exhibits similar phenotypes because mutations in either subunit alter TFP complex expression and ... ATP citrate lyase. *Acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Fatty acid synthesis/. Fatty acid synthase. *Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase ...
Complex IV Deficiency[edit]. MT-TI mutations have been associated with complex IV deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. urea cycle. *Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I. *Ornithine transcarbamylase. *N-Acetylglutamate ... Complex IV. *MT-CO1. *MT-CO2. *MT-CO3. ATP synthase. *MT-ATP6 ...
Hey J, Posch A, Cohen A, Liu N, Harbers A (2008). Fractionation of complex protein mixtures by liquid-phase isoelectric ... The enzyme aminoacyl tRNA synthetase "charges" the tRNA molecules with the correct amino acids. The growing polypeptide is ... To scale in the top right-hand corner are two of its substrates, ATP and glucose. ... Samarin S, Nusrat A (January 2009). "Regulation of epithelial apical junctional complex by Rho family GTPases". Frontiers in ...
... including folylpolyglutamate synthetase, cyanophycin synthetase and the capB enzyme from Bacillales.[5] ... similar to ATP-binding domains of several ATPases and GTPases); and a C-terminal domain (similar to dihydrofolate reductase ... Boniface A, Bouhss A, Mengin-Lecreulx D, Blanot D (June 2006). "The MurE synthetase from Thermotoga maritima is endowed with an ... This entry also includes folylpolyglutamate synthase that transfers glutamate to folylpolyglutamate and cyanophycin synthetase ...
"Chromatin deacetylation by an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodelling complex". Nature. 395 (6705): 917-21. doi:10.1038/27699. ... eukaryotic 43S preinitiation complex. • eukaryotic 48S preinitiation complex. Biological process. • translational initiation. • ... multi-eIF complex. • eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 complex, eIF3e. • eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 ... Humphrey GW, Wang Y, Russanova VR, Hirai T, Qin J, Nakatani Y, Howard BH (2001). "Stable histone deacetylase complexes ...
ATP binding. • ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity. • ATPase activity. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • cytosol. • ... eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F complex. • nucleolus. Biological process. • nuclear-transcribed mRNA poly(A) tail ... Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. *Reading frame. *Start codon. *Stop codon. *Shine-Dalgarno sequence/Kozak consensus sequence ...
... je 36 molekula ATP. U stvarnosti se proizvede 38 molekula ATP, ali dvije su iskorištene za prijenos (aktivnim transportom) ... A very short hydrogen bond provides only moderate stabilization of an enzyme-inhibitor complex of citrate synthase. In: ... and GTP-specific succinyl-CoA synthetases in multicellular eucaryotes". J Biol Chem 273 (42): 27580.-6. PMID 9765291. doi: ... Sukcinil CoA je tioester visoke kemijske energije (njegova ΔG°′ hidrolize je -33.5 kJ mol-1, slična onoj ATP -30.5 kJ mol-1). ...
... investigation of dynamically equilibrated structures of methionyl tRNA synthetase complexes". Biochemistry. 47 (44): 11398- ... PFK can be allosterically inhibited by high levels of ATP within the cell. When ATP levels are high, ATP will bind to an ... thus conserving the body's glucose and maintaining balanced levels of cellular ATP. In this way, ATP serves as a negative ... This change causes its affinity for substrate (fructose-6-phosphate and ATP) at the active site to decrease, and the enzyme is ...
Once combined, the CDK-cyclin complex is capable of enacting its function within the cell cycle. The reaction catalyzed by CDK ... Fitzgerald DK, Brodbeck U, Kiyosawa I, Mawal R, Colvin B, Ebner KE (Apr 1970). "Alpha-lactalbumin and the lactose synthetase ... is as follows: ATP + a target protein → {\displaystyle \rightarrow } ADP + a phosphoprotein. Transfer of sulfur-containing ... These efforts are focused on sequencing the subunits of the rubber transferase enzyme complex in order to transfect these genes ...
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (E1, E2, E3). *(regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate dehydrogenase ... which generates energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body's energy is generated this way.[1][2] ... the complex with β-cyclodextrin has been found to have highly increased bioavailability.[53][54] and also is used in ... "A Study on the Bioavailability of a Novel Sustained-Release Coenzyme Q10-β-Cyclodextrin Complex". Integrative Medicine. 9 (1). ...
CoA is acetylated using acetate by acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), also coupled with ATP hydrolysis.[7] ... It is catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Other conversions between pyruvate and acetyl-CoA are possible. For ... "ACLY ATP citrate lyase [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-06.. ... There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate is returned to the mitochondrion as ...
The enzyme is inhibited by high ratios of ATP:ADP, acetyl-CoA:CoA, and NADH:NAD, as high concentrations of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. urea cycle. *Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I. *Ornithine transcarbamylase. *N-Acetylglutamate ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (E1, E2, E3). *(regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate dehydrogenase ...
For example, Helicobacter pylori has glutaminyl tRNA synthetase missing. Thus, glutamate tRNA synthetase charges tRNA-glutamine ... During translation elongation, tRNA first binds to the ribosome as part of a complex with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) or its ... amino acid + ATP → aminoacyl-AMP + PPi. *aminoacyl-AMP + tRNA → aminoacyl-tRNA + AMP ... Each tRNA is aminoacylated (or charged) with a specific amino acid by an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. There is normally a single ...
Glutamic Acid → Glutamine (glutamine synthetase) Arginine +H2N=C(NH2)-NH-(CH2)3- Glutamate → Glutamate-5-semialdehyde (γ- ... In the first one, it attaches an AMP molecule (cleaved from ATP) to the amino acid. The second reaction cleaves the aminoacyl- ... Complexes that are italicized are enzymes. §Cannot be synthesized in humans. Polypeptide synthesisEdit. TranscriptionEdit. ... Aspartic Acid → Asparagine (asparagine synthetase) Glutamine H2N-CO-(CH2)2- ...
Samarin S, Nusrat A (2009). "Regulation of epithelial apical junctional complex by Rho family GTPases". Frontiers in Bioscience ... Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain + ATP synthase) ... The enzyme aminoacyl tRNA synthetase "charges" the tRNA molecules with the correct amino acids. The growing polypeptide is ... Proteins can also work together to achieve a particular function, and they often associate to form stable protein complexes. ...
ATP, and GABA. More recently, astrocytes were shown to release glutamate or ATP in a vesicular, Ca2+-dependent manner.[16] ( ... Pain processing is no longer seen as a repetitive relay of signals from body to brain, but as a complex system that can be up- ... This supports the leaky capacitor model, where the 'leak' is glutamate processing by glia's glutamine synthetase. Furthermore, ... Promotion of the myelinating activity of oligodendrocytes: Electrical activity in neurons causes them to release ATP, which ...
... (SDH) or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, found in ... Fe-S prosthetic groups of the subunit SDHB are being preformed in the mitochondrial matrix by protein complex ISU. The complex ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. urea cycle. *Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I. *Ornithine transcarbamylase. *N-Acetylglutamate ... "High rates of superoxide production in skeletal-muscle mitochondria respiring on both complex I- and complex II-linked ...
ATP + N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H2O ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. ADP + phosphate ... phosphoribosylformylglycineamidine synthetase, FGAM synthetase, FGAR amidotransferase, 5'-phosphoribosylformylglycinamide:L- ... The 4 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide, L-glutamine, and H2O, whereas its 4 ... Other names in common use include phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthetase, formylglycinamide ribonucloetide ...
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. urea cycle. *Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I. *Ornithine transcarbamylase. *N-Acetylglutamate ... 3e9k: Crystal structure of Homo sapiens kynureninase-3-hydroxyhippuric acid inhibitor complex ... "Crystal structure of the Homo sapiens kynureninase-3-hydroxyhippuric acid inhibitor complex: insights into the molecular basis ... Complex IV. *MT-CO1. *MT-CO2. *MT-CO3. ATP synthase. *MT-ATP6 ... Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. *Enoyl- ...
3-PG + ATP ⇌ 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + ADP. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + NAD(P)H + H+ ⇌ G3P + Pi + NAD(P)+. Triose-phosphate ... class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase in complex with phosphoglycolohydroxamate. Identifiers. ... Uridine monophosphate synthetase/Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase. *Uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase. 4.1.2: Aldehyde- ... 2(PEP + NADH + H+ + ATP + H2O) ⇌ fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + 2(NAD+ + ADP + Pi). Aldolase is also used in the part of the ...
... helping to build the electrochemical potential difference used to produce ATP. Escherichia coli complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) ... complex III), and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV).[1] Complex I is the largest and most complicated enzyme of the electron ... The reaction catalyzed by complex I is: NADH + H+ + CoQ + 4H+in→ NAD+ + CoQH2 + 4H+out. In this process, the complex ... Recent investigations suggest that complex I is a potent source of reactive oxygen species.[44] Complex I can produce ...
They do not form a stable complex,[3] so it is more appropriate to call it a "system" instead of a "complex". The H-protein is ... The ammonia generated by the glycine cleavage system, is assimilated by the Glutamine synthetase-Glutamine oxoglutarate ... aminotransferase cycle but costs the cell one ATP and one NADPH. The upside is that one CO2 is produced for every two O2 that ... The glycine cleavage system (GCS) is also known as the glycine decarboxylase complex or GDC. The system is a series of enzymes ...
Structure of Staphylococcus aureus threonyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with ATP. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1NYR/pdb ... ATP. Query on ATP. Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File Download Instance Coordinates *SDF format, chain E [auth A] ... Conformational movements and cooperativity upon amino acid, ATP and tRNA binding in threonyl-tRNA synthetase. Torres-Larios, A. ... The crystal structures of threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) from Staphylococcus aureus, with ATP and an analogue of threonyl ...
crystal structure of alanyl-tRNA synthetase in complex with ATP and magnesium. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1YFR/pdb ... ATP. Query on ATP. Download CCD File A, B. ADENOSINE-5-TRIPHOSPHATE. C10 H16 N5 O13 P3. ZKHQWZAMYRWXGA-KQYNXXCUSA-N. Ligand ... Significantly, in the Mg2+-ATP complex, Asn-194 coordinates a Mg2+-alpha-phosphate bridge. Thus, the sieve for Ser exclusion is ... Here, we report crystal structures of an active fragment of Aquifex aeolicus alanyl-tRNA synthetase complexed, separately, with ...
Regulation of the hetero-octameric ATP phosphoribosyl transferase complex from Thermotoga maritima by a tRNA synthetase-like ... Regulation of the hetero-octameric ATP phosphoribosyl transferase complex from Thermotoga maritima by a tRNA synthetase-like ... While the structure of the catalytic HisGS subunit is related to the catalytic domain of another family of (HisGL)2 ATP ... that are located within each of the four HisGS-HisZ subunit interfaces formed by the ATP phosphoribosyl transferase complex. ...
Hexagonal Form Complexed With Lysine and the Non-Hydrolysable Atp Analogue Amp-Pcp ... Magnesium in the structure of Lysyl-Trna Synthetase (Lysu) Hexagonal Form Complexed With Lysine and the Non-Hydrolysable Atp ... The binding sites of Magnesium atom in the structure of Lysyl-Trna Synthetase (Lysu) Hexagonal Form Complexed With Lysine and ... the Non-Hydrolysable Atp Analogue Amp-Pcp (pdb code 1e22). This binding sites where shown with 5.0 Angstroms radius around ...
CPSase large subunit ATP-binding domain. the structure of biotin carboxylase, mutant e288k, complexed with atp ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine (EC 6.3.5.5) or ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (mitochondria, urea cycle). *Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (cytosol, pyrimidine metabolism ... Clarias batrachus upregulates glutamine synthetase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase III during exposure to high external ...
... and alpha may be involved in regulation of ATP synthase activity. The sequences of beta-subunits are highly conserved in ... and beta-subunits of membrane-bound ATP synthase complex bind ATP and ADP: beta contributes to catalytic sites, ... ATP Synthetase Complexes * Adenosine Diphosphate / metabolism* * Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism* * Adenylate Kinase / ... The alpha- and beta-subunits of membrane-bound ATP synthase complex bind ATP and ADP: beta contributes to catalytic sites, and ...
Crystal structure of Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase Complexed with ATP and Tryptophanamide in a Pre-Transition state Conformation ... Crystal structure of Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase Complexed with ATP and Tryptophanamide in a Pre-Transition state Conformation ... 2 x ATP: ADENOSINE-5-TRIPHOSPHATE(Non-covalent). ATP.3: 25 residues within 4Å:*. Chain A: G.7, I.8, Q.9, S.11, G.17, N.18, G. ... Interconversion of ATP binding and conformational free energies by tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase: structures of ATP bound to ...
Asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase from Brugia malayi complexed with ATP:Mg and L-Asp-beta-NOH adenylate:PPi:Mg ... Asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase from Brugia malayi complexed with ATP:Mg and L-Asp-beta-NOH adenylate:PPi:Mg. Coordinates. PDB ... 1 x ATP: ADENOSINE-5-TRIPHOSPHATE(Non-covalent). ATP.6: 18 residues within 4Å:*. Chain B: R.210, E.212, R.218, H.219, L.220, Y ... Metal complexes: A:E.360, NB8.1, H2O.6, H2O.6 ... ASPARAGINYL-TRNA SYNTHETASE\, CYTOPLASMIC\, PUTATIVE: AB. SMTL: ...
structure of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase complexed with the atp analog amppnp. شناساگرها. ... Clarias batrachus upregulates glutamine synthetase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase III during exposure to high external ... inactivation of the amidotransferase activity of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase by the antibiotic acivicin ... "Role of conserved residues within the carboxy phosphate domain of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase". Biochemistry 35 (45): 14352- ...
See handout on ATP-synthetase for the structure of this multi-subunit protein complex. Each lollipop is a complex of proteins; ... ATP-synthetase 3-D animation (.mov)]. ATP synthetase. oxidative phosphorylation. substrate level phosphorylation. alternative ... The sphere is called F1 and contains the ATP SYNTHETASE activity; that is, it is in the spheres that the generation of ATP from ... Mechanism of ATP synthesis in mitochondria. (ATP synthetase). The flow-back is through lollipop-like structures that populate ...
We also outline several natural next steps for computational studies of AARS:tRNA complexes. ... We then review the background of tRNA molecules, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and current state of the art MD simulation ... Recent MD simulations of tRNA dynamics and folding and of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase dynamics and mechanistic characterizations ... While tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are classes of biomolecules that have been extensively studied for decades, the finer ...
Description: crystal structure of alanyl-tRNA synthetase in complex with ATP and magnesium. Class: ligase. Keywords: alpha-beta ... Heterogens: MG, ATP, HOH PDB Chain Sequences:. *Chain A:. Sequence, based on SEQRES records: (download) >1yfrA (A:) ... Compound: Alanyl-tRNA synthetase. Species: Aquifex aeolicus [TaxId:63363]. Gene: alaS. Database cross-references and ... Compound: Alanyl-tRNA synthetase. Species: Aquifex aeolicus [TaxId:63363]. Gene: alaS. Database cross-references and ...
... kinases providing ADP for complex V, the ATP synthetase. As cytosolic and mitochondrial isozymes of creatine kinase (CK) are ... Closure of the KATP channels by ATP would lead to an increase of cytosolic and, even more, mitochondrial calcium and finally to ... An interplay between the plasma membrane-bound CK and the mitochondrial CK could provide a mechanism to increase ATP locally at ... The same signaling sequence is used in the opposite direction in muscle during exercise when high ATP turnover increases the ...
Controlled influx of protons is used to generate ATP via the membrane-bound ATP synthetase complex (ATPase). Iron oxidation is ... Measurements of ATP concentrations in harvested cells showed that these had also fallen by about 50% from week 1 to 2 relative ... Indexed relative to ATP concentrations, specific rates of ferrous iron oxidation were similar on weeks 1 and 2, suggesting that ... Metallic (zero-valent) iron is rare in the lithosphere, while the dominant non-complexed ionic form of this metal in the ...
Multienzyme Complexes * Proton Pumps * 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxyacridine * ATP Synthetase Complexes ... to ATP synthesis in F(1). Whatever mechanism is involved, this leads to impaired ATP synthesis. On the other hand, ATP ... A sharp decrease (,95%) in the succinate-sustained ATP synthesis rate of the particles was found, but both the ATP hydrolysis ... Catalytic activities of mitochondrial ATP synthase in patients with mitochondrial DNA T8993G mutation in the ATPase 6 gene ...
NADH complex subunits), sdrA1 (a NADH complex accessory protein) and atpB and atpE (ATP synthetase F0 subunits). The following ... Whereas most of the genes predicted to encode the ATP synthetase complex were similarly expressed in Fe(II) and in S0 grown ... bc1 complex, NADH complex I, bd and bo3 terminal oxidases) and in the cytoplasm (heterodisulfide reductase (HDR), and ATP ... and their upregulation could allow more protons to pass through the ATP synthetase complex during Fe(II) oxidation, provided an ...
the entire molecule apparatus is also named the ATP _________ complex. 1. synthetase 2. synthase 3. synthesis 4. hydrolysis I ... The driving force of ATP Synthesis at the location of athe ATP synthesis complex is the ________. 1. proton motive force 2. ... hydrolysis of ATP 3. phosphorylation of ADP 4. proton concentration gradient I believe the answer is "1" because pmf is the ...
ATP Synthetase Complexes [D08.811.913.696.650.150]. *Proton-Translocating ATPases [D08.811.913.696.650.150.500] ... Asymmetric interactions of ATP with the AAA+ ClpX6 unfoldase: allosteric control of a protein machine. Cell. 2005 Jul 1; 121(7 ...
... leap forward in the late 80s was our obtaining the structure of glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with tRNAGln and ATP. This ... I said I wanted to solve the structure of an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, ultimately complexed with substrates including tRNA. ... This first structure of a synthetasetRNA complex showed how the synthetase recognizes the correct tRNA containing the glutamine ... and its complex with a DNA substrate in the 3′-5′ exonuclease active site. The structure of the substrate complex led to our ...
... is produced by the enzyme ATP synthase, which converts ADP and phosphate to ATP. ATP synthase is located in the membrane of ... The central role of ATP in energy metabolism was discovered by Fritz Albert Lipmann… ... Other articles where ATP synthase is discussed: adenosine triphosphate: … ... In metabolism: ATP synthesis in mitochondria. …precise mechanism by which the ATP synthetase complex converts the energy stored ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF TRYPTOPHANYL-TRNA SYNTHETASE COMPLEXED WITH ATP AND TRYPTOPHANAMIDE IN A PRE-TRANSITION STATE CONFORMATION ... Interconversion of ATP binding and conformational free energies by tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase: structures of ATP bound to ... Interconversion of ATP binding and conformational free energies by tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase: structures of ATP bound to ... Interconversion of ATP binding and conformational free energies by tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase: structures of ATP bound to ...
Invitrogen Anti-ATP Synthase beta Recombinant Monoclonal (JM10-90), Catalog # MA5-32589. Tested in Western Blot (WB), ... mitochondrial ATP synthase, H+ transporting F1 complex beta subunit; mitochondrial ATP synthetase, beta subunit ... ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial; ATP synthase, H+ transporting mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit; ATP synthase, ... The ATP synthase protein has two main sections; the F1 ATP-ase (soluble) and the F0 ATP-ase (membrane embedded). The F1 section ...
GLUTAMINYL-TRNA SYNTHETASE MUTANT D235G COMPLEXED WITH GLUTAMINE TRANSFER RNA. Molecular Description:. GLUTAMINYL-TRNA ... and ATP. Biochemistry, 35, pp. 14725 - 14733, 1996. ... SYNTHETASE (E.C.6.1.1.18) MUTANT/RNA COMPLEX + ADENOSINE-5- ... Crystal structures of three misacylating mutants of Escherichia coli glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with tRNA(Gln) ...
1989) Structure of E. coli glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with tRNA(Gln) and ATP at 2.8-Å resolution. Science 246:1135- ... Four tRNA synthetases [glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS), glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS), arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS), ... 2004) Long-range intramolecular signaling in a tRNA synthetase complex revealed by pre-steady-state kinetics. Proc Natl Acad ... Crystal structures of many tRNA-synthetase complexes bound to aminoacyl adenylate analogs and free amino acid substrates have ...
It has a more complex structure than the outer one since it constitutes of the ATP synthetase complex and the electron ... The production of ATP is done by the process of oxidation. The key products of glucose, pyruvate, and NADH produced in the ... This produces two ATP molecules, two molecules of pyruvic acid and 2 NADH electron-carrying molecules. The second step is Krebs ... Further, the ATP molecules are produced by the chemical reactions involving these electron-carrier molecules (Gropper, Smith ...
Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from Thermus thermophilus complexed with wild-type tRNAtyr(GUA) and with ATP and tyrosinol. ... Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from Thermus thermophilus complexed tyrosinol. 1hnw. STRUCTURE OF THE THERMUS THERMOPHILUS 30S ... Solution structure of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase C-terminal domain.. 1jii. Crystal structure of S. aureus TyrRS in complex with SB ... Crystal structure of S. aureus TyrRS in complex with SB-239629. 1jik. Crystal structure of S. aureus TyrRS in complex with SB- ...
One convenient object for such study is the ternary complex composed of aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) and elongation factor (EF-Tu) ... Finally, it proposes a new model for the three-dimensional structure of the ternary complex (TC). This model accommodates all ... Only a few native biological supramacromolecular protein-nucleic acid complexes are currently accessible for such detailed ... Structure of E. coli glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with tRNAGln and ATP at 2.8 A resolution. Science 246:1135-1142.. ...
Only CTP can partially replace ATP while diaminobiotin is only 37% as effective as 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid. ... the ATP-dependent insertion of CO2 between the N7 and N8 nitrogen atoms of 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid (DAPA) to form an ureido ... "Mechanism of an ATP-dependent carboxylase, dethiobiotin synthetase, based on crystallographic studies of complexes with ... ATP-dependent dethiobiotin synthetase BioD 1 (bioD1), ATP-dependent dethiobiotin synthetase BioD (bioD), ATP-dependent ...
Discovery of a novel prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor and elucidation of its binding mode to the ATP site in complex with l- ... Crystal Structure of a Human K-Ras G12D Mutant in Complex with GDP and the Cyclic Inhibitory Peptide KRpep-2d. ...
Mechanism of an ATP-dependent carboxylase, dethiobiotin synthetase, based on crystallographic studies of complexes with ... Crystal-structure of an ATP-dependent carboxylase, dethiobiotin synthetase, at 1.65-angstrom resolution. Structure 2:407-414. [ ... Structural insights from a P450 carrier protein complex reveal how specificity is achieved in the P450BioI ACP complex. Proc ... Structure of dethiobiotin synthetase at 0.97 Å resolution. Acta Crystallograph D55:610-624. [PubMed][CrossRef]. ...
  • [1] This enzyme catalyzes the reaction of ATP and bicarbonate to produce carboxy phosphate and ADP . (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPSase) is a heterodimeric enzyme composed of a small and a large subunit (with the exception of CPSase III, which is composed of a single polypeptide that may have arisen from gene fusion of the glutaminase and synthetase domains ). (wikipedia.org)
  • is produced by the enzyme ATP synthase , which converts ADP and phosphate to ATP. (britannica.com)
  • late 1970s he began studying ATP synthase , an enzyme found on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion that aids in the synthesis of ATP, the carrier of chemical energy. (britannica.com)
  • An enzyme complex that catalyses the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Despite copious sequence and structural information on the 22 tRNA synthetase families, little is known of the enzyme signatures that specify amino acid selectivities. (pnas.org)
  • Nearly 20 years ago, de Duve ( 3 ) suggested that the tRNA synthetase-mediated matching of amino acids with the distinguishing structural features of cognate tRNAs [the tRNA identity set ( 4 )] might occur by way of direct contact between the enzyme-bound tRNA and aminoacyl adenylate intermediate. (pnas.org)
  • E. coli threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) is a class II enzyme thatrepresses the translation of its own mRNA. (embl.de)
  • The aminoacyl adenylate remains associated with the synthetase enzyme where, in the second step it reacts with tRNA to form aminoacyl tRNA and AMP. (wikipathways.org)
  • The three-dimensional structure of NH3-dependent NAD+ synthetase from Bacillus subtilis, in its free form and in complex with ATP shows that the enzyme consists of a tight homodimer with alpha/beta subunit topology [ PMID: 8895556 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Deficiencies of single RC complex are generally caused by mutations in genes encoding structural subunits or proteins involved in the assembly of a specific OXPHOS enzyme complex. (hindawi.com)
  • The heterodimeric CPS enzyme is composed of a small subunit (GLN) which functions as a glutamine amidotransferase and a large synthetase subunit (SYN) that fulfills the other catalytic properties (for a review, see reference 4 ). (asm.org)
  • The enzyme, a class II tRNA synthetase, is a homodimer found in the cell as a component of the mutienzyme aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex. (reactome.org)
  • Energy transfer factor A.D (ATP synthetase) as a complex Pi-ATP exchange enzyme and its stimulation by phospholipids. (pianolarge.ml)
  • Bacterial tyrosyl‐tRNA synthetases (TyrRS) possess a flexibly linked C‐terminal domain of ∼80 residues, which has hitherto been disordered in crystal structures of the enzyme. (embopress.org)
  • The tRNA binds across the two subunits of the dimeric enzyme and, remarkably, the mode of recognition of the class I TyrRS for its cognate tRNA resembles that of a class II synthetase in being from the major groove side of the acceptor stem. (embopress.org)
  • Another example of enzyme in this group is glycogen synthetase.Abyzymes and ribozymes are two groups of biological catalyst, which do not fit into the classification of enzymes. (ostatic.com)
  • The encoded enzyme catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of L-leucine to tRNA(Leu). (nih.gov)
  • The ATP synthase enzyme is a transmembrane protein responsible for driving the reversible reaction from ADP+ phosphate to ATP. (thermofisher.com)
  • This creates a proton gradient that drives the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP by the enzyme ATP synthetase (see chemiosmotic theory ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • When ADP and Pi are bound to ATP synthetase, the excess of protons (H+) that has formed outside of the mitochondria (an H+ gradient) moves back into the mitochondrion through the enzyme complex. (tdsurplus.com)
  • Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle) In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate enters … Most of the ATP in cells is produced by the enzyme ATP synthase, which converts ADP and phosphate to ATP. (tdsurplus.com)
  • The ATP is a molecule which carries energy in chemical form to … The enzyme systems primarily responsible for the release and subsequent oxidation of reducing equivalents are thus closely related, so that the reduced coenzymes formed during catabolism (NADH + H+ and FADH2) are available as substrates for respiration. (tdsurplus.com)
  • An ATP synthetase enzyme similar to that of the mitochondria is present, but on the outside of the thylakoid membrane. (tdsurplus.com)
  • The native enzyme, a dimer with each 71 kDa subunit containing an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase and an adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase domain, catalyzes the overall formation of PAPS from ATP and inorganic sulfate. (elsevier.com)
  • An aminoacyl tRNA synthetase ( aaRS ) is an enzyme that catalyzes the esterification of a specific amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. (bionity.com)
  • ATP synthase is a membrane-bound rotary motor enzyme that is critical for cellular energy metabolism in all kingdoms of life. (cam.ac.uk)
  • 12-subunit enzyme glutamine synthetase from Salmonella typhimurium . (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecule displayed to the left is tRNA Phe that would carry the amino acid phenylalanine attached to its 3' end when appropriately charged by a tRNA synthetase enzyme (see below). (callutheran.edu)
  • Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) is the key enzyme responsible for the aminoacylation of t-RNATrp with tryptophan (Trp). (uwindsor.ca)
  • Using crystallographic structures and homology with known complexes, they also modeled the full-length enzyme bound to tRNA gln . (stanford.edu)
  • The alpha- and beta-subunits of membrane-bound ATP synthase complex bind ATP and ADP: beta contributes to catalytic sites, and alpha may be involved in regulation of ATP synthase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Related sequences in both alpha and beta and in other enzymes that bind ATP or ADP in catalysis, notably myosin, phosphofructokinase, and adenylate kinase, help to identify regions contributing to an adenine nucleotide binding fold in both ATP synthase subunits. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we discovered an unprecedented nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like-pteridine synthase hybrid biosynthetic gene cluster in Photorhabdus luminescens using genome synteny analysis. (elifesciences.org)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: ATP Synthase beta Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (JM10-90) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-32589, RRID AB_2809866. (thermofisher.com)
  • ATP synthase is extremely conserved through evolution and can be found in plants, fungi, bacteria, and animals. (thermofisher.com)
  • Structure of the ATP synthase catalytic complex (F(1)) from Escherichia coli in an autoinhibited conformation. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The crystal structure of the ATP synthase catalytic complex (F(1)) from Escherichia coli described here reveals the structural basis for this inhibition. (cam.ac.uk)
  • A biochemical characterization was carried out in knockdown individuals, which revealed that larvae unexpectedly displayed defects in all complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and in the F-ATP synthase, while adults had a COX-selective impairment. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Part of the phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase complex involved in the purines biosynthetic pathway. (string-db.org)
  • The FGAM synthase complex is composed of three subunits. (string-db.org)
  • The genetic code is fixed in aminoacylation reactions catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (rcsb.org)
  • In contrast, whereas the same two salt bridges stabilize bound Ser, H-bonding of the highly conserved (among class II tRNA synthetases) Asn-194 side chain NH2 to the Ser OH, instead of to the carboxyl, forces pocket expansion. (rcsb.org)
  • While the structure of the catalytic HisGS subunit is related to the catalytic domain of another family of (HisGL)2 ATP phosphoribosyl transferases that is functional in the absence of additional regulatory subunits, the structure of the regulatory HisZ subunit is distantly related to class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • While tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are classes of biomolecules that have been extensively studied for decades, the finer details of how they carry out their fundamental biological functions in protein synthesis remain a challenge. (mdpi.com)
  • We then review the background of tRNA molecules, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and current state of the art MD simulation techniques for those who may be unfamiliar with any of those fields. (mdpi.com)
  • The existence of the adaptor molecule was later confirmed [ 2 ], which we now know as tRNA, and the special enzymes are aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (mdpi.com)
  • Information transfer from nucleic acid to protein is mediated by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which catalyze the specific pairings of amino acids with transfer RNAs. (pnas.org)
  • These reactions are catalyzed by the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in a universal two-step process involving generation of an activated aminoacyl adenylate intermediate ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Four tRNA synthetases [glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS), glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS), arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS), and lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS)], all relatively small monomers, require the presence of tRNA to synthesize aminoacyl adenylate ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The tRNA requirement for aminoacyl adenylate synthesis in GlnRS, GluRS, ArgRS, and LysRS suggests that this subset of the contemporary tRNA synthetases may be particularly likely to retain a key role for tRNA in mediating its own pairing, a role that may have been exclusive to RNA in primordial organisms. (pnas.org)
  • GlnRS and GluRS are related members of the subclass 1b tRNA synthetases and possess topologically identical Rossmann fold active site domains that bind ATP, amino acid, and the tRNA acceptor-stem helix and single-stranded 3′ end ( 6 ⇓ - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • tRNA synthetases catalyze the ligation of tRNAs to their cognate amino acids in an ATP-dependent manner. (wikipathways.org)
  • The tRNA synthetases can be divided into two structural classes based on conserved amino acid sequence features (Burnbaum and Schimmel 1991). (wikipathways.org)
  • A number of tRNA synthetases are known to have functions distinct from tRNA charging (reviewed by Park et al. (wikipathways.org)
  • Proof of the aminoacyl adenylate pathway for the isoleucyl- and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases from Escherichia coli K12. (wikipathways.org)
  • The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are one of the major protein components in the translation machinery. (asm.org)
  • The evolution of the tRNA synthetases is of fundamental importance with respect to the nature of the biological cell and the transition from an RNA world to the modern world dominated by protein-enzymes. (asm.org)
  • We present a structure-based phylogeny of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (asm.org)
  • By using structural alignments of all of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases of known structure in combination with a new measure of structural homology, we have reconstructed the evolutionary history of these proteins. (asm.org)
  • The extensive sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the tRNA synthetases (Woese et al. (asm.org)
  • We also discuss the effect of functional specificity on protein shape over the complex evolutionary course of the tRNA synthetases. (asm.org)
  • First, amino acids are covalently linked to their cognate tRNAs via an aminoacylation reaction catalyzed by a diverse group of proteins, the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs). (asm.org)
  • It is possible that among the first proteins to take over ribozyme functions were the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (asm.org)
  • This review will focus on a group of enzymes with a key role in mitochondrial protein synthesis, the aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRSs), mutations of which are responsible for an increasing number of OXPHOS deficiencies and diseases (Table 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • 2. Cusack, S. (1997) Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (edu.pl)
  • 8. Fourmy, D., Mechulam, Y. & Blanquet, S. (1995) Crucial role of an idiosyncratic insertion in the Rossmann fold of class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: The case of methionyl-tRNA synthetase. (edu.pl)
  • Both classes of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are multidomain proteins. (bionity.com)
  • tRNA Synthetases. (bionity.com)
  • Evidence for distinct coding properties in tRNA acceptor stems and anticodons, and experimental demonstration that the two synthetase family ATP binding sites can indeed be coded by opposite strands of the same gene supplement these biochemical and bioinformatic data, establishing a solid basis for key intermediates on a path from simple, stereochemically coded, reciprocally catalytic peptide/RNA complexes through the earliest peptide catalysts to contemporary aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (mdpi.com)
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are required in all three domains of life to add the correct amino acid to its cognate tRNA, an essential step in protein synthesis. (stanford.edu)
  • There exist numerous aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, enzymes which activate tRNA molecules by facilitating the binding of a specific amino acid through an esterification reaction. (kenyon.edu)
  • Regulation of the hetero-octameric ATP phosphoribosyl transferase complex from Thermotoga maritima by a tRNA synthetase-like subunit. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The rationale for these findings is provided by the crystal structure revealing a total of eight histidine binding sites that are located within each of the four HisGS-HisZ subunit interfaces formed by the ATP phosphoribosyl transferase complex. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Common ancestry of the regulatory HisZ subunit and class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase may reflect the balanced need of regulated amounts of a cognate amino acid (histidine) in the translation apparatus, ultimately linking amino acid biosynthesis and protein biosynthesis in terms of function, structure and evolution. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • See handout on ATP-synthetase for the structure of this multi-subunit protein complex. (columbia.edu)
  • This subunit, together with subunit c, is thought to cooperatively catalyze proton translocation and rotate, one with respect to the other, during the catalytic cycle of the F(1)F(0) complex. (nih.gov)
  • The following new genes are predicted to be involved in reduced inorganic sulfur compounds oxidation: a gene cluster ( rhd, tusA, dsrE, hdrC, hdrB, hdrA, orf2, hdrC, hdrB ) encoding three sulfurtransferases and a heterodisulfide reductase complex, sat potentially encoding an ATP sulfurylase and sdrA2 (an accessory NADH complex subunit). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The protein is a homodimer, but in some archaea it is a heterodimer composed of a glutamine amidotransferase subunit and a ATP pyrophosphatase subunit. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPS) contains a small amidotransferase subunit (GLN) that hydrolyzes glutamine and transfers ammonia to the large synthetase subunit (SYN), where CP biosynthesis occurs in the presence of ATP and CO 2 . (asm.org)
  • Our data also uncover on how the subunit stoichiometry of multimeric protein complexes in plastids is maintained upon heat exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using remotely collected macromolecular crystallography data from SSRL, Snell's group first determined the structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) for the specific glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase ( Sc GlnRS) found in the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae , revealing that it has an extraordinary structural resemblance to the region of the B subunit of the GatCAB amidotransferase that binds to tRNA gln . (stanford.edu)
  • Sequence homology reveals that the McbD subunit has motifs reminiscent of the Walker B box in ATP utilizing enzymes and of motifs found in small G protein GTPases. (northwestern.edu)
  • A second molecule of ATP then phosphorylates carbamic acid, creating carbamoyl phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • the entire molecule apparatus is also named the ATP _________ complex. (jiskha.com)
  • It is thought that three protons must flow through for each molecule of ATP synthesized. (encyclopedia.com)
  • First, amino acid and ATP form an aminoacyl adenylate molecule, releasing pyrophosphate. (wikipathways.org)
  • The reactions of glycolysis require the input of two ATP molecules and produce four ATP molecules for a net gain of only two molecules per molecule of glucose. (amazonaws.com)
  • In contrast, mitochondria supplied with oxygen produce about 36 molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose oxidized. (amazonaws.com)
  • This process uses the energy of the electrons to phosphorylate (add a phosphate group) adenosine diphosphate (ADP), to form the energy-rich molecule ATP. (amazonaws.com)
  • This process takes place during respiration.Another group where some enzymes categorises into are the ligases, where the process in which there is a formation of a bond, coupled with ATP hydrolysis to ADP and phosphate is catalysed:Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase +ATPAmino acid + specific tRNA → amino acid tRNA complex+ADP + PiIn this process an amino acid is joined to a tRNA molecule. (ostatic.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), energy-carrying molecule found in the cells of all living things. (tdsurplus.com)
  • In general, cells gain useful energy from the ATP molecule, with its three phosphate groups, through one of three variations on the theme that phosphate transfers provide energy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is formed after the binding of one phosphate molecule (phosphorylation) to one ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule. (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • This is a process that stores energy in the produced ATP molecule. (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • The adenylate-aaRS complex then binds the appropriate tRNA molecule, and the amino acid is transferred from the aa-AMP to either the 2'- or 3'-OH of the last tRNA base (A76) at the 3'-end. (bionity.com)
  • As can be seen, the 'cloverleaf' secondary structure shown in Figure 1 results in a complex three dimensional folding of the molecule. (callutheran.edu)
  • This is where the synthetase molecule activates the tRNA by attaching serine. (kenyon.edu)
  • This suggests that anticodon recognition is not the primary recognition determinant, and that serine specificity is guaranteed by two structural characteristics of the synthetase molecule: i) two distinct hydrogen-bond interactions with the amino acid sidechain hydroxyl group, and ii)the limited size of the synthetase's binding pocket, which cannot accomodate any other sidechains larger than the hydroxyl. (kenyon.edu)
  • PurL transfers the ammonia molecule to FGAR to form FGAM in an ATP-dependent manner. (string-db.org)
  • cup (copper oxidase-like), ctaABT (heme biogenesis and insertion), nuoI and nuoK (NADH complex subunits), sdrA1 (a NADH complex accessory protein) and atpB and atpE (ATP synthetase F0 subunits). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Asymmetric interactions of ATP with the AAA+ ClpX6 unfoldase: allosteric control of a protein machine. (umassmed.edu)
  • They increase the surface area of the membrane structure, where more space is required for the protein molecules to aid ATP production. (supremeessays.com)
  • Only a few native biological supramacromolecular protein-nucleic acid complexes are currently accessible for such detailed investigations. (asmscience.org)
  • Initially, these studies have involved the analysis of networks of protein interactions, using genetic tools such as two-hybrid systems ( 5 - 7 ) and protein complex pull-outs ( 8 - 10 ). (mcponline.org)
  • This domain composes the whole protein of methylglyoxal synthetase and the domain is also found in Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) where it forms a regulatory domain that binds to the allosteric effector ornithine. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • It has also been suggested that genes encoding subunits of a complex will benefit from being in an operon, because the stochastic differences between the protein levels are reduced [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The formation and folding of protein complexes may also occur more rapidly when the genes are co-located in an operon [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Editing-defective tRNA synthetase causes protein misfolding and neurodegeneration. (wikipathways.org)
  • The increase in MMP and ATP due to dietary T3CD was accompanied by an increase in the protein levels of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). (hindawi.com)
  • As protein synthesis evolved and the resulting proteins themselves became more complex, they invaded functional niches, previously occupied by ribozymes, to enhance enzymatic activities. (asm.org)
  • NtrC (Nitrogen regulatory protein C) is the name of the protein necessary for the prokaryotic regulation transcription factor sigma N (sigma 54) to form an open complex with RNA polymerase in order to activate glnA transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seventy-nine of the identified proteins are annotated to be involved in transport of amino acids, oligosaccharides, inorganic ions, nucleotides, phosphate or exopolysaccharides, or to belong to the F1F0-ATP-synthetase complex and the protein translocation machinery, respectively. (dtu.dk)
  • in humans, it is 16.569 base pairs long and contains genes encoding 13 protein subunits of RC complexes I, III, IV, and V as well as transfer (t) and ribosomal (r) RNA encoding genes for mtDNA-specific translation. (hindawi.com)
  • However, hundreds of additional gene products, providing the components necessary for mtDNA replication and expression, many RC complex subunits, and the complex protein network needed for RC formation, activity, and turnover, are nuclear-encoded. (hindawi.com)
  • Protein synthesis is a complex process that in mitochondria supplies the mtDNA-encoded subunits of RC complexes through an organellar-specific translational apparatus distinct from the cytosolic counterpart. (hindawi.com)
  • A gene on 16p13.1 that encodes a protein of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The core catalytic domains of a minimal nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) extender module include condensation (C), adenylation (A), and peptidyl-carrier protein (PCP, a.k.a., thiolation, T) domains. (elifesciences.org)
  • Using a proteomics approach to study human THP-1 cells, we have identified 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase type 2 (OAS2), a dsRNA binding protein involved in the pathway that activates RNase-L, as a new binding partner for NOD2. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) belongs to the family of 20 enzymes essential for protein biosynthesis. (edu.pl)
  • 4. Cussack, S. (1999) RNA-protein complexes. (edu.pl)
  • Synthesis of the long-chain aldehyde is catalyzed by a fatty-acid reductase complex composed of three polypeptides, an NADPH-dependent acyl protein, an acyl transferase and an ATP-dependant synthetase (6). (kenyon.edu)
  • The amount of ATP produced from protein metabolism is slightly less than glucose metabolism for equivalent weights. (tdsurplus.com)
  • Here, we show that transplanting a conserved arginine residue from glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS) to glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS) improves the K M of GlnRS for noncognate glutamate. (pnas.org)
  • Crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus glutamyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with tRNA(Glu) and ATP. (bgsu.edu)
  • Evolutionary histories of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS) and glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS) in bacteria are convoluted. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Lipogenesis reactions also require adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the most important nucleotide in intracellular energy transfer. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cellular respiration in the presence of oxygen (aerobic respiration) is the process by which energy-rich organic substrates are broken down into carbon dioxide and water, with the release of a considerable amount of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (amazonaws.com)
  • Adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP), the molecular unit of currency for intracellular energy transfer, is produced by the last of five multisubunit complexes embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which form the respiratory chain (RC) responsible for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). (hindawi.com)
  • 12. Blanquet, S., Fayat, G. & Waller, J.P. (1975) The amino acid activation reaction catalyzed by methionyl-transfer RNA synthetase: Evidence for synergistic coupling between the sites for methionine, adenosine and pyrophosphate. (edu.pl)
  • ATP, which stands for adenosine triphosphate, is the sole source of energy for all human metabolism, yet very little of this fuel is actually stored in the body. (tdsurplus.com)
  • One role of fatty acids in animal metabolism is energy production, captured in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (tdsurplus.com)
  • Segel, Irwin H. / Human 3′-Phosphoadenosine 5′-Phosphosulfate Synthetase (Isoform 1, Brain) : Kinetic Properties of the Adenosine Triphosphate Sulfurylase and Adenosine 5′-Phosphosulfate Kinase Domains . (elsevier.com)
  • Adenosine production from ATP is used in tissues that need an urgent supply oxygen, such as in the heart during a myocardial infarction (heart attack). (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • Here, we report a 2.5 A resolution crystal structure of the atypical methanogenic Methanosarcina barkeri SerRS and its complexes with ATP, serine and the nonhydrolysable seryl-adenylate analogue 5'-O-(N-serylsulfamoyl)adenosine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • acetic and citric acids), as are other important cellular chemicals such as coenzyme A, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), and alpha lipoic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These proteins play a vital role in the production of ATP and regulation of the transfer of metabolites across the inner membrane. (supremeessays.com)
  • This is consistent with a strong tendency for the genes to participate in operons and for their proteins to be involved in essential and well defined complexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Those with a strong tendency for operon participation make proteins with fewer interaction partners that seem to participate in relatively static complexes and possibly linear pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes with a weak tendency for operon participation tend to produce proteins with more interaction partners, but possibly in more dynamic complexes and convergent pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • open conformational change of the sigma N-RNA polymerase complex around the glutamine synthetase gene promoter requires ATP and involves the formation of a loop between the enhancer and the promoter regions, which may be facilitated by DNA-bending proteins (such as IHF). (wikipedia.org)
  • One group of interferon-induced antiviral proteins is the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) ( Hovanessian, 2007 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One relatively well-understood biological role of SAM is to donate methyl groups for covalent modification of different substrates - from as simple as oxidized arsenic, chloride, bromide, and iodine ions [ 2 - 4 ], to as complex as rRNA, tRNA, and essential proteins, whose methylation status can serve as a regulatory signal for maturation and control interactions with other macromolecules ([ 5 - 7 ] and references therein). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We review arguments that biology emerged from a reciprocal partnership in which small ancestral oligopeptides and oligonucleotides initially both contributed rudimentary information coding and catalytic rate accelerations, and that the superior information-bearing qualities of RNA and the superior catalytic potential of proteins emerged from such complexes only with the gradual invention of the genetic code. (mdpi.com)
  • Paradoxically, although alanyl-tRNA synthetase activates glycine as well as alanine, the sterically larger (than alanine) serine is also misactivated. (rcsb.org)
  • Alanyl-tRNA synthetase crystal structure and design for acceptor-stem recognition. (rcsb.org)
  • The catalytically active form of threonyl/alanyl tRNA synthetase is a dimer. (embl.de)
  • Human alanyl-tRNA synthetase: conservation in evolution of catalytic core and microhelix recognition. (wikipathways.org)
  • The mechanism of this reaction, the ATP synthetase, has only become clearer in the last few years. (columbia.edu)
  • An interplay between the plasma membrane-bound CK and the mitochondrial CK could provide a mechanism to increase ATP locally at the KATP channels, coordinated to the activity of mitochondrial CrP production. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Whatever mechanism is involved, this leads to impaired ATP synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • precise mechanism by which the ATP synthetase complex converts the energy stored in the electrical H + gradient to the chemical bond energy in ATP is not well understood. (britannica.com)
  • Chemiosmosis is a mechanism that uses the proton gradient across the membrane to generate ATP and is initiated by the activity of the electron transport chain. (amazonaws.com)
  • CP synthetase (CPS) catalyzes the synthesis of CP from bicarbonate, glutamine, and two molecules of ATP via a complex reaction mechanism that leads to several unstable intermediates. (asm.org)
  • 10. Blanquet, S., Fayat, G., Waller, J.P. & Iwatsubo, M. (1972) The mechanism of action of methionyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli - interaction with ligands of the amino- acid-activation reaction. (edu.pl)
  • Evidence favors a mechanism in which electrophilic capture of the acetyl oxygen in an ADP-ribosyltransfer reaction forms an ADP-ribose peptide-imidate complex. (nih.gov)
  • As part of the highly regarded National Institute of Standards and Technology, the ATP provides a mechanism for industry to extend its technological reach, thereby extending the envelope of what can be attempted. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The results obtained from DFT calculations not only gave a good support to the experimental results and verified the experimentally demonstrated Ni-atom transfer mechanism from Ni=E (E = CH2, NH, PH) activating complex to ethylene to form three-membered ring products but also validated the application of late transition metal complexes in respective process. (unt.edu)
  • [4] The hydrolysis of ATP drives [8] the first step of a two-part, concerted mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoplasmic matrix contains a mixture of enzymes important in synthesis of ATP molecules, mitochondrial ribosomes, mitochondrial DNA molecules, enzymes and RNAs. (supremeessays.com)
  • We propose that the S4 domain and the PUA domain bind RNA molecules with complex folded structures, adding to the growing collection of nucleic acid-binding domains associated with DNA and RNA modification enzymes. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Both mitochondrial and cytosolic tRNA synthetase enzymes are encoded by genes in the nuclear genome. (wikipathways.org)
  • A complex of enzymes known collectively as fatty acid synthetase completes the fatty acid synthesis. (wisegeek.com)
  • We have also examined whether there is a complex formed between these enzymes. (wayne.edu)
  • This suggests that a complex is formed by these two enzymes. (wayne.edu)
  • Catabolic pathways are often regulated by the relative amounts of ATP, ADP, and AMP in the cellular compartment in which the pacemaker enzymes are located (see below Energy state of the cell). (tdsurplus.com)
  • The complex TrpRS Trp-adenylates of the above enzymes have been isolated using different Trp analogues and ATP. (uwindsor.ca)
  • 7. Rould, M.A., Perona, J.J., Söll, D. & Steitz, T.A. (1989) Structure of E. coli glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with tRNAGln and ATP at 2.8 Å resolution. (edu.pl)
  • The molecular structure of the ATP phosphoribosyl transferase from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima is composed of a 220 kDa hetero-octameric complex comprising four catalytic subunits (HisGS) and four regulatory subunits (HisZ). (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Three distinct distortions are produced and each has an effect on the ability of the alpha-beta subunits to bind ATP and ADP and Pi on their face that is exposed to the inside of the mitochondrion. (columbia.edu)
  • the second example is several forms of mitochondrial diabetes caused by point and length mutations of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that encodes several subunits of the respiratory chain complexes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glutamine synthetase can be composed of 8, 10, or 12 identical subunits separated into two face-to-face rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • 13. Ghosh, G., Pelka, H. & Schulman, L.H. (1990) Identification of the tRNA anticodon recognition site of Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNA synthetase. (edu.pl)
  • Recombinant human 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS) synthetase, isoform 1 (brain), was purified to near-homogeneity from an Escherichia coli expression system and kinetically characterized. (elsevier.com)
  • In the maturation of the Escherichia coli antibiotic Microcin B17, the product of the mcbA gene is modified posttranslationally by the multimeric Microcin synthetase complex (composed of McbB, C, and D) to cyclize four Cys and four Ser residues to four thiazoles and four oxazoles, respectively. (northwestern.edu)
  • Thus, respiration generates an electrical potential (and in mitochondria a small pH gradient) across the membrane corresponding to 200 to 300 millivolts, and the chemical … The ATP molecules produced during the energy payoff phase of glycolysis are formed by substrate-level phosphorylation (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)), one of two mechanisms for producing ATP. (tdsurplus.com)
  • In aerobic production, ATP is produced by mitochondria in addition to glycolysis. (tdsurplus.com)
  • Significantly, in the Mg2+-ATP complex, Asn-194 coordinates a Mg2+-alpha-phosphate bridge. (rcsb.org)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine ( EC 6.3.5.5 ) or ammonia ( EC 6.3.4.16 ) and bicarbonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In turn, carbamic acid reacts with a second ATP to give carbamoyl phosphate plus ADP . (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (cytosol, pyrimidine metabolism ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (found in fish). (wikipedia.org)
  • photophosphorylation The formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate using light energy in photosynthesis (compare oxidative phosphorylation ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • When ATP provides energy to the cellular metabolism, it releases one of its phosphate ions and ADP reappears. (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • [4] [6] ATP phosphorylates glutamate to form ADP and an acyl-phosphate intermediate, γ-glutamyl phosphate, which reacts with ammonia, forming glutamine and inorganic phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minimal tRNA(Ser) and tRNA(Sec) substrates for human seryl-tRNA synthetase: contribution of tRNA domains to serylation and tertiary structure. (wikipathways.org)
  • Structure of the unusual seryl-tRNA synthetase reveals a distinct zinc-dependent mode of substrate recognition. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Methanogenic archaea possess unusual seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS), evolutionarily distinct from the SerRSs found in other archaea, eucaryotes and bacteria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we will examine the structures of transfer RNA and seryl-tRNA synthetase, as well as the interactive complex they form with eachother during translation. (kenyon.edu)
  • 95%) in the succinate-sustained ATP synthesis rate of the particles was found, but both the ATP hydrolysis rate and ATP-driven proton translocation (when the protons flow from the matrix to the cytosol) were minimally affected. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, ATP hydrolysis that involves proton flow from the matrix to the cytosol is essentially unaffected. (nih.gov)
  • hydrolysis of ATP 3. (jiskha.com)
  • Glutamine synthetase catalyzes the ligation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine, with the resulting hydrolysis of ATP. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The stoichiometry of ATP hydrolysis and heterocycle formation is 5:1 for a substrate that contains two potential sites of modification. (northwestern.edu)
  • The molecules are then sent to the mitochondrion and processed further to produce the charged molecules that combine with oxygen to produce the ATP molecules (Cutler and Rondriguez 455). (supremeessays.com)
  • TFAM activates the duplication of mitochondrial DNA molecules, thereby orchestrating mitochondrial bioenergetics and ATP production [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cellular respiration produces three molecules of ATP per pair of electrons in NADH, while the pair of electrons in FADH2 generate two molecules of ATP. (amazonaws.com)
  • This energy is mostly stored as ATP molecules. (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • The process of obtaining energy in order to produce ATP molecules is called cellular respiration. (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • In this process, two molecules of ATP are produced. (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • Due to these features, the synthetase has the ability to simultaneously bind two tRNA molecules at a time. (kenyon.edu)
  • Catalyzes a mechanistically unusual reaction, the ATP-dependent insertion of CO2 between the N7 and N8 nitrogen atoms of 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid (DAPA) to form an ureido ring. (uniprot.org)
  • A single synthetase mediates the charging of all of the tRNA species specific for any one amino acid but, with three exceptions, glycine, lysine, and glutamine, the synthetase that catalyzes aminoacylation of mitochondrial tRNAs is encoded by a different gene than the one that acts on mitochondrial tRNAs. (wikipathways.org)
  • KARS (cytosolic lysyl tRNA synthetase) catalyzes the reaction of lysine, tRNA(Lys), and ATP to form Lys-tRNA(Lys), AMP, and pyrophosphate. (reactome.org)
  • Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a two step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA. (nih.gov)
  • GS catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of glutamate with ammonia to yield glutamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • NAD-Synthetase catalyzes the last step of the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) from deamido nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NaAD), using the ATP. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of formylglycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) and glutamine to yield formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM) and glutamate. (string-db.org)
  • The crystal structures of threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) from Staphylococcus aureus, with ATP and an analogue of threonyl adenylate, are described. (rcsb.org)
  • Crystal structures of many tRNA-synthetase complexes bound to aminoacyl adenylate analogs and free amino acid substrates have since shown that this proposal is not correct: no direct tRNA-amino acid contacts have been observed ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the first half reaction, Acs combines acetate with ATP to form acetyl-adenylate (AcAMP) intermediate. (uniprot.org)
  • The synthetase first binds ATP and the corresponding amino acid or its precursor to form an aminoacyl-adenylate and release inorganic pyrophosphate (PP i ). (bionity.com)
  • This indicates that there are opposing effects influencing the tendency for operon formation, and these effects may be reflected in properties like evolutionary rate, complex formation, metabolic pathways and gene fusion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In eucaryotes, bacteria, and some archaea the two catalytic units are encoded by a single gene, producing a two-domain-type GMP, with a GATase domain in the N-terminal half and a ATP-PPase domain in the C-terminal half. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This gene encodes a cytosolic leucine-tRNA synthetase, a member of the class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. (nih.gov)
  • Human 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthetase 1 (PAPSS1) and PAPSS2: gene cloning, characterization and chromosomal localization. (wikipathways.org)
  • Parallel hierarchical catalytic repertoires for increasingly highly conserved sequences from the two synthetase classes now increase the likelihood that they arose as translation products from opposite strands of a single gene. (mdpi.com)
  • The single most prevalent cause of LS is occurrence of mutations in the SURF1 gene, and LS(Surf1) patients show a ubiquitous and specific decrease in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase, COX). (cam.ac.uk)
  • Two other regions move in a cooperative way upon binding of threonine or ATP: the motif 2 loop, which plays an essential role in the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, and the ordering loop, which closes on the active site cavity when the substrates are in place. (rcsb.org)
  • Molybdate, selenate, chromate ("chromium VI"), arsenate, tungstate, chlorate, and perchlorate bind to the ATP sulfurylase domain, with the first five serving as alternative substrates that promote the decomposition of ATP to AMP and PP i . (elsevier.com)
  • The structural behavior of the active site, including stabilization of flexible loops 82-87 and 204-225, has been studied by determination of the crystal structures of complexes of NADS with natural substrates and a substrate analog. (uab.edu)
  • The so-called class rule, stating that each amino acid is specified by a class I or class II synthetase but not both, was broken with the finding of a class I version of lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) in the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Recent MD simulations of tRNA dynamics and folding and of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase dynamics and mechanistic characterizations are discussed. (mdpi.com)
  • One convenient object for such study is the ternary complex composed of aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) and elongation factor (EF-Tu) bound to GTR. (asmscience.org)
  • This paper reviews the current knowledge of mutations affecting mitochondrial aminoacyl tRNAs synthetases and their role in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the different clinical presentations. (hindawi.com)
  • Tyrosyl‐tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is a class I aminoacyl‐tRNA synthetase, but is unusual in that it is a functional dimer, a feature only shared with tryptophanyl‐tRNA synthetase amongst class I synthetases ( Cusack, 1995 ). (embopress.org)
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Aminoacyl_tRNA_synthetase" . (bionity.com)
  • Consequently, SerRS represents the only known aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase system that evolved two distinct mechanisms for the recognition of the same amino-acid substrate. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It was further suggested that protons, entering the cell through a membrane associated ATP synthetase, could be consumed during the reduction of oxygen to water (2e - + 1/2 O 2 + 2H + → H 2 O) in which electrons for this reaction come from the oxidation of Fe(II) in a pathway that is thermodynamically favorable (downhill pathway). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most acetogens can reduce CO 2 with H 2 to acetic acid via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, in which the ATP required for formate activation is regenerated in the acetate kinase reaction. (asm.org)
  • The (a) imbalance between ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase activities, (b) accumulation of APS in solution during the overall reaction, (c) rate acceleration provided by exogenous APS kinase, and (d) availablity of both active sites to exogenous APS all argue against APS channeling. (elsevier.com)
  • It is the flow-back of H + 's through the F1 spheres that generates the phosphorylation of ADP by P i to form ATP. (columbia.edu)
  • The same signaling sequence is used in the opposite direction in muscle during exercise when high ATP turnover increases the creatine level that stimulates mitochondrial ATP synthesis and glucose phosphorylation via hexokinase. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Instead, the body has three different systems of ATP production: ATP-PC, anaerobic glycolysis, and aerobic phosphorylation. (tdsurplus.com)
  • The normal cell utilizes glucose efficiently and lipids as well, generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation, with the production of ATP in a manner previously described in these posts. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • Interconversion of ATP binding and conformational free energies by tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase: structures of ATP bound to open and closed, pre-transition-state conformations. (expasy.org)
  • Identification and characterization of human mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (wikipathways.org)
  • The structure of threonyl-tRNA synthetase-tRNA(Thr) complex enlightens itsrepressor activity and reveals an essential zinc ion in the active site. (embl.de)
  • The purified synthetase shows an absolute requirement for ATP or GTP in peptide substrate heterocyclization, with GTP one-third as effective as ATP in initial rate studies. (northwestern.edu)
  • The synthetase complex consists of a membrane-spanning proton channel (the F 0 portion ) and an ATP-synthesizing part (the F 1 portion ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • In this study, we monitored the effect of a dietary T3/ γ -cyclodextrin complex (T3CD) on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels in the brain of 21-month-old mice. (hindawi.com)
  • Dietary T3CD significantly increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels compared to those of controls. (hindawi.com)
  • Overall, the present data suggest that T3CD increases TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP synthesis in the brains of aged mice. (hindawi.com)
  • the F1 ATP-ase (soluble) and the F0 ATP-ase (membrane embedded). (thermofisher.com)
  • In cyclic photophosphorylation the electrons from photosystem I that are raised to a higher energy level are recycled through the electron carrier system back to photosystem I. Both pathways of electron flow cause H + ions to be pumped by a group of cytochromes , the cytochrome b 6 -f complex , across the thylakoid membrane. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This complex forms a specific proton pore in the membrane. (tdsurplus.com)
  • Here we report the first crystal structure of a bacterial tyrosyl‐tRNA synthetase complexed with cognate tRNA tyr . (embopress.org)
  • The NH3-dependent NAD+ synthetase (NADS) participates in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) by transforming nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD) to NAD+. (uab.edu)
  • Disrupted function and axonal distribution of mutant tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase in dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. (wikipathways.org)
  • We have also determined the structure at 2.9 Å resolution of the complex of T.thermophilus TyrRS with cognate tRNA tyr (GΨA). (embopress.org)
  • This permits us to visualize the mode of interaction of this synthetase for its cognate tRNA, which in prokaryotes, but not archaea or eukaryotes, is of the class 2 type, i.e. with a long variable arm. (embopress.org)
  • Finally, it proposes a new model for the three-dimensional structure of the ternary complex (TC). (asmscience.org)
  • Half of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated from tuberculosis patients in Sub-Saharan Africa have concomitant resistance to pyrazinamide. (bireme.br)
  • Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase in complex with a transition-state mimic provides functional insights. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we report a high-yield recombinant expression system for glutamine synthetase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis together with a simple purification. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These findings implicate the RNA component of the contemporary GlnRS-tRNA Gln complex in mediating amino acid specificity. (pnas.org)
  • Despite their importance, no structure had been reported for any full-length eukaryotic, glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS), although structural data for two prokaryotic GlnRS species exists. (stanford.edu)
  • The combination of crystallographic and solution studies enabled by SSRL facilities has yielded fundamental new insights into the structural rearrangements occurring in eukaryotic GlnRS-tRNA gln complex formation. (stanford.edu)
  • Within the tRNA synthetase class II dimer, the bound tRNA interacts with both monomers making specific interactions with the catalytic domain, the C-terminal domain, and this SAD domain (the second additional domain). (embl.de)
  • Neurons are particularly sensitive to impaired mitochondrial ATP synthesis capacity, because neurons depend almost exclusively on the oxidative degradation of glucose and ketone bodies. (whatislife.com)
  • Under most circumstances, the body produces most of its ATP from fats and carbohydrates through chemical reactions involving oxygen, called aerobic metabolism. (tdsurplus.com)
  • A Hybrid Structural Model of the Complete Brugia Malayi Cytoplasmic Asparaginyl-tRNA Synthetase. (expasy.org)
  • Our results suggest that the T8993G mutation induces a structural defect in human F(1)F(0)-ATPase that causes a severe impairment of ATP synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Structural properties of tryptophanyl t-RNA synthetase mutants of Baci" by Bakirathan. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Structural properties of tryptophanyl t-RNA synthetase mutants of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus stearothermophilus. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Glutamine synthetase uses ammonia produced by nitrate reduction, amino acid degradation, and photorespiration . (wikipedia.org)
  • noncyclizable versions of McbA bind to synthetase, but do not induce the NTPase activity. (northwestern.edu)
  • Rizzi M, Nessi C, Mattevi A, Coda A, Bolognesi M, Galizzi A. Crystal structure of NH3-dependent NAD+ synthetase from Bacillus subtilis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • ATP binds first to the top of the active site near a cation binding site, while glutamate binds near the second cation binding site at the bottom of the active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sequence of these 3 events is thus 1) the binding of ADP and Pi (L), 2) a kind of mechanical force pushing them together (T), followed by 3) a quick release of the ATP (O). The formation of these 3 conformations is driven by protons binding to specific amino acids in the Fo channel. (columbia.edu)
  • The tRNA interacts with all four mobile regions, several residues initially bound to threonine or ATP switching to a position in which they can contact the tRNA. (rcsb.org)
  • It is found in the cytoplasm as part of a multisynthetase complex and interacts with the arginine tRNA synthetase through its C-terminal domain. (nih.gov)