Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
PHEX Phosphate Regulating Neutral Endopeptidase
A membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase that may play a role in the degradation or activation of a variety of PEPTIDE HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of this protein are a cause of HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS, X-LINKED DOMINANT.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Amino Acid Sequence
A biologically active tridecapeptide isolated from the hypothalamus. It has been shown to induce hypotension in the rat, to stimulate contraction of guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, and to cause relaxation of rat duodenum. There is also evidence that it acts as both a peripheral and a central nervous system neurotransmitter.
Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases
Atrial Natriuretic Factor
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
ATP Synthetase Complexes
Botulinum Toxins, Type A
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein Processing, Post-Translational
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Carboxypeptidases that are primarily found the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM that catalyze the release of C-terminal amino acids. Carboxypeptidases A have little or no activity for hydrolysis of C-terminal ASPARTIC ACID; GLUTAMIC ACID; ARGININE; LYSINE; or PROLINE. This enzyme requires ZINC as a cofactor and was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206 and EC 220.127.116.11.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 18.104.22.168.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.
A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
Receptors, Purinergic P2
Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases
A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.
Chromatography, Ion Exchange
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Gene Expression Regulation
Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Promoter Regions, Genetic
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Kell Blood-Group System
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Peroxisomal proteostasis involves a Lon family protein that functions as protease and chaperone. (1/1)(+info)
Iraqi Academic Scientific Journals - IASJ
ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat musculoskeletal disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Virtually all (NSAIDs) are capable of producing liver injury ranging from mild reversible elevation of liver enzymes to severe hepatic failure.OBJECTIVE:To estimate the hepatic risk associated with the use of some NSAIDs. SUBJECT AND METHOD:80 osteoarthritic patients were on diclofenac acid (voltarin) tablets 75 mg, 60 of them were female and 20 were male, laboratory estimation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alkaline phosphatase activity and total serum bilirubin (TSB) were done. For comparison age and sex matched 96 apparently healthy persons serve as controls.RESULTS:27 (33.75 %) of the diclofenac treated patients had some impairment of liver function tests, 66.6 % of the liver injury found in patients aged more than 50 years and 88.8 % had occurred in females. hepatocelluar injury characterize ...
Correction: Achieving equal standards in medical student education: is a national exit examination the answer? | The Medical...
Re: the letter in reply Achieving equal standards in medical student education: is a national exit examination the answer?, by Bogda Koczwara, on behalf of the Cancer Council of Australia Oncology Education Committee, in the 1 August issue of the Journal (Med J Aust 2005; 183: 168). Part of the reference list was omitted from the printed version due to a technical error. The complete list of references is:. ...
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Introducing the Autophagy and Proteostasis Collection - EveryONE
The importance of proteostasis is becoming increasingly apparent as disrupted proteostasis and dysregulation of proteostasis-associated networks has been linked with aging and many age-associated diseases such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons and Huntingtons disorders. In recognition of the importance of this subject, PLOS ONE, alongside PLOS Biology, launched a Call for Papers on the topic of Autophagy and Proteostasis earlier this year. We welcomed a range of submissions that provided insight into the molecular and cellular machinery, and mechanisms that regulate autophagy and the crosstalk of this process with other protein quality control pathways to ensure proteostasis. These studies also underline the importance of all these cellular pathways in pathophysiological conditions and aging. The Guest Editors are Sharon Tooze (Francis Crick Institute, United Kingdom), Fulvio Reggiori (University Medical Centre Groningen, The Netherlands) and Thorsten Hoppe (Institute for Genetics and CECAD Center ...
PRNP and PSMA3 Interaction - Wiki-Pi
ATP-dependent Protein Binding. *Chaperone Binding. *Threonine-type Endopeptidase Activity. *Protein Binding ... Anaphase-promoting Complex-dependent Proteasomal Ubiquitin-dependent Protein Catabolic Process. *Mitotic G1 DNA Damage ... Anaphase-promoting Complex-dependent Proteasomal Ubiquitin-dependent Protein Catabolic Process. *Cellular Nitrogen Compound ... Regulation Of Protein Ubiquitination Involved In Ubiquitin-dependent Protein Catabolic Process. *Signal Transduction In ...
Around one-third of hereditary disorders will be the consequence of mutations | Vascular Dysfunction Induced in Offspring by...
XIAP and RFC5 Interaction - Wiki-Pi
Negative Regulation Of Cysteine-type Endopeptidase Activity Involved In Apoptotic Process. *Regulation Of Innate Immune ... TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT. *RNF mutants show enhanced WNT signaling and proliferation ... ATP Binding. *Enzyme Binding. Biological Process. *Apoptotic Process. *Cellular Response To DNA Damage Stimulus ...
MAPK9 and TRAF2 Interaction - Wiki-Pi
XIAP and UBE2E2 Interaction - Wiki-Pi
Negative Regulation Of Cysteine-type Endopeptidase Activity Involved In Apoptotic Process. *Regulation Of Innate Immune ... TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT. *RNF mutants show enhanced WNT signaling and proliferation ... ATP Binding. *Ligase Activity. *ISG15 Transferase Activity. *Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme Activity. Biological Process. * ...
UBE2F and DCUN1D1 Interaction - Wiki-Pi
SCF-dependent Proteasomal Ubiquitin-dependent Protein Catabolic Process. *Negative Regulation Of Signal Transduction By P53 ... Negative Regulation Of Cysteine-type Endopeptidase Activity Involved In Execution Phase Of Apoptosis ... ATP Binding. *Ligase Activity. *NEDD8 Transferase Activity. *Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Binding. *Ubiquitin Protein Ligase ...
UBE2W and TRIM39 Interaction - Wiki-Pi
Anaphase-promoting Complex-dependent Proteasomal Ubiquitin-dependent Protein Catabolic Process. *Negative Regulation Of ... Inhibition Of Cysteine-type Endopeptidase Activity Involved In Apoptotic Process. *Positive Regulation Of Protein ... ATP Binding. *Ligase Activity. *Ubiquitin-like Protein Transferase Activity. *Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Binding ... Negative Regulation Of Protein Ubiquitination Involved In Ubiquitin-dependent Protein Catabolic Process ...
UBE2W and TRIM35 Interaction - Wiki-Pi
Inhibition Of Cysteine-type Endopeptidase Activity Involved In Apoptotic Process. *Positive Regulation Of Protein ... Ubiquitin-dependent Protein Catabolic Process. *Modification-dependent Protein Catabolic Process. *Cellular Macromolecule ... ATP Binding. *Ligase Activity. *Ubiquitin-like Protein Transferase Activity. *Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Binding ...
UBE2W and CHFR Interaction - Wiki-Pi
Inhibition Of Cysteine-type Endopeptidase Activity Involved In Apoptotic Process. *Positive Regulation Of Protein ... Ubiquitin-dependent Protein Catabolic Process. *Modification-dependent Protein Catabolic Process. *Proteolysis Involved In ... ATP Binding. *Ligase Activity. *Ubiquitin-like Protein Transferase Activity. *Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Binding ...
CRMP1 and UBE2B Interaction - Wiki-Pi
Proteasome-mediated Ubiquitin-dependent Protein Catabolic Process. *Negative Regulation Of CAMP-mediated Signaling ... Regulation Of Cysteine-type Endopeptidase Activity. *Response To Stimulus. *Positive Regulation Of Cellular Component ... ATP Binding. *Ligase Activity. *Ubiquitin-like Protein Transferase Activity. *Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Binding ...
PEX6 and RPS14 Interaction - Wiki-Pi
Activation Of Cysteine-type Endopeptidase Activity Involved In Apoptotic Signaling Pathway. *Positive Regulation Of ... Cap-dependent Translation Initiation. *Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD) independent of the Exon Junction Complex (EJC) ... Positive Regulation Of Cysteine-type Endopeptidase Activity Involved In Apoptotic Signaling Pathway ... ATP Binding. *Protein C-terminus Binding. *ATPase Activity. *Protein Complex Binding. *ATPase Activity, Coupled ...
UBE2U and TRIM34 Interaction - Wiki-Pi
Ubiquitin-dependent Protein Catabolic Process. *Modification-dependent Protein Catabolic Process. *Cellular Protein Metabolic ... Inhibition Of Cysteine-type Endopeptidase Activity Involved In Apoptotic Process. *Protein Complex Assembly ... ATP Binding. *Ligase Activity. *Ubiquitin-like Protein Transferase Activity. *Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Binding ...