ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedLipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.P-Glycoproteins: A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Antipain: An oligopeptide produced by various bacteria which acts as a protease inhibitor.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Adrenoleukodystrophy: An X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in the LYSOSOMES of ADRENAL CORTEX and the white matter of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This disease occurs almost exclusively in the males. Clinical features include the childhood onset of ATAXIA; NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HYPERPIGMENTATION; ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY; SEIZURES; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and DEMENTIA. The slowly progressive adult form is called adrenomyeloneuropathy. The defective gene ABCD1 is located at Xq28, and encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Mice, Inbred C57BLCholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Benzethonium: Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.Vanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3: A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Organic Cation Transporter 1: An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1: A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Cholates: Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.

Alternative sulfonylurea receptor expression defines metabolic sensitivity of K-ATP channels in dopaminergic midbrain neurons. (1/7249)

ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels couple the metabolic state to cellular excitability in various tissues. Several isoforms of the K-ATP channel subunits, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying K channel (Kir6.X), have been cloned, but the molecular composition and functional diversity of native neuronal K-ATP channels remain unresolved. We combined functional analysis of K-ATP channels with expression profiling of K-ATP subunits at the level of single substantia nigra (SN) neurons in mouse brain slices using an RT-multiplex PCR protocol. In contrast to GABAergic neurons, single dopaminergic SN neurons displayed alternative co-expression of either SUR1, SUR2B or both SUR isoforms with Kir6.2. Dopaminergic SN neurons expressed alternative K-ATP channel species distinguished by significant differences in sulfonylurea affinity and metabolic sensitivity. In single dopaminergic SN neurons, co-expression of SUR1 + Kir6.2, but not of SUR2B + Kir6.2, correlated with functional K-ATP channels highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition. In contrast to wild-type, surviving dopaminergic SN neurons of homozygous weaver mouse exclusively expressed SUR1 + Kir6.2 during the active period of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, alternative expression of K-ATP channel subunits defines the differential response to metabolic stress and constitutes a novel candidate mechanism for the differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in response to respiratory chain dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

Inward rectification in KATP channels: a pH switch in the pore. (2/7249)

Inward-rectifier potassium channels (Kir channels) stabilize the resting membrane potential and set a threshold for excitation in many types of cell. This function arises from voltage-dependent rectification of these channels due to blockage by intracellular polyamines. In all Kir channels studied to date, the voltage-dependence of rectification is either strong or weak. Here we show that in cardiac as well as in cloned KATP channels (Kir6.2 + sulfonylurea receptor) polyamine-mediated rectification is not fixed but changes with intracellular pH in the physiological range: inward-rectification is prominent at basic pH, while at acidic pH rectification is very weak. The pH-dependence of polyamine block is specific for KATP as shown in experiments with other Kir channels. Systematic mutagenesis revealed a titratable C-terminal histidine residue (H216) in Kir6.2 to be the structural determinant, and electrostatic interaction between this residue and polyamines was shown to be the molecular mechanism underlying pH-dependent rectification. This pH-dependent block of KATP channels may represent a novel and direct link between excitation and intracellular pH.  (+info)

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in human heavy metal-selected tumor cells. (3/7249)

Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance to cytotoxic heavy metals remain largely to be characterized in mammalian cells. To this end, we have analyzed a metal-resistant variant of the human lung cancer GLC4 cell line that we have selected by a step-wise procedure in potassium antimony tartrate. Antimony-selected cells, termed GLC4/Sb30 cells, poorly accumulated antimony through an enhanced cellular efflux of metal, thus suggesting up-regulation of a membrane export system in these cells. Indeed, GLC4/Sb30 cells were found to display a functional overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, a drug export pump, as demonstrated by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and calcein accumulation assays. Moreover, MK571, a potent inhibitor of MRP1 activity, was found to markedly down-modulate resistance of GLC4/Sb30 cells to antimony and to decrease cellular export of the metal. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that overexpression of functional MRP1 likely represents one major mechanism by which human cells can escape the cytotoxic effects of heavy metals.  (+info)

Neural modulation of cephalexin intestinal absorption through the di- and tripeptide brush border transporter of rat jejunum in vivo. (4/7249)

Intestinal absorption of beta-lactamine antibiotics (e.g., cefixime and cephalexin) has been shown to proceed through the dipeptide carrier system. In a previous study, nifedipine (NFP), an L-type calcium channel blocker, enhanced the absorption of cefixime in vivo but not in vitro, and it was suggested that neural mechanisms might be involved in the effect of NFP. The aim of the present study was to assess the involvement of the nervous system on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CFX). To investigate this, we used a single-pass jejunal perfusion technique in rats. NFP and diltiazem enhanced approximately 2-fold the plasma levels of CFX in treated rats versus untreated controls. NFP also increased approximately 2-fold the CFX level in portal plasma and increased urinary excretion of CFX, thus indicating that CFX did effectively increase CFX intestinal absorption. Perfusing high concentrations of dipeptides in the jejunal lumen competitively reduced CFX absorption and inhibited the enhancement of CFX absorption produced by NFP. Hexamethonium and lidocaine inhibited the effect of NFP, whereas atropine, capsaicin, clonidine, and isoproterenol enhanced CFX absorption by the same order of magnitude as NFP. Thus, complex neural networks can modulate the function of the intestinal di- and tripeptide transporter. Sympathetic noradrenergic fibers, intestinal sensory neurons, and nicotinic synapses are involved in the increase of CFX absorption produced by NFP.  (+info)

Expression of atrC - encoding a novel member of the ATP binding cassette transporter family in Aspergillus nidulans - is sensitive to cycloheximide. (5/7249)

A new member of the ABC superfamily of transmembrane proteins in Aspergillus nidulans has been cloned and characterized. The topology of conserved motifs subgroups AtrC in the P-glycoprotein cluster of ABC permeases, the members of this subfamily, are known to participate in multidrug resistance (MDR) in diverse organisms. Alignment results display significant amino acid similarity to AfuMDR1 and AflMDR1 from Aspergillus fumigatus and flavus, respectively. Northern analysis reveals that atrC mRNA levels are 10-fold increased in response to cycloheximide. Evidence for the existence of eight additional hitherto unpublished ABC transporter proteins in A. nidulans is provided.  (+info)

MalK forms a dimer independent of its assembly into the MalFGK2 ATP-binding cassette transporter of Escherichia coli. (6/7249)

The maltose transport complex (MTC) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of membrane transport proteins and is a model for understanding the folding and assembly of hetero-oligomeric membrane protein complexes. The MTC is made up of two integral membrane proteins, MalF and MalG, and a peripheral membrane protein, MalK. These proteins associate with a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 to form the complex MalFGK2. In our studies of the oligomerization of this complex, we have shown that the ATP-binding component, MalK, forms a dimer in the absence of MalF and MalG. Epitope-tagged MalK coimmunoprecipitated with wild-type MalK, indicating that the MalK protein forms an oligomer. The relative amounts of tagged and wild-type MalK that were present in the whole cell extracts and in the immunoprecipitated complexes show that the MalK oligomer is a dimer. These hetero-oligomers can also be formed in vitro by mixing two extracts, each containing either tagged or wild-type MalK. The dimerization of MalK was also demonstrated in vivo using the bacteriophage lambda repressor fusion assay. The formation of a MalK dimer in the absence of MalF and MalG may represent an initial step in the assembly pathway of the MTC.  (+info)

Glucose-receptive neurones in the rat ventromedial hypothalamus express KATP channels composed of Kir6.1 and SUR1 subunits. (7/7249)

1. Patch-clamp recordings were made from rat ventromedial hypothalamic neurones in slices of brain tissue in vitro. In cell-attached recordings, removal of extracellular glucose or metabolic inhibition with sodium azide reduced the firing rate of a subpopulation of cells through the activation of a 65 pS channel that was blocked by the sulphonylureas tolbutamide and glibenclamide. 2. In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, in the absence of ATP in the electrode solution, glucose-receptive neurones gradually hyperpolarized due to the induction of an outward current at -60 mV. This outward current and the resultant hyperpolarization were blocked by the sulphonylureas tolbutamide and glibenclamide. 3. In recordings where the electrode solution contained 4 mM ATP, this outward current was not observed. Under these conditions, 500 microM diazoxide was found to induce an outward current that was blocked by tolbutamide. 4. In cell-attached recordings diazoxide and the active fragment of leptin (leptin 22-56) reduced the firing rate of glucose-receptive neurones by the activation of a channel with similar properties to that induced by removal of extracellular glucose. 5. Reverse transcription followed by the polymerase chain reaction using cytoplasm from single glucose-receptive neurones demonstrated the expression of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel subunits Kir6.1 and SUR1 but not Kir6.2 or SUR2. 6. It is concluded that glucose-receptive neurones within the rat ventromedial hypothalamus exhibit a KATP channel current with pharmacological and molecular properties similar to those reported in other tissues.  (+info)

Functional analysis of the promoter of the yeast SNQ2 gene encoding a multidrug resistance transporter that confers the resistance to 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide. (8/7249)

The yeast gene SNQ2, which encodes a multidrug resistance ABC superfamily protein, is required for resistance to the mutagen 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide (4-NQO). The expression of the SNQ2 gene is under the control of a regulatory network that involves the transcription factor Yrr1p, as well as Pdr1p/Pdr3p (Cui et al., Mol. Microbiol., 29, 1307-1315 (1998)). By 5'-deletion analysis of the promoter by using SNQ2-lacZ fusion constructs, four regions: -745 to -639 (region I), -639 to -578 (region II), -548 to -533 (region III) and -533 to -485 (region IV) were found to be important for SNQ2 expression. Genetic analysis suggested that the site in region IV was responsible for the Yrr1p-mediated SNQ2 expression. A consensus motif known for the binding of Pdr1p/Pdr3p (PDRE) was not found in region IV.  (+info)

*ATP-binding cassette transporter

ATP-dependent association of the nucleotide binding cassettes during the catalytic cycle of ATP-binding cassette transporters ... ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are members of a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest ... Each member of the ABCF subgroup consist of a pair of ATP binding domains. Six half transporters with ATP binding sites on the ... Dimer formation of the two ABC domains of transporters requires ATP binding. It is generally observed that the ATP bound state ...

*ABCA1

ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 (member 1 of human transporter sub-family ABCA), also known as the cholesterol efflux ... Oram JF (2003). "ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and cholesterol trafficking". Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 13 (4): 373-81. doi: ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165029 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...

*ABCG5

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ... Kajinami K, Brousseau ME, Nartsupha C, Ordovas JM, Schaefer EJ (Apr 2004). "ATP binding cassette transporter G5 and G8 ... ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138075 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Mutations in the human ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 in sitosterolemia". Human Mutation. 20 (2): 151. doi: ...

*ABCG4

ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172350 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... The protein encoded by this gene is included in the ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC protein) superfamily. ABC proteins ... 2002). "Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of the mouse ATP-binding cassette transporter Abcg4". Gene. 293 (1-2): 67-75 ... "The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily". Genome Res. 11 (7): 1156-66. doi:10.1101/gr.184901. PMID ...

*ABCA7

"ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 (ABCA7) binds apolipoprotein A-I and mediates cellular phospholipid but not cholesterol ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ... ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000064687 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated ERK signaling in macrophages". The ...

*ABCD3

"Characterization and functional analysis of the nucleotide binding fold in human peroxisomal ATP binding cassette transporters ... "ATP binding/hydrolysis by and phosphorylation of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette proteins PMP70 (ABCD3) and ... ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCD3 has been shown to interact with PEX19. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000117528 - ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ...

*ABCD2

ATP-binding cassette sub-family D member 2 is a membrane pump/transporter protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCD2 gene. ... ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCD2 has been shown to interact with PEX19. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000173208 - ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ... and heterodimerization of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette half-transporters". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (46): 32738-43. doi:10.1074/ ...

*Frauke Petry

Petry, Frauke (2004). Charakterisierung eines neuen ATP-binding-cassette Transporters aus der ABCA-Subfamilie (PDF) (in German ...

*ABCC11

ATP-binding cassette transporter sub-family C member 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC11 gene. The gene is ... ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000121270 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". ... Dean M, Rzhetsky A, Allikmets R (Jul 2001). "The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily". Genome Research. 11 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ...

*ABCG8

2004). "ATP binding cassette transporter G5 and G8 genotypes and plasma lipoprotein levels before and after treatment with ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ... 2002). "Mutations in the human ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 in sitosterolemia". Hum. Mutat. 20 (2): 151. ... 2002). "Catalog of 605 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 13 genes encoding human ATP-binding cassette transporters: ...

*ABCC12

This gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and the encoded protein contains two ATP- ... "The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily". Genome Res. 11 (7): 1156-66. doi:10.1101/gr.184901. PMID ... "Two new genes from the human ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily, ABCC11 and ABCC12, tandemly duplicated on chromosome ... "Multiple splicing variants of two new human ATP-binding cassette transporters, ABCC11 and ABCC12". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ...

*ABCC13

Putative ATP-binding cassette transporter sub-family C member 13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC13 gene. ... ABCC13 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 13". Dean M, Annilo T (2005). "Evolution of the ATP-binding ... ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCC13 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... This gene is a member of the superfamily of genes encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport ...

*ABCA5

The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... Dean M, Rzhetsky A, Allikmets R (2001). "The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily". Genome Research. 11 (7 ... "ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCB5 gene is expressed with variability in malignant melanoma". Actas dermo-sifiliograficas. ... "Correlation of induction of ATP binding cassette transporter A5 (ABCA5) and ABCB1 mRNAs with differentiation state of human ...

*Active transport

... chloroplast ATP synthase V-ATPase: vacuolar ATPase ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporter: MDR, CFTR, etc. In secondary active ... ATP-binding cassette transporter Countercurrent exchange Protein targeting Translocation "The importance of homeostasis". ... Hydrolysis of the bound phosphate group and release of hydrogen ion then restores the carrier to its original conformation. P- ... ATP hydrolysis is used to transport hydrogen ions against the electrochemical gradient (from low to high hydrogen ion ...

*ABCG1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ... ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160179 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCG1 (ABC8) in Tangier disease". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... is a transcriptional repressor of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ABCG1 gene expression and a modulator of ...

*ABCA3

The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... Matsumura Y, Ban N, Ueda K, Inagaki N (2006). "Characterization and classification of ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA3 ... ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167972 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: ABCA3 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 3". Chen, P; Dai, Y; Wu, X; Wang, Y; Sun, S; Xiao, J; ...

*SNTB2

Buechler C, Boettcher A, Bared SM, Probst MC, Schmitz G (2002). "The carboxyterminus of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 ... "The carboxyterminus of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 interacts with a beta2-syntrophin/utrophin complex". Biochem. ... and each bind to dystrophin and its relatives". J Biol Chem. 271 (5): 2724-30. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.5.2724. PMID 8576247. Ahn AH ... "The receptor tyrosine phosphatase-like protein ICA512 binds the PDZ domains of beta2-syntrophin and nNOS in pancreatic beta- ...

*TAP1

"Entrez Gene: TAP1 transporter 1, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP)". Paulsson KM, Kleijmeer MJ, Griffith J, Jevon M ... ATP-binding cassette transporter TAP1 has been shown to interact with: HLA-A, and Tapasin. ENSG00000168394, ENSG00000224212, ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... Transporter associated with Antigen Processing 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAP1 gene. ...

*Tangier disease

... is caused by mutations in the gene encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter 1. Nat Genet 1999; 22:352. Serfaty ... August 1999). "Tangier disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter 1". Nat. Genet. 22 ... Mutations to chromosome 9q31 lead to a defective ABCA1 transporter. These mutations prevent the ABCA1 protein from effectively ... People with Tangier disease have defective ABCA1 transporters resulting in a greatly reduced ability to transport cholesterol ...

*Transmembrane domain of ABC transporters

ABC transporter transmembrane domain is the main transmembrane structural unit of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, ... "Structure and association of ATP-binding cassette transporter nucleotide-binding domains". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1561 (1): 47 ... structures of the MJ1267 ATP binding cassette reveal an induced-fit effect at the ATPase active site of an ABC transporter". ... "The crystal structure of the MJ0796ATP-binding cassette. Implications for the structural consequences of ATP hydrolysis in the ...

*Apatinib

Reverses Multidrug Resistance by Inhibiting the Efflux Function of Multiple ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters". Cancer Research ...

*Reverse cholesterol transport

Cholesterol from non-hepatic peripheral tissues is transferred to HDL by the ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter). ...

*FADD

"Molecular and functional interaction of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 with Fas-associated death domain protein". J. ... Binding of TRAIL to death receptors four and five (DR4 and DR5) can lead to apoptosis by the same mechanism. Apoptosis can also ... FADD binds to ATG5 in a complex which also contains ATG12, Caspase 8 and RIPK1. The formation of this complex is stimulated by ... FADD binds to the DD of this trimeric structure via its death domain resulting in unmasking of FADD's DED and subsequent ...

*Aldehyde oxidase 1

2007). "Human aldehyde oxidase 1 interacts with ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 and modulates its activity in hepatocytes". ... 2002). "The carboxyterminus of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 interacts with a beta2-syntrophin/utrophin complex". ...

*ABCB5

... of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCB 5 in melanoma cells and melanocytes". Pigment Cell Research / Sponsored by ... of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCB 5 in melanoma cells and melanocytes". Pigment Cell Research / Sponsored by ... a novel human ATP-binding cassette transporter". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (47): 47156-65. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 also known as P-glycoprotein ABCB5 is a plasma membrane-spanning protein that in ...

*ABCA8

The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... 2002). "Catalog of 605 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 13 genes encoding human ATP-binding cassette transporters: ... ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCA8 gene. ... ABCA8 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 8". Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, ...
KAMISAKO, T. and OGAWA, H. (2005), Alteration of the expression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters associated with bile acid and cholesterol transport in the rat liver and intestine during cholestasis. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 20: 1429-1434. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2005.03950.x ...
Title: Structure and Function of the Human Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2). VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 7. Author(s):Zhanglin Ni, Zsolt Bikadi, Mark F. Rosenberg and Qingcheng Mao. Affiliation:Department of Pharmaceutics,School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Health Science Building H272, 1959 NE Pacific Street , Seattle, Washington 98195-7610, USA.. Keywords:Breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP, ATP-binding cassette transporter, ABCG2, multidrug resistance, drug disposition, homology model, mutation analysis, BCRP/ABCG2, mitoxantrone-resistant human cancer cell lines, MXR, human placenta, ABCP, nucleotide binding domains, membrane spanning domains, MSDs, affinity constants, SAR, QSAR, flavonoids, tamoxifen analogues, cyclindependent kinase inhibitors, tariquidar analogues, FTC analogues, 2D-QSAR, CoMFA, CoMSIA, 3D-QSAR, MIFs, HEK cells, Pichia pastoris, Lactococcus lactis, fluorescence resonance energy transfer v, MODELLER. Abstract: The human breast cancer resistance protein ...
Overexpression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins is emerging seeing that a crucial contributor to anticancer medication level of resistance. assays. eIF4G mRNA degradation was accelerated in cells transfected with miR-503 mimics. Furthermore, it had been demonstrated that eIF4G and ABC translation protein were downregulated in MCF-7/ADR cells after transfection with miR-503 significantly. It was discovered that miR-503 mimics could sensitize the cells to treatment with ADM, TAX and TAM. These findings confirmed for the very first time that eIF4G acted as an integral element in MCF-7/ADR cells, and Riociguat could end up being a competent agent for preventing and reversing multi-drug resistance in breast malignancy. (11) determinded that cisplatin-resistance cells upregulated MRP1 when compared with sensitive MCF-7 cells. The eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F complex consists of three proteins: cap-binding protein eIF4E, scaffolding protein eIF4G and ...
Title: Genetic Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ABCB1 and ABCC2 and their Impact on Drug Disposition. VOLUME: 12 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Vincent Haufroid. Affiliation:Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Saint-Luc Hospital, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, Belgium.. Keywords:Pharmacogenomics, ABCB1, ABCC2, intracellular concentrations, genotype, polymorphism, mdr1, mrp2, drug disposition, haplotypes. Abstract: The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily comprises membrane proteins that translocate a variety of substrates across extra- and intra-cellular membranes, and act as efflux proteins. ABC transporters are characterised by the presence of genetic polymorphisms mainly represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which having an impact on their activity. Besides physiological substances, drugs are also substrates of some ABC transporters, mainly ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3 and ABCG2. Identifying the impact of these polymorphisms on the ...
During the past years, we and others discovered a series of human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, now referred to as ABC A-subfamily transporters. Recently, a novel testis-specific ABC A transporter, Abca17, has been cloned in rodent. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of the human ortholog of rodent Abca17. The novel human ABC A-transporter gene on chromosome 16p13.3 is ubiquitously expressed with highest expression in glandular tissues and the heart. The new ABC transporter gene exhibits striking nucleotide sequence homology with the recently cloned mouse (58%) and rat Abca17 (51%), respectively, and is located in the syntenic region of mouse Abca17 indicating that it represents the human ortholog of rodent Abca17. However, unlike in the mouse, the full-length ABCA17 transcript (4.3 kb) contains numerous mutations that preclude its translation into a bona fide ABC transporter protein strongly suggesting that the human ABCA17 gene is a transcribed pseudogene
[51 Pages Report] Check for Discount on ATP Binding Cassette Sub Family A Member 1 (ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1 or ABC 1 or ATP Binding Cassette 1 or Cholesterol Efflux Regulatory Protein or ABCA1) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, ATP Binding Cassette Sub...
ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are members of a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest and is possibly one of the oldest families with representatives in all extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans. ABC transporters often consist of multiple subunits, one or two of which are transmembrane proteins and one or two of which are membrane-associated ATPases. The ATPase subunits utilize the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding and hydrolysis to energize the translocation of various substrates across membranes, either for uptake or for export of the substrate. Most but not all uptake systems also have an extracytoplasmic receptor, a solute binding protein. Some homologous ATPases function in non-transport-related processes such as translation of RNA and DNA repair. ABC transporters are considered to be with the ABC superfamily based on the sequence and organization of their ATP-binding cassette (ABC) domains, even though the integral membrane proteins ...
With the well-established link between serum cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease and the availability of effective cholesterol-lowering drugs, cholesterol screening has rapidly become a routine part of health care. Yet, much remains to be learned about how cholesterol levels are regulated at the cellular level (see the Perspective by Brown et al.). Now, Najafi-Shoushtari et al. (p. 1566, published online 13 May) and Rayner et al. (p. 1570, published online 13 May) have discovered a new molecular player in cholesterol control-a small noncoding RNA that, intriguingly, is embedded within the genes coding for sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), transcription factors already known to regulate cholesterol levels. This microRNA, called miR-33, represses expression of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1, a protein that regulates synthesis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, or "good" cholesterol) and that helps to remove "bad" cholesterol from the blood. ...
With the well-established link between serum cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease and the availability of effective cholesterol-lowering drugs, cholesterol screening has rapidly become a routine part of health care. Yet, much remains to be learned about how cholesterol levels are regulated at the cellular level (see the Perspective by Brown et al.). Now, Najafi-Shoushtari et al. and Rayner et al. have discovered a new molecular player in cholesterol control-a small noncoding RNA that, intriguingly, is embedded within the genes coding for sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), transcription factors already known to regulate cholesterol levels. This microRNA, called miR-33, represses expression of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1, a protein that regulates synthesis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, or "good" cholesterol) and that helps to remove "bad" cholesterol from the blood. Reducing the levels of miR-33 in mice boosted serum HDL levels, ...
Membrane transport proteins are known to influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) of drugs. At the onset of this thesis work, only a few structure-activity models, in general describing P-glycoprotein (Pgp/ABCB1) interactions, were developed using small datasets with little structural diversity. In this thesis, drug-transport protein interactions were explored using large, diverse datasets representing the chemical space of orally administered registered drugs. Focus was set on the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins expressed in the canalicular membrane of human hepatocytes.. The inhibition of the ABC transport proteins multidrug-resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2) and bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) was experimentally investigated using membrane vesicles from cells overexpressing the investigated proteins and sandwich cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH). Several previously unknown inhibitors were identified for both of the proteins ...
Introduction Recently, the ATP-binding cassette transporter BCRP1/ABCG2 has been shown to regulate the function and survival of side population cells, which have been identified in various organs including heart and have stem cell properties. In addition, previous studies have revealed that BCRP1/ABCG2 is also expressed in endothelial cells of capillaries and arterioles in heart. This study was performed to clarify the role of BCRP1/ABCG2 in cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI).. Methods and Results MI was induced in 8- to 12-week-old wild-type (WT) mice (n=51) and Bcrp1/Abcg2 knock-out (KO) mice (n=60) by ligating the left anterior descending artery. At 28 days after MI, the survival rate was significantly lower in KO mice than in WT mice (28.3% versus 74.5%, p=0.0001). The main cause of death in KO mice was cardiac rupture (CR) (67.4%), whereas CR was observed in only 30.8% among WT mice (p=0.019). Echocardiography showed that ventricular remodeling was more deteriorated in KO mice ...
ABCF3 - ABCF3 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human ATP-binding cassette, sub-family F (GCN20), member 3 (ABCF3) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Purpose : The retina specific ATP binding cassette transporter A4 (ABCA4) is necessary for the clearance of all-trans-retinal from photoreceptor cells. Loss of this crucial function results in the accumulation of toxic bisretinoids, primarily N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E). This ultimately leads to the Stargardt phenotype of increased autofluorescence and progressive RPE and photoreceptor cell loss. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have proven their utility for efficient gene transfer in the retina to a variety of cell types. However, the ABCA4 coding sequence (cds) of 6.8kb exceeds the payload capacity of a single AAV capsid of 4.8kb by far. AAV dual vectors have been shown to overcome this size restriction by splitting the cds between two vectors and packaging them in separate capsids. After co-infection of a cell the two vectored cDNAs recombine to reconstitute the full length cds. Here we present recent data on the effect of AAV dual vector mediated ABCA4 gene replacement ...
hypothetical protein, ABCB1LB, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 1-like B, A306_07528, ABC16, ABC member 16, MDR/TAP subfamily, AS27_06659, AS28_00614, ATP-binding cassette protein B11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (MDR/TAP), member 11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11-like protein, ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 11, bile salt export pump, BRIC2, BSEP, BSEP/SPGP, CB1_000638007, D623_10034923, GW7_06212, H920_16172, I79_001236, Lith1, liver bile salt export pump, M91_01875, M959_07155, MDA_GLEAN10024246, Multidrug resistance protein 1, N301_03105, N302_06788, N303_07198, N305_06591, N306_04080, N307_07545, N308_11810, N309_07944, N312_11735, N321_13718, N327_01303, N328_07355, N329_09470, N331_01374, N332_02914, N333_01536, N334_13094, N336_04014, N340_01262, N341_10800, PAL_GLEAN10025937, PFIC2, PFIC-2, PGY4, progressive familial ...
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The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cellular unesterified cholesterol and phospholipid to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I. Chymase, a protease secreted by mast cells, selectively cleaves pre-β-migrating particles from high density lipoprotein (HDL)3 and reduces the efflux of cholesterol from macrophages. To evaluate whether this effect is the result of reduction of ABCA1-dependent or -independent pathways of cholesterol efflux, in this study we examined the efflux of cholesterol to preparations of chymase-treated HDL3 in two types of cell: 1) in J774 murine macrophages endogenously expressing low levels of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), and high levels of ABCA1 upon treatment with cAMP; and 2) in Fu5AH rat hepatoma cells endogenously expressing high levels of the SR-BI and low levels of ABCA1. Treatment of HDL3 with the human chymase resulted in rapid depletion of pre-β-HDL and a concomitant decrease in the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipid ...
ABCA12 - ABCA12 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 12 (ABCA12), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Cholesterol is an essential molecule that mediates a myriad of critical cellular processes, such as signal transduction in eukaryotes, membrane fluidity, and steroidogenesis. As such it is not surprising that cholesterol homeostasis is tightly regulated, striking a precise balance between endogenous synthesis and regulated uptake/efflux to and from extracellular acceptors. In mammalian cells, sterol efflux is a key component of the homeostatic equation and is mediated by members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters represent a group of evolutionarily highly conserved cellular transmembrane proteins that mediate the ATP-dependent translocation of substrates across membranes. Members of this superfamily, ABCA1 and ABCG1, are key components of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. ABCG1 acts in concert with ABCA1 to maximize the removal of excess cholesterol from cells by promoting cholesterol efflux onto mature and nascent HDL particles
S. griseus mutant NP4, which was isolated by UV mutagenesis, showed a bald and wrinkled colony morphology because of ectopic septation in substrate hyphae and subsequent spore formation. The ectopic spores were the same as aerial spores in size, thickness of the spore wall, and shape, as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and in heat and lysozyme susceptibility. Mutant NP4 also formed abundant spores in liquid medium, whereas the parental strain IFO13350 rarely forms submerged spores under these conditions. The wall of the ectopic spores is supposed to be thicker than those of the submerged spores formed by several Streptomyces spp., including S. griseus B-2682 (32), under specific conditions, because the spores of NP4 were resistant to lysozyme. We therefore assume that both on solid and in liquid medium, mutant NP4 forms two separate cross walls in the vegetative hyphae and matures each compartment into a spore indistinguishable from aerial spores in many aspects, as ...
Active drug efflux by the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCG2 is one of the common mechanisms causing multiple drug resistance in various human cancers. In the intrinsic drug resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the role of ABCG2 is closely associated with side population (SP), a minor subset of cancer stem-like cells with unique capacity to extrude lipophilic dye Hoechst 33342 and many chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we showed that ABCG2 was intrinsically expressed in a subgroup of HCC tissues and its expression pattern significantly influenced the levels of drug efflux from HCC cell lines. In MHCC-97L HCC cell line with intrinsic ABCG2 expression, we confirmed the importance of SP cells to the drug efflux-related chemotherapy resistance and found that the SP analysis provided an efficient method to evaluate the functional activity of ABCG2 transporter. In this cell line, we discovered that the SP proportion was modulated by the treatments of Akt ...
ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate vital transport processes in every living cell. ATP hydrolysis, which fuels transport, displays positive cooperativity in numerous ABC transporters. In particular, heterodimeric ABC exporters exhibit pronounced allosteric coupling between a catalytically impaired degenerate site, where nucleotides bind tightly, and a consensus site, at which ATP is hydrolyzed in every transport cycle. Whereas the functional phenomenon of cooperativity is well described, its structural basis remains poorly understood. Here, we present the apo structure of the heterodimeric ABC exporter TM287/288 and compare it to the previously solved structure with adenosine 5-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate (AMP-PNP) bound at the degenerate site. In contrast to other ABC exporter structures, the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of TM287/288 remain in molecular contact even in the absence of nucleotides, and the arrangement of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) is not influenced by ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-ABCD3 Antibody against Human ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D (ALD), member 3. Validated for Immunofluorescence and Immunohistochemistry
Our previous work shows that the stem cell factor SALL4 plays a central role in embryonic and leukemic stem cells. In this study, we report that SALL4 expression was higher in drug resistant primary acute myeloid leukemic patients than those from drug-responsive cases. In addition, while overexpression of SALL4 led to drug resistance in cell lines, cells with decreased SALL4 expression were more sensitive to drug treatments than the parental cells. This led to our investigation of the implication of SALL4 in drug resistance and its role in side population (SP) cancer stem cells. SALL4 expression was higher in SP cells compared to non-SP cells by 2-4 fold in various malignant hematopoietic cell lines. Knocking down of SALL4 in isolated SP cells resulted in a reduction of SP cells, indicating that SALL4 is required for their self-renewal. The SP phenotype is known to be mediated by members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transport protein family, such as ABCG2 and ABCA3. Using ...
Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette transporter family. It delivers cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they bind to nascent MHC class I molecules. The TAP structure is formed of two proteins: TAP-1 and TAP-2, which have one hydrophobic region and one ATP-binding region each. They assemble into a heterodimer, which results in a four-domain transporter. The TAP transporter is found in the ER lumen associated with the peptide-loading complex (PLC). This complex of β2 microglobulin, calreticulin, ERp57, TAP, tapasin, and MHC class I acts to keep hold of MHC molecules until they have been fully loaded with peptides. TAP-mediated peptide transport is a multistep process. The peptide-binding pocket is formed by TAP-1 and TAP-2. Association with TAP is an ATP-independent event, in a fast bimolecular association step, peptide binds to TAP, followed by a slow isomerisation of the TAP complex. It is suggested that the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Drug efflux by breast cancer resistance protein is a mechanism of resistance to the benzimidazole insulin-like growth factor receptor/insulin receptor inhibitor, BMS-536924. AU - Hou, Xiaonan. AU - Huang, Fei. AU - Carboni, Joan M.. AU - Flatten, Karen. AU - Asmann, Yan. AU - Ten Eyck, Cynthia. AU - Nakanishi, Takeo. AU - Tibodeau, Jennifer D.. AU - Ross, Douglas D.. AU - Gottardis, Marco M.. AU - Erlichman, Charles. AU - Kaufmann, Scott H. AU - Haluska, Paul. PY - 2011/1. Y1 - 2011/1. N2 - Preclinical investigations have identified insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling as a key mechanism for cancer growth and resistance to clinically useful therapies in multiple tumor types including breast cancer. Thus, agents targeting and blocking IGF signaling have promise in the treatment of solid tumors. To identify possible mechanisms of resistance to blocking the IGF pathway, we generated a cell line that was resistant to the IGF-1R/InsR benzimidazole inhibitors, BMS-554417 and ...
Background: Development of a multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype to chemotherapy remains a major barrier in the treatment of cancer. Gankyrin (p28, p28GANK or PSMD10) is an oncoprotein overexpressed in different carcinoma cell lines. The aim of this study was to compare Gankyrin expression level in MDR cells (MCF-7/ADR and MCF-7/ MX) and non-MDR counterparts (MCF-7). Methods: Gankyrin, MDR1 (also known as ABCB1; the ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1) and ABCG2 (also known as BCRP; the human breast cancer resistance protein) mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression levels of Gankyrin. Results: The PCR results showed that the expression of Gankyrin was significantly lower in the ABCG2 overexpressing cell line MCF-7/MX than in non-resistanct MCF-7 cells. In contrast, there were no significant differences in mRNA expression of Gankyrin in the MDR1 overexpressing cell line MCF-7/ADR in comparison with MCF-7 cells. Similarly,
SUR1 is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter with a novel function. In contrast to other ABC proteins, it serves as the regulatory subunit of an ion channel. The ATP-sensitive (KATP) channel is an octameric complex of four pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits and four regulatory SUR1 subunits, and it links cell metabolism to electrical activity in many cell types. ATPase activity at the nucleotide-binding domains of SUR results in an increase in KATP channel open probability. Conversely, ATP binding to Kir6.2 closes the channel. Metabolic regulation is achieved by the balance between these two opposing effects. Precisely how SUR1 talks to Kir6.2 remains unclear, but recent studies have identified some residues and domains that are involved in both physical and functional interactions between the two proteins. The importance of these interactions is exemplified by the fact that impaired regulation of Kir6.2 by SUR1 results in human disease, with loss-of-function SUR1 mutations causing congenital
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Discussion. In this work, we describe a patient presenting typical STGD due to mutations in the ABCA4 gene. This gene encodes the ABCA4 protein, a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporters superfamily. It is involved in the transport of vitamin A derivatives across the membrane of the outer segment discs of photoreceptors [18,19].. In this affected woman, the homozygous p.Arg1129Leu mutation was identified. The inheritance pattern of the disease-associated alleles was not autosomal recessive as usual. Heterozygosity for the mutation was only detected in her father. Assumed paternity was confirmed by different STR markers [20]; therefore the proband either had (partial) paternal isodisomy for chromosome 1 or an unbalanced karyotype due to maternal microdeletion involving chromosome 1p, leading to hemizygosity for the ABCA4 locus. Both standard and HR karyotypes were normal, which excluded major structural chromosomal abnormalities. Dosage analysis performed by MLPA confirmed the presence of ...
ABC transporters belong to the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily which uses the hydrolysis of ATP to energize diverse biological import and export systems (see ,PDOC00185,). ABC transporters are minimally constituted of two conserved regions: a highly conserved ATP binding cassette (ABC) and a less conserved transmembrane domain (TMD). These regions can be found on the same protein (mostly in eukaryotes and bacterial exporters) or on two different ones (mostly bacterial importers) [1,2,3]. The function of the integral inner-membrane protein is to translocate the substrate across the membrane. Studies of P-glycoprotein function indicate that residues lining the proposed chamber opening (residues of TM2, TM5 and TM6) play an important role in substrate recognition [4]. In exporters and eukaryotes, ABC transporters consist of a single polypeptide composed of an N-terminal domain of approximately 320 residues, apparently containing six transmembrane segments, fused to a highly conserved ...
ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) promotes cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells to HDL particles, which transport cholesterol to liver for processing for excretion. ABCG1, and not ABCA1, was found to be critical for the proliferation of T lymphocytes. Despite this, to date, very little is known about the role of ABCG1 in T cells during atherogenesis. In this study, we aim to understand how ABCG1 regulates T cell function and how absence of ABCG1 selectively in T cells impacts atherosclerosis. We found that, on a high cholesterol diet, mice with T cell-specific ABCG1 deficiency on the LDLR-/- background (LCK-Cre+/ABCG1fl/fl/LDLR-/-) developed 40% less atherosclerotic lesions than their littermate controls (LCK-Cre-/ABCG1fl/fl/LDLR-/-) (P,0.0001). Furthermore, we found that the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells was increased in the LCK-Cre+/ABCG1fl/fl/LDLR-/- mice compared to the littermate controls (P,0.01). Since Tregs are considered anti-atherogenic, we hypothesize ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in corneal basal epithelial phenotypes in an altered basement membrane. AU - Wang, I. Jong. AU - Tsai, Jui-Fang. AU - Yeh, Lung Kun. AU - Tsai, Ryan Yao Nien. AU - Hu, Fung Rong. AU - Kao, Winston W Y. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Background: To examine the corneal epithelial phenotype in an altered basement membrane. Methodology/Principal Findings: Corneas from 9 patients with symptoms of continuous unstable corneal curvature (CUCC) were harvested by penetrating keratoplasty and subjected to histology examination and immunohistochemical staining with transactivating and N-terminally truncated pP63 transcript (DNp63), cytokeratin 3 (Krt3), ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), connexin 43 (CX43), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK), activating protein 2 (TFAP2), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) monoclonal antibodies. Positive immunostaining with ABCG2, p38MAPK, and TFAP2 monoclonal antibodies was observed in the basal epithelial ...
Transporters for Glucocorticoids: Exploring a New Paradigm for Steroid Hormone Regulation and a Potential Strategy for Identification of Toxin/Disruptor Transporter Machineries A well-entrenched paradigm holds that steroid hormones, like glucocorticoids (GCs), diffuse freely across plasma membranes in order to access their intracellular receptors and influence gene transcription. This view persists despite biochemical, genetic, and cell biological evidence, albeit sporadic, consistent with mediated transport (herein referred to as any process that moves molecules across plasma membranes, including active transport, endocytosis/pinocytosis, passage through pores or channels, and/or coupling to carrier proteins) of steroids. Nearly two decades ago, for example, we identified a conserved ATP-binding-cassette transporter that selectively exports dex in yeast, and showed that a drug that inhibits the yeast activity also leads to increased intracellular dex in mammalian cells. Nevertheless, the widely ...
The peroxisomal ABC-transporters Pxa1p and Pxa2p are half transporters. Previous genetic investigations have demonstrated that Pxa1p and Pxa2p have to dimerise in order to build a functional transporter, which is very likely involved in the import of long chain fatty acids into peroxisomes of S. cerevisiae. In this work, tagged versions of the proteins were purified as a complex. This proved for the building of a stable hetero dimer. For characterisation of the ATP binding properties, the transporters were incubated and cross linked with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]-ATP. This revealed an asymmetric binding of the ATP analogue. Pxa2p binds much more azido-ATP, than Pxa1p, while the dissociation constants are rather similar. The poorer ATP binding of Pxa1p is reflected by degenerated sequence motifs in the nucleotide binding fold. The purified ABC-transporters have been used for ATPase assays. They showed a basal ATPase activity, which could be stimulated by addition of long chain fatty acid CoAs, like ...
The release of substrate into the translocation pathway of an ABC transporter is undoubtedly coupled to conformational changes in the binding protein (5, 7). In the absence of transporter, binding proteins such as the maltose binding protein (MBP) exhibit large hinge and twist movements of one lobe relative to the other between the liganded and unliganded states (7). In contrast, binding proteins such as BtuF and FhuD with a backbone α-helix are thought to be less likely to undergo such motions (18-20). Recently, the structure of one such binding protein, T. pallidum TroA, was solved with (19) and without (26) bound Zn2+. The difference between liganded and unliganded TroA was indeed found to be a mere 4° tilting of the C-terminal domain about the long axis of the protein without bending or unwinding of the backbone helix. This movement is very different from that observed for MBP and yet the result is a partial collapse of the binding site and the loss of the proper coordination geometry for ...
Different mechanisms in cancer cells become resistant to one or more chemotherapeutics is known as multidrug resistance(MDR) which hinders chemotherapy efficacy. Potential factors for MDR includes enhanced drug detoxification, decreased drug uptake, increased intracellular nucleophiles levels, enhanced repair of drug induced DNA damage, overexpression of drug transporter such as P-glycoprotein(P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated proteins(MRP1, MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein(BCRP). Currently nanoassemblies such as polymeric/solid lipid/inorganic/metal nanoparticles, quantum dots, dendrimers, liposomes, micelles has emerged as an innovative, effective and promising platforms for treatment of drug resistant cancer cells. Nanocarriers have potential to improve drug therapeutic index, ability for multifunctionality, divert ABC-transporter mediated drug efflux mechanism and selective targeting to tumor cells, cancer stem cells, tumor initiating cells or cancer microenvironment. Selective
UNLABELLED: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) is a xenobiotic half-transporter protein. It is a member of the ATP-binding cassette protein family and functions as an energy-dependent efflux pump. BCRP is involved in multidrug resistance. The study aimed at examining BCRP expression in breast cancers and at defining a relationship between activity of this protein and clinical course of the cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of BCRP in 101 stage II breast cancer patients. All the patients were diagnosed and treated at the Lower Silesia Oncology Centre (LSOC) between January 1993 and June 1994. After the treatment the patients remained under constant control at LSOC. Mean duration of the observation was 14.2 years (ranging between 9.1 and 16.5 years). Data related to relapse of the disease and deaths were obtained from medical documentation stored in LSOC. The immunohistochemical reactions were performed on paraffin sections of primary tumours, using monoclonal ...
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The protein encoded by this gene is included in the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the White subfamily and is expressed predominantly in liver tissue. The function has not yet been determined but may involve cholesterol transport. Alternate splice variants have been described but their full length sequences have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Notably, under conditions in which no killing of cells occurred, exposure of yeast over hundreds of generations to increasing concentrations of AmB has yielded resistant strains with permanent changes in the expression of genes such as yor1 and pdr16 (41), which are members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters (9). The activation of yor1 and pdr16 is controlled by the zinc finger transcription factors Pdr1 and Pdr3, which activate proteins involved in multidrug resistance and in the translocation of plasma membrane phospholipids (9). Among the stably overexpressed genes that also confer resistance to AmB (41) are ict1, which encodes a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that is responsible for enhanced phospholipid synthesis and increased resistance to antifungal drugs, and ygr035C and ypl088, which are activated by Yrm1q and Yrr1, the yeast zinc finger transcription factors which are also controlled by the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) gene network (9).. Another yeast ...
The ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, isoform 2 protein (ABCG2) is a vital member of the ABC transporter superfamily, which has been involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer. Its diverse range of substrates includes many antineoplastic agents such as doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. ABCG2 expression has been significantly increased in some solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, which is correlated to poorer clinical outcomes. In addition, ABCG2 expression is a distinguishing feature of cancer stem cells, whereby this membranous transporter imparts resistance to the chemotherapeutic drugs. To enhance the chemosensitivity of cancer cells, attention has been focused on MDR modulators. In this study, we investigated the ability of sodium channel blocker, A-803467 to reverse ABCG2-mediated MDR. We found that A-803467 at non-toxic concentration could significantly increase the cellular sensitivity to ABCG2 substrates in drug-resistant cells overexpressing either wild-type or mutant ABCG2. ...
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria play essential biological functions including the synthesis and trafficking of porphyrins and iron/sulfur clusters (ISC), processes that in mammals involve the mitochondrial ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters ABCB6 and ABCB7, respectively. The mitochondrion of pathogenic protozoan parasites such as Leishmania is a promising goal for new therapeutic approaches. Leishmania infects human macrophages producing the neglected tropical disease known as leishmaniasis. Like most trypanosomatid parasites, Leishmania is auxotrophous for heme and must acquire porphyrins from the host. METHODS: LmABCB3, a new Leishmania major protein with significant sequence similarity to human ABCB6/ABCB7, was identified and characterized using bioinformatic tools. Fluorescent microscopy was used to determine its cellular localization, and its level of expression was modulated by molecular genetic techniques. Intracellular in vitro assays were used to demonstrate its role in amastigotes ...
Title: Understanding and Fighting Multidrug Resistance in Cancer. Abstract. The seminar will discuss our attempts at understanding one of the molecular mechanisms of multidrug resistances in cancer chemotherapy through the use of high performance computational approaches and biochemical, biophysical, and human cancer cell culture techniques. One cause of multidrug resistance is the over-expression of specific members of the ABC-transporter family of proteins. The seminar will center on two of these proteins, P-glycoprotein and the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein, that are known to cause a large percentage of cancer chemotherapy failures. Simulations of catalysis as well as high throughput drug screening has allowed us to identify several small molecules that reverse multidrug resistances in ovarian and prostate cancer cells. Characterization and optimization of these "hit" molecules will be discussed.. ...
GT:ID BAD56252.1 GT:GENE BAD56252.1 GT:PRODUCT putative sulfate ABC transporter ATP-binding protein GT:DATABASE GIB00210CH01 GT:ORG nfar0 GB:ACCESSION GIB00210CH01 GB:LOCATION 1582255..1583250 GB:FROM 1582255 GB:TO 1583250 GB:DIRECTION + GB:PRODUCT putative sulfate ABC transporter ATP-binding protein GB:PROTEIN_ID BAD56252.1 LENGTH 331 SQ:AASEQ MITVTNARKNYGNFAALDDVTIEIPSGELTALLGPSGSGKSTLLRSIAGLEALDDGVVVIAGKDVTRVAPQKRDIGFVFQHYAAFKHMTVRDNVAFGLKIRKRPKAEITKRVDELLGIVGLDGFQHRYPAQLSGGQRQRMALARALAVDPQVLLLDEPFGALDAKVRADLRTWLRRLHEEVHVTTVLVTHDQEEALDVADRIAVMNKGRIEQVGTPEDVYDRPANEFVMSFLGDVARLNGHLVRPHDIRVGRDPSMALAAHEGTAESAGVTRATVERVVHLGFEVRVELRNAATGDLFSAQVTRGDAEALRLTDGETVYARATRIPELPTQ GT:EXON 1,1-331:0, SW:ID CYSA_NOCFA SW:DE RecName: Full=Sulfate/thiosulfate import ATP-binding protein cysA; EC=3.6.3.25;AltName: Full=Sulfate-transporting ATPase; SW:GN Name=cysA; OrderedLocusNames=NFA_14070; SW:KW ATP-binding; Cell membrane; Complete proteome; Hydrolase; Membrane;Nucleotide-binding; Sulfate transport; ...
This gene is a member of the superfamily of genes encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, and White). This family member is part of the MRP subfamily, which is involved in multi-drug resistance, but the human locus is now thought to be a pseudogene incapable of encoding a functional ABC protein. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants; however, not all variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters form one of the largest known protein families, and are widespread in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. They couple ATP hydrolysis to active transport of a wide variety of substrates such as ions, sugars, lipids, sterols, peptides, proteins, and drugs. The structure of a prokaryotic ABC transporter usually consists of three components; typically two integral membrane proteins each having six transmembrane segments, two peripheral proteins that bind and hydrolyze ATP, and a periplasmic (or lipoprotein) substrate-binding protein. Many of the genes for the three components form operons as in fact observed in many bacterial and archaeal genomes. On the other hand, in a typical eukaryotic ABC transporter, the membrane spanning protein and the ATP-binding protein are fused, forming a multi-domain protein with the membrane-spanning domain (MSD) and the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD ...
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters form one of the largest known protein families, and are widespread in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. They couple ATP hydrolysis to active transport of a wide variety of substrates such as ions, sugars, lipids, sterols, peptides, proteins, and drugs. The structure of a prokaryotic ABC transporter usually consists of three components; typically two integral membrane proteins each having six transmembrane segments, two peripheral proteins that bind and hydrolyze ATP, and a periplasmic (or lipoprotein) substrate-binding protein. Many of the genes for the three components form operons as in fact observed in many bacterial and archaeal genomes. On the other hand, in a typical eukaryotic ABC transporter, the membrane spanning protein and the ATP-binding protein are fused, forming a multi-domain protein with the membrane-spanning domain (MSD) and the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD ...
Helen Christians research interests are in the mechanisms of steroid hormone regulation of the pituitary gland, in particular the role of Annexin 1. The Annexins are a well-conserved super-family of structurally related Ca2+ - and phospholipids-binding proteins with wide-ranging functions in health and disease. Annexin 1 is a 37kD protein that is induced by glucocorticoids and mediates glucocorticoid action within the host defence and neuroendocrine systems. Glucocorticoids regulate the synthesis, phosphorylation and cellular disposition of annexin 1, and annexin 1 is implicated in the regulation by these important drugs of pituitary function, the control of cell growth and signal transduction. Most recently her group have characterized a novel secretory pathway of annexin 1, a protein which lacks a signal sequence, involving a member of the ATP binding cassette transporter family, ABCA1. This is the first time the secretion mechanism of an annexin family member has been determined and the ...
Andreas W. Jehle, Shyra J. Gardai, Suzhao Li, Patrick Linsel-Nitschke, Konosuke Morimoto, William J. Janssen, R. William Vandivier, Nan Wang, Steven Greenberg, Benjamin M. Dale, Chunbo Qin, Peter M. Henson, Alan R. Tall ...
Probably part of a binding-protein-dependent transport system YnjCD. Probably responsible for energy coupling to the transport system.
CFTR channel opening is controlled primarily by two factors: MgATP binding to both NBDs and phosphorylation of the R domain (Gadsby and Nairn, 1999). Two observations rule out the possibility that the markedly reduced open rate of the glutathionylated CFTR channel is due to altered phosphorylation. First, CFTR channels could be inhibited by glutathionylation and subsequently rescued by Grx or DTT after PKA inhibition or removal. Second, an R domain deletion construct that does not require phosphorylation for its activity also was inhibited by glutathionylation. These results point to an effect of glutathionylation on nucleotide binding or a downstream event that couples ATP binding to channel opening.. The location of the apparent site of modification (cys-1344) near the signature sequence in NBD2 is consistent with an effect of glutathionylation on ATP-dependent channel opening. Current structural models of other ABC transporters (e.g., the bacterial BtuCD and maltose transporters) place their ...
ABCG2 antibody [BXP-21] (ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (Junior blood group)) for FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB. Anti-ABCG2 mAb (GTX23380) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Online fluorescent method to assess BCRP/ABCG2 activity in suspension cells. AU - Hooijberg, J H. AU - Peters, G J. AU - Kaspers, G J L. AU - Wielinga, P R. AU - Veerman, A J P. AU - Pieters, R. AU - Jansen, G. PY - 2004/10. Y1 - 2004/10. N2 - An online method was developed to monitor BCRP mediated efflux of fluorescent substrates in suspension cells. To this end, a 2-compartment system consisting of a transwell cup and a cuvette was used. In this system we were able to observe differences in efflux kinetics between BCRP overexpressing RPMI 8226/MR cells and parental myeloid RPMI 8226(s) cells using only 50,000 cells per experiment. 8226/MR cells displayed a larger cellular efflux rate of the BCRP substrate Hoechst 33342, as compared to the wildtype cells. This difference in efflux rate was completely decreased in the presence of the BCRP inhibitor Ko143.. AB - An online method was developed to monitor BCRP mediated efflux of fluorescent substrates in suspension cells. To this ...
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Background: Renal cancer patients respond poorly to conventional chemotherapy, this unresponsiveness may be attributable to multidrug resistance (MDR). The mechanisms of MDR in renal cancer are not fully understood and the specific contribution of ABC transporter proteins which have been implicated in the chemoresistance of various cancers has not been fully defined in this disease. Methods: The aim of this prospective study was to analyse by immunohistochemistry the expression of two of these transporter efflux pumps, namely MDR-1/P-gp (ABCB1) and MRP-1 (ABCC1) in archival material from 113 renal carcinoma patients. Results: In the largest study of its kind, results presented here show 100% of cases stained positively for P-gp and MRP-1 protein expression. Conclusion: However, although these findings do not prove a causal role, the high frequency of tumours expressing these efflux pumps suggests that they may be important contributors to the chemoresistance of this tumour type. ...
description?: oligopeptide ABC superfamily ATP binding cassette transporter, membrane protein. descriptions from strain specific annotations: ...
3255 Introduction and Objective: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), the second member of the ATP-binding cassette membrane transporter family, has a single nucleotide polymorphism, C421A (resulting in Q141K), that has been shown to be of functional importance. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between this polymorphism of the BCRP gene and the risk of RCC development. Methods: For a case-control study, DNA samples from 200 non-papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients and 200 healthy control subjects were analyzed using a TaqMan technique. The genotypic frequencies of the BCRP C421A polymorphism were compared between the RCC patients and control subjects. Results: The frequency of the C/C genotype was significantly higher in RCC patients than in control subjects (age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-2.93). There were no association between the BCRP C421A polymorphism and clinicopathological or epidemiological factors ...
Multidrug resistance is a major barrier against successful chemotherapy, and this has been shown in vitro to be often caused by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These transporters are frequently overexpressed in human cancers and confer an adverse prognosis in many common malignancies. The genetic factors, however, that initiate their expression in cancer are largely unknown. Here we report that the major multidrug transporter ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR) is directly and specifically activated by the transcription factor E2F1-a factor perturbed in the majority of human cancers. E2F1 regulates ABCG2 expression in multiple cell systems, and, importantly, we have identified a significant correlation between elevated E2F1 and ABCG2 expression in human lung cancers. We show that E2F1 causes chemotherapeutic drug efflux both in vitro and in vivo via ABCG2. Furthermore, the E2F1-ABCG2 axis suppresses chemotherapy-induced cell death that can be restored by the inhibition of ABCG2. These findings therefore ...
putative ABC transporter ATP-binding/permease protein [PimA protein] GTGCTGCTATGTCTTCTGCGAATCCATCTGCGGCCGCACCGGCGCTCCGTCGCCCTGCTG GGGCTTTTGCAACTGGTGCAGATCCTGGCCACTTTGGCCCTGCCGACACTGGGCGCCGCG GTCATCGACAACGGCGTGGTCAGGGCCGACAGCGGCTACATCACCCGGACCGGCCTGGCC ATGCTGGCCGTGGCGCTCGTGCAGATCGCGGCGTCCGTGGCCGCGGTGGCGCTGGGCGCC CGTACGGCCATGGCGATGGGCCGCGACCTGCGCTCGGCCGTCTTCCGCCGGGTGCTGGAC TTCTCGGCCCGCGAGGTCGGGCGGTTCGGCACTCCGTCGCTGATGACGCGGACCGTCAAC GATGTGCAGCAGGTGCAGGTGCTGGCCCTGTCCGCGTTCGGCGTCGTCGTGTCGGCGCCC CTGATGTGTCTGGGCAGCATCGCGCTCGCACTCCAGCAGGACGTCCCGCTCTCCCTGCTC CTGGTGGCGCTGATGGTGGCCGTCGGAATGTCCTTCGGCCTCATTCTCGGCCGCACCGAT CCGTTCTACGCCCGTATGCAGAAACAGCTGGACCGCATCAACGGGCTGCTGCGCGAACGC ATTACCGGAGTCCGCGTCGTACGGGCTTTTGTGCGCGACGCCCACGAAGGCGCGAGATTC GGCCGCACCAATTCCGAATTGCGTGACATCTCGCTGCGCGTCGGCCGGCTGCTGGCCACG GTCATCCCCCTGGTGCTGCTGGTCCTCAACGCCTTCATGGCAGCCGTGGTGTGGTTCGGC GCCCACCGCATCGACGCCGGGGCGATGCGGTTCGGTGCGCTCAGCGCGTTTCTGAGCTAC CTGACGCTGATCACGATGTCGGTGGTGATGGTGACCTTCGTGTGCCTGCCGATGCCGCGG ...
This family consists of a single polypeptide chain transporter in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, MsbA, which exports lipid A. It may also act in multidrug resistance. Lipid A, a part of lipopolysaccharide, is found in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria. Members of this family are restricted to the Proteobacteria (although lipid A is more broadly distributed) and often are clustered with lipid A biosynthesis genes ...
Figure: Structure of rishirilid A and organization of the rishirilid biosynthetic gene cluster. Although structures of several ABC transporters have been reported (cited in 3) not much is known about substrate binding domains of these transporters and about the mechanisms how ABC transporters select and translocate their substrates. Aside the ABC transporter system the rishirilid gene cluster contains rslT4 which most probably is involved in the export of rishirilid into the extracellular space. RslT4 belongs to the EmrB/QacA transporter family which is known to be drug:H+ antiporter with 12 transmembrane domains sharing conserved sequence motifs.. The main focus of the proposed project is to understand the exact function of RslT1, RslT2, RslT3 and RslT4 by structural and functional studies.. The specific aims of the proposal are:. ...
GT:ID BAD54914.1 GT:GENE BAD54914.1 GT:PRODUCT putative ABC transporter membrane protein GT:DATABASE GIB00210CH01 GT:ORG nfar0 GB:ACCESSION GIB00210CH01 GB:LOCATION 55698..56555 GB:FROM 55698 GB:TO 56555 GB:DIRECTION + GB:PRODUCT putative ABC transporter membrane protein GB:PROTEIN_ID BAD54914.1 LENGTH 285 SQ:AASEQ MTAGTTTFDTPADPGLGSRLGMVVSDTITVTKRNVIKIKRVPDVLIFSTLSPIMFVLLFAYVFGTAIEVPGLEGGYREFLIAGIFAQTVVFGSSFTGASLAEDMQKGIIDRFRSLPMAPSAVLVGRTVSDVVINLVSLVVMSVTGLLVGWRIRGSFLDAVLAYVLLLLFAYAVSWIMAVVGLLVRSPEVFNNASFMVMFPLTFLANTFVPIEELPTVLRVFAEWNPVSALTLATRELFGNTGALGPQSDAWSMRHPIATTLIWVVVILVVFVPLALRQYKRAVSR GT:EXON 1,1-285:0, BL:SWS:NREP 1 BL:SWS:REP 24-,241,DRRB_STRPE,5e-32,35.2,216/283, TM:NTM 6 TM:REGION 46-,68, TM:REGION 79-,101, TM:REGION 121-,143, TM:REGION 158-,180, TM:REGION 189-,211, TM:REGION 258-,279, SEG 156-,173,fldavlayvllllfayav, SEG 261-,276,liwvvvilvvfvplal, RP:PFM:NREP 1 RP:PFM:REP 28-,237,PF01061,1e-15,26.5,204/208,ABC2_membrane, HM:PFM:NREP 1 HM:PFM:REP ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Sabrina Llop, Karin Engström, Ferran Ballester, Elisa Franforte, Ayman Alhamdow, Federica Pisa, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Datja Mazej, Mario Murcia, Marisa Rebagliato, Mariona Bustamante, Jordi Sunyer, Alphaikaterini Sofianou-Katsoulis, Alexia Prasouli, Eleni Antonopoulou, Ioanna Antoniadou, Sheena Nakou, Fabio Barbone, Milena Horvat, Karin Broberg].
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct spatio-temporal expression of ABCA and ABCG transporters in the developing and adult mouse brain. AU - Tachikawa, Masanori. AU - Watanabe, Masahiko. AU - Hori, Satoko. AU - Fukaya, Masahiro. AU - Ohtsuki, Sumio. AU - Asashima, Tomoko. AU - Terasaki, Tetsuya. PY - 2005/10/1. Y1 - 2005/10/1. N2 - Using in situ hybridization for the mouse brain, we analyzed developmental changes in gene expression for the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamilies ABCA1-4 and 7, and ABCG1, 2, 4, 5 and 8. In the embryonic brains, ABCA1 and A7 were highly expressed in the ventricular (or germinal) zone, whereas ABCA2, A3 and G4 were enriched in the mantle (or differentiating) zone. At the postnatal stages, ABCA1 was detected in both the gray and white matter and in the choroid plexus. On the other hand, ABCA2, A3 and A7 were distributed in the gray matter. In addition, marked up-regulation of ABCA2 occurred in the white matter at 14 days-of-age when various myelin protein genes are ...
Plays a role in phagocytosis by macrophages of apoptotic cells. Binds APOA1 and may function in apolipoprotein-mediated phospholipid efflux from cells. May also mediate cholesterol efflux. May regulate cellular ceramide homeostasis during keratinocytes differentiation.
RefSeq Summary (NM_001025091): The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the GCN20 subfamily. Unlike other members of the superfamily, this protein lacks the transmembrane domains which are characteristic of most ABC transporters. This protein may be regulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and play a role in enhancement of protein synthesis and the inflammation process. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Complete information for TAP2 gene (Protein Coding), Transporter 2, ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily B Member, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for TAP2 gene (Protein Coding), Transporter 2, ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily B Member, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
putative ABC transporter substrate binding protein [lipoprotein] ATGCGTTCTCGTGTGTGGTGGGGTACGACGGCCGCGGTGCTGGGTGGCCTCCTCGTGGCG GGCTGTGGTGACGGAGGCGGCAGTGGCGGCGGTGACAAGGCGGGCCCCGCCGACGAGAAG TCGGCCACCGGCCACTACCCGGTCACCGTCACCGATTGCATGGACGCCAAGACCACGTTC TCCAAGGCCCCCGAGAAGATCGTCACCAGCAACGCCTCCAGCCTGGAACTGCTGCTGCGC CTCGGCGCCGGTGACAACGTCATCGGCACCGGCTTCCCGCCCGGCAAGGGAACGCTGCCC GGTGAACTCGACGCGCAGGCGCGGAAGGTGAAGGCGCTCGGGCAGTCCGTGATCCCGAAG GAGAAGCTCCTCGGCTCCGGCGCGGATCTGTACATCGACACCTTCGCCTCGATGAACATG GGCGGCGGCATGGGCGACGCGCCGACCGAGGAGGAGTTCAAGGCGGCCGGAATCAAGCAC ATCTACCTCAAGTCCACCGCCTGTGCGGCGCGGAACAAGGGCGCGGTGACCGACCTGTCC GCGGTGGAGGCCGACATCACCTCCCTCGGCGCGGTCACTGGCACCAGCGCGAAGGCGAAG GAACTCGTCGACGGCATGAAGGGGAAGCTGGACGCCGTCCGGAAGGCGGTCGGCCGGACG GCGGAGGGCGAGCGGCCGACGTACTTCTTCTTCGACTACGACGCCGGCACCAAGCAGCCC ACCGTCGTCTGCAACCGCCAGGTCGCCAACGCGGTGATCACTCTGGCCGGTGCCCGCAAT GTCTTCGCCGACTGCGACGGCGACTACAAGCAGGTCGGCTGGGAGGACGTCATTTCCCGG AACCCGGACTGGATCCAGTTGGGCGTCCGCGATCGGGGCAGCGAGGCGGCGAACCAGAAG ...
ABCB4 antibody, Internal (ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 4) for WB. Anti-ABCB4 pAb (GTX47122) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Kuss BJ et al. (1998) ARA, a novel ABC transporter, is located at 16p13.1, is deleted in inv(16) leukemias, and is shown to be expressed in primitive hematopoietic precursors.. [^] ...
Gene Information The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1 MDR/TAP MRP ALD OABP GCN20 and White). This encoded protein is a member of the ABC1 subfamily. Members of the ABC1 subfamily comprise the only major ABC subfamily found exclusively in multicellular eukaryotes. This gene is clustered among 4 other ABC1 family members on 17q24 but neither the substrate nor the function of this gene is known. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants; however not all variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Abcf2 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN300637G1|/strong|, Abcf2 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
In contrast, bacterial species that occupy a more restricted growth niche (for example, mammalian pathogenic species) have far fewer ABC transporters. Eukaryotic cells generally have fewer ABC transporters, presumably because other more sophisticated mechanisms for moving solutes across membranes have evolved. For example, cells which can absorb nutrients by endocytosis do not require ABC transporters for the uptake of nutrients, although ABC transporters still play an important role in the uptake of solutes into organelles (Almashanu and Valle, Chapter 24; Lill and Kispal, Chapter 25). Class 3 contains all known BPD transporters and systems with ill-characterized function or transport mechanism, some of the latter being considered as exporters. This classification is indeed useful for predicting the putative functions of open reading frames (ORFs) of unknown function based on primary sequence similarities. This concept is justified by the fact that proteins or protein domains that participate ...
1GAJ: Crystal structures of the MJ1267 ATP binding cassette reveal an induced-fit effect at the ATPase active site of an ABC transporter.
1G6H: Crystal structures of the MJ1267 ATP binding cassette reveal an induced-fit effect at the ATPase active site of an ABC transporter.
Shop Mesentericin-Y105 transport/processing ATP-binding protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Mesentericin-Y105 transport/processing ATP-binding protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0A0K2HUP4 (A0A0K2HUP4_MYCBI), Oligopeptide ABC transporter ATP-binding protein OppD. Mycobacterium tuberculosis variant bovis BCG
TY - JOUR. T1 - A man-made ATP-binding protein evolved independent of nature causes abnormal growth in bacterial cells. AU - Stomel, Joshua M.. AU - Wilson, James W.. AU - Léon, Megan A.. AU - Stafford, Phillip. AU - Chaput, John C.. PY - 2009/10/8. Y1 - 2009/10/8. N2 - Recent advances in de novo protein evolution have made it possible to create synthetic proteins from unbiased libraries that fold into stable tertiary structures with predefined functions. However, it is not known whether such proteins will be functional when expressed inside living cells or how a host organism would respond to an encounter with a non-biological protein. Here, we examine the physiology and morphology of Escherichia coli cells engineered to express a synthetic ATP-binding protein evolved entirely from non-biological origins. We show that this man-made protein disrupts the normal energetic balance of the cell by altering the levels of intracellular ATP. This disruption cascades into a series of events that ...
In this study, we suggest a potential role of hedgehog-GLI pathway in pancreatic cancer chemoresistance, based on ABC transporters overexpression. ABC Transporters as Molecular Effectors of Pancreatic Oncogenic Pathways: The Hedgehog-GLI Model
Aria, Emily, Hanna and Spencer finally get all of the answers about what happened to Ali the night she disappeared in "A is for Answers," the season finale of ABC Familys hit original series "Pretty Little Liars," airing Tuesday, March 18th (8:00 - 9:00 PM ET/PT). (ABC FAMILY/Eric McCandless) SASHA ...
The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance. This gene is located 7 kb telomeric to gene family member ABCB2. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in antigen presentation. This protein forms a heterodimer with ABCB2 in order to transport peptides from the cytoplasm to the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in this gene may be associated with ankylosing spondylitis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and celiac disease. Alternative splicing of this gene produces two products which differ in peptide selectivity and level of restoration of surface expression of MHC class I molecules ...
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
We are interested in the mechanistic and molecular relationships between catalytic activity, conformational changes and microenvironment of ABC transporters. P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, Pgp) is in the focus of our interest; we have currently extended our work to ABCG2 (BCRP) and plan to do similar studies on MRP1 (ABCC1). The members of the ABC superfamily of membrane transporters are involved in the regulation of the uptake into and distribution within our body of physiological substrates as well as various xenobiotics, drugs. Due to their wide substrate spectrum, a consequence of their preference for lipophylic compounds, they also play a critical role in the multidrug resistance phenomenon severely limiting therapeutical success in cancer. Our ambition is to understand the molecular details of their catalytic cycle and the intimate molecular interactions with their microenvironment, as well as to apply the knowledge obtained at the cell/molecule level in the context of the whole organism, in ...
Reactivity: Goat, Human, Mouse and more. Compare 10 different ABCB4 ELISA Kits & buy the right one directly at antibodies-online.com!
Reaktivität: Rind (Kuh), Hund, Meerschweinchen and more. 58 verschiedene ABCC2 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Rat anti Mouse ABCA7 antibody, clone 4A7-144.1 recognizes murine adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Binding cassette transporter 7 (ABCA7). The
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the ABC1 subfamily. Members of the ABC1 subfamily comprise the only major ABC subfamily found exclusively in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein is highly expressed in brain tissue and may play a role in macrophage lipid metabolism and neural development. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
Expedited Knowledge Synthesis is a component of CIHRs Evidence on Tap program. The objective of Evidence on Tap is to produce high-quality, timely, and accessible evidence that is of immediate interest and use to knowledge-users. CIHR developed Evidence on Tap to amplify its capacity to engage with provincial and territorial ministries of health and to produce research that responds to their priorities. Syntheses are often cited as the preferred source of evidence to inform decision-making because they minimize bias and bring together the global evidence on a topic. They "render our vast libraries of scientific literature useful to knowledge-users - turning that knowledge into a form that is reliable, relevant and readable". The one drawback of syntheses, from the point of view of knowledge-users, is that they usually take too long to produce for them to be a useful response to urgent priorities. Knowledge-users have a narrow window for making decisions and therefore need their evidence to be ...
Expedited Knowledge Synthesis is a component of CIHRs Evidence on Tap program. The objective of Evidence on Tap is to produce high-quality, timely, and accessible evidence that is of immediate interest and use to knowledge-users. CIHR developed Evidence on Tap to amplify its capacity to engage with provincial and territorial ministries of health and to produce research that responds to their priorities. Syntheses are often cited as the preferred source of evidence to inform decision-making because they minimize bias and bring together the global evidence on a topic. They "render our vast libraries of scientific literature useful to knowledge-users - turning that knowledge into a form that is reliable, relevant and readable". The one drawback of syntheses, from the point of view of knowledge-users, is that they usually take too long to produce for them to be a useful response to urgent priorities. Knowledge-users have a narrow window for making decisions and therefore need their evidence to be ...
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingheme ABC exporter, ATP-binding protein CcmA (TIGR01189; EC 3.6.3.41; HMM-score: 84.1) ...
The membrane-associated protein ABCB8 is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various…
Homo sapiens ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 9 (ABCA9), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (H00010350-R02) - Products - Abnova
Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) is a member of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter superfamily that occurs in a variety of tissues including liver and small intestine of animals. As BCRP is involved in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination, modulation of its expression may affect the clinical efficacy of drugs. However, little is known about the effects of coccidiosis or colibacillosis infection on the levels of BCRP expression in chickens. Here, we studied the effect of infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Eimeriida mixture (E. necatrix and E. tenella) on the expression levels of ABCG2 mRNA and BCRP in the different segments of small intestine and liver in chickens. Expression of ABCG2 mRNA or BCRP was detected in the entire small intestine and liver of healthy chickens, and the expression levels in liver and ileum were significantly higher than duodenum and jejunum. Infection with E. coli or Eimeriida mixture resulted in significant decrease in ABCG2 mRNA and ...
The ATP-binding cassette transporters P-glycoprotein (ABCB1 MDR1) and multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) efflux irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38 genotype was a significant covariate for the clearance of both irinotecan Epigallocatechin gallate lactone and SN-38 Epigallocatechin gallate lactone. of the topoisomerase Epigallocatechin gallate I enzyme [2]. SN-38 undergoes glucuronic acid Rabbit polyclonal to TranscriptionfactorSp1. conjugation to form SN-38 glucuronide by uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase. A diagram of Epigallocatechin gallate irinotecan metabolic pathways has been recently published {Innocenti 2009.. ...
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a rare genetic liver disease that affects infants and children. In many cases, patients diagnosed with PFIC experience end-stage liver disease by 10 years old.1 A serious consequence of PFIC is severe itching that can lead to sleepless nights for the whole family. If left unprotected, babies may even scratch through their skin causing bleeding, scabs, and wounds.
Looking for online definition of OTTHUMP00000164186v multidrug resistance-associated protein 9 in the Medical Dictionary? OTTHUMP00000164186v multidrug resistance-associated protein 9 explanation free. What is OTTHUMP00000164186v multidrug resistance-associated protein 9? Meaning of OTTHUMP00000164186v multidrug resistance-associated protein 9 medical term. What does OTTHUMP00000164186v multidrug resistance-associated protein 9 mean?
Purpose: : To identify the molecular defect responsible for autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy segregating in a large multiplex and consanguineous family of Christian-Arab ancestry. Methods: : This pedigree was made of six nuclear families gathering ten affected members and six healthy relatives. All family members underwent general and ophthalmologic examinations. Among affected patients, 7/10 displayed typical signs of the so-called cone-rod dystrophy, 1/10 was affected with a typical Stargardt disease. In 2/10 affected patients the exact diagnosis could not be definitely carried with regard to their young age. Each family members blood was collected in Afula, Israel,and analyzed in France.A linkage analysis was performed in this pedigree using polymorphic markers flanking each of the three hitherto known arCRD loci: CORD3, CORD8 and CORD9, respectively. Subsequently, all 50 exons of the ABCA4 gene at the CORD3 locus were screened for mutations by direct sequencing. Results: : Linkage ...
Definition of plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay? Meaning of plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay as a legal term. What does plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay mean in law?
Transporters influence the disposition of chemicals within the body by participating in absorption, distribution, and elimination. Transporters of the solute carrier family (SLC) comprise a variety of proteins, including organic cation transporters (OCT) 1 to 3, organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTN) 1 to 3, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1 to 7, various organic anion transporting polypeptide isoforms, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, peptide transporters (PEPT) 1 and 2, concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT) 1 to 3, equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 to 3, and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters (MATE) 1 and 2, which mediate the uptake (except MATEs) of organic anions and cations as well as peptides and nucleosides. Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), multidrug resistance proteins (MDR) 1 and 2, bile salt export pump, multidrug ...
Hyperinsulinism can occur throughout childhood but is most common in infancy. Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI) is the most important cause of hypoglycemia in early infancy. The excessive secretion of insulin is responsible for profound hypoglycemia and requires aggressive treatment to prevent severe and irreversible brain damage. Onset can be in the neonatal period or later, with the severity of hypoglycemia decreasing with age. PHHI is a heterogeneous disorder with two histopathological lesions, diffuse (DiPHHI) and focal (FoPHHI), which are clinically indistinguishable. FoPHHI is sporadic and characterized by somatic islet-cell hyperplasia. DiPHHI corresponds to a functional abnormality of insulin secretion in the whole pancreas and is most often recessive although rare dominant forms can occur, usually outside the newborn period. Differentiation between focal and diffuse lesions is important because the therapeutic approach and genetic counselling differ radically. ...
... interstitial glutamate concentrations. by disrupting the association between Hsp90 and GLT-1. Utilizing a style of TLE, we showed that long-term systemic administration of 17AAG significantly suppressed spontaneous repeated seizures and ameliorated astrogliosis. General, these results claim that up-regulation of GLT-1 by inhibiting Hsp90 in reactive astrocytes could be a potential healing focus on for the treating epilepsy and excitotoxicity. Launch Epilepsy is among the most common chronic neurological illnesses, yet around one-third of affected sufferers do not react to anticonvulsive medications PFI-3 supplier that focus on neurons (Kwan et al., 2011). Latest studies claim that astrocytes certainly are a potential focus on for the healing treatment of intractable epilepsy (Hja, 2014; Robel et al., 2015). GLT-1 (EAAT2; slc1a2) is normally predominantly portrayed in astrocytes and in charge of maintaining low extracellular ...

Genetic Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ABCB1 and ABCC2 and their Impact on Drug Disposition | Bentham...Genetic Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ABCB1 and ABCC2 and their Impact on Drug Disposition | Bentham...

Genetic Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ABCB1 and ABCC2 and their Impact on Drug Disposition. Author(s): ... Abstract: The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily comprises membrane proteins that translocate a variety of ... The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily comprises membrane proteins that translocate a variety of substrates ... Title: Genetic Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ABCB1 and ABCC2 and their Impact on Drug Disposition ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/73654/article/genetic-polymorphisms-atp-binding-cassette-transporters-abcb1-and-abcc2-and-their

Overexpression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins is emerging seeing | Novel EGFR inhibitors...Overexpression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins is emerging seeing | Novel EGFR inhibitors...

Although drug resistance can be reversed by disrupting the eIF4F complex, the association between ABC and eIF4F transporters ... scaffolding protein eIF4G and ATP-dependent RNA helicase eIF4A (12,13). All three proteins converge to modulate the translation ... Overexpression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins is emerging seeing. Overexpression of ... Comments Off on Overexpression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins is emerging seeing ...
more infohttp://paft-phil.com/overexpression-of-adenosine-triphosphate-binding-cassette-abc-transport-proteins-is-emerging-seeing/

ATP-binding cassette transporter - WikipediaATP-binding cassette transporter - Wikipedia

ATP-dependent association of the nucleotide binding cassettes during the catalytic cycle of ATP-binding cassette transporters ... ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are members of a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest ... Each member of the ABCF subgroup consist of a pair of ATP binding domains. Six half transporters with ATP binding sites on the ... Dimer formation of the two ABC domains of transporters requires ATP binding. It is generally observed that the ATP bound state ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATP-binding_cassette_transporter

ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 deficiency dysregulates host defense in the lung.  - PubMed - NCBIATP-binding cassette transporter G1 deficiency dysregulates host defense in the lung. - PubMed - NCBI

ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 deficiency dysregulates host defense in the lung.. Draper DW1, Madenspacher JH, Dixon D, ... Mice with genetic deletion of the cholesterol efflux transporter, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) G1, have pulmonary lipidosis and ... ATP-binding Cassette Transporter G1 Deficiency Dysregulates Host Defense in the Lung ... ATP-binding Cassette Transporter G1 Deficiency Dysregulates Host Defense in the Lung ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20395559?dopt=Abstract

The structure of Escherichia coli BtuF and binding to its cognate ATP binding cassette transporter | PNASThe structure of Escherichia coli BtuF and binding to its cognate ATP binding cassette transporter | PNAS

The structure of Escherichia coli BtuF and binding to its cognate ATP binding cassette transporter. Elizabeth L. Borths, Kaspar ... Bacterial binding protein-dependent ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters facilitate uptake of essential nutrients. The ... The structure of Escherichia coli BtuF and binding to its cognate ATP binding cassette transporter ... The structure of Escherichia coli BtuF and binding to its cognate ATP binding cassette transporter ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/99/26/16642?ijkey=ecb11db01b8c7870ca1b7425a5190168c795d153&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Mechanism of Coupling of Transport to Hydrolysis in Bacterial ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters | Journal of BacteriologyMechanism of Coupling of Transport to Hydrolysis in Bacterial ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters | Journal of Bacteriology

Mechanism of Coupling of Transport to Hydrolysis in Bacterial ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters. Amy L. Davidson ... Mechanism of Coupling of Transport to Hydrolysis in Bacterial ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ... Mechanism of Coupling of Transport to Hydrolysis in Bacterial ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ... Mechanism of Coupling of Transport to Hydrolysis in Bacterial ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/184/5/1225/article-info

Mechanism of Coupling of Transport to Hydrolysis in Bacterial ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters | Journal of BacteriologyMechanism of Coupling of Transport to Hydrolysis in Bacterial ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters | Journal of Bacteriology

Characterization of the structural requirements for assembly and nucleotide binding of an ATP-binding cassette transporter. The ... Scheme for ATP hydrolysis and vanadate inhibition. In this scheme for ATP hydrolysis by MalFGK2, ATP binding (step 1) and ATP ... during ATP hydrolysis. Binding of both ATP and MBP (E) to FGK will trigger ATP hydrolysis. E becomes more tightly bound to FGK ... Structure of MsbA from E. coli: a homolog of the multidrug resistance ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Science 293:1793 ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/184/5/1225?ijkey=9ffec8f9957677ee980d32953050169b5e72090e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

ATP-Binding-Cassette Transporters in Biliary Efflux and Drug-Induced Liver InjuryATP-Binding-Cassette Transporters in Biliary Efflux and Drug-Induced Liver Injury

... Pedersen, Jenny M. Uppsala University, ... 2. Identification of novel specific and general inhibitors of the three major human ATP-binding cassette transporters P-gp, ... 1. Prediction and identification of drug interactions with the human ATP-binding cassette transporter multidrug-resistance ... Identification of novel specific and general inhibitors of the three major human ATP-binding cassette transporters P-gp, BCRP ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:641249

Adipose Tissue ATP Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Contributes to High-Density Lipoprotein Biogenesis In Vivo | CirculationAdipose Tissue ATP Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Contributes to High-Density Lipoprotein Biogenesis In Vivo | Circulation

Adipose Tissue ATP Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Contributes to High-Density Lipoprotein Biogenesis In Vivo. Soonkyu Chung, ... Adipose Tissue ATP Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Contributes to High-Density Lipoprotein Biogenesis In Vivo ... Adipose Tissue ATP Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Contributes to High-Density Lipoprotein Biogenesis In Vivo ... Adipose Tissue ATP Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Contributes to High-Density Lipoprotein Biogenesis In Vivo ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2011/09/19/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.025445

NMR assignments of the periplasmic loop P2 of the MalF subunit of the maltose ATP binding cassette transporter | SpringerLinkNMR assignments of the periplasmic loop P2 of the MalF subunit of the maltose ATP binding cassette transporter | SpringerLink

13C backbone resonances of the second periplasmic loop P2 of the MalF subunit of the maltose ATP binding cassette transporter ... ATP induces conformational changes of periplasmic loop regions of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter. J Biol Chem 281 ... NMR assignments of the periplasmic loop P2 of the MalF subunit of the maltose ATP binding cassette transporter. ... 13C backbone resonances of the second periplasmic loop P2 of the MalF subunit of the maltose ATP binding cassette transporter ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12104-008-9131-7

abc3 - ATP-binding cassette transporter abc3 - Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain 972 / ATCC 24843) (Fission yeast) - abc3 gene ...abc3 - ATP-binding cassette transporter abc3 - Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain 972 / ATCC 24843) (Fission yeast) - abc3 gene ...

Iron-regulated vacuolar ABC-type transporter which may be responsible for mobilizing stored iron from the vacuole to the ... sp,Q9P5N0,ABC3_SCHPO ATP-binding cassette transporter abc3 OS=Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain 972 / ATCC 24843) OX=284812 GN= ... ATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding. Enzyme and pathway databases. Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes ... bind target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Nucleotide bindingi. 614 - 621. ATP 1PROSITE-ProRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9P5N0

Targeted Deletion of Adipocyte Abca1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1) Impairs Diet-Induced ObesityTargeted Deletion of Adipocyte Abca1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1) Impairs Diet-Induced Obesity

The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the cellular cholesterol exporter, Abca1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 ... Targeted Deletion of Adipocyte Abca1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1) Impairs Diet-Induced Obesity ... and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein expression, nuclear SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1) protein, ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/arte/201804000/00043605-201804000-00011

The ATP-binding cassette transporter Cbc (choline/betaine/carnitine) recruits multiple substrate-binding proteins with strong...The ATP-binding cassette transporter Cbc (choline/betaine/carnitine) recruits multiple substrate-binding proteins with strong...

The ATP-binding cassette transporter Cbc (choline/betaine/carnitine) recruits multiple substrate-binding proteins with strong ... The ATP-binding cassette transporter Cbc (choline/betaine/carnitine) recruits multiple substrate-binding proteins with strong ... The ATP-binding cassette transporter Cbc (choline/betaine/carnitine) recruits multiple substrate-binding proteins with strong ... The ATP-binding cassette transporter Cbc (choline/betaine/carnitine) recruits multiple substrate-binding proteins with strong ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19919675?dopt=Abstract

ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated ERK signaling in macrophages | JEMATP-binding cassette transporter A7 enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated ERK signaling in macrophages | JEM

ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated ERK signaling in macrophages. ... ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated ERK signaling in macrophages ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/203/9/i22

The Role of ATP Binding Cassette Transporters in Tissue Defense and Organ Regeneration | Journal of Pharmacology and...The Role of ATP Binding Cassette Transporters in Tissue Defense and Organ Regeneration | Journal of Pharmacology and...

ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ATP-dependent membrane proteins predominantly expressed in excretory organs, such ... The Role of ATP Binding Cassette Transporters in Tissue Defense and Organ Regeneration. Miriam Huls, Frans G. M. Russel and ... The Role of ATP Binding Cassette Transporters in Tissue Defense and Organ Regeneration. Miriam Huls, Frans G. M. Russel and ... The Role of ATP Binding Cassette Transporters in Tissue Defense and Organ Regeneration. Miriam Huls, Frans G. M. Russel and ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/328/1/3

The ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 R230C Variant Affects HDL Cholesterol Levels and BMI in the Mexican Population |...The ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 R230C Variant Affects HDL Cholesterol Levels and BMI in the Mexican Population |...

Although ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is well known for its role in cholesterol efflux and HDL formation, it is ... The ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 R230C Variant Affects HDL Cholesterol Levels and BMI in the Mexican Population. ... The ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 R230C Variant Affects HDL Cholesterol Levels and BMI in the Mexican Population ... The ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 R230C Variant Affects HDL Cholesterol Levels and BMI in the Mexican Population ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/56/7/1881

Abstract 5056: Genetic Disruption of the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter BCRP1/ABCG2 Impairs Cardiac Repair After Myocardial...Abstract 5056: Genetic Disruption of the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter BCRP1/ABCG2 Impairs Cardiac Repair After Myocardial...

Introduction Recently, the ATP-binding cassette transporter BCRP1/ABCG2 has been shown to regulate the function and survival of ... Abstract 5056: Genetic Disruption of the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter BCRP1/ABCG2 Impairs Cardiac Repair After Myocardial ... Abstract 5056: Genetic Disruption of the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter BCRP1/ABCG2 Impairs Cardiac Repair After Myocardial ... Abstract 5056: Genetic Disruption of the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter BCRP1/ABCG2 Impairs Cardiac Repair After Myocardial ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/120/Suppl_18/S1041.4

Genetic variation in the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCG2(BCRP) in a Swedish populationGenetic variation in the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCG2(BCRP) in a Swedish population

The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 (also named breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP) functions as a drug efflux ... Genetic variation in the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCG2(BCRP) in a Swedish population. Bäckström, Gunilla Uppsala ... ABCG2, BCRP, ATP-binding cassette transporter, SNP, Genetic variation, Swedish population Nationell ämneskategori Medicin och ... The main focus was the two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters: P-glycoprotein 170 (Pgp) and Breast Cancer Resistance ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A93415&c=14&searchType=SIMPLE&language=sv&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22personId%22%3A%22authority-person%3A10939%22%7D%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated ERK signaling in macrophages | JCBATP-binding cassette transporter A7 enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated ERK signaling in macrophages | JCB

ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 (ABCA7) binds apolipoprotein A-I and mediates cellular phospholipid but not cholesterol ... The ATP binding cassette transporter ABC1, is required for the engulfment of corpses generated by apoptotic cell death. EMBO J. ... The mammalian ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and A7 (ABCA1 and -A7) show sequence similarity to CED-7, a Caenorhabditis ... ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated ERK signaling in macrophages. ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/174/4/547

Transport in technicolor: Mapping ATP-binding cassette transporters in sea urchin embryos | Scripps Institution of Oceanography...Transport in technicolor: Mapping ATP-binding cassette transporters in sea urchin embryos | Scripps Institution of Oceanography...

Mapping ATP-binding cassette transporters in sea urchin embryos Transport in technicolor: Mapping ATP-binding cassette ... Multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters are one example of cryptic membrane proteins. Although most ... Transport in technicolor: Mapping ATP-binding cassette transporters in sea urchin embryos. ... abc; drug transporters; efflux transporters; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; functional-activity; half-transporter; in-vivo ...
more infohttps://scripps.ucsd.edu/biblio/transport-technicolor-mapping-atp-binding-cassette-transporters-sea-urchin-embryos

Interaction of the Multikinase Inhibitors Sorafenib and Sunitinib with Solute Carriers and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters |...Interaction of the Multikinase Inhibitors Sorafenib and Sunitinib with Solute Carriers and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters |...

Erlotinib (Tarceva, OSI-774) antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member ... Effect of the ATP-binding cassette drug transporters ABCB1, ABCG2, and ABCC2 on erlotinib hydrochloride (Tarceva) disposition ... Interaction of the Multikinase Inhibitors Sorafenib and Sunitinib with Solute Carriers and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters. ... Interaction of the Multikinase Inhibitors Sorafenib and Sunitinib with Solute Carriers and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ...
more infohttps://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/15/19/6062?ijkey=31244e02bf0db6ab469ae24c6e2edfacd40fbc89&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Maltose-binding protein effectively stabilizes the partially closed conformation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter...Maltose-binding protein effectively stabilizes the partially closed conformation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter...

... transporter superfamily. Upon the binding of its periplasmic binding protein, MalE, the ATPase activity of MalFGK2 can be ... Maltose transporter MalFGK2 is a type-I importer in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) ... Maltose transporter MalFGK2 is a type-I importer in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. Upon the binding of ... Maltose-binding protein effectively stabilizes the partially closed conformation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter MalFGK ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/cp/c6cp07943a/unauth

Evaluation of the role of ATP-binding cassette transporters as a defence mechanism against temephos in populations of Aedes...Evaluation of the role of ATP-binding cassette transporters as a defence mechanism against temephos in populations of Aedes...

... but is instead related to the action of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that act as ATP-dependent efflux pumps for ... The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the efflux of the insecticide, temephos, was assessed in the larvae of ... Evaluation of the role of ATP-binding cassette transporters as a defence mechanism against temephos in populations of Aedes ... Multidrug resistance ABC transporters. FEBS letters 555: 102-105. [ Links ] Dermauw W, Van Leeuwen T 2014. The ABC gene family ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762014000700961&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Deficiency of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter B6 in Megakaryocyte Progenitors Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice |...Deficiency of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter B6 in Megakaryocyte Progenitors Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice |...

Deficiency of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter B6 in Megakaryocyte Progenitors Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice. Andrew J. ... Objective-The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter B6 (ABCB6) is highly expressed in megakaryocyte progenitors, but its role ... Deficiency of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter B6 in Megakaryocyte Progenitors Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice ... Deficiency of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter B6 in Megakaryocyte Progenitors Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/early/2014/02/06/ATVBAHA.113.302613
  • Shilton BH, Shuman HA, Mowbray SL (1996) Crystal structures and solution conformations of a dominantnegative mutant of E . coli maltose-binding protein. (springer.com)
  • MBP activates the ATPase activity of MalK by bringing the two MalK subunits into close proximity, completing the nucleotide-binding site(s) at the MalK-MalK interface with residues donated from the opposing subunit. (asm.org)
  • It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding. (uniprot.org)
  • Many ABC transporters are involved in human inherited or sporadic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, adrenoleukodystrophy, Stargardts disease, drug-resistant tumors, Dubin-Johnson syndrome, Bylers disease, progressive familiar intrahepatic cholestasis, X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia, persistent hyperinsulimenic hypoglycemia of infancy, and others. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Studies have shown that tyrosine kinase inhibitors are substrates for and/or inhibit the function of various ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, and these interactions may play an important role in modulating systemic pharmacokinetics of drugs, tissue and brain distribution, and cellular accumulation and resistance ( 6 - 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sorafenib and sunitinib showed concentration-dependent (1 and 10 μmol/L), low to moderate affinity for ABCB1 but were not affected by the other ABC transporters. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Oldham ML, Khare D, Quiocho FA, Davidson AL, Chen J (2007) Crystal structure of a catalytic intermediate of the maltose transporter. (springer.com)
  • On the contrary, crosslinking and fluorescence studies suggest that ATP binding alone is sufficient to promote the outward-facing catalytic state, thereby doubting the role of MalE binding. (rsc.org)
  • The core transporter CbcWV also interacts with the carnitine-specific SBP CaiX (K(m), 24 microM) and the betaine-specific SBP BetX (K(m), 0.6 microM). (nih.gov)
  • Specifically, we found that the yeast sterol esterifying enzyme Are2p, physically interacts with the ABC transporters Aus1p and Pdr11p. (columbia.edu)
  • Deletion of either ABC transporter resulted in Are2p re-localization from DRMs to a detergent soluble fraction as well as a significant decrease in the percent of sterol esterified. (columbia.edu)
  • Cho, M., Lee, S.H., Cho, H.T.: P-glycoprotein4 displays auxin efflux transporter-like action in Arabidopsis root hair cells and tobacco cells. (springer.com)
  • Our simulations also revealed that the allosteric effect of MalE stimulation originates from the MalE-binding-promoted vertical motion between MalF and MalG cores, which was further supported by MD simulation of the MalE-independent mutant MalF500. (rsc.org)
  • Most but not all uptake systems also have an extracytoplasmic receptor, a solute binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASKO versus control adipose tissue had decreased PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein expression, nuclear SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1) protein, lipogenesis, and triglyceride accretion but similar Akt activation after acute insulin stimulation. (ovid.com)
  • This is especially relevant given that the expression of membrane transporters in diseases such as cancer can itself result from recapitulation of developmental pathways, including the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation pathways. (ucsd.edu)
  • Further, as alluded to above, the actual function of those transporters in disease can be analogous to their developmental roles, such as controlling cell motility. (ucsd.edu)
  • Unlike most ABC transporter loci, caiX, betX and cbcXWV are separated in the genome. (nih.gov)
  • The results showed that, in the absence of MalE, laterally closing motion was energetically forbidden but, upon MalE binding, more closed conformations similar to the pre-T state become more stable. (rsc.org)
  • Bioassays were conducted using mosquito populations that were either susceptible or resistant to temephos by exposure to insecticide alone or in combination with sublethal doses of the ABC transporter inhibitor, verapamil (30, 35 and 40 μM). (scielo.br)
  • The nucleotide-binding subdomain contains the canonical Walker A and B motifs ( 128 ) that are involved in nucleotide binding, while the helical subdomain contains the ABC family signature or LSGGQ motif the function of which is still debatable ( 31 , 48 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. (uniprot.org)
  • Introduction Recently, the ATP-binding cassette transporter BCRP1/ABCG2 has been shown to regulate the function and survival of side population cells, which have been identified in various organs including heart and have stem cell properties. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nonetheless, the challenges underlying the identification of embryonic membrane transporter function are essential to tackle for several reasons. (ucsd.edu)
  • The significant effect of MalE binding on the free energy landscapes was in agreement with crystallographic studies and confirmed the important role of MalE in stabilizing the pre-T state. (rsc.org)
  • The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the efflux of the insecticide, temephos, was assessed in the larvae of Aedes aegypti . (scielo.br)
  • This domain architecture is clearly established in the recent structure of MsbA ( 20 ), an ABC transporter that mediates the export of lipid and lipid A in E. coli ( 32 , 133 ). (asm.org)