ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedLipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.P-Glycoproteins: A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Antipain: An oligopeptide produced by various bacteria which acts as a protease inhibitor.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Adrenoleukodystrophy: An X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in the LYSOSOMES of ADRENAL CORTEX and the white matter of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This disease occurs almost exclusively in the males. Clinical features include the childhood onset of ATAXIA; NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HYPERPIGMENTATION; ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY; SEIZURES; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and DEMENTIA. The slowly progressive adult form is called adrenomyeloneuropathy. The defective gene ABCD1 is located at Xq28, and encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Mice, Inbred C57BLCholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Benzethonium: Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.Vanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3: A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Organic Cation Transporter 1: An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1: A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Cholates: Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.

The Tangier disease gene product ABC1 controls the cellular apolipoprotein-mediated lipid removal pathway. (1/872)

The ABC1 transporter was identified as the defect in Tangier disease by a combined strategy of gene expression microarray analysis, genetic mapping, and biochemical studies. Patients with Tangier disease have a defect in cellular cholesterol removal, which results in near zero plasma levels of HDL and in massive tissue deposition of cholesteryl esters. Blocking the expression or activity of ABC1 reduces apolipoprotein-mediated lipid efflux from cultured cells, and increasing expression of ABC1 enhances it. ABC1 expression is induced by cholesterol loading and cAMP treatment and is reduced upon subsequent cholesterol removal by apolipoproteins. The protein is incorporated into the plasma membrane in proportion to its level of expression. Different mutations were detected in the ABC1 gene of 3 unrelated patients. Thus, ABC1 has the properties of a key protein in the cellular lipid removal pathway, as emphasized by the consequences of its defect in patients with Tangier disease.  (+info)

Human ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABC1): genomic organization and identification of the genetic defect in the original Tangier disease kindred. (2/872)

Tangier disease is characterized by low serum high density lipoproteins and a biochemical defect in the cellular efflux of lipids to high density lipoproteins. ABC1, a member of the ATP-binding cassette family, recently has been identified as the defective gene in Tangier disease. We report here the organization of the human ABC1 gene and the identification of a mutation in the ABC1 gene from the original Tangier disease kindred. The organization of the human ABC1 gene is similar to that of the mouse ABC1 gene and other related ABC genes. The ABC1 gene contains 49 exons that range in size from 33 to 249 bp and is over 70 kb in length. Sequence analysis of the ABC1 gene revealed that the proband for Tangier disease was homozygous for a deletion of nucleotides 3283 and 3284 (TC) in exon 22. The deletion results in a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon starting at nucleotide 3375. The product is predicted to encode a nonfunctional protein of 1,084 aa, which is approximately half the size of the full-length ABC1 protein. The loss of a Mnl1 restriction site, which results from the deletion, was used to establish the genotype of the rest of the kindred. In summary, we report on the genomic organization of the human ABC1 gene and identify a frameshift mutation in the ABC1 gene of the index case of Tangier disease. These results will be useful in the future characterization of the structure and function of the ABC1 gene and the analysis of additional ABC1 mutations in patients with Tangier disease.  (+info)

An inventory of the human ABC proteins. (3/872)

Currently 30 human ABC proteins are represented by full sequences in various databases, and this paper provides a brief overview of these proteins. ABC proteins are composed of transmembrane domains (TMDs), and nucleotide binding domains (NBDs, or ATP-binding cassettes, ABSs). The arrangement of these domains, together with available membrane topology models of the family members, are presented. Based on their sequence similarity scores, the members of the human ABC protein family can be grouped into eight subfamilies. At present the MDR/TAP, the ALD, the MRP/CFTR, the ABC1, the White, the RNAseL inhibitor, the ANSA, and the GCN20 subfamilies are identified. Mutations of many human ABC proteins are known to be causative in inherited diseases, and a short description of the molecular pathology of these ABC gene-related genetic diseases is also provided.  (+info)

The ABCA subclass of mammalian transporters. (4/872)

We describe here a subclass of mammalian ABC transporters, the ABCA subfamily. This is a unique group that, in contrast to any other human ABC transporters, lacks a structural counterpart in yeast. The structural hallmark of the ABCA subfamily is the presence of a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids thought to span the membrane within the putative regulatory (R) domain. As for today, four ABCA transporters have been fully characterised but 11 ABCA-encoding genes have been identified. ABCA-specific motifs in the nucleotide binding folds can be detected when analysing the conserved sequences among the different members. These motifs may reveal functional constraints exclusive to this group of ABC transporters.  (+info)

High density lipoprotein deficiency and foam cell accumulation in mice with targeted disruption of ATP-binding cassette transporter-1. (5/872)

Recently, the human ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABC1) gene has been demonstrated to be mutated in patients with Tangier disease. To investigate the role of the ABC1 protein in an experimental in vivo model, we used gene targeting in DBA-1J embryonic stem cells to produce an ABC1-deficient mouse. Expression of the murine Abc1 gene was ablated by using a nonisogenic targeting construct that deletes six exons coding for the first nucleotide-binding fold. Lipid profiles from Abc1 knockout (-/-) mice revealed an approximately 70% reduction in cholesterol, markedly reduced plasma phospholipids, and an almost complete lack of high density lipoproteins (HDL) when compared with wild-type littermates (+/+). Fractionation of lipoproteins by FPLC demonstrated dramatic alterations in HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), including the near absence of apolipoprotein AI. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B were also significantly reduced in +/- and -/- compared with their littermate controls. The inactivation of the Abc1 gene led to an increase in the absorption of cholesterol in mice fed a chow or a high-fat and -cholesterol diet. Histopathologic examination of Abc1-/- mice at ages 7, 12, and 18 mo demonstrated a striking accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages and type II pneumocytes in the lungs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Abc1-/- mice display pathophysiologic hallmarks similar to human Tangier disease and highlight the capacity of ABC1 transporters to participate in the regulation of dietary cholesterol absorption.  (+info)

Molecular basis for K(ATP) assembly: transmembrane interactions mediate association of a K+ channel with an ABC transporter. (6/872)

K(ATP) channels are large heteromultimeric complexes containing four subunits from the inwardly rectifying K+ channel family (Kir6.2) and four regulatory sulphonylurea receptor subunits from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family (SUR1 and SUR2A/B). The molecular basis for interactions between these two unrelated protein families is poorly understood. Using novel trafficking-based interaction assays, coimmunoprecipitation, and current measurements, we show that the first transmembrane segment (M1) and the N terminus of Kir6.2 are involved in K(ATP) assembly and gating. Additionally, the transmembrane domains, but not the nucleotide-binding domains, of SUR1 are required for interaction with Kir6.2. The identification of specific transmembrane interactions involved in K(ATP) assembly may provide a clue as to how ABC proteins that transport hydrophobic substrates evolved to regulate other membrane proteins.  (+info)

ABC transporters in lipid transport. (7/872)

Since it was found that the P-glycoproteins encoded by the MDR3 (MDR2) gene in humans and the Mdr2 gene in mice are primarily phosphatidylcholine translocators, there has been increasing interest in the possibility that other ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in lipid transport. The evidence reviewed here shows that the MDR1 P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance (-associated) transporter 1 (MRP1) are able to transport lipid analogues, but probably not major natural membrane lipids. Both transporters can transport a wide range of hydrophobic drugs and may see lipid analogues as just another drug. The MDR3 gene probably arose in evolution from a drug-transporting P-glycoprotein gene. Recent work has shown that the phosphatidylcholine translocator has retained significant drug transport activity and that this transport is inhibited by inhibitors of drug-transporting P-glycoproteins. Whether the phosphatidylcholine translocator also functions as a transporter of some drugs in vivo remains to be seen. Three other ABC transporters were recently shown to be involved in lipid transport: ABCR, also called Rim protein, was shown to be defective in Stargardt's macular dystrophy; this protein probably transports a complex of retinaldehyde and phosphatidylethanolamine in the retina of the eye. ABC1 was shown to be essential for the exit of cholesterol from cells and is probably a cholesterol transporter. A third example, the ABC transporter involved in the import of long-chain fatty acids into peroxisomes, is discussed in the chapter by Hettema and Tabak in this volume.  (+info)

Sterol-dependent transactivation of the ABC1 promoter by the liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor. (8/872)

Tangier disease, a condition characterized by low levels of high density lipoprotein and cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, is caused by mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABC1. In cultured macrophages, ABC1 mRNA was induced in an additive fashion by 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9CRA), suggesting induction by nuclear hormone receptors of the liver X receptor (LXR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) family. We cloned the 5'-end of the human ABC1 transcript from cholesterol-loaded THP1 macrophages. When transfected into RAW macrophages, the upstream promoter was induced 7-fold by 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, 8-fold by 9CRA, and 37-fold by 9CRA and 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol. Furthermore, promoter activity was increased in a sterol-responsive fashion when cotransfected with LXRalpha/RXR or LXRbeta/RXR. Further experiments identified a direct repeat spaced by four nucleotides (from -70 to -55 base pairs) as a binding site for LXRalpha/RXR or LXRbeta/RXR. Mutations in this element abolished the sterol-mediated activation of the promoter. The results show sterol-dependent transactivation of the ABC1 promoter by LXR/RXR and suggest that small molecule agonists of LXR could be useful drugs to reverse foam cell formation and atherogenesis.  (+info)

Retinoic acids regulate the reverse cholesterol transport by inducing the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) dependent cholesterol efflux in macrophages, neuronal as well as intestine cells. In the present study, we aim to test the effect of all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on ABCA1 expression in human CD4+ T cells and the involvement of cholesterol in ATRA mediated anti-HIV effect. Treatment with ATRA dramatically up-regulated ABCA1 expression in CD4+ T cells in a time and dose dependent manner. The expression of ABCA1 paralleled with increased ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux. This induction was dependent on T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and ATRA failed to induce ABCA1 expression in resting T cells. Moreover, ATRA and liver X receptor (LXR) agonist-TO-901317 together had synergistic effect on ABCA1 expression as well as cholesterol efflux. Increased ABCA1 expression was associated with lower cellular cholesterol staining. Cells treated with either ATRA or TO-901317 were less vulnerable to
Inappropriate and sustained signaling events interfere with homeostasis by perturbing regulatory network function, resulting in chronic disease. In atherosclerosis, these signals arise from chronic inflammation and inhibit the macrophage homeostatic response to hyperlipidemia, specifically the cholesterol efflux pathway, which results in foam cell formation and plaque progression. While LXRs directly induce transcription of the transporters responsible for cholesterol efflux, it currently remains unknown whether additional transcriptional regulatory proteins are recruited to these promoters by inflammatory signals to block LXR‐dependent gene regulation, and the mechanisms by which this might occur.. We hypothesized that LXR cofactors receive these inflammatory signals from TLRs to directly modulate lipid‐mediated gene expression. We therefore characterized the occupancy of the Abca1 promoter by transcriptional regulators using promoter enrichment‐quantitative mass spectrometry (PE‐QMS). ...
The ABCA1 protein plays a pivotal role in reverse cholesterol transport, by mediating the generation of HDL particles and removing cellular cholesterol. Both the proper expression of ABCA1 in the plasma membrane and the internalization along with apoA-I are required for function. Therefore, we developed a model system to investigate the effect of clinically relevant drugs on the cell surface appearance of ABCA1. By retroviral transduction system, we established stable mammalian cell lines expressing functional and non-functional ABCA1 variants, tagged with an extracellular hemagglutinin epitope. After characterization of the expression, proper localization and function of different ABCA1 variants, we followed quantitatively their cell surface expression by immunofluorescent staining, using flow cytometry. As expected, we found increased cell surface expression of ABCA1 after treatment with a calpain inhibitor, and observed a strong decrease in plasma membrane ABCA1 expression upon treatment with a trans
Mitch Leslie http://sageke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sageke;2002/34/nw121 Key Words: ATP binding cassette transporters apolipoprotein E LDL receptor. Abstract: After you wash down a delectable cream-filled doughnut with a swig of cappuccino, cells in your arteries could also start gorging on fat, setting the stage for atherosclerosis. A new study suggests that coaxing these plaque-spawning cells to spit out their excess cholesterol might prevent heart disease. The discovery could lead to the development of drugs that thwart atherosclerosis by blocking the first step in plaque formation.. Best known for slurping up bacteria, immune cells called macrophages also eat cholesterol, helping govern its concentration in the blood. Atherosclerosis starts when macrophages binge. The cells slip into the wall of an artery, perhaps drawn by an injury. Once ensconced in the vessel, they fill up on cholesterol, triggering the growth of fatty deposits on the vessel walls that can eventually reduce or ...
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Human ABCA1 partial ORF ( NP_005493, 86 a.a. - 185 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00000019-Q01) - Products - Abnova
Wham is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Wham is available on the Drugs.com website.
ABCA5兔多克隆抗体(ab99953)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
[51 Pages Report] Check for Discount on ATP Binding Cassette Sub Family A Member 1 (ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1 or ABC 1 or ATP Binding Cassette 1 or Cholesterol Efflux Regulatory Protein or ABCA1) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, ATP Binding Cassette Sub...
Cholesterol is an essential molecule that mediates a myriad of critical cellular processes, such as signal transduction in eukaryotes, membrane fluidity, and steroidogenesis. As such it is not surprising that cholesterol homeostasis is tightly regulated, striking a precise balance between endogenous synthesis and regulated uptake/efflux to and from extracellular acceptors. In mammalian cells, sterol efflux is a key component of the homeostatic equation and is mediated by members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters represent a group of evolutionarily highly conserved cellular transmembrane proteins that mediate the ATP-dependent translocation of substrates across membranes. Members of this superfamily, ABCA1 and ABCG1, are key components of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. ABCG1 acts in concert with ABCA1 to maximize the removal of excess cholesterol from cells by promoting cholesterol efflux onto mature and nascent HDL particles
Methods and Results-Adipocyte-specific ABCA1 knockout mice (ABCA1−A/−A) were generated by crossing ABCA1floxed mice with aP2 Cre transgenic mice. AT from ABCA1−A/−A mice had ,10% of wild-type ABCA1 protein expression but normal hepatic and intestinal expression. Deletion of adipocyte ABCA1 resulted in a significant decrease in plasma HDL cholesterol (≈15%) and apolipoprotein A-I (≈13%) concentrations. AT from ABCA1−A/−A mice had a 2-fold increase in free cholesterol content compared with wild-type mice and failed to efflux cholesterol to apolipoprotein A-I. However, cholesterol efflux from AT to plasma HDL was similar for both genotypes of mice. Incubation of wild-type AT explants with apolipoprotein A-I resulted in the formation of multiple discrete-sized nascent HDL particles ranging in diameter from 7.1 to 12 nm; similar incubations with ABCA1−A/−A AT explants resulted in nascent HDL ,8 nm. Plasma decay and tissue uptake of wild-type 125I-HDL tracer were similar in both ...
Much evidence has pointed toward a potential contribution of adipose in mediating HDL lipidation. Adipose tissue is the major store for cholesterol within the body, and therefore represents a large pool of substrate to support HDL biogenesis. Adipose tissue expresses high levels of key cholesterol transporters ABCA1 and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI; but not ABCG1),14 providing a gateway for cholesterol to efflux onto HDL. Expression of both ABCA1 and SR-BI increases during adipogenesis and adipocytes support HDL lipidation in vitro.14 Furthermore, adipocytes promote HDL lipidation in vivo, and the absence of either adipocyte ABCA1 or SR-BI impairs this process.14 ABCA1−/− adipocytes exhibited impaired efflux to apoA-I in vitro, but unaltered efflux to HDL, whereas SR-BI−/− adipocytes effluxed normally to apoA-I but failed to efflux to HDL. ABCG1−/− adipocytes exhibited normal efflux to both HDL and apo-A1, and protein levels were negligible in wild-type adipocytes.14 ...
The release of substrate into the translocation pathway of an ABC transporter is undoubtedly coupled to conformational changes in the binding protein (5, 7). In the absence of transporter, binding proteins such as the maltose binding protein (MBP) exhibit large hinge and twist movements of one lobe relative to the other between the liganded and unliganded states (7). In contrast, binding proteins such as BtuF and FhuD with a backbone α-helix are thought to be less likely to undergo such motions (18-20). Recently, the structure of one such binding protein, T. pallidum TroA, was solved with (19) and without (26) bound Zn2+. The difference between liganded and unliganded TroA was indeed found to be a mere 4° tilting of the C-terminal domain about the long axis of the protein without bending or unwinding of the backbone helix. This movement is very different from that observed for MBP and yet the result is a partial collapse of the binding site and the loss of the proper coordination geometry for ...
Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) may improve atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk prediction beyond using coronary artery calcium (CAC), family history and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), according to a study published May 23 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Purav Mody, MD, and colleagues examined 1,972 participants in the Dallas Heart Study who were free of ASCVD at baseline. Participants completed risk factor assessment, laboratory testing, imaging studies and CAC scans. Results showed that prevalent CAC (,0) was found in 52 percent of participants, family history and premature family history were reported in 31 percent and 10 percent of participants, respectively, and hs-CRP ,2 mg/l was found in 58 percent of participants. Over a median follow-up of 9.4 years, 97 participants experienced a first ASCVD event. Those with CEC more than the median vs. less than the median had a decreased risk of ASCVD (3.1 percent vs. 6.7 percent; p = 0.0003). In ...
During the past years, we and others discovered a series of human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, now referred to as ABC A-subfamily transporters. Recently, a novel testis-specific ABC A transporter, Abca17, has been cloned in rodent. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of the human ortholog of rodent Abca17. The novel human ABC A-transporter gene on chromosome 16p13.3 is ubiquitously expressed with highest expression in glandular tissues and the heart. The new ABC transporter gene exhibits striking nucleotide sequence homology with the recently cloned mouse (58%) and rat Abca17 (51%), respectively, and is located in the syntenic region of mouse Abca17 indicating that it represents the human ortholog of rodent Abca17. However, unlike in the mouse, the full-length ABCA17 transcript (4.3 kb) contains numerous mutations that preclude its translation into a bona fide ABC transporter protein strongly suggesting that the human ABCA17 gene is a transcribed pseudogene
description?: oligopeptide ABC superfamily ATP binding cassette transporter, membrane protein. descriptions from strain specific annotations: ...
Plays a role in phagocytosis by macrophages of apoptotic cells. Binds APOA1 and may function in apolipoprotein-mediated phospholipid efflux from cells. May also mediate cholesterol efflux. May regulate cellular ceramide homeostasis during keratinocytes differentiation.
Rat anti Mouse ABCA7 antibody, clone 4A7-144.1 recognizes murine adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Binding cassette transporter 7 (ABCA7). The
Andreas W. Jehle, Shyra J. Gardai, Suzhao Li, Patrick Linsel-Nitschke, Konosuke Morimoto, William J. Janssen, R. William Vandivier, Nan Wang, Steven Greenberg, Benjamin M. Dale, Chunbo Qin, Peter M. Henson, Alan R. Tall ...
Results presented in this report demonstrate that LXR agonists inhibit HIV-1 replication. This inhibition correlated with the stimulation of cholesterol efflux in HIV-infected cells. This anti-HIV effect of LXR agonists relied on ABCA1 and combined cholesterol-dependent and independent events. Cholesterol-dependent mechanisms include diminished virus production and reduced fusogenic ability of virions because of a reduction of virion-associated cholesterol. ABCA1 has additional suppressive effect on Nef-positive virus, probably because of its binding to Nef (Mujawar et al., 2006) and inhibiting the postentry functions of Nef in HIV infectivity, such as facilitation of intracytoplasmic transport (Qi and Aiken, 2008). The anti-HIV activity of ABCA1 explains the benefit that the virus gains by specifically targeting ABCA1 via Nef (Mujawar et al., 2006).. Nef and ABCA1 interact with each other and exist in a state of a dynamic balance: under normal infection conditions, Nef inhibits ABCA1 activity ...
Lipid Rich Plaque by Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Associates With Cholesterol Efflux Capacity Independent of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Those at Risk for Myocardial Infarction ...
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Homo sapiens ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 9 (ABCA9), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (H00010350-R02) - Products - Abnova
ABCA1 expression and co-localization with [1-93]ApoA-I and ApoA-I. (A) Western blot analysis with anti-ABCA1 antibodies of cell lysates prepared from HepG2 ce
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In this study, we performed a mutation analysis of the ABCR gene of 80 unrelated AMD patients and 100 race and age matched control subjects. Of 51 exons of the ABCR gene, 10 that have been reported to have AMD associated mutations were studied.3 The only missense mutation found was a T1428M mutation in exon 29. Allikmetset al reported that this mutation was found in one of 167 AMD patients, and that no such mutation was found in the general population.3 However, in our series, seven of 80 (8.8%) AMD patients and eight of 100 (8.0%) of the control group did, in fact, showed this mutation (Table 1), which was not a statistically significant difference. Other alterations found were mostly polymorphisms or sequence variations. These were found in exons 23, 41, 43, and did not correspond to the 13 AMD associated mutations reported by Allikmets et al.3Apparently, there is heterogeneity in the ABCR gene. Indeed, all of the AMD and the control subjects in our series showed different nucleotide sequences ...
ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are members of a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest and is possibly one of the oldest families with representatives in all extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans. ABC transporters often consist of multiple subunits, one or two of which are transmembrane proteins and one or two of which are membrane-associated ATPases. The ATPase subunits utilize the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding and hydrolysis to energize the translocation of various substrates across membranes, either for uptake or for export of the substrate. Most but not all uptake systems also have an extracytoplasmic receptor, a solute binding protein. Some homologous ATPases function in non-transport-related processes such as translation of RNA and DNA repair. ABC transporters are considered to be with the ABC superfamily based on the sequence and organization of their ATP-binding cassette (ABC) domains, even though the integral membrane proteins ...
The clearance of apoptotic cells occurs throughout the lifespan of multicellular organisms and is important for development during embryogenesis, the maintenance of tissue integrity and function, and the resolution of inflammation (deCathelineau and Henson, 2003). Here, we report that macrophage ABCA7 enhances the clearance of apoptotic cells in vitro and in vivo. ABCA7 and LRP1 move to the cell surface after stimulation with C1q or apoptotic cells and localize to membrane ruffles or phagocytic cups, respectively. However, ABCA7 also localizes to phagocytic membranes during FcR-mediated phagocytosis, in which ABCA7 levels are not rate limiting. More important, ABCA7 is required for optimal ligand-induced signaling through LRP1, as shown by C1q-induced ERK phosphorylation and for sustained ERK phosphorylation during phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Finally, ERK phosphorylation itself is shown to be essential for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells but not for FcR-mediated phagocytosis, suggesting a ...
The historical introductory chapter brings home the almost startling rapidity with which the field has developed. Less than half a century ago it was first understood that bile secretion was an active process which could be sustained against a pressure gradient in contradistinction to urine. The energy which drives secretion is now known to emanate from an array of ATP binding cassette transporters responsible for secretion of osmotically active bile solutes. Many of those transporters have been cloned and characterised and disease associations worked out.. Similarly, the function and feedback regulation of a host of genes whose products contribute to the composition and secretion of bile is explained, along with the changes induced by various cholestatic perturbations. The scope of the book is comprehensive, including all aspects of cell physiology pertinent to bile formation for the hepatocyte and cholangiocyte, and extensive data on the causes and consequences of cholestasis. The basic ...
学位の種類: 博士(医学). 報告番号: 甲第4124号. 学位記番号: 新大院博(医)甲第691号. 学位授与年月日: 平成28年3月23日
ABCG2 antibody [BXP-21] (ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (Junior blood group)) for FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB. Anti-ABCG2 mAb (GTX23380) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Oh yes, They do wham and bam. Especially in the hands of a preschool boy. Amazingly, his wham bam usage trials yielded no lasting "it snapped me!" injuries or breakage ...
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The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cellular unesterified cholesterol and phospholipid to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I. Chymase, a protease secreted by mast cells, selectively cleaves pre-β-migrating particles from high density lipoprotein (HDL)3 and reduces the efflux of cholesterol from macrophages. To evaluate whether this effect is the result of reduction of ABCA1-dependent or -independent pathways of cholesterol efflux, in this study we examined the efflux of cholesterol to preparations of chymase-treated HDL3 in two types of cell: 1) in J774 murine macrophages endogenously expressing low levels of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), and high levels of ABCA1 upon treatment with cAMP; and 2) in Fu5AH rat hepatoma cells endogenously expressing high levels of the SR-BI and low levels of ABCA1. Treatment of HDL3 with the human chymase resulted in rapid depletion of pre-β-HDL and a concomitant decrease in the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipid ...
Abstract: ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCT) could generate multiple transcripts through alternative splicing (AS) in mammalian. Some AS introduced PTC (premature terminal codon)-containing isoforms of ABCT couple with NMD (nonsense-mediated mRNA decay) to regulate relevant functions. However, there are no similar reports in lower organisms. This paper focuses on the unicellular protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila, based on the RNA-seq data of Tetrahymena thermophila, identified two alternative splicing variants of gene ABCC10 (SV1 and SV2). The SV2 contained an intron retention event at the fifth intron, and this 49 bp-intron resulted in shift-frame and introduced PTC. Then, a knock-down Tetrahymena strain of gene UPF1 which is a key factor of NMD was constructed, and the expression levels of SV2 were performed using a real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed the expression levels of SV2 were up-regulated significantly in knock-down strain, indicating that SV2 was targeted by NMD, ...
Seven major findings were observed in this study. i) non-cytotoxic PPE at ≤10 μg/ml attenuated oxidized LDL uptake and cellular lipid accumulation in J774A.1 murine macrophages by reducing the induction of SR-B1; ii) treatment of the macrophages with 10 μg/ml PPE enhanced the oxidized LDL-induced expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 and subsequent cholesterol efflux; iii) ABCA1 expression was highly upregulated in the macrophages stimulated with the LXR agonist, TO-091317, and these effects were further enhanced by treatment with 10 μg/ml PPE; iv) the induction of LXRα by oxidized LDL was elevated in a dose-dependent manner by PPE; v) ABCA1 expression was further enhanced by PPE in the macrophages exposed to the PPAR agonist, pioglitazone, and treatment with 10 μg/ml PPE further enhanced the expression of PPAR induced by oxidized LDL; vi) α-asarone was identified as a major compound present in the hexane extract, PPE, enhancing cholesterol efflux from lipid-laden foam cells; and vii) non-toxic ...
One quarter of eukaryotic genes encode membrane proteins. These include nearly 1,000 transporters that translocate nutrients, signaling molecules, and xenobiotics across membranes. While it is well appreciated that membrane transport is critical for development, the specific roles of many transporters have remained cryptic, in part because of their abundance and the diversity of their substrates. Multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters are one example of cryptic membrane proteins. Although most organisms utilize these ABC transporters during embryonic development, many of these transporters have broad substrate specificity, and their developmental functions remain incompletely understood. Here, we review advances in our understanding of ABC transporters in sea urchin embryos, and methods developed to spatially and temporally map these proteins. These studies reveal that multifunctional transporters are required for signaling, homeostasis, and protection of the embryo, ...
Abstract: Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated with neurological, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The CNS is a closed system with regard to cholesterol homeostasis, as cholesterol-delivering lipoproteins from the periphery cannot pass the blood-brain-barrier and enter the brain. Different cell types in the brain have different functions in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, with astrocytes producing and releasing apolipoprotein E and lipoproteins, and neurons metabolizing cholesterol to 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol. We present evidence that astrocytes and neurons adopt different mechanisms also in regulating cholesterol efflux. We found that in astrocytes cholesterol efflux is induced by both lipid-free apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, while cholesterol removal from neurons is triggered only by lipoproteins. The main pathway by which apolipoproteins induce cholesterol efflux is through ABCA1. By upregulating ABCA1 ...
27-Hydroxycholesterol (27OH) is a strong suppressor of cholesterol synthesis and a weak activator of LXR in vitro. The regulatory importance of 27OH in vivo is controversial. Here we utilized male mice with increased levels of 27OH either due to increased production (CYP27A1 transgenic mice) or reduced metabolism (Cyp7b1-/- mice). We also used mice lacking 27OH due to a knockout of Cyp27a1. The latter mice were treated with cholic acid to compensate for reduced bile acid synthesis. The effects of the different levels of 27OH on Srebp- and other LXR-regulated genes in the liver were investigated. In the liver of CYP27tg mice we found a modest increase of the mRNA levels corresponding to the LXR target genes Cyp7b1 and Abca1. A number of other LXR-regulated genes were not affected. The effect on Abca1 mRNA was not seen in the liver of Cyp7b1-/- mice. There were little or no effects on cholesterol synthesis. In the liver of the Cyp27-/- mice treated with 0.025% cholic acid there was no significant ...
ABCA7 is a member of the highly conserved superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These multipass transmembrane proteins use energy from ATP hydrolysis to transfer molecules across membrane barriers. ABCA7 is abundantly expressed in white blood cells, in macrophages, and in microglia, where it is thought to play a role in phagocytosis. The ABCA7 gene started drawing attention in Alzheimers disease research when a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified it as a risk factor for late-onset AD. Subsequent meta-analysis confirmed the association, and the gene ranks among the top 10 risk genes on AlzGene. The association is strongest for African-Americans, in whom one ABCA7 variant was found to nearly double the risk of AD, with an effect size approaching that of ApoE.. Despite the evidence linking ABCA7 to AD, the underlying mechanism of ABCA7s role in AD pathogenesis remains unknown. ABCA7 could impact AD pathogenesis through a variety of mechanisms, including regulation of ...
The protein encoded by this gene is included in the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the White subfamily and is expressed predominantly in liver tissue. The function has not yet been determined but may involve cholesterol transport. Alternate splice variants have been described but their full length sequences have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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(2015) Loo, Clarke. Journal of Biological Chemistry. ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are clinically important because drug pumps like P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) confer multidrug resistance and mutant ABC proteins are responsible for many protein-folding diseases such as cystic fibrosis....
ABCA12 - ABCA12 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 12 (ABCA12), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
1G6H: Crystal structures of the MJ1267 ATP binding cassette reveal an induced-fit effect at the ATPase active site of an ABC transporter.
1GAJ: Crystal structures of the MJ1267 ATP binding cassette reveal an induced-fit effect at the ATPase active site of an ABC transporter.
Probable transporter, its natural substrate has not been found yet. May have a role in macrophage lipid metabolism and neural development.
Regulation of foam cells by adenosine.: Macrophages rely on reverse cholesterol transport mechanisms to rid themselves of excess cholesterol. By reducing accumu
Complete information for TAP2 gene (Protein Coding), Transporter 2, ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily B Member, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for TAP2 gene (Protein Coding), Transporter 2, ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily B Member, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
ABCB4 antibody, Internal (ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 4) for WB. Anti-ABCB4 pAb (GTX47122) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
1) Lipid intake, absorption and intestinal lipoprotein formation. By: Dr. Tso, Dr. Hui, Dr. Jandack, Dr. Sun, Dr. Howles, Dr Heubi, Dr. Woollett. ...
Das ABCA1-Gen ist ein membranständiges Transportprotein, welches insbesondere für den Cholesterintransport zuständig ist. Mutationen zeigen eine codominante Vererbung. Während heterozygote Anlageträger deutlich erniedrigte HDL-Werte aufweisen und damit ein deutlich erhöhtes Coronarrisiko besitzen, erkranken homozygote oder compound heterozygote Anlageträger an einer Tangier-Erkrankung.. ...
Understanding the determinants of HDL function is widely considered a critical priority in HDL research. Given the heterogeneity of HDL species in the circulation, understanding the transporters essential for cholesterol efflux and the HDL species, which are the major contributors to this process may direct contemporary strategies to optimize HDL function or deliver novel HDL analogues in vivo. The present study, which represents the most detailed evaluation of HDL particle size and cellular cholesterol efflux via ABCA1 and ABCG1 to date, has identified HDL size as a key determinant of the efflux capacity of HDL. We further demonstrate that ABCA1 is a quantitatively critical mediator of cholesterol efflux to HDL3, and that HDL3b, HDL3c and lipid-free apoA-I are all suitable therapeutic targets for optimizing cellular cholesterol efflux.. It is a widely held view that ABCA1 is an important mediator of cholesterol export and that it specifically requires apolipoproteins (such as apoA-I) that ...
Carballo-Jane, Ester ; Chen, Zhu ; Oneill, Edward ; Wang, Jun ; Burton, Charlotte ; Chang, Ching H ; Chen, Xun ; Eveland, Suzanne ; Frantz-Wattley, Betsy ; Gagen, Karen ; Hubbard, Brian ; Ichetovkin, Marina ; Luell, Silvi ; Meurer, Roger ; Song, Xuelei ; Strack, Alison ; Langella, Annunziata ; Cianetti, Simona ; Rech, ...
Ivanhoe Newswire) -- It has been well-known that high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the "good" kind, are associated with a lower risk of heart disease. Recent studies have asked if pharmacologic increases in HDL cholesterol levels are beneficial to the patient. A new study shows that a different metric, a measure of HDL function called cholesterol efflux capacity, is more closely associated with protection against heart disease than HDL cholesterol levels themselves.. Atherosclerosis typically occurs with a build-up of cholesterol along the artery wall. Cholesterol efflux capacity, an integrated measure of HDL function, is a direct calculation of the efficiency by which a persons HDL removes cholesterol from cholesterol-loaded macrophages (a type of white blood cell) -- the sort that accumulate in arterial plaque.. "Recent scientific findings have directed increasing interest toward the concept that measures of the function of HDL, rather than simply its level in the ...
The focus of studies on high-density lipoproteins (HDL) has shifted from HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) to HDL function. We recently demonstrated that low USF1 expression in mice and humans associates with high plasma HDL-C and low triglyceride levels, as well as protection against obesity, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Here, we studied the impact of USF1 deficiency on HDL functional capacity and macrophage atherogenic functions, including inflammation, cholesterol efflux, and cholesterol accumulation. We used a congenic Usf1 deficient mice in C57Bl/6JRccHsd background and blood samples were collected to isolate HDL for structural and functional studies. Lentiviral preparations containing the USF1 silencing shRNA expression vector were used to silence USF1 in human THP-1 and Huh-7 cells. Cholesterol efflux from acetyl-LDL loaded THP-1 macrophages was measured using HDL and plasma as acceptors. Gene expression analysis from USF1 silenced peritoneal macrophages was carried out using Affymetrix
Looking for online definition of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 10 in the Medical Dictionary? ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 10 explanation free. What is ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 10? Meaning of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 10 medical term. What does ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 10 mean?
Helen Christians research interests are in the mechanisms of steroid hormone regulation of the pituitary gland, in particular the role of Annexin 1. The Annexins are a well-conserved super-family of structurally related Ca2+ - and phospholipids-binding proteins with wide-ranging functions in health and disease. Annexin 1 is a 37kD protein that is induced by glucocorticoids and mediates glucocorticoid action within the host defence and neuroendocrine systems. Glucocorticoids regulate the synthesis, phosphorylation and cellular disposition of annexin 1, and annexin 1 is implicated in the regulation by these important drugs of pituitary function, the control of cell growth and signal transduction. Most recently her group have characterized a novel secretory pathway of annexin 1, a protein which lacks a signal sequence, involving a member of the ATP binding cassette transporter family, ABCA1. This is the first time the secretion mechanism of an annexin family member has been determined and the ...
In this study, we present experimental data in both in vitro and in vivo paradigms supporting the concept that the Hp genotype can regulate the process of RCT specifically in DM. These data thereby provide a possible mechanism to account for Hp genotype-dependent differences in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease burden in DM.. RCT is thought to be influenced in large part by the quantity and quality of HDL.19-22 We have not observed Hp genotype dependent differences in HDL concentration either in the diabetic human cohort or in our transgenic mice. However, we have shown that the HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux elicited with serum from DM individuals with the different Hp types is markedly different.. The in vivo model of RCT initially described by Rader and colleagues18,33,34 has its limitations. This model is far removed from the process of RCT occurring within an atherosclerotic plaque in the vessel wall. Moreover, the efflux of label from IP-injected macrophage may not be mediated by the ...
ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) promotes cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells to HDL particles, which transport cholesterol to liver for processing for excretion. ABCG1, and not ABCA1, was found to be critical for the proliferation of T lymphocytes. Despite this, to date, very little is known about the role of ABCG1 in T cells during atherogenesis. In this study, we aim to understand how ABCG1 regulates T cell function and how absence of ABCG1 selectively in T cells impacts atherosclerosis. We found that, on a high cholesterol diet, mice with T cell-specific ABCG1 deficiency on the LDLR-/- background (LCK-Cre+/ABCG1fl/fl/LDLR-/-) developed 40% less atherosclerotic lesions than their littermate controls (LCK-Cre-/ABCG1fl/fl/LDLR-/-) (P,0.0001). Furthermore, we found that the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells was increased in the LCK-Cre+/ABCG1fl/fl/LDLR-/- mice compared to the littermate controls (P,0.01). Since Tregs are considered anti-atherogenic, we hypothesize ...
KAMISAKO, T. and OGAWA, H. (2005), Alteration of the expression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters associated with bile acid and cholesterol transport in the rat liver and intestine during cholestasis. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 20: 1429-1434. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2005.03950.x ...
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To test the hypothesis that genetic variation in ABCG5/8, the transporter responsible for intestinal and hepatobiliary cholesterol efflux, might simultaneously influence plasma and biliary cholesterol levels, and hence risk of myocardial infarction(M
Science Daily) The discovery that high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the "good cholesterol") is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease has fostered intensive research to modify HDL levels for therapeutic gain. However, recent findings have called into question the notion that pharmacologic increases in HDL cholesterol levels are necessarily beneficial to patients. Now, a new study from researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine shows that a different metric, a measure of HDL function called cholesterol efflux capacity, is more closely associated with protection against heart disease than HDL cholesterol levels themselves. ...
Haydens investigation of variation within the ABCA1 gene was prompted by the finding that Tangier disease, characterized by almost a complete absence of HDL-C, is caused by a defect in ABCA1. This led Haydens team to search for other variants of the cholesterol transporter gene that might modify the risk of heart disease.. The researchers identified 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) a specific type of variation within the coding region of the ABCA1 gene. Of these, 10 caused amino acid changes in the protein, which have the potential to alter the function of the transporter. In the R219K variant the amino acid arginine is replaced with lysine. The authors note that the SNPs tend to be concentrated away from the functional regions of the transporter protein. They suggest that this may be why most variations seem to exert such minor effects. Defective ABC transporters have been implicated in a number of diseases: ABCA1 in Tangier disease, ABCC7, which transports chloride ions, in cystic ...
The size of the second binding site equals the total amount of 125I-apoA-I bound to the cell (100 ng/mg cell protein) minus the amount of protein bound specifically to ABCA1 (3 ng/mg of cell protein). However, from the biotinylation (Figure 2) and apoA-I displacement (Figure 3) experiments, it is apparent that only around 35% of the ABCA1 is present on the surface of the cells. Hence, the actual amount of apoA-I associated with the second binding site on the surface is equal to about 30 ng of apoA-I/mg cell protein [(100 ng · 0.35)−3 ng)]. It follows that the amount of apoA-I associated with the second site is some 10-fold greater than that bound to ABCA1 indicating that the second site is a high capacity binding site (Figure 6), as has been postulated previously.4. Cross-linking of bound apoA-I followed by immunoprecipitation with anti-apoA-I has demonstrated that, apart from ABCA1, apoA-I does not bind to any other cellular protein (Figure 4B). In fact, ≈90% of the bound apoA-I is ...
Saeed O, Otsuka F, Polavarapu R, Karmali V, Weiss D, Davis T, Rostad B, Pachura K, Adams L, Elliott J, Taylor R, Narula J, Kolodgie F, Virmani R, Hong CC**, Finn AV**. Pharmacologic suppression of hepcidin increases macrophage cholesterol efflux and reduces foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2012; 32:299-307. **co-corresponding authors ...
Objectives: The objectives of this study are to 1) establish a cohort of participants with ABCA4-related retinopathies in anticipation of future clinical trials, 2) create a repository of plasma, DNA, and skin fibroblast samples from the accrued cohort of ABCA4-related retinopathy participants, 3) formulate clinical outcome measures for future studies, and 4) acquire and perform preliminary analyses of data that may advance our understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations in ABCA4-related retinopathies.. In addition, the skin fibroblast samples collected from participants may be used to generate iPS cells, which may be differentiated into RPE and/or neural retinal cells. These cells, if produced, will be used to analyze molecular mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis and to perform high throughput (HTP) drug screens to identify novel potential therapeutic compounds.. Study Population: Sixty-five (65) participants, age 12 or above, with ABCA4-related retinopathies, will be initially ...
... , Authors: Franck Viguié. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
This Vancouver Man Created a Non-Profit With the Mission of Getting Women to Model in His Van. Its astounding he hasnt yet been nominated for a BC Community Achievement Award." READ MORE ,, ...
This Vancouver Man Created a Non-Profit With the Mission of Getting Women to Model in His Van. Its astounding he hasnt yet been nominated for a BC Community Achievement Award." READ MORE ,, ...
Rochester, NY (July 23, 2016)After slipping into an uncharacteristic three-game losing streak, the Lizards looked to get back in the win column on the road against the Rochester Rattlers.Shortly after Greg
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LDL-IN-3 is an anti-atherosclerotic compound extracted from patent WO/2005/039596A1, example C25 and patent US 6133467, example 3 ...
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Elevated pancreatic β-cell cholesterol levels impair insulin secretion and reduce plasma insulin levels. This study establishes that low plasma insulin levels have a detrimental effect on two major insulin target tissues: adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Mice with increased β-cell cholesterol levels were generated by conditional deletion of the ATP binding cassette transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, in β-cells (β-DKO mice). Insulin secretion was impaired in these mice under basal and high glucose conditions and glucose disposal was shifted from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue. The β-DKO mice also had increased body fat and adipose tissue macrophage content, elevated plasma IL-6 and MCP-1 levels and decreased skeletal muscle mass. They were not, however, insulin resistant. The adipose tissue expansion and reduced skeletal muscle mass, but not the systemic inflammation, or increased adipose tissue macrophage content, was reversed when plasma insulin levels were normalized by insulin ...
SUR1 is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter with a novel function. In contrast to other ABC proteins, it serves as the regulatory subunit of an ion channel. The ATP-sensitive (KATP) channel is an octameric complex of four pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits and four regulatory SUR1 subunits, and it links cell metabolism to electrical activity in many cell types. ATPase activity at the nucleotide-binding domains of SUR results in an increase in KATP channel open probability. Conversely, ATP binding to Kir6.2 closes the channel. Metabolic regulation is achieved by the balance between these two opposing effects. Precisely how SUR1 talks to Kir6.2 remains unclear, but recent studies have identified some residues and domains that are involved in both physical and functional interactions between the two proteins. The importance of these interactions is exemplified by the fact that impaired regulation of Kir6.2 by SUR1 results in human disease, with loss-of-function SUR1 mutations causing congenital
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct spatio-temporal expression of ABCA and ABCG transporters in the developing and adult mouse brain. AU - Tachikawa, Masanori. AU - Watanabe, Masahiko. AU - Hori, Satoko. AU - Fukaya, Masahiro. AU - Ohtsuki, Sumio. AU - Asashima, Tomoko. AU - Terasaki, Tetsuya. PY - 2005/10/1. Y1 - 2005/10/1. N2 - Using in situ hybridization for the mouse brain, we analyzed developmental changes in gene expression for the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamilies ABCA1-4 and 7, and ABCG1, 2, 4, 5 and 8. In the embryonic brains, ABCA1 and A7 were highly expressed in the ventricular (or germinal) zone, whereas ABCA2, A3 and G4 were enriched in the mantle (or differentiating) zone. At the postnatal stages, ABCA1 was detected in both the gray and white matter and in the choroid plexus. On the other hand, ABCA2, A3 and A7 were distributed in the gray matter. In addition, marked up-regulation of ABCA2 occurred in the white matter at 14 days-of-age when various myelin protein genes are ...
Cholesterol will affect not only adults; you can observe high cholesterol levels in kids also.. The kids with excess cholesterol will face much health problems when they get older.. The excess cholesterol present in kids will lead to the development of plaque on the walls of the arteries, which will help to supply blood to heart and other organs.. Plaque which is obtained in kids with excess cholesterol makes the arteries narrow and creates severe heart problems by blocking the flow of blood to the heart. There are several causes for obtaining high cholesterol in kids.. ...
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD. . ...
The primary aim of the proposed work is to develop microelectrodes for determining if nasal membrane cholesterol is elevated in human cystic fibrosis. Studies w...
The integration of lipoprotein-related or apolipoprotein-targeted nanoparticles as pharmaceutical carriers opens new therapeutic and diagnostic avenues in nanom
A curved-surface cassette/gel system is disclosed in which the walls of a cassette and the major surfaces of a slab-shaped electrophoresis gel in the cassette coact to substantially exclude liquid or gas from between either wall and the major surfaces of the gel. Exclusion is accomplished by exerting a normal force at all points on the walls of the cassette and at all points on the major surfaces of the gel. A curvature may be present in at least one wall of the cassette and in at least one major surface of the cassette. A cassette headpiece may be divided by septa which form an edge seal with the slab gel. The spaces formed between the septa function as wells into which sample materials may be placed.
Rochester/Churchville, N.Y. (WHAM) - A man and woman from Churchville were arraigned Thursday afternoon after an unsealed indictment charged them with manslaughter in the death of a ten-year-old boy back in June.On June 12, Monroe County Sheriffs deputies
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SpecificityC TerminusStorage/StabilityAliquot and store at -20°C Minimize freezing and thawing More InformationImmunogenThe immunogen was a 11-residue peptide matching a sequence from the C Terminus of ABCA6 See Accession Number s NP_525023 2 Formulation 0 5 mg/ml in TBS 0 02% NaNH3 pH7 3
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hypothetical protein, ABCB1LB, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 1-like B, A306_07528, ABC16, ABC member 16, MDR/TAP subfamily, AS27_06659, AS28_00614, ATP-binding cassette protein B11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (MDR/TAP), member 11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11-like protein, ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 11, bile salt export pump, BRIC2, BSEP, BSEP/SPGP, CB1_000638007, D623_10034923, GW7_06212, H920_16172, I79_001236, Lith1, liver bile salt export pump, M91_01875, M959_07155, MDA_GLEAN10024246, Multidrug resistance protein 1, N301_03105, N302_06788, N303_07198, N305_06591, N306_04080, N307_07545, N308_11810, N309_07944, N312_11735, N321_13718, N327_01303, N328_07355, N329_09470, N331_01374, N332_02914, N333_01536, N334_13094, N336_04014, N340_01262, N341_10800, PAL_GLEAN10025937, PFIC2, PFIC-2, PGY4, progressive familial ...
Projects of International Cooperation and Exchanges, Ministry of Science and Technology of China(2013DFG32390) ; Projects of International Cooperation and Exchanges, Ministry of Science and Technology of China(2013DFG32390) ; Projects of International Cooperation and Exchanges, Ministry of Science and Technology of China(2013DFG32390) ; Projects of International Cooperation and Exchanges, Ministry of Science and Technology of China(2013DFG32390) ; Natural Science Foundation of China(31372168 ; Natural Science Foundation of China(31372168 ; Natural Science Foundation of China(31372168 ; Natural Science Foundation of China(31372168 ; 31301930) ; 31301930) ; 31301930) ; 31301930) ; Projects of International Cooperation and Exchanges, Ministry of Science and Technology of China(2013DFG32390) ; Projects of International Cooperation and Exchanges, Ministry of Science and Technology of China(2013DFG32390) ; Projects of International Cooperation and Exchanges, Ministry of Science and Technology of ...
Title: Genetic Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ABCB1 and ABCC2 and their Impact on Drug Disposition. VOLUME: 12 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Vincent Haufroid. Affiliation:Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Saint-Luc Hospital, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, Belgium.. Keywords:Pharmacogenomics, ABCB1, ABCC2, intracellular concentrations, genotype, polymorphism, mdr1, mrp2, drug disposition, haplotypes. Abstract: The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily comprises membrane proteins that translocate a variety of substrates across extra- and intra-cellular membranes, and act as efflux proteins. ABC transporters are characterised by the presence of genetic polymorphisms mainly represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which having an impact on their activity. Besides physiological substances, drugs are also substrates of some ABC transporters, mainly ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3 and ABCG2. Identifying the impact of these polymorphisms on the ...
The ATP-binding cassette transporters P-glycoprotein (ABCB1 MDR1) and multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) efflux irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38 genotype was a significant covariate for the clearance of both irinotecan Epigallocatechin gallate lactone and SN-38 Epigallocatechin gallate lactone. of the topoisomerase Epigallocatechin gallate I enzyme [2]. SN-38 undergoes glucuronic acid Rabbit polyclonal to TranscriptionfactorSp1. conjugation to form SN-38 glucuronide by uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase. A diagram of Epigallocatechin gallate irinotecan metabolic pathways has been recently published {Innocenti 2009.. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ... ABCF2 acts as a suppressor of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl channel (CLCN3). ATP-binding cassette transporter ... Dean M, Rzhetsky A, Allikmets R (July 2001). "The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily". Genome Research. ... "Entrez Gene: ABCF2 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family F (GCN20), member 2". Ando-Akatsuka Y, Shimizu T, Numata T, Okada Y (2012 ...
ATP-binding cassette transporter sub-family C member 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC11 gene. The gene is ... ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000121270 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". ... Dean M, Rzhetsky A, Allikmets R (Jul 2001). "The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily". Genome Research. 11 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ...
ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 12 also known as ATP-binding cassette transporter 12 is a protein that in humans is ... Dean M, Rzhetsky A, Allikmets R (2001). "The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily". Genome Res. 11 (7): ... ABCA12 belongs to a group of genes called the ATP-binding cassette family, which makes proteins that transport molecules across ... 2005). "No genetic association between ATP binding cassette proteins and Japanese sporadic Alzheimer's disease". Dement Geriatr ...
ATP-binding cassette transporter 12 층판상 어린선, type 3 604777 CYP4F22 Cytochrome P450, subfamily 4F, polypeptide 22 ... Emopamil binding protein Ichthyosis follicularis with alopecia and photophobia syndrome 308205 MBTPS2 Membrane-bound ... 이상혁 외 4인 (9.24). 》206p》. 》어린선 환자에서 발생한 혈관면역모세포 T세포림프종 1예》 (PDF) (학위논문).. 다음 날짜 값 확인 필요: ,date=, ,연도=와 ,날짜=가 일치하지 않음. (도움말) ... 아종에 관계없이 모든 어린선 환자들은 마르고 딱딱하며 얇은 비늘 모양의 피부를 띤다.[1] 어린선은 물고기를 의미하는 그리스어ichthys에서 유래된 명칭으로 전신에 물고기 비늘같은 인설(scale)을 보이는 질환을 총칭하는 ...
This gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and the encoded protein contains two ATP- ... "The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily". Genome Res. 11 (7): 1156-66. doi:10.1101/gr.184901. PMID ... "Two new genes from the human ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily, ABCC11 and ABCC12, tandemly duplicated on chromosome ... "Multiple splicing variants of two new human ATP-binding cassette transporters, ABCC11 and ABCC12". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ...
Putative ATP-binding cassette transporter sub-family C member 13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC13 gene. ... ABCC13 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 13". Dean M, Annilo T (2005). "Evolution of the ATP-binding ... ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCC13 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... This gene is a member of the superfamily of genes encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport ...
"ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 (ABCA7) binds apolipoprotein A-I and mediates cellular phospholipid but not cholesterol ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ... ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000064687 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated ERK signaling in macrophages". The ...
"Characterization and functional analysis of the nucleotide binding fold in human peroxisomal ATP binding cassette transporters ... "ATP binding/hydrolysis by and phosphorylation of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette proteins PMP70 (ABCD3) and ... ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCD3 has been shown to interact with PEX19. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000117528 - ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ... toxin transporter activity. • protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • phospholipid binding. • ATP binding. • ... "Expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCG1 (ABC8) in Tangier disease". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCG1 gene.[5][6][7] It is a homolog ...
ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 (member 1 of human transporter sub-family ABCA), also known as the cholesterol efflux ... Oram JF (2003). "ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and cholesterol trafficking". Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 13 (4): 373-81. doi: ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165029 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... chloroplast ATP synthase V-ATPase: vacuolar ATPase ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporter: MDR, CFTR, etc. In secondary active ... ATP-binding cassette transporter Countercurrent exchange Protein targeting Translocation "The importance of homeostasis". ... Hydrolysis of the bound phosphate group and release of hydrogen ion then restores the carrier to its original conformation. P- ... ATP hydrolysis is used to transport hydrogen ions against the electrochemical gradient (from low to high hydrogen ion ...
ATP-binding cassette transporter TAP1 has been shown to interact with: HLA-A, and Tapasin. ENSG00000168394, ENSG00000224212, ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP)". Paulsson KM, Kleijmeer MJ, Griffith J, Jevon M, Chen S, Anderson PO, Sjogren HO ... Transporter associated with Antigen Processing 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAP1 gene. ...
ATP-binding cassette transporter ENSG00000206299, ENSG00000228582, ENSG00000206235, ENSG00000225967, ENSG00000237599, ... ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP)". Townsend A, Trowsdale J (1993). "The transporters associated with antigen ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... Cano P, Baxter-Lowe LA (1995). "Novel human TAP2*103 allele shows further polymorphism in the ATP-binding domain". Tissue ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ... membrane-spanning domain that sets it apart from other transporters within the ATP-binding cassette family of transporters. The ... ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 (45): 30880-30888. doi:10.1074/jbc.R114.609248. ... ATP-binding cassette transporter ENSG00000103222 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000278183, ENSG00000103222 - Ensembl, May ...
ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172350 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... The protein encoded by this gene is included in the ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC protein) superfamily. ABC proteins ... 2002). "Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of the mouse ATP-binding cassette transporter Abcg4". Gene. 293 (1-2): 67-75 ... "The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily". Genome Res. 11 (7): 1156-66. doi:10.1101/gr.184901. PMID ...
The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... Matsumura Y, Ban N, Ueda K, Inagaki N (2006). "Characterization and classification of ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA3 ... ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167972 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: ABCA3 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 3". Chen, P; Dai, Y; Wu, X; Wang, Y; Sun, S; Xiao, J; ...
... is caused by mutations in the gene encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter 1. Nat Genet 1999; 22:352. Serfaty ... August 1999). "Tangier disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter 1". Nat. Genet. 22 ... Mutations to chromosome 9q31 lead to a defective ABCA1 transporter. These mutations prevent the ABCA1 protein from effectively ... People with Tangier disease have defective ABCA1 transporters resulting in a greatly reduced ability to transport cholesterol ...
"Membrane topology distinguishes a subfamily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters". FEBS Lett. 402 (1): 1-3. doi: ... In enzymology, a channel-conductance-controlling ATPase (EC 3.6.3.49) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP phosphohydrolase (channel-conductance-controlling). As of late 2007, two ... H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and H2O, whereas its ...
Cholesterol from non-hepatic peripheral tissues is transferred to HDL by the ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter). ... Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-1), the major protein component of HDL, acts as an acceptor, and the phospholipid component of HDL acts ... Heart J. 19 Suppl A: A31-5. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/19.Abstract_Supplement.1. PMID 9519340. http://biochemistry.med.uoc.gr/photos ...
The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115657 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2002). "Isolation of a genomic clone containing the promoter region of the human ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, ABCB6 ... 1997). "Identification of a new P-glycoprotein-like ATP-binding cassette transporter gene that is overexpressed during ...
"Selective and ATP-dependent translocation of peptides by the homodimeric ATP binding cassette transporter TAP-like (ABCB9)". J ... The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ... ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000150967 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCB9 gene. ...
Taken together, the data on Bmi-1's functions and binding partners of Bmi-1 could aid the development of better treatment ... Xist first triggers inactivation with Xist RNA binding in cis across the chromosome. Proteins then bind the Xist RNA, modifying ... The ARID domain of Jarid2 binds directly to DNA enriched in GC and GA dinucleotides, whereas the Tudor domain of Pcl proteins ... PRC1 PRC1 is involved in the maintenance of gene repression; it carries out this function by binding to a trimethylated lysine ...
Cells that express specific ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins can also actively transport these stains out of their ... it is supposed that the bromine deforms the minor groove so that Hoechst dyes cannot reach their optimal binding site. Binding ... For long-term storage the solutions are instead frozen at ≤-20 °C. The dyes bind to the minor groove of double-stranded DNA ... Hoechst dyes are cell-permeable and can bind to DNA in live or fixed cells. Thus, these stains are often called supravital, ...
... is an ATPase that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters superfamily and OABP subfamily. ABCE1 ... "The essential Drosophila ATP-binding cassette domain protein, pixie, binds the 40 S ribosome in an ATP-dependent manner and is ... RLI has two C-terminal ABC domains; upon binding ATP they form a characteristic "ATP-sandwich," with two ATP molecules ... ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1) also known as RNase L inhibitor (RLI) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ... Kajinami K, Brousseau ME, Nartsupha C, Ordovas JM, Schaefer EJ (Apr 2004). "ATP binding cassette transporter G5 and G8 ... ATP-binding cassette transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138075 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Mutations in the human ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 in sitosterolemia". Human Mutation. 20 (2): 151. doi: ...
The protein belongs to the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules ... Dean, Michael (2002-11-01). "The Human ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Superfamily". National Library of Medicine (US), ... ATP binds at the cytoplasmic side of the protein. Following binding of each, ATP hydrolysis shifts the substrate into a ... ADP is released, and a new molecule of ATP binds to the secondary ATP-binding site. Hydrolysis and release of ADP and a ...
ATP-binding cassette transporter. *ABCA1. *ABCG5. *ABCG8. This article on a gene on human chromosome 19 is a stub. You can help ... lipid transporter activity. Cellular component. • high-density lipoprotein particle. • extracellular region. • very-low-density ... 7 (1): 143-54. doi:10.1002/pmic.200600339. PMID 17154273.. *. Lowe JK, Maller JB, Pe'er I, et al. (2009). Gibson G, ed. "Genome ... doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(99)00459-1. PMID 10996355.. *. Klos KL, Sing CF, Boerwinkle E, et al. (2006). "Consistent effects of ...
ER-β function is related to various cardiovascular targets including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ... The gene product contains an N-terminal DNA binding domain and C-terminal ligand binding domain and is localized to the nucleus ... Schwabe JW, Chapman L, Finch JT, Rhodes D (1993). "The crystal structure of the estrogen receptor DNA-binding domain bound to ... Upon binding to 17-β-estradiol, estriol or related ligands, the encoded protein forms homo-dimers or hetero-dimers with ...

No data available that match "atp binding cassette transporter 1"


  • 이 문서는 20191월 21일 (월) 16:49에 마지막으로 편집되었습니다. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bioassays were conducted using mosquito populations that were either susceptible or resistant to temephos by exposure to insecticide alone or in combination with sublethal doses of the ABC transporter inhibitor, verapamil (30, 35 and 40 μM). (scielo.br)
  • Prepared from Sf9 cells which have been engineered to over-express specific ABC transporters, these "inside-out" vesicles provide high levels of transporter activity with low background, giving you a clear signal if your compound is a substrate or inhibitor of a specific efflux transporter. (thermofisher.com)
  • Besides, it is involved in the process of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) to regulate cholesterol homeostasis [ 1 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In addition, roles of various receptors, ATP powered pumps, channels, and transporters in transport of vital molecules in maintenance of homeostasis and normal body functions have been described in detail. (hindawi.com)
  • EGFR can be activated with ErbB receptors, either via autocrine or paracrine ligand binding. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Indeed, blockade of specific histamine receptors has been proven to prevent early acute EAE by reducing encephalitogenic T helper 1 response and altering antigen presentation. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Moreover, it provides a review of the available cellular models, in vitro and ex vivo assays for the screening and selection of safe and specific inducers and activators of these membrane transporters. (mdpi.com)
  • The aim of the proposal is threefold: First, we will address the question how properties of primary and secondary transporters are combined in ECF transporters to obtain a novel transport mechanism. (europa.eu)
  • 1 The Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, JM-USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts, Boston, MA, USA. (cdc.gov)
  • In chronic kidney disease (CKD), however, epidemiologic studies ( 1 - 3 ) and clinical trials ( 4 - 12 ) have raised uncertainties regarding the impact of dyslipidemia on clinical outcomes and, consequently, the optimal lipid profile. (asnjournals.org)
  • This cell surface transporter facilitates the efflux of phospholipids and cholesterol onto lipid-poor apolipoproteins, initiating the formation of HDL particles. (jci.org)
  • In the early 1950s, the higher level of HDL cholesterol in women and the association of low HDL with CVD was first described, with the Framingham Heart Study recognizing low HDL as the "major potent lipid risk factor" in 1977 ( 1 ), and with recognition that each 1-mg/dl decrease in HDL is associated with a 2-3% increase in CVD risk later proposed by this group. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast to naïve T cells, T helper (Th) cells including type 1 (Th1), type 2 (Th2) as well as type 17 (Th17) display a reprogrammed metabolic phenotype, which is characterized by increased rates of aerobic glycolysis, leading to fatty acid synthesis (FAS) and mevalonate metabolism (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Fig. 1 A). The ability to secrete a vast array of compounds into the rhizosphere is one of the most remarkable metabolic features of plant roots, with nearly 5% to 21% of all photosynthetically fixed carbon being transferred to the rhizosphere through root exudates ( Marschner, 1995 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Microbial metabolic functions related to energy harvest, including glycan degradation, phosphotransferase systems and ABC transporters, were enriched in the ob/ob mice. (springer.com)
  • They have been associated with many diseases in humans, including obesity [ 1 ], type 2 diabetes [ 2 , 3 ] and other metabolic diseases. (springer.com)
  • The major types of the plasma lipoproteins and their apolipoprotein components and physiologic functions are briefly presented in Table 1 . (asnjournals.org)
  • ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily members have a key role as nutrient importers and exporters in bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • The nickel-responsive repressor NikR regulates many nickel uptake systems, though the NikR-binding signal is divergent in various taxonomic groups of bacteria and archaea. (asm.org)
  • The lag between ligand binding and methylation constitutes the "memory" that allows changes in chemoeffector concentrations to be detected. (asm.org)
  • It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding. (uniprot.org)
  • Using in silico molecular docking, we calculated the binding energies and simulated the interactions of these compounds with the corresponding amino acid residues at the binding site of P-gp. (rsc.org)