ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters
Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins
Orphan Nuclear Receptors
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
Membrane Transport Proteins
Drug Resistance, Multiple
Gene Expression Regulation
Periplasmic Binding Proteins
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Scavenger Receptors, Class B
Organic Anion Transporters
Biological Transport, Active
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
Protein Structure, Secondary
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Glucose Transporter Type 1
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters
Amino Acid Substitution
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Amino Acid Motifs
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Anion Transport Proteins
Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2
Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3
Cation Transport Proteins
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG
Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator
Organic Cation Transporter 1
Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1
Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
The Tangier disease gene product ABC1 controls the cellular apolipoprotein-mediated lipid removal pathway. (1/872)The ABC1 transporter was identified as the defect in Tangier disease by a combined strategy of gene expression microarray analysis, genetic mapping, and biochemical studies. Patients with Tangier disease have a defect in cellular cholesterol removal, which results in near zero plasma levels of HDL and in massive tissue deposition of cholesteryl esters. Blocking the expression or activity of ABC1 reduces apolipoprotein-mediated lipid efflux from cultured cells, and increasing expression of ABC1 enhances it. ABC1 expression is induced by cholesterol loading and cAMP treatment and is reduced upon subsequent cholesterol removal by apolipoproteins. The protein is incorporated into the plasma membrane in proportion to its level of expression. Different mutations were detected in the ABC1 gene of 3 unrelated patients. Thus, ABC1 has the properties of a key protein in the cellular lipid removal pathway, as emphasized by the consequences of its defect in patients with Tangier disease. (+info)
Human ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABC1): genomic organization and identification of the genetic defect in the original Tangier disease kindred. (2/872)Tangier disease is characterized by low serum high density lipoproteins and a biochemical defect in the cellular efflux of lipids to high density lipoproteins. ABC1, a member of the ATP-binding cassette family, recently has been identified as the defective gene in Tangier disease. We report here the organization of the human ABC1 gene and the identification of a mutation in the ABC1 gene from the original Tangier disease kindred. The organization of the human ABC1 gene is similar to that of the mouse ABC1 gene and other related ABC genes. The ABC1 gene contains 49 exons that range in size from 33 to 249 bp and is over 70 kb in length. Sequence analysis of the ABC1 gene revealed that the proband for Tangier disease was homozygous for a deletion of nucleotides 3283 and 3284 (TC) in exon 22. The deletion results in a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon starting at nucleotide 3375. The product is predicted to encode a nonfunctional protein of 1,084 aa, which is approximately half the size of the full-length ABC1 protein. The loss of a Mnl1 restriction site, which results from the deletion, was used to establish the genotype of the rest of the kindred. In summary, we report on the genomic organization of the human ABC1 gene and identify a frameshift mutation in the ABC1 gene of the index case of Tangier disease. These results will be useful in the future characterization of the structure and function of the ABC1 gene and the analysis of additional ABC1 mutations in patients with Tangier disease. (+info)
An inventory of the human ABC proteins. (3/872)Currently 30 human ABC proteins are represented by full sequences in various databases, and this paper provides a brief overview of these proteins. ABC proteins are composed of transmembrane domains (TMDs), and nucleotide binding domains (NBDs, or ATP-binding cassettes, ABSs). The arrangement of these domains, together with available membrane topology models of the family members, are presented. Based on their sequence similarity scores, the members of the human ABC protein family can be grouped into eight subfamilies. At present the MDR/TAP, the ALD, the MRP/CFTR, the ABC1, the White, the RNAseL inhibitor, the ANSA, and the GCN20 subfamilies are identified. Mutations of many human ABC proteins are known to be causative in inherited diseases, and a short description of the molecular pathology of these ABC gene-related genetic diseases is also provided. (+info)
The ABCA subclass of mammalian transporters. (4/872)We describe here a subclass of mammalian ABC transporters, the ABCA subfamily. This is a unique group that, in contrast to any other human ABC transporters, lacks a structural counterpart in yeast. The structural hallmark of the ABCA subfamily is the presence of a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids thought to span the membrane within the putative regulatory (R) domain. As for today, four ABCA transporters have been fully characterised but 11 ABCA-encoding genes have been identified. ABCA-specific motifs in the nucleotide binding folds can be detected when analysing the conserved sequences among the different members. These motifs may reveal functional constraints exclusive to this group of ABC transporters. (+info)
High density lipoprotein deficiency and foam cell accumulation in mice with targeted disruption of ATP-binding cassette transporter-1. (5/872)Recently, the human ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABC1) gene has been demonstrated to be mutated in patients with Tangier disease. To investigate the role of the ABC1 protein in an experimental in vivo model, we used gene targeting in DBA-1J embryonic stem cells to produce an ABC1-deficient mouse. Expression of the murine Abc1 gene was ablated by using a nonisogenic targeting construct that deletes six exons coding for the first nucleotide-binding fold. Lipid profiles from Abc1 knockout (-/-) mice revealed an approximately 70% reduction in cholesterol, markedly reduced plasma phospholipids, and an almost complete lack of high density lipoproteins (HDL) when compared with wild-type littermates (+/+). Fractionation of lipoproteins by FPLC demonstrated dramatic alterations in HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), including the near absence of apolipoprotein AI. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B were also significantly reduced in +/- and -/- compared with their littermate controls. The inactivation of the Abc1 gene led to an increase in the absorption of cholesterol in mice fed a chow or a high-fat and -cholesterol diet. Histopathologic examination of Abc1-/- mice at ages 7, 12, and 18 mo demonstrated a striking accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages and type II pneumocytes in the lungs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Abc1-/- mice display pathophysiologic hallmarks similar to human Tangier disease and highlight the capacity of ABC1 transporters to participate in the regulation of dietary cholesterol absorption. (+info)
Molecular basis for K(ATP) assembly: transmembrane interactions mediate association of a K+ channel with an ABC transporter. (6/872)K(ATP) channels are large heteromultimeric complexes containing four subunits from the inwardly rectifying K+ channel family (Kir6.2) and four regulatory sulphonylurea receptor subunits from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family (SUR1 and SUR2A/B). The molecular basis for interactions between these two unrelated protein families is poorly understood. Using novel trafficking-based interaction assays, coimmunoprecipitation, and current measurements, we show that the first transmembrane segment (M1) and the N terminus of Kir6.2 are involved in K(ATP) assembly and gating. Additionally, the transmembrane domains, but not the nucleotide-binding domains, of SUR1 are required for interaction with Kir6.2. The identification of specific transmembrane interactions involved in K(ATP) assembly may provide a clue as to how ABC proteins that transport hydrophobic substrates evolved to regulate other membrane proteins. (+info)
ABC transporters in lipid transport. (7/872)Since it was found that the P-glycoproteins encoded by the MDR3 (MDR2) gene in humans and the Mdr2 gene in mice are primarily phosphatidylcholine translocators, there has been increasing interest in the possibility that other ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in lipid transport. The evidence reviewed here shows that the MDR1 P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance (-associated) transporter 1 (MRP1) are able to transport lipid analogues, but probably not major natural membrane lipids. Both transporters can transport a wide range of hydrophobic drugs and may see lipid analogues as just another drug. The MDR3 gene probably arose in evolution from a drug-transporting P-glycoprotein gene. Recent work has shown that the phosphatidylcholine translocator has retained significant drug transport activity and that this transport is inhibited by inhibitors of drug-transporting P-glycoproteins. Whether the phosphatidylcholine translocator also functions as a transporter of some drugs in vivo remains to be seen. Three other ABC transporters were recently shown to be involved in lipid transport: ABCR, also called Rim protein, was shown to be defective in Stargardt's macular dystrophy; this protein probably transports a complex of retinaldehyde and phosphatidylethanolamine in the retina of the eye. ABC1 was shown to be essential for the exit of cholesterol from cells and is probably a cholesterol transporter. A third example, the ABC transporter involved in the import of long-chain fatty acids into peroxisomes, is discussed in the chapter by Hettema and Tabak in this volume. (+info)
Sterol-dependent transactivation of the ABC1 promoter by the liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor. (8/872)Tangier disease, a condition characterized by low levels of high density lipoprotein and cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, is caused by mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABC1. In cultured macrophages, ABC1 mRNA was induced in an additive fashion by 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9CRA), suggesting induction by nuclear hormone receptors of the liver X receptor (LXR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) family. We cloned the 5'-end of the human ABC1 transcript from cholesterol-loaded THP1 macrophages. When transfected into RAW macrophages, the upstream promoter was induced 7-fold by 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, 8-fold by 9CRA, and 37-fold by 9CRA and 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol. Furthermore, promoter activity was increased in a sterol-responsive fashion when cotransfected with LXRalpha/RXR or LXRbeta/RXR. Further experiments identified a direct repeat spaced by four nucleotides (from -70 to -55 base pairs) as a binding site for LXRalpha/RXR or LXRbeta/RXR. Mutations in this element abolished the sterol-mediated activation of the promoter. The results show sterol-dependent transactivation of the ABC1 promoter by LXR/RXR and suggest that small molecule agonists of LXR could be useful drugs to reverse foam cell formation and atherogenesis. (+info)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1 (ABCA1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the transport of cholesterol and other lipids out of cells. It is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, which are a large group of proteins that use ATP to transport a wide variety of molecules across cell membranes. ABCA1 is expressed in many different tissues, including the liver, brain, and adipose tissue. In the liver, ABCA1 is involved in the production of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the body. ABCA1 also plays a role in the transport of other lipids, such as phospholipids and sphingolipids, out of cells. Mutations in the ABCA1 gene can lead to a number of inherited disorders that affect cholesterol metabolism, including Tangier disease and familial HDL deficiency. These disorders are characterized by low levels of HDL cholesterol and an increased risk of heart disease.
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large family of membrane proteins that use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport a wide variety of molecules across cell membranes. These transporters are found in all kingdoms of life, from bacteria to humans, and play important roles in many physiological processes, including drug metabolism, detoxification, and the transport of nutrients and waste products across cell membranes. In the medical field, ABC transporters are of particular interest because they can also transport drugs and other xenobiotics (foreign substances) across cell membranes, which can affect the efficacy and toxicity of these compounds. For example, some ABC transporters can pump drugs out of cells, making them less effective, while others can transport toxins into cells, increasing their toxicity. As a result, ABC transporters are an important factor to consider in the development of new drugs and the optimization of drug therapy. ABC transporters are also involved in a number of diseases, including cancer, cystic fibrosis, and certain neurological disorders. In these conditions, the activity of ABC transporters is often altered, leading to the accumulation of toxins or the loss of important molecules, which can contribute to the development and progression of the disease. As a result, ABC transporters are an important target for the development of new therapies for these conditions.
Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a protein that plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism and transport in the human body. It is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), often referred to as "good" cholesterol, which helps to remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for excretion. ApoA-I is synthesized in the liver and intestine and is also found in the blood plasma. It binds to lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, and forms complexes with them, which are then transported through the bloodstream. ApoA-I also has antioxidant properties and helps to protect cells from oxidative stress. In addition to its role in lipid metabolism, ApoA-I has been implicated in various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Low levels of ApoA-I have been associated with an increased risk of these conditions, while high levels have been linked to a reduced risk. Overall, ApoA-I is a critical protein in maintaining healthy lipid metabolism and preventing the development of various diseases.
Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins (MRPs) are a family of membrane transport proteins that are found in various tissues and cells throughout the body. These proteins are responsible for the transport of a wide range of molecules across cell membranes, including drugs, toxins, and other substances. In the medical field, MRPs are of particular interest because they play a role in multidrug resistance (MDR), which is a phenomenon in which cancer cells become resistant to multiple drugs. This resistance can occur through a variety of mechanisms, including the increased expression of MRPs, which can pump drugs out of the cell before they have a chance to exert their effects. MDR is a major challenge in the treatment of cancer, as it can render many drugs ineffective and make it difficult to develop new treatments. As a result, there is ongoing research aimed at understanding the mechanisms of MDR and developing strategies to overcome it. One approach is to develop drugs that can inhibit the activity of MRPs, thereby increasing the effectiveness of existing drugs.
Tangier disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to transport cholesterol and other lipids through the bloodstream. It is caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene, which is responsible for producing a protein called Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) that is involved in the transport of cholesterol and other lipids from the bloodstream into cells. In individuals with Tangier disease, the NPC1 protein is not functioning properly, leading to the accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids in the liver, spleen, and other organs. This can cause a range of symptoms, including an enlarged liver and spleen, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), and problems with the immune system. Tangier disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and genetic testing. There is currently no cure for Tangier disease, but treatment may involve managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include medications to lower cholesterol levels, regular monitoring of liver function, and in some cases, liver transplantation.
Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, such as nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules, across cell membranes and through the body's various transport systems. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, which is the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment. There are several mechanisms of biological transport, including passive transport, active transport, facilitated diffusion, and endocytosis. Passive transport occurs when molecules move down a concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Active transport, on the other hand, requires energy to move molecules against a concentration gradient. Facilitated diffusion involves the use of transport proteins to move molecules across the cell membrane. Endocytosis is a process by which cells take in molecules from the extracellular environment by engulfing them in vesicles. In the medical field, understanding the mechanisms of biological transport is important for understanding how drugs and other therapeutic agents are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the body. This knowledge can be used to design drugs that are more effective and have fewer side effects. It is also important for understanding how diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, affect the body's transport systems and how this can be targeted for treatment.
Orphan nuclear receptors (ONRs) are a class of nuclear receptors that do not have any known endogenous ligands, meaning that they do not bind to any specific hormones or signaling molecules in the body. These receptors were initially referred to as "orphans" because they were discovered before their functions were understood. ONRs are transcription factors that regulate gene expression in response to various stimuli, including hormones, growth factors, and environmental cues. They play important roles in a wide range of physiological processes, including metabolism, inflammation, and cell differentiation. Despite the fact that many ONRs have not yet been fully characterized, research has shown that they may have therapeutic potential for a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. As such, they are an active area of research in the medical field.
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is produced by the liver and is also found in some foods. It is an essential component of cell membranes and is necessary for the production of hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of developing heart disease and stroke. There are two main types of cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because it can build up in the walls of arteries and lead to plaque formation, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule that serves as the primary energy currency in living cells. It is composed of three phosphate groups attached to a ribose sugar and an adenine base. In the medical field, ATP is essential for many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and the synthesis of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. ATP is produced through cellular respiration, which involves the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to release energy that is stored in the bonds of ATP. Disruptions in ATP production or utilization can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological disorders. In addition, ATP is often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as levels of ATP can be measured in various bodily fluids and tissues to assess cellular health and function.
P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane protein that is primarily found in the cells of the liver, kidneys, and intestines. It is also expressed in the blood-brain barrier and other tissues. P-gp is responsible for the transport of a wide range of molecules across cell membranes, including many drugs and toxins. One of the main functions of P-gp is to act as a barrier to protect cells from potentially harmful substances. It does this by actively pumping certain molecules out of cells, effectively removing them from the body. This can be beneficial in preventing the accumulation of toxins and drugs in the body, but it can also make it more difficult for certain drugs to enter cells and be effective. P-gp is also involved in the metabolism of certain drugs, which can affect their effectiveness and toxicity. For example, P-gp can pump certain drugs out of cells before they have a chance to be fully metabolized, which can reduce their effectiveness. On the other hand, P-gp can also pump out metabolites of certain drugs, which can increase their toxicity. In the medical field, P-gp is an important factor to consider when developing new drugs. Drugs that are substrates of P-gp may have reduced effectiveness or increased toxicity if they are administered to patients who are also taking other drugs that are substrates of P-gp. Therefore, it is important to understand how P-gp affects the metabolism and transport of drugs in order to optimize their use in patients.
Hydrocarbons, fluorinated are a group of compounds that consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms, with one or more fluorine atoms replacing some of the hydrogen atoms. These compounds are often used in medical applications due to their unique properties, such as their low toxicity, high stability, and ability to penetrate cell membranes. One example of a fluorinated hydrocarbon used in medicine is perfluorocarbon (PFC), which is used as a contrast agent in ultrasound imaging. PFCs are non-toxic, non-irritating, and have a low solubility in blood, which makes them ideal for use in imaging the cardiovascular system. They are also used in other medical applications, such as in the treatment of certain types of cancer and as a carrier for drugs. Another example of a fluorinated hydrocarbon used in medicine is perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), which are a group of chemicals that are used in a variety of industrial and consumer products, including non-stick cookware, stain-resistant fabrics, and firefighting foam. PFASs have been linked to a range of health problems, including cancer, liver disease, and thyroid disorders, and are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.
Lipoproteins, High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) are a type of lipoprotein that transport cholesterol in the bloodstream. HDL is often referred to as "good cholesterol" because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and carries it back to the liver, where it can be broken down and eliminated from the body. This process helps prevent the buildup of cholesterol in the arteries, which can lead to the development of heart disease. HDL is made up of a core of cholesterol, triglycerides, and other lipids, surrounded by a shell of proteins. The proteins in HDL are called apolipoproteins, and they play a crucial role in regulating cholesterol levels in the body. HDL is produced in the liver and small intestine, and it is also found in the blood plasma. In addition to its role in cholesterol metabolism, HDL has been shown to have other important functions in the body, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. HDL levels are an important factor in cardiovascular health, and low levels of HDL are a risk factor for heart disease.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
Lipoproteins are complex particles that consist of a lipid core surrounded by a protein shell. They are responsible for transporting lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, throughout the bloodstream. There are several types of lipoproteins, including low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL). LDL, often referred to as "bad cholesterol," carries cholesterol from the liver to the rest of the body. When there is too much LDL in the bloodstream, it can build up in the walls of arteries, leading to the formation of plaques that can cause heart disease and stroke. HDL, often referred to as "good cholesterol," helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing and elimination. High levels of HDL are generally considered protective against heart disease. VLDL and IDL are intermediate lipoproteins that are produced by the liver and transport triglycerides to other parts of the body. VLDL is converted to IDL, which is then converted to LDL. Lipoprotein levels can be measured through blood tests, and their levels are often used as a diagnostic tool for assessing cardiovascular risk.
Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). These enzymes play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, muscle contraction, and ion transport. In the medical field, ATPases are often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions. For example, mutations in certain ATPase genes have been linked to inherited disorders such as myopathy and neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, ATPases are often targeted by drugs used to treat conditions such as heart failure, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Overall, ATPases are essential enzymes that play a critical role in many cellular processes, and their dysfunction can have significant implications for human health.
In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.
Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear are proteins that are found within the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. These receptors are responsible for binding to specific molecules, such as hormones or neurotransmitters, and triggering a response within the cell. This response can include changes in gene expression, enzyme activity, or other cellular processes. In the medical field, understanding the function and regulation of these receptors is important for understanding how cells respond to various stimuli and for developing treatments for a wide range of diseases.
The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds and encloses the cell. It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules arranged tail-to-tail. The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids face inward, while the hydrophilic heads face outward, forming a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment. The cell membrane also contains various proteins, including channels, receptors, and transporters, which allow the cell to communicate with its environment and regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cell. In addition, the cell membrane is studded with cholesterol molecules, which help to maintain the fluidity and stability of the membrane. The cell membrane plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and function of the cell, and it is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and cell division.
In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.
Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.
Membrane transport proteins are proteins that span the cell membrane and facilitate the movement of molecules across the membrane. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of ions and molecules inside and outside of cells, and are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including nutrient uptake, waste removal, and signal transduction. There are several types of membrane transport proteins, including channels, carriers, and pumps. Channels are pore-forming proteins that allow specific ions or molecules to pass through the membrane down their concentration gradient. Carriers are proteins that bind to specific molecules and change shape to transport them across the membrane against their concentration gradient. Pumps are proteins that use energy to actively transport molecules across the membrane against their concentration gradient. Membrane transport proteins are essential for the proper functioning of cells and are involved in many diseases, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and certain types of cancer. Understanding the structure and function of these proteins is important for developing new treatments for these diseases.
Fungal proteins are proteins that are produced by fungi. They can be found in various forms, including extracellular proteins, secreted proteins, and intracellular proteins. Fungal proteins have a wide range of functions, including roles in metabolism, cell wall synthesis, and virulence. In the medical field, fungal proteins are of interest because some of them have potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of fungal infections or as vaccines against fungal diseases. Additionally, some fungal proteins have been shown to have anti-cancer properties, making them potential targets for the development of new cancer treatments.
P-Glycoproteins (P-gp) are a family of membrane transport proteins that play a crucial role in the efflux of various molecules, including drugs, out of cells. They are primarily found in the plasma membrane of cells, particularly in the liver, kidneys, and intestines, and are responsible for the elimination of a wide range of xenobiotics, including many drugs, from the body. P-gp functions as an ATP-dependent transporter, using energy from ATP hydrolysis to move molecules against their concentration gradient. They are particularly important in the liver and intestines, where they help to prevent the absorption of potentially harmful substances from the gut and to eliminate drugs and other xenobiotics from the body. P-gp is also involved in the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype, which is a mechanism by which cancer cells can become resistant to chemotherapy drugs. In this context, P-gp actively pumps the drugs out of the cancer cells, reducing their effectiveness. Overall, P-glycoproteins play a critical role in maintaining the body's homeostasis by regulating the elimination of potentially harmful substances and preventing the accumulation of drugs and other xenobiotics.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
DNA-binding proteins are a class of proteins that interact with DNA molecules to regulate gene expression. These proteins recognize specific DNA sequences and bind to them, thereby affecting the transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) and ultimately the production of proteins. DNA-binding proteins play a crucial role in many biological processes, including cell division, differentiation, and development. They can act as activators or repressors of gene expression, depending on the specific DNA sequence they bind to and the cellular context in which they are expressed. Examples of DNA-binding proteins include transcription factors, histones, and non-histone chromosomal proteins. Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of genes by recruiting RNA polymerase and other factors to the promoter region of a gene. Histones are proteins that package DNA into chromatin, and non-histone chromosomal proteins help to organize and regulate chromatin structure. DNA-binding proteins are important targets for drug discovery and development, as they play a central role in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
In the medical field, binding sites refer to specific locations on the surface of a protein molecule where a ligand (a molecule that binds to the protein) can attach. These binding sites are often formed by a specific arrangement of amino acids within the protein, and they are critical for the protein's function. Binding sites can be found on a wide range of proteins, including enzymes, receptors, and transporters. When a ligand binds to a protein's binding site, it can cause a conformational change in the protein, which can alter its activity or function. For example, a hormone may bind to a receptor protein, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to a specific cellular response. Understanding the structure and function of binding sites is important in many areas of medicine, including drug discovery and development, as well as the study of diseases caused by mutations in proteins that affect their binding sites. By targeting specific binding sites on proteins, researchers can develop drugs that modulate protein activity and potentially treat a wide range of diseases.
Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) are a class of proteins found in the periplasmic space of bacteria. They are responsible for the transport of various molecules across the bacterial cell membrane, including sugars, amino acids, and metal ions. PBPs are typically composed of two domains: an N-terminal ligand-binding domain and a C-terminal membrane-anchoring domain. The ligand-binding domain binds to specific molecules, while the membrane-anchoring domain anchors the protein to the bacterial cell membrane. PBPs play a crucial role in bacterial metabolism and are often targets for antibiotics.
Lipids are a diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether or chloroform. They are an essential component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in energy storage, insulation, and signaling in the body. In the medical field, lipids are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. The main types of lipids that are measured include: 1. Total cholesterol: This includes both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. 2. Triglycerides: These are a type of fat that is stored in the body and can be converted into energy when needed. 3. Phospholipids: These are a type of lipid that is a major component of cell membranes and helps to regulate the flow of substances in and out of cells. 4. Steroids: These are a type of lipid that includes hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, as well as cholesterol. Abnormal levels of lipids in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Therefore, monitoring and managing lipid levels is an important part of maintaining overall health and preventing these conditions.
Sitosterols are a type of phytosterol, which are naturally occurring compounds found in plants. They are structurally similar to cholesterol and can be found in a variety of plant-based foods, including nuts, seeds, whole grains, and vegetables. In the medical field, sitosterols are often studied for their potential health benefits. Some research suggests that sitosterols may help to lower cholesterol levels in the blood, which can reduce the risk of heart disease. They may also have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, it is important to note that while sitosterols may have potential health benefits, they are not a substitute for medical treatment. If you have high cholesterol or other health concerns, it is important to talk to your doctor about the best course of treatment for you.
Scavenger receptors, class B (SR-B) are a family of membrane receptors that are expressed on various cell types, including macrophages, hepatocytes, and adipocytes. These receptors play a crucial role in the metabolism and clearance of lipids, including cholesterol and phospholipids, from the bloodstream. SR-B receptors are characterized by their ability to bind and internalize lipoproteins, such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which are rich in cholesterol. Once internalized, the lipids are transported to various cellular compartments for processing and recycling. In addition to their role in lipid metabolism, SR-B receptors have also been implicated in the regulation of inflammation, insulin sensitivity, and cancer progression. Dysregulation of SR-B receptor function has been linked to various diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and obesity. Overall, SR-B receptors are an important component of the cellular machinery that regulates lipid metabolism and homeostasis, and their dysfunction can have significant implications for human health.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a type of bacteria that is commonly found in the human gut. E. coli proteins are proteins that are produced by E. coli bacteria. These proteins can have a variety of functions, including helping the bacteria to survive and thrive in the gut, as well as potentially causing illness in humans. In the medical field, E. coli proteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new treatments for bacterial infections. For example, some E. coli proteins are involved in the bacteria's ability to produce toxins that can cause illness in humans, and researchers are working to develop drugs that can block the activity of these proteins in order to prevent or treat E. coli infections. E. coli proteins are also used in research to study the biology of the bacteria and to understand how it interacts with the human body. For example, researchers may use E. coli proteins as markers to track the growth and spread of the bacteria in the gut, or they may use them to study the mechanisms by which the bacteria causes illness. Overall, E. coli proteins are an important area of study in the medical field, as they can provide valuable insights into the biology of this important bacterium and may have potential applications in the treatment of bacterial infections.
In the medical field, "Antipain" is a brand name for a medication that contains the active ingredient acetaminophen (also known as paracetamol). Acetaminophen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It works by blocking the production of prostaglandins, which are chemicals that cause inflammation, pain, and fever. Antipain is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid, and is typically prescribed for the relief of mild to moderate pain, such as headaches, toothaches, and menstrual cramps. It is also commonly used to reduce fever. However, it is important to note that acetaminophen can cause liver damage if taken in high doses or for extended periods of time, so it is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns.
Organic anion transporters (OATs) are a group of membrane proteins that play a crucial role in the transport of organic anions across cell membranes. These transporters are found in various tissues and organs throughout the body, including the liver, kidney, and brain. OATs are responsible for the uptake and elimination of a wide range of organic anions, including drugs, toxins, and endogenous compounds such as bile acids and neurotransmitters. They are also involved in the regulation of electrolyte balance and the maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. There are several subtypes of OATs, including OAT1, OAT2, OAT3, and OAT4. Each subtype has a distinct tissue distribution and substrate specificity, and they can interact with a variety of drugs and other compounds. In the medical field, OATs are of particular interest because they play a critical role in the disposition of many drugs. Understanding the function and regulation of OATs can help to predict drug-drug interactions, optimize drug dosing, and develop new drugs with improved pharmacokinetic properties. Additionally, OATs have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases, including liver and kidney disease, and may be potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
Biological transport, active refers to the movement of molecules across cell membranes against a concentration gradient, which means from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. This type of transport requires energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and is facilitated by specific proteins called transporters or pumps. Active transport is essential for maintaining the proper balance of ions and molecules within cells and between cells and their environment. Examples of active transport include the sodium-potassium pump, which maintains the electrochemical gradient necessary for nerve impulse transmission, and the glucose transporter, which moves glucose into cells for energy production.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins are proteins that are produced by the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This yeast is commonly used in the production of bread, beer, and wine, as well as in scientific research. In the medical field, S. cerevisiae proteins have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Some S. cerevisiae proteins have also been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, making them of interest for the development of new therapies.
Mitoxantrone is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia. It works by interfering with the growth and division of cancer cells, which can slow down or stop the growth of tumors. Mitoxantrone is usually given intravenously (through a vein) or by injection into a muscle. It can cause side effects such as hair loss, nausea, vomiting, and a low white blood cell count.
Glyburide is a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. It belongs to a class of drugs called sulfonylureas, which work by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin. Glyburide is typically used in combination with diet and exercise to help lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It can also be used alone in people who are not able to control their blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone. Glyburide can cause side effects such as low blood sugar, nausea, and headache. It is important to take glyburide exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to monitor blood sugar levels regularly while taking this medication.
Phytosterols are a type of plant-based compound that are structurally similar to cholesterol. They are commonly found in a variety of plant-based foods, including nuts, seeds, fruits, and vegetables. Phytosterols have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including reducing cholesterol levels in the blood and reducing the risk of heart disease. They may also have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. In the medical field, phytosterols are sometimes used as a dietary supplement to help manage cholesterol levels.
Cloning, molecular, in the medical field refers to the process of creating identical copies of a specific DNA sequence or gene. This is achieved through a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which amplifies a specific DNA sequence to produce multiple copies of it. Molecular cloning is commonly used in medical research to study the function of specific genes, to create genetically modified organisms for therapeutic purposes, and to develop new drugs and treatments. It is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their DNA. In the context of human cloning, molecular cloning is used to create identical copies of a specific gene or DNA sequence from one individual and insert it into the genome of another individual. This technique has been used to create transgenic animals, but human cloning is currently illegal in many countries due to ethical concerns.
In the medical field, nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids, which are the genetic material of cells. Nucleotides are composed of three components: a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. There are four nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). There are also four nitrogenous bases in RNA: adenine (A), uracil (U), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). The sequence of these nitrogenous bases determines the genetic information encoded in DNA and RNA.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a molecule that plays a crucial role in various metabolic processes in the body, particularly in the regulation of energy metabolism. It is a nucleotide that is composed of adenine, ribose, and two phosphate groups. In the medical field, ADP is often used as a diagnostic tool to assess the function of platelets, which are blood cells that play a critical role in blood clotting. ADP is a potent activator of platelets, and a decrease in platelet aggregation in response to ADP is often an indication of a bleeding disorder. ADP is also used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including heart disease, stroke, and migraines. For example, drugs that inhibit ADP receptors on platelets, such as clopidogrel and ticagrelor, are commonly used to prevent blood clots in patients with heart disease or stroke. Overall, ADP is a critical molecule in the regulation of energy metabolism and the function of platelets, and its role in the medical field is significant.
Blotting, Western is a laboratory technique used to detect specific proteins in a sample by transferring proteins from a gel to a membrane and then incubating the membrane with a specific antibody that binds to the protein of interest. The antibody is then detected using an enzyme or fluorescent label, which produces a visible signal that can be quantified. This technique is commonly used in molecular biology and biochemistry to study protein expression, localization, and function. It is also used in medical research to diagnose diseases and monitor treatment responses.
CD36 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of many different types of cells in the body, including macrophages, monocytes, and endothelial cells. It is a member of the class B scavenger receptor family and is involved in the uptake and metabolism of a variety of molecules, including fatty acids, heme, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In the context of the immune system, CD36 is an antigen-presenting molecule that plays a role in the presentation of antigens to T cells. It is also involved in the regulation of immune responses, particularly those involving T cells and monocytes. CD36 has been implicated in a number of different diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders.
Monosaccharide transport proteins (MSTPs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for the transport of monosaccharides (simple sugars) across cell membranes. These proteins are found in various tissues and cells throughout the body, and they play a critical role in regulating the uptake and utilization of monosaccharides for energy production and other metabolic processes. There are several different types of MSTPs, including glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs), and facilitated diffusion transporters. Each type of MSTP has a specific affinity for different monosaccharides, and they are regulated by various factors, including hormones, nutrients, and cellular energy status. Disruptions in the function of MSTPs can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes, obesity, and certain types of cancer. For example, mutations in the GLUT2 gene can cause a rare genetic disorder called maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), which is characterized by an early-onset form of diabetes that is caused by a defect in the body's ability to produce insulin. Similarly, overexpression of SGLT2, a type of MSTP that is found in the kidneys, has been linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the adrenal glands and the white matter of the brain. It is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme called ALDase, which is responsible for breaking down a fatty acid called very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). When VLCFAs build up in the body, they can damage the adrenal glands and the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers in the brain. There are several different forms of ALD, including: 1. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN): This form of ALD affects the adrenal glands, nerves, and spinal cord. It is the most common form of ALD and usually appears in adulthood. 2. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD): This form of ALD affects only males and is caused by a deficiency in the ALDase enzyme. It can cause damage to the adrenal glands and the white matter of the brain. 3. Adrenoleukodystrophy with cerebral demyelination (ALD-CD): This form of ALD affects the adrenal glands and the white matter of the brain. It is the most severe form of ALD and usually appears in childhood. There is currently no cure for ALD, but treatments are available to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include hormone replacement therapy, dietary changes, and medications to manage symptoms such as seizures and mood disorders.
Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.
Neoplasm proteins are proteins that are produced by cancer cells. These proteins are often abnormal and can contribute to the growth and spread of cancer. They can be detected in the blood or other body fluids, and their presence can be used as a diagnostic tool for cancer. Some neoplasm proteins are also being studied as potential targets for cancer treatment.
DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.
Sterols are a type of lipid molecule that are important in the human body. They are primarily found in cell membranes and are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell signaling, membrane structure, and cholesterol metabolism. In the medical field, sterols are often studied in relation to their role in cardiovascular health. For example, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is rich in sterols, can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries and can lead to heart attack or stroke. On the other hand, high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is rich in sterols, are generally considered to be protective against cardiovascular disease. Sterols are also important in the production of sex hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, and in the regulation of the immune system. Some medications, such as statins, are used to lower cholesterol levels in the blood by inhibiting the production of sterols in the liver.
Maltose is a disaccharide sugar composed of two molecules of glucose joined together by a glycosidic bond. It is commonly found in grains, especially barley, and is often used as a sweetener in food and beverages. In the medical field, maltose is used as a source of energy for the body and is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to test for certain medical conditions, such as lactose intolerance. It is also used in the production of certain medications and as a food additive.
Phospholipids are a type of lipid molecule that are essential components of cell membranes in living organisms. They are composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and two hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails, which together form a bilayer structure that separates the interior of the cell from the external environment. Phospholipids are important for maintaining the integrity and fluidity of cell membranes, and they also play a role in cell signaling and the transport of molecules across the membrane. They are found in all types of cells, including animal, plant, and bacterial cells, and are also present in many types of lipoproteins, which are particles that transport lipids in the bloodstream. In the medical field, phospholipids are used in a variety of applications, including as components of artificial cell membranes for research purposes, as components of liposomes (small vesicles that can deliver drugs to specific cells), and as ingredients in dietary supplements and other health products. They are also the subject of ongoing research in the fields of nutrition, metabolism, and disease prevention.
Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, voles, and lemmings. These animals are typically small to medium-sized and have a broad, flat head and a short, thick body. They are found in a variety of habitats around the world, including grasslands, forests, and deserts. In the medical field, Cricetinae are often used as laboratory animals for research purposes, as they are easy to care for and breed, and have a relatively short lifespan. They are also used in studies of genetics, physiology, and behavior.
Recombinant fusion proteins are proteins that are produced by combining two or more genes in a single molecule. These proteins are typically created using genetic engineering techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, to insert one or more genes into a host organism, such as bacteria or yeast, which then produces the fusion protein. Fusion proteins are often used in medical research and drug development because they can have unique properties that are not present in the individual proteins that make up the fusion. For example, a fusion protein might be designed to have increased stability, improved solubility, or enhanced targeting to specific cells or tissues. Recombinant fusion proteins have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as therapeutic agents, diagnostic tools, and research reagents. Some examples of recombinant fusion proteins used in medicine include antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines.
Taurocholic acid is a bile acid that is produced in the liver and secreted into the small intestine. It is a conjugated bile acid, meaning that it is attached to a molecule of taurine, which helps to solubilize fats and cholesterol in the digestive tract. Taurocholic acid plays an important role in the metabolism and elimination of fats and cholesterol from the body. It is also involved in the regulation of bile flow and the synthesis of other bile acids. In the medical field, taurocholic acid is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate liver function and to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for liver diseases.
Cholesterol, HDL (high-density lipoprotein) is a type of cholesterol that is considered "good" cholesterol. It is transported in the bloodstream and helps remove excess cholesterol from the body's tissues, including the arteries. HDL cholesterol is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps prevent the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can lead to heart disease and stroke. High levels of HDL cholesterol are generally considered to be beneficial for overall cardiovascular health.
Atherosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to the buildup of plaque. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances that accumulate on the inner walls of the arteries over time. As the plaque builds up, it can restrict blood flow to the organs and tissues that the arteries supply, leading to a range of health problems. Atherosclerosis is a common condition that can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly associated with the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart. When atherosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD), which is a major cause of heart attacks and strokes. Atherosclerosis can also affect the arteries that supply blood to the brain, legs, kidneys, and other organs, leading to a range of health problems such as peripheral artery disease, stroke, and kidney disease. Risk factors for atherosclerosis include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of the condition.
Glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the transport of glucose across the blood-brain barrier and into cells throughout the body. It is encoded by the SLC2A1 gene and is found in many tissues, including the brain, heart, liver, and kidneys. GLUT1 is responsible for the facilitated diffusion of glucose into cells, which is an essential process for energy production. It is also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as amino acids and fatty acids. Mutations in the SLC2A1 gene can lead to a rare genetic disorder called GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, which is characterized by seizures, developmental delays, and neurological problems. Treatment for this disorder typically involves increasing the intake of dietary carbohydrates to compensate for the reduced glucose transport.
Symporters are a type of membrane transport protein that move molecules across a cell membrane in the same direction, using the energy of a chemical gradient. In other words, symporters use the downhill flow of one molecule to drive the uphill transport of another molecule. Symporters are important for the transport of a variety of molecules across cell membranes, including ions, sugars, amino acids, and neurotransmitters. They play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of these molecules inside and outside of cells, and are involved in many physiological processes, such as nutrient uptake, nerve impulse transmission, and hormone secretion. In the medical field, symporters are often targeted for therapeutic purposes. For example, some drugs are designed to bind to symporters and block their function, which can be useful for treating conditions such as epilepsy, depression, and cancer. Other drugs are designed to activate symporters, which can be useful for delivering drugs across cell membranes and increasing their bioavailability.
Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins (SERTs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for regulating the levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain and other tissues. These proteins are located on the surface of nerve cells (neurons) and are involved in the process of reuptake, which is the process by which neurotransmitters are taken back up into the neuron that released them. SERTs play a critical role in regulating mood, appetite, and other physiological processes, and imbalances in SERT activity have been linked to a number of mental health conditions, including depression and anxiety disorders.
Monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCTs) are a family of membrane proteins that are responsible for the transport of monocarboxylic acids across cell membranes. These transporters play a crucial role in the metabolism of various compounds, including lactate, ketone bodies, and fatty acids. In the medical field, MCTs are of particular interest because they are involved in the transport of lactate, which is an important metabolic substrate in many tissues, including the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. MCTs are also involved in the transport of ketone bodies, which are produced in the liver during periods of fasting or starvation and can be used as an alternative energy source by other tissues. MCTs are expressed in a variety of tissues, including the liver, kidney, and small intestine, and are involved in a number of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, energy metabolism, and acid-base balance. In some cases, MCTs can also be involved in the transport of drugs and other xenobiotics, which can have important implications for drug metabolism and toxicity. Disruptions in MCT function can lead to a number of medical conditions, including lactate acidosis, which is a condition characterized by high levels of lactate in the blood, and ketosis, which is a metabolic state characterized by high levels of ketone bodies in the blood. MCTs are also being studied as potential targets for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.
Amino acid substitution is a genetic mutation that occurs when one amino acid is replaced by another in a protein. This can happen due to a change in the DNA sequence that codes for the protein. Amino acid substitutions can have a variety of effects on the function of the protein, depending on the specific amino acid that is replaced and the location of the substitution within the protein. In some cases, amino acid substitutions can lead to the production of a non-functional protein, which can result in a genetic disorder. In other cases, amino acid substitutions may have little or no effect on the function of the protein.
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins (DATs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for regulating the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, in the brain. These proteins are located on the surface of neurons and are involved in the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the neuron. This process is important for maintaining the proper balance of dopamine in the brain and for regulating mood, motivation, and reward. Dysfunction of DATs has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.
In the medical field, amino acid motifs refer to specific sequences of amino acids that are commonly found in proteins. These motifs can play important roles in protein function, such as binding to other molecules, catalyzing chemical reactions, or stabilizing the protein structure. Amino acid motifs can also be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers for certain diseases, as changes in the amino acid sequence of a protein can be associated with the development or progression of a particular condition. Additionally, amino acid motifs can be targeted by drugs or other therapeutic agents to modulate protein function and treat disease.
A cell line, tumor is a type of cell culture that is derived from a cancerous tumor. These cell lines are grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the biology of cancer and testing potential new treatments. They are typically immortalized, meaning that they can continue to divide and grow indefinitely, and they often exhibit the characteristics of the original tumor from which they were derived, such as specific genetic mutations or protein expression patterns. Cell lines, tumor are an important tool in cancer research and have been used to develop many of the treatments that are currently available for cancer patients.
Benzethonium is a quaternary ammonium compound that is commonly used as an antiseptic and disinfectant in various medical and non-medical applications. It is a white or off-white crystalline powder that is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. In the medical field, benzethonium is used as a topical antiseptic to treat skin infections, wounds, and burns. It is also used as a preservative in some ophthalmic solutions, such as eye drops, to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. Benzethonium is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. However, it can also be toxic to humans if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. Therefore, it is important to use benzethonium products according to the instructions provided and to avoid contact with the eyes, mouth, and nose.
Anion transport proteins are membrane proteins that facilitate the movement of negatively charged ions across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of ions in the body, which is essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the regulation of fluid balance. There are several types of anion transport proteins, including chloride channels, bicarbonate transporters, and anion exchangers. Chloride channels allow chloride ions to move down their electrochemical gradient, while bicarbonate transporters facilitate the movement of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes. Anion exchangers, on the other hand, exchange one anion for another across the membrane. Anion transport proteins can be found in various tissues throughout the body, including the lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. Mutations in these proteins can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel.
Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2 (EAAT2) is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating the levels of excitatory neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, in the brain. It is a type of sodium-dependent glutamate transporter that is primarily expressed in astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell that support neurons in the central nervous system. EAAT2 is responsible for clearing glutamate from the extracellular space, where it is released by neurons during synaptic transmission. This process helps to prevent overstimulation of glutamate receptors and reduces the risk of excitotoxicity, which can lead to neuronal damage and death. In addition to its role in regulating glutamate levels, EAAT2 has also been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of EAAT2 is an important area of research in the field of neuroscience.
Vanadates are compounds that contain the element vanadium. In the medical field, vanadates have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects on a variety of conditions, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. One of the most well-known vanadate compounds is vanadyl sulfate, which has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in people with type 2 diabetes. Vanadyl sulfate has also been studied for its potential to reduce body weight and improve lipid profiles in people with obesity. Other vanadate compounds that have been studied in the medical field include sodium metavanadate, which has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, and vanadyl phosphate, which has been studied for its potential to improve bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis. It is important to note that while vanadates have shown promise in preclinical and clinical studies, more research is needed to fully understand their potential therapeutic effects and to determine the optimal dosages and treatment regimens for various medical conditions.
Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3 (EAAT3) is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating the levels of excitatory neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, in the brain. It is a member of the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) family of proteins, which are responsible for the reuptake of glutamate from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron or glial cells. EAAT3 is primarily expressed in astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell that play a key role in maintaining the homeostasis of neurotransmitters in the brain. It is located on the plasma membrane of astrocytes and functions to transport glutamate from the extracellular space back into the cytoplasm, where it can be metabolized or recycled. The function of EAAT3 is important for maintaining the proper balance of glutamate in the brain, which is critical for normal brain function. Dysregulation of EAAT3 activity has been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.
Cation transport proteins are a group of proteins that are responsible for transporting positively charged ions, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of ions inside and outside of cells, which is essential for many cellular processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the regulation of blood pressure. There are several types of cation transport proteins, including ion channels, ion pumps, and ion cotransporters. Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that allow ions to pass through the cell membrane in response to changes in voltage or other stimuli. Ion pumps are proteins that use energy from ATP to actively transport ions against their concentration gradient. Ion cotransporters are proteins that move two or more ions in the same direction, often in exchange for each other. Cation transport proteins can be found in many different types of cells and tissues throughout the body, and their dysfunction can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension, heart disease, neurological disorders, and kidney disease.
Adenylyl imidodiphosphate, also known as AMP-PPi or AMP-P2, is a molecule that plays a role in various cellular processes, including energy metabolism and signal transduction. It is a product of the reaction between adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and is involved in the regulation of enzymes that catalyze the synthesis and breakdown of high-energy molecules such as ATP. In the medical field, AMP-PPi is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to measure the activity of certain enzymes, and it has also been studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG refers to a specific type of amino acid transporter found in the plasma membrane of certain cells in the body. This transporter is responsible for the uptake of certain amino acids, such as alanine and glutamine, from the bloodstream into the cells. The X-AG transporter is a heterodimer composed of two subunits, SLC38A2 and SLC38A3, which work together to facilitate the transport of amino acids across the cell membrane. The X-AG transporter plays an important role in regulating the levels of these amino acids in the body and is involved in a number of physiological processes, including muscle metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Disruptions in the function of the X-AG transporter have been linked to a number of diseases, including muscle wasting and certain neurological disorders.
Azides are a class of chemical compounds that contain a nitrogen atom triple-bonded to a carbon atom, with a single negative charge on the nitrogen atom. In the medical field, azides are commonly used as a component of certain diagnostic tests and treatments. One of the most well-known uses of azides in medicine is in the treatment of certain types of bacterial infections. Azithromycin, for example, is an antibiotic that contains an azide group and is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sexually transmitted infections. Azides are also used in diagnostic tests, particularly in the detection of certain types of bacteria and viruses. For example, the Widal test, which is used to diagnose typhoid fever, relies on the use of azides to detect the presence of antibodies in the blood. In addition to their use in medicine, azides are also used in a variety of other applications, including as a component of explosives, as a reducing agent in organic chemistry, and as a stabilizer in the production of certain types of plastics.
Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.
Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating the movement of salt and water in and out of cells in various organs of the body, including the lungs, pancreas, liver, and intestines. In individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), the CFTR protein is either absent or functionally defective, leading to the production of thick, sticky mucus that clogs the airways and obstructs the pancreas, liver, and other organs. This can cause a range of symptoms, including difficulty breathing, chronic lung infections, digestive problems, and malnutrition. The discovery of the CFTR protein and its role in CF has led to the development of new treatments for the disease, including drugs that aim to correct the function of the protein and improve lung function.
Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the transport of organic cations across cell membranes in the human body. It is primarily expressed in the liver, kidneys, and placenta, where it helps to regulate the levels of various organic cations, including drugs and toxins, in the body. OCT1 is a member of the solute carrier (SLC) family of transporters and is responsible for the uptake of a wide range of organic cations, including many drugs, from the bloodstream into cells. It is also involved in the efflux of some organic cations from cells back into the bloodstream. The function of OCT1 is important in the metabolism and elimination of drugs from the body. Many drugs are organic cations, and their uptake and elimination by OCT1 can affect their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, leading to changes in their efficacy and toxicity. Therefore, understanding the role of OCT1 in drug transport is important for the development of new drugs and for optimizing the use of existing drugs to minimize adverse effects.
Antineoplastic agents, also known as cytotoxic agents or chemotherapeutic agents, are drugs that are used to treat cancer by killing or slowing the growth of cancer cells. These agents work by interfering with the normal processes of cell division and growth, which are necessary for the survival and spread of cancer cells. There are many different types of antineoplastic agents, including alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies, among others. These agents are often used in combination with other treatments, such as surgery and radiation therapy, to provide the most effective treatment for cancer.
Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1 (EAAT1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. EAAT1 is responsible for the reuptake of glutamate from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, which helps to terminate glutamate signaling and prevent overstimulation of postsynaptic neurons. EAAT1 is a member of the solute carrier family of transporters and is expressed primarily in astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell that play a critical role in maintaining the homeostasis of the extracellular glutamate concentration. EAAT1 is also expressed in some neurons and oligodendrocytes. Disruption of EAAT1 function has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including epilepsy, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of EAAT1 is important for developing new therapeutic strategies for these conditions.
Norepinephrine plasma membrane transport proteins (NETs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for regulating the levels of norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline) in the body. These proteins are located on the surface of cells in the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the body's "fight or flight" response. NETs work by pumping norepinephrine out of the cell and into the surrounding fluid. This helps to regulate the levels of norepinephrine in the body and ensures that it is available when it is needed. In the absence of NETs, norepinephrine would build up inside the cell and could cause problems. NETs are also important in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Medications that block the action of NETs, such as atomoxetine (Strattera) and reboxetine (Edronax), are used to treat these conditions by increasing the levels of norepinephrine in the brain.
In the medical field, the term "cholates" typically refers to a type of medication that is used to treat high cholesterol levels in the blood. Cholates are a type of bile acid sequestrant, which means that they bind to bile acids in the digestive tract and prevent them from being absorbed into the bloodstream. This can help to lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood and reduce the risk of heart disease. Cholates are usually taken in the form of a tablet or capsule and are typically prescribed to people who have high cholesterol levels but who are unable to take other types of cholesterol-lowering medications. They are generally well-tolerated and have few side effects, although some people may experience mild digestive symptoms such as constipation or bloating. It is important to note that cholates are not a cure for high cholesterol and should be used in conjunction with other lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, to help manage cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease.
The gene encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 is mutated in Tangier disease - PubMed
ABCA1 gene: MedlinePlus Genetics
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- The ABCA1 gene belongs to a group of genes called the ATP-binding cassette family. (medlineplus.gov)
- Another focus of Dr. Remaley's work is on the main cholesterol efflux transporter from cells, namely the ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1). (nih.gov)
- Tangier disease, a rare genetic disorder characterized decades ago by Dr. Donald S. Frederickson at the NIH, is defective in the ABCA1 transporter and provided an early clue to the importance of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. (nih.gov)
- Dr. Remaley's laboratory is now focused on how the ABCA1 transporter interacts with other intracellular proteins, as well as with extracellular cholesterol acceptor proteins, such as apoA-I, during the cholesterol efflux process. (nih.gov)
- Two more genes in the cholesterol pathway-lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and ATP binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1)-showed some association with AMD, but more research will be needed to confirm the finding. (nih.gov)
- For example, ATP-binding cassette transporters encoded by genes known as ABCB1 and ABCC1 are involved in eliminating carcinogens from the lungs, protecting them against inhaled toxins. (cancer.org)
- Article: "Genetic susceptibility of lung cancer associated with common variants in the 3' untranslated regions of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette B1 (ABCB1) and ABCC1 candidate transporter genes for carcinogen export. (cancer.org)
- These include genes related to herbicide detoxification such as Cytochrome P450s, ATP-binding cassette transporters and glutathione transferases including AmGSTF1. (bvsalud.org)
- The most extensively studied class of drug transporters are those encoded by the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes. (aacrjournals.org)
- Two genes, CYP96A13 and ABCC1 transporter, could play an important role in metabolic resistance to tribenuron-methyl in the resistant flixweed population and justify further functional studies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Indeed, we found that conversion of Lys-226 to N(epsilon)-(3-methylpyridinium)lysine by acrolein associated quantitatively with decreased cholesterol efflux from cells via the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 pathway. (nih.gov)
- 17. Effects of aripiprazole and its active metabolite dehydroaripiprazole on the activities of drug efflux transporters expressed both in the intestine and at the blood-brain barrier. (nih.gov)
- Drug transporter proteins are of increasing interest in this context due to their role both in processes regulating pharmacokinetic properties of drugs (absorption, distribution, and elimination) and the development of cellular drug resistance through decreased uptake or increased efflux in the target organ. (aacrjournals.org)
- The ubiquitous distribution of drug transporters, and their role in the cellular uptake and efflux of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics give strength to the supposition that transporters play a crucial role in the therapeutic effects of multiple drugs used clinically. (aacrjournals.org)
- Here we present evidence that TD is caused by mutations in ABC1, encoding a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, located on chromosome 9q22-31. (nih.gov)
- 7. Polymorphisms of the drug transporters ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC2 and ABCC3 and their impact on drug bioavailability and clinical relevance. (nih.gov)
- 9. Modulation of function of three ABC drug transporters, P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), mitoxantrone resistance protein (ABCG2) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (ABCC1) by tetrahydrocurcumin, a major metabolite of curcumin. (nih.gov)
- 14. Novel understanding of ABC transporters ABCB1/MDR/P-glycoprotein, ABCC2/MRP2, and ABCG2/BCRP in colorectal pathophysiology. (nih.gov)
- 19. Mechanisms of resistance to anticancer drugs: the role of the polymorphic ABC transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2. (nih.gov)
- The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1 or ABCB1) gene encodes a P-glycoprotein that protects the brain against neurotoxicants. (uni-luebeck.de)
- Consistent over-expression of the two contigs homology to CYP96A13 and ABCC1 transporter, respectively, were further qRT-PCR validated using additional plants from the resistant and susceptible populations. (biomedcentral.com)
Clin Pharmacol Ther2
- The 2 major transporters are adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC, also referred to as P-glycoprotein) and the solute carrier (SLC) transporters. (msdmanuals.com)
- Total 26 differentially expressed contigs were identified and eight of them (four P450s, one ABC transporter, three glycosyltransferase) verified by qRT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
- 1. Pharmacogenetics of ATP-binding cassette transporters and clinical implications. (nih.gov)
- 2. Role of pharmacogenetics of ATP-binding cassette transporters in the pharmacokinetics of drugs. (nih.gov)
- Development of human membrane transporters: Drug disposition and pharmacogenetics. (msdmanuals.com)
- Abstract CN04-01: Contribution of polymorphic transporters to oncology drug disposition and safety. (aacrjournals.org)
- Using the provincial birth registry linked with the COVID-19 vaccine database, we identified all individuals who gave birth between January 1 and December 31, 2021, and had not yet been vaccinated by the end of pregnancy, and followed them to June 30, 2022 (follow-up ranged from 6 to 18 months). (bvsalud.org)
- One of the important NTSR mechanisms is the enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism (here in after referred to as metabolic resistance) often involving cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (thereafter referred to as P450), ABC transporter, glutathione S-transferase (GST), glycosyltransferase (GT) and peroxidase (POD) [ 9 - 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- complement C1q binding protein [Sourc. (gsea-msigdb.org)
- 18. Role of ABC-cassette transporters (MDR1, MRP1, BCRP) in the development of primary and acquired multiple drug resistance in patients with early and metastatic breast cancer. (nih.gov)
- Certain MDR1 genetic variants are known to compromise the function of this transporter and may thus be associated with Parkinson disease (PD). (uni-luebeck.de)
- Multiplicity of biliary excretion mechanisms for the camptothecin derivative irinotecan (CPT-11), its metabolite SN-38, and its glucuronide: role of canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter and P-glycoprotein. (kanazawa-u.ac.jp)
- Third, enzymes, which include ATP-binding cassette transporters, allow the excretion of toxins by facilitating the transfer activity of toxins across the membranes (Rowland et al. (5htreceptor.com)
- 21(1): 40, 2023 Jan 21. (bvsalud.org)
- Vesicular transport assays were performed with inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from cells overexpressing human ATP-binding cassette transporters. (necknwaist.com)
- A member of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, ABCB10 in the liver functions as a transporter of liver biliverdin, the reduction product of bilirubin (Fig. 1). (wuxibiortus.com)
- Imeglimin was incubated with E3S (1 µM) as probe BCRP substrate for 1 minute. (necknwaist.com)
- eccDNA content was mapped to the Alopecurus myosuroides reference genome, revealing genomic regions at distal end of chromosome 5 and the near center of chromosome 1 and 7 as regions with high number of mapped eccDNA gene density. (bvsalud.org)
- TSR is widely reported in resistant weed species, which is endowed by gene mutations in target enzymes, such as acetolactate synthase (ALS)-, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-, protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO)-, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-, and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) [ 1 - 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Inherited differences in activity of transporter proteins are occasionally responsible for extensive interpatient variability in drug disposition (systemic exposure) and/or effects (normal and target tissue exposure). (aacrjournals.org)
- In particular, variation in drug transporter activity and/or expression in organs such as the intestine, kidney, and liver, leading to transporter malfunction, is now increasingly recognized to have a significant role as a determinant of intersubject variability in response to various commonly prescribed oncology drugs. (aacrjournals.org)
- 16. Pediatric glioblastoma cell line shows different patterns of expression of transmembrane ABC transporters after in vitro exposure to vinblastine. (nih.gov)
- The in vitro inhibition potential of imeglimin with the human MATE1, MATE2-K, OAT1, OAT3, organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters was tested at 0.1 and 1 mM concentrations of imeglimin. (necknwaist.com)
- SREBF pathway regulator in golgi 1 [S. (gsea-msigdb.org)
- The COMATOSE ATP-binding cassette transporter is required for full fertility in arabidopsis. (mpg.de)
- Emerging transporters of clinical importance: An update from the International Transporter Consortium. (msdmanuals.com)
- Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human ATP Binding Cassette Transporter C9 (ABCC9) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids. (myelisakit.com)
- Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human ATP Binding Cassette Transporter C9 (ABCC9) in Tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (myelisakit.com)
- Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter C9 from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (myelisakit.com)
- Non-target-site resistance is achieved by mechanisms reducing herbicide concentration reaching the target-site [ 1 , 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Uptake experiments were performed using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells II or HEK293 cells stably expressing the respective uptake transporters. (necknwaist.com)
- Uptake experiments were carried out at 37 ± 1°C in 50 ?l of assay buffer containing the probe substrate and imeglimin for 15 minutes (MATE1/MATE2-K), 2 minutes (OAT1), and 1 minute (OAT3). (necknwaist.com)
- 4. Mouse ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters Conferring Multi-Drug Resistance. (nih.gov)
- What do drug transporters really do? (msdmanuals.com)
- Nat Rev Drug Discov 14(1):29-44, 2015. (msdmanuals.com)
- It was previously suggested that lack of efficacy and/or inadequate safety of investigational agents are currently the primary reasons for attrition in drug development, with poor pharmacokinetic properties representing only less than 10% of total attrition (1). (aacrjournals.org)
- Toms include: Table 14.8 list of abbreviations abc: Atp-binding cassette transporter expression and induc- tion take can long how after viagra i poppers with food caused a 25% decrease in the brain into the 1960s. (themauimiracle.org)
- Cells were cultured at 37 ± 1°C in an atmosphere of 95:5 air/CO 2 and were plated into standard 96-well tissue culture plates. (necknwaist.com)
- Before the experiment, cells were washed with 500 ?l of 2-[4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]-ethanesulfonic acid-Krebs-Henseleit buffer and then preincubated at 37°C for 30 minutes with preincubation medium containing imeglimin. (necknwaist.com)
- A study was performed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of imeglimin after 2 hours of incubation at 1, 2, and 3 mM on P-gp in P-gp-expressing Lilly Laboratories cell-porcine kidney 1 (LLC-PK1) cells. (necknwaist.com)
- Association of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 R219K polymorphism with atrial fibrillation]. (cdc.gov)
- To date, twenty-eight amino acid substitutions (numbers of amino acid in parentheses) in ALS endowing ALS herbicides resistance were identified at sites of Ala122 (3), Pro197 (13), Ala205 (2), Asp 376(1), Arg377 (1), Trp574 (3), Ser653 (3) and Gly654 (2) in weed species [ 5 - 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- ITC recommendations for transporter kinetic parameter estimation and translational modeling of transport-mediated PK and DDIs in humans. (msdmanuals.com)