Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Thermometers: Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Thermoreceptors: Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Thermal Conductivity: The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Heat-Shock Response: A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Thermometry: Measurement of the temperature of a material, or of the body or an organ by various temperature sensing devices which measure changes in properties of the material that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; or LUMINESCENCE.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Heat Stroke: A condition caused by the failure of body to dissipate heat in an excessively hot environment or during PHYSICAL EXERTION in a hot environment. Contrast to HEAT EXHAUSTION, the body temperature in heat stroke patient is dangerously high with red, hot skin accompanied by DELUSIONS; CONVULSIONS; or COMA. It can be a life-threatening emergency and is most common in infants and the elderly.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Rewarming: Application of heat to correct hypothermia, accidental or induced.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Crystallography: The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Incubators, Infant: Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
  • Xiao Cheng Zeng and his team from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln have identified various neglected factors that are crucial for the performance of single-atom catalysts - individual atoms, normally metallic and anchored by adjacent molecular frameworks, initiating and speeding up chemical reactions. (azocleantech.com)
  • The unique Australian approach of creating quantum bits from precisely positioned individual atoms in silicon is reaping major rewards, with UNSW Sydney-led scientists showing for the first time that they can make two of these atom qubits "talk" to each other. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Using new "quantum emulator," physicists can observe individual atoms moving through these materials, and measure their speed. (mit.edu)
  • In mixed systems of trapped ions and cold atoms, the ions and atoms can coexist at different temperatures. (nature.com)
  • The key questions of how ions can cool collisionally with cold atoms and whether the combined system allows stable coexistence, need to be answered. (nature.com)
  • Here we experimentally demonstrate that rubidium ions cool in contact with magneto-optically trapped rubidium atoms, contrary to the general experimental expectation of ion heating. (nature.com)
  • The mechanism of single collision swap cooling of ions with atoms is discussed. (nature.com)
  • Trapping and cooling of ions, and separately atoms, has been at the core of modern physics for decades. (nature.com)
  • As the mechanisms for trapping ions and atoms differ, so do their energies near the bottom of their respective traps. (nature.com)
  • The combined system, therefore, presents the problem of how the trapped ions and atoms interact with each other and exchange energy and whether the combination is stable. (nature.com)
  • The trap type, energy of the trapped particles, cooling mechanisms and other details impact the manner and rate of energy exchange between ions and atoms. (nature.com)
  • The scattering mediated by this potential is the primary channel for the exchange of energy between the ions and the atoms. (nature.com)
  • This large difference in the energies of the ions and the cold atoms results in the exchange of energy between them, which needs to be understood to exploit the experimental possibilities of the combined system. (nature.com)
  • In this study, collision with cold atoms is the only available cooling channel for Rb + ions. (nature.com)
  • A combined experimental, analytical and numerical approach is attempted here to understand the consequence of mixing optically dark ions and laser-cooled atoms as described below. (nature.com)
  • We first show in general that the elastic collision-mediated cooling between ions and localized cooled atoms, is possible for all ion-atom mass ratios. (nature.com)
  • For the specific case of Rb + ions and Rb MOT atoms, the role of resonant charge exchange is explored in detail and the mechanism of swap cooling of ions in a single collision is explained. (nature.com)
  • If not only atoms, but also ions are trapped, new complex quantum effects can be studied. (innovations-report.com)
  • The developed algorithm provides for the calculation of collisions of atoms and ions to each other and the laser trap. (innovations-report.com)
  • the potassium atoms then act as electron donors, neutralizing the barium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The atoms and ions of a crystalline lattice, which are bonded with each other with considerable interatomic forces, are not motionless. (wikipedia.org)
  • A giant atom-smashing racetrack of sorts has just broken a Guinness World Record by reaching the highest man-made temperature ever recorded, scientists announced Monday (June 25). (livescience.com)
  • To comprehend the negative temperatures scientists have now devised, one might think of temperature as existing on a scale that is actually circular, not linear. (nbcnews.com)
  • To generate negative temperatures, scientists created a system where atoms do have a limit to how much energy they can possess. (nbcnews.com)
  • Scientists at TU Wien (Vienna) can now explain how platinum atoms can form pairs with the help of carbon monoxide. (innovations-report.com)
  • Scientists at TU Wien (Vienna), together with colleagues from Utrecht University, can now watch single platinum atoms form tiny clusters. (innovations-report.com)
  • During the seventeenth and especially eighteenth centuries, driven both by a desire to understand nature and a quest to make balloons in which they could fly ( Figure 8.9 ), a number of scientists established the relationships between the macroscopic physical properties of gases, that is, pressure, volume, temperature, and amount of gas. (openstax.org)
  • The scientists conducted neutron scattering experiments at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory on samples of zirconium vanadium hydride at atmospheric pressure and at temperatures from -450 degrees Fahrenheit (5 K) to as high as -10 degrees Fahrenheit (250 K)-much higher than the temperatures where superconductivity is expected to occur in these conditions. (newswise.com)
  • For decades, the 'holy grail' for scientists has been to find or make a material that superconducts at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, which would allow engineers to design it into conventional electrical systems and devices. (newswise.com)
  • The ability to trap these atoms means scientists could soon have the ability to study them directly, and perhaps answer one of the fundamental questions of the universe: Why the matter and antimatter present after the Big Bang didn't annihilate each other completely and leave a matter-less universe behind. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Scientists have demonstrated a method of heralding entanglement between spins of two single rubidium-87 atoms trapped independently 20 meters apart, paving the way towards quantum communication over large distances. (scitechdaily.com)
  • UNSW Sydney-led scientists have shown for the first time that they can make two precisely placed phosphorous atom qubits "talk" to each other. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Here, the scientists used the new HERMES instrument to measure the temperature of semiconducting hexagonal boron nitride by directly observing the atomic vibrations that correspond to heat in the material. (ornl.gov)
  • Oxide-based superconductors are very difficult to study owing to their extra (interstitial) or missing (vacancy) oxygen atoms, called dopants, which are known to roam around in the skeleton of the material, formed by other elements, and that may freeze in ordered or random patterns when the samples are cooled. (esrf.eu)
  • We discovered that the best superconductivity was obtained when the microstructure was most 'connected', meaning that it is possible to trace a path with the same nanostructure (exhibited by oxygen atoms) over a large distance. (esrf.eu)
  • The high temperature conductivity was promoted by oxygen-crystal defects that form geometrical patterns that look the same on different scales, ranging from a micrometre up to fractions of a millimetre (see Figure 132 ). (esrf.eu)
  • Once the details are uncovered, researchers could control the arrangement of oxygen atoms to design better copper-oxide superconductors - perhaps even those that operate at room temperature. (esrf.eu)
  • When a platinum atom hits the magnetite surface, it is kept in place by the oxygen atoms in the magnetite. (innovations-report.com)
  • Two of the atom-framework combinations formulated by the researchers have the ability to split water into its constituent parts: two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom, where the former can act as a green fuel for vehicles and other applications. (azocleantech.com)
  • Some examples of elements that turn to gases at or lower than room temperature include nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and neon. (reference.com)
  • A laser flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to investigate the kinetics of the reactions of electronically excited oxygen atoms, O(1D2), with N2 (k1) and O2 (k2) as a function of temperature (197-427 K) in helium buffer gas at pressures of 11-40 Torr. (nasa.gov)
  • Oxygen atoms were scarce. (environmental-expert.com)
  • An experimental set-up, consisting of a beam splitter and two photo detectors, registers the photons emitted by the rubidium atoms (red beam) and generates a signal whenever the two atoms are in an entangled stated (illustrated by violet beams). (scitechdaily.com)
  • Hence, two rubidium atoms, each captured inside an optical dipole trap, are stimulated by light pulses from a control laser to emit a photon. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The atoms first approach provides a consistent and logical method for teaching general chemistry. (indigo.ca)
  • This approach starts with the fundamental building block of matter, the atom, and uses it as the stepping stone to understanding more complex chemistry topics. (indigo.ca)
  • Thus, the Atoms First method empowers instructors to present the most complete and compelling story of general chemistry. (indigo.ca)
  • Finally, it is experimentally and numerically demonstrated that the combined ion-atom system is intrinsically stable, which is critical for future cold chemistry experiments with such systems. (nature.com)
  • Electron-phonon interaction is considered within the framework of the fluctuating valence of Cu atoms. (amrita.edu)
  • Thus, at low temperatures, an electron moving past a magnetic impurity will tend to flip its spin and therefore get deflected from its path. (phys.org)
  • By merging antiprotons (the antimatter version of protons) and positrons (the bizzaro electron), Hangst's team created hundreds of thousands of anti-hydrogen atoms, of which they were able to trap a grand total of 38 for a fraction of a second. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Atom probe tomography, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping have revealed two nanoscale amorphous phases with different Tb atomic percentages distributed within the amorphous film. (osti.gov)
  • A scanning tunnelling microscope image showing the electron wave function of a qubit made from a phosphorus atom precisely positioned in silicon. (scitechdaily.com)
  • From left, Andrew Lupini and Juan Carlos Idrobo use ORNL's new monochromated, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, a Nion HERMES to take the temperatures of materials at the nanoscale. (ornl.gov)
  • In 1966, also in Physical Review Letters, H. Boersch, J. Geiger and W. Stickel published a demonstration of electron energy gain spectroscopy, at a larger length scale, and pointed out that the measurement should depend upon the temperature of the sample. (ornl.gov)
  • Based on that suggestion, the ORNL team hypothesized that it should be possible to measure a nanomaterial's temperature using an electron microscope with an electron beam that is "monochromated" or filtered to select energies within a narrow range. (ornl.gov)
  • Physicists have already developed quantum gates for the super-computers of the future, for example by using nitrogen atoms contained in diamonds as impurities as the smallest computing unit. (mpg.de)
  • RHIC physicists have measured the temperature of this quark-gluon plasma, finding it reaches around 7.2 trillion degrees Fahrenheit (4 trillion degrees Celsius). (livescience.com)
  • Other physicists have now observed quite similar liquid behavior in trapped atom samples at temperatures near absolute zero , ten million trillion times colder than the quark-gluon plasma we create at RHIC,' Vigdor said. (livescience.com)
  • A universal quantum gate: Max Planck physicists make two photons (right) interact with each other by using an atom in a A universal quantum gate: Max Planck physicists make two photons (right) interact with each other by using an atom in a resonator as a mediator. (mpg.de)
  • In the experiments being conducted by Stephan Ritter's team of physicists, this mediating role is taken on by a single atom in a resonator. (mpg.de)
  • The Max Planck physicists send the two photons, one shortly after the other, onto the system of atom and resonator. (mpg.de)
  • Spanish and U.S. physicists studying nanoelectronics have found that size really does matter when it comes to predicting the behavior of electrical contacts that are just one atom wide. (phys.org)
  • In new research appearing this week in the journal Nature , physicists at Spain's University of Alicante and at Rice University in Houston have found that single-atom contacts made of ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt and nickel behave very differently than do slightly larger versions that are on the order of the devices used in today's electronic gadgets. (phys.org)
  • March 13, 2018-A scientific team led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has found a new way to take the local temperature of a material from an area about a billionth of a meter wide, or approximately 100,000 times thinner than a human hair. (ornl.gov)
  • Crystals with stronger fractal patterns performed better as a superconductor at higher temperatures than those with weaker fractal patterns. (esrf.eu)
  • This friction-free liquid occurs at both ends of the temperature spectrum, the researchers said. (livescience.com)
  • ALICE researchers have yet to publish an official measure of the temperature for its quark-gluon plasma. (livescience.com)
  • We studied a layered oxide of copper belonging to the class of metallic ceramics that held the record for operating at the highest temperature when researchers discovered the superconductivity of this material. (esrf.eu)
  • But now researchers show they can achieve even lower temperatures for a strange realm of "negative temperatures. (nbcnews.com)
  • Oddly, another way to look at these negative temperatures is to consider them hotter than infinity , researchers added. (nbcnews.com)
  • The researchers also used a web of laser beams and magnetic fields to very precisely control how these atoms behaved, helping to push them into a new temperature realm. (nbcnews.com)
  • Researchers from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany have announced a working single-atom transistor that operates at room temperature without a semiconductor present. (allaboutcircuits.com)
  • Researchers have created a transistor that uses no semiconducting material and operates at room temperature-at just one silver atom across. (allaboutcircuits.com)
  • Researchers at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany announced what they say is a breakthrough in micro-electronics, creating a single-atom transistor that they claim is the smallest in the world. (allaboutcircuits.com)
  • The researchers said the single atom transistor works using an entirely new technical approach, as no semiconductors are used and the transistor is made entirely of metal, which they say allows very low electrical voltage and low power consumption. (allaboutcircuits.com)
  • Gerhard Klimech, a professor of electrical and computer engineering at Purdue University, said the potential breakthrough here would be the fact researchers were able to achieve these results without using subfreezing temperatures. (allaboutcircuits.com)
  • In 2012, Klimeck was part of an international team of researchers, including Purdue, the University of New South Wales, the University Melbourne, and the University of Sydney, who developed what was then considered the world's smallest transistor using a single phosphorus atom. (allaboutcircuits.com)
  • The Garching-based researchers use a laser beam to trap the atom in the resonator. (mpg.de)
  • Researchers should be able to use that equation to easily estimate how catalytic performance is affected by the choice of an atom and its surrounding material. (azocleantech.com)
  • An international team of researchers has discovered the hydrogen atoms in a metal hydride material are much more tightly spaced than had been predicted for decades-a feature that could possibly facilitate superconductivity at or near room temperature and pressure. (newswise.com)
  • Researchers report this week in Nature that they've managed to corral atoms of antimatter in the lab and keep them around for about one-sixth of one second-an eternity in particle physics. (discovermagazine.com)
  • At the same time, they conduct a measurement on the atom, which can also affect the polarization state of the two photons due to the surprising properties of quantum mechanics. (mpg.de)
  • ORNL's HERMES instead gives a direct measurement of temperature at the nanoscale," said Andrew Lupini of ORNL's Materials Science and Technology Division. (ornl.gov)
  • To make the measurement you have to invoke lots of other theory about energy and temperature etc. which requires knowledge of the states. (imechanica.org)
  • If we can use photons to process it as well, we do not have to transfer it to other carriers, such as atoms, in order to compute with it. (mpg.de)
  • The basic concept is to create entanglement between two atoms, which are separated in space, with the help of photons, and to transfer this state onto succeeding atoms (stationary quantum systems respectively). (scitechdaily.com)
  • B. The main reasons why only a thin cover neighbouring the contact surface between water and air freezes are: - an odd property of water: it has a lower density at a temperature of 4 degrees Celsius than it has at 0 degrees Celsius. (madsci.org)
  • Now that we know all this we might assume that if we have water of two different temperatures in a tank then the one with a higher temperature (which means lower density) should stay on top of the other one. (madsci.org)
  • But this is true only for temperature greater than 4 degrees C. At temperatures between 0 and 4 degrees C water has the peculiar property of having a greater density for greater tempertures. (madsci.org)
  • A new system of probe diagnostics at linear plasma simulator PR-2 is described, allowing us to measure the profiles of plasma temperature and density in different cross sections of the plasma column. (springer.com)
  • Quasicrystalline solids display novel symmetries in which the atoms are arranged in quasiperiodic fashion-i.e., in patterns that do not repeat at regular intervals. (britannica.com)
  • Atom Vibrations in Solids: Amplitudes and Frequencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Above a critical temperature, protons and neutrons and other forms of hadronic matter "melt" into a hot, dense soup of free quarks and gluons (background), the quark-gluon plasma. (livescience.com)
  • The new feat, at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, N.Y., occurred when gold nuclei (the positively charged part of the atom made of protons and neutrons) were sent speeding around RHIC at near light-speed until they crashed into each other. (livescience.com)
  • The reason for this material's elevated high-temperature conductivity was, until now, not known. (esrf.eu)
  • When an object is heated, its atoms can move with different levels of energy, from low to high. (nbcnews.com)
  • With positive temperatures (blue), atoms more likely occupy low-energy states than high-energy states, while the opposite is true for negative temperatures (red). (nbcnews.com)
  • With positive temperatures, atoms more likely occupy low-energy states than high-energy states, a pattern known as Boltzmann distribution in physics. (nbcnews.com)
  • Negative temperatures then are the opposite of positive temperatures - atoms more likely occupy high-energy states than low-energy states. (nbcnews.com)
  • online Nanosources and Manipulation of Atoms Under High of review TV takes considered with lower den in characters with British discharge and narrative something. (redskywinery.com)
  • Simulations reveal the pivotal role of defects in the carbon surface in trapping and stabilizing the Au-SAs at high temperatures, which well explain previous experimental observations. (nature.com)
  • In some of these experiments, a counterintuitive transformation from nanocluster to SAs is observed at a high temperature 22 . (nature.com)
  • Therefore, encouraging experimental evidence of high- temperature-assisted conversion of metal nanoparticles (NPs) into SAs aside, the underlying SA formation mechanisms remain elusive. (nature.com)
  • exists as gas at room temperature and CS 2 , CSe 2 as liquid, the strength of intermolecular force must be high in CS 2 and CSe 2 than in CO 2 . (bartleby.com)
  • Master Bond Supreme 33 combines exceptional durability and toughness for high temperature resistance bonding and sealing applications. (ecnmag.com)
  • At high temperatures, the atoms will ionize. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-Performance Thin Film Transistor with an Neodymium-Doped Indium Zinc Oxide/Al₂O₃ Nanolaminate Structure Processed at Room Temperature. (americanelements.com)
  • In this work, a high-performance thin film transistor with an neodymium-doped indium zinc oxide (Nd:IZO) semiconductor via a room temperature approach and adopting the Nd:IZO/Al₂O₃ nanolaminate structure was investigated. (americanelements.com)
  • As a result, the Nd:IZO/Al₂O₃ TFT exhibits an outstanding performance, with a high of 32.7 cm²·V·s, an I/I of 1.9 × 10⁸, and a low subthreshold swing () value of 0.33 V·dec, which shows great potential for the room temperature fabrication of TFTs in high-resolution or high-frame-rate displays by a scalable, simple, and feasible approach. (americanelements.com)
  • By measuring the intensity of the same reflections at two temperatures (for example, at a room and a high temperature) one can calculate mean-square amplitudes of the atom vibrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three hydrogen atoms are shown interacting at surprisingly small hydrogen-hydrogen atomic distances, as short as 1.6 angstroms. (newswise.com)
  • The ability to take nanoscale temperatures could help advance microelectronic devices, semiconducting materials and other technologies, whose development depends on mapping the atomic-scale vibrations due to heat. (ornl.gov)
  • It's one of the fundamental mysteries of the Big Bang, and now that we know how to store it, we'll soon have enough atoms of antimatter to hold in our hands long enough to study questions like how it behaves in real-world gravity, what its fundamental role was in the evolution of the universe and how it behaves when we excite it with laser beams. (discovermagazine.com)
  • In this study, the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) was evaluated against snow surface (T-skin) and near-surface air temperature (T-air) ground observations recorded at the Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE), located in Caribou, ME, USA during the winters of 2013 and 2014. (mdpi.com)
  • Just to be clear, this isn't the first experiment with antihydrogen, rather the first when they are trapped for more than a blink of an eye (of an atom). (discovermagazine.com)
  • Formulated for structural applications in extreme environments with temperatures from -80°F to +425°F, Master Bond Supreme 33 has superior resistance to thermal cycling, thermal shock and impact. (ecnmag.com)
  • For instance, energy typically flows from objects with a higher positive temperature to ones with a lower positive temperature - that is, hotter objects heat up cooler objects, and colder objects cool down hotter ones, until they reach a common temperature. (nbcnews.com)
  • They cooled the atoms within a vacuum chamber, which isolated them from any environmental influence that could potentially heat the atoms up accidentally. (nbcnews.com)
  • A DS1820 temperature sensor gives feedback to an ATmega168 which then uses a relay to switch the heat on and off. (hackaday.com)
  • Accurate T-skin observations are critical for estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes over snow-covered areas because the incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes from the snow mass and T-air make the snow surface temperature different from the average snowpack temperature. (mdpi.com)
  • Another thing: The heat exchage is faster if the difference in temperature between the bodies is higher. (madsci.org)
  • The Pressure-Temperature Nomograph tool is an application of the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation, which assumes the heat of vaporization is a constant over a pressure range. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • By the definition of the absolute temperature, dS=dU/T. Once you can determine heat dU and temperature T, you can determine S incrementally, up to an additive constant. (imechanica.org)
  • If a negative-temperature system and a positive-temperature system come in contact, heat will flow from the negative- to the positive-temperature system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical thermodynamic systems cannot achieve negative temperatures: adding heat always increases their entropy . (wikipedia.org)
  • The heat vibrational motion of atoms, affecting the atom displacements, results in a weakening of diffracted lines (reflections). (wikipedia.org)
  • This makes me think that when I color the protein, the temperature factor ranges taken into account are not the ones of the protein itself, but of all the proteins loaded, how can I resolve this without using 'temperature absolute *range*', since I do not know the range for some descriptors (they do not specify in the article)? (sourceforge.net)
  • If there is not a way I should investigate more and get the ranges for atom depth inside a cavity, burial indexes and protrusion indexes, I guess. (sourceforge.net)