Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Silicon Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Nanowires: Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Transistors, Electronic: Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.Germanium: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.Silicic Acid: A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems: A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Hafnium: Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Poa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Nanopores: Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.Miniaturization: The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.Lab-On-A-Chip Devices: Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.Optical Devices: Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.Comb and Wattles: Fleshy and reddish outgrowth of skin tissue found on top of the head, attached to the sides of the head, and hanging from the mandible of birds such as turkeys and chickens.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Calixarenes: Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Spectroscopy, Mossbauer: A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.Dielectric Spectroscopy: A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.NewsChemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectModels, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Genomic Structural Variation: Contiguous large-scale (1000-400,000 basepairs) differences in the genomic DNA between individuals, due to SEQUENCE DELETION; SEQUENCE INSERTION; or SEQUENCE INVERSION.Insulator Elements: Nucleic acid regulatory sequences that limit or oppose the action of ENHANCER ELEMENTS and define the boundary between differentially regulated gene loci.
  • Finally, these results indicate that the scanning transmission electron microscope is of particular interest for assembling functional materials atom-by-atom because it offers both real-time monitoring and atom manipulation. (osti.gov)
  • Lastly, we envision electron-beam manipulation of atoms inside materials as an achievable route to controllable assembly of structures of individual dopants. (osti.gov)
  • To perform these state-of-the-art calculations of exchange energy in donor qubits, we have combined atomistic full-band electronic structure calculations, electrostatic device simulations of experimentally realisable device architecture and a two-electron full configuration interaction (FCI) technique over a lattice of 1.7 million atoms. (nature.com)
  • use the Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule to write electron configurations for atoms and ions of main. (bartleby.com)
  • It is shown that the addition of silicon atoms results in a considerable distortion of the electron structure of the initial substrate, and the resulting electron structure cannot be attributed to silicene. (spbu.ru)
  • The configuration of reflections in the low energy electron diffraction pattern indicates the formation of two-dimensional ordered silicon structures with a large number of multidirectional domains. (spbu.ru)
  • The calculated total and partial electron densities of states of Na 8 Si 46 indicate a weak interaction between the encapsulated Na atoms and the silicon framework. (iphy.ac.cn)
  • The silicon clusters, composed of six atoms, were pinned in place by pores in the graphene sheet, allowing the team to directly image the material with a scanning transmission electron microscope. (nanowerk.com)
  • He used such a thin piece of silicon-only about 50 atoms thick-because it would allow him to use an electron microscope to see the crystal structure in his samples, formed with different heat treatments. (medgadget.com)
  • The team was able to both read and write information using the spin, or magnetic orientation, of an electron bound to a single phosphorus atom embedded in a silicon chip. (kurzweilai.net)
  • We present the results of an experimental study of electron transport through individual phosphorus dopants implanted into a silicon crystal. (springer.com)
  • We developed an original technique for single-electron transistor fabrication from silicon-on-insulator material with an island formed by single phosphorus atoms. (springer.com)
  • In this electron microscope image of bismuth atoms (circled) in a silicon crystal, white dotted circles indicate bismuth atoms that have been moved into positions to form an ordered array while green dotted circles show bismuth atoms that have yet to be moved to complete the array. (ornl.gov)
  • September 4, 2018 - An Oak Ridge National Laboratory-led team used a scanning transmission electron microscope to selectively position single atoms below a crystal's surface for the first time. (ornl.gov)
  • Then, they developed a method to employ the microscope's electron beam to selectively hit a column of silicon atoms with enough energy to eject one from its lattice position, enabling a bismuth atom to slide into the vacant spot . (ornl.gov)
  • Next steps for the work, which was published in ACS Nano , include controlling atom placement at different crystal depths and programming the electron microscope to create specific shapes. (ornl.gov)
  • Artist's impression of a phosphorus atom (red sphere surrounded by electron cloud, with arrow showing the spin direction) coupled to a silicon single-electron transistor. (abc.net.au)
  • A member of the III-V family of semiconductors, indium arsenide offers several advantages as an alternative to silicon, including superior electron mobility and velocity, which makes it an outstanding candidate for future high-speed, low-power electronic devices. (slashdot.org)
  • Having just one electron, hydrogen can bond to other atoms in one of two ways. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Examines the characterization of FeSi[sub x] thin film by electron beam evaporation of iron and silicon onto beta-FeSi[sub template. (ebscohost.com)
  • The iron (Fe) atom, in contrast, has one electron shell that is only partially filled, giving the atom a net magnetic moment. (britannica.com)
  • The ability to controllably position single atoms inside materials is key for the ultimate fabrication of devices with functionalities governed by atomic-scale properties. (osti.gov)
  • Ongoing research at the LCN is exploring even more complex arrangements of these defects, including the incorporation of impurity atoms within the defect structures, which is expected to alter the symmetry of the defects (similar to the role of the nitrogen atom in the nitrogen-vacancy center defect in diamond). (nanotech-now.com)
  • Discrete control of individual dopant or impurity atoms is critical to the electrical characteristics and fabrication of silicon nanodevices. (sciencemag.org)
  • But gallium nitride is very expensive, and doping it with two different atoms makes creating the devices more complicated and costly, Helm says. (newscientist.com)
  • This steel was designed so that clusters form amongst the iron atoms during production, making it forty percent stronger than the steel previously used in these applications. (ammrf.org.au)
  • Researchers with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and UC Berkeley have successfully integrated ultra-thin layers of the semiconductor indium arsenide onto a silicon substrate to create a nanoscale transistor with excellent electronic properties ( abstract ). (slashdot.org)
  • In 2010, an Australian team announced that they fabricated a single functional transistor out of 7 atoms that measured 4 nm in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012, a single-atom transistor was fabricated using a phosphorus atom bound to a silicon surface (between two significantly larger electrodes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Atom probe tomography (APT) is a powerful way of measuring interfaces on a scale comparable to the distance between atoms in solids. (phys.org)
  • Although few amorphous solids beside glasses occur naturally, an amorphous form of virtually any substance can be manufactured by sufficiently rapid quenching of the liquid phase or by depositing atoms from the vapor phase directly onto a cool substrate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Whereas solids have a fixed shape because the atoms in them are bonded tightly together and there is little space between them. (majortests.com)
  • Thermal Conductivity of Solids Topics: Kinetic Theory of Energy Transport Simple Kinetic Theory Assumptions Phonon MFP and Scattering Time Silicon Film Thermal Conductivity Silicon. (nanohub.org)
  • Surface relaxation, local density of vibrational states, and polarization of the phonon modes of adatoms and atoms of a substrate have been discussed. (ebscohost.com)
  • Gallium arsenide (another III-IV semiconductor) also has some superior properties to silicon-based implementations (for example, its hole mobility). (slashdot.org)
  • The most common type of solar cell is made from crystals of the semiconductor silicon and consists of several layers. (washingtonpost.com)
  • On June 5, 2017, IBM revealed that they had created 5 nm silicon chips, using silicon nanosheets in a Gate All Around configuration (GAAFET), a break from the usual FinFET design. (wikipedia.org)
  • We find that the onset of molecular conduction is shifted by changing the charge state of a silicon surface atom, or by varying the spatial relationship between the molecule and that charged centre. (nature.com)
  • The elements react chemically causing bonds to be formed between the atoms involved. (majortests.com)
  • Silicon is in the same group in the Periodic Table of elements, and has four valence bonds, and bonds to itself, generally in the form of crystal lattices rather than long chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • With recent demonstration of single qubits in silicon with both electronic and nuclear spins of donors, 5 , 7 the next biggest challenge is to demonstrate two-qubit gates based on the exchange interaction. (nature.com)
  • Additionally, theoretical work shows the advantages of bismuth qubits in silicon: M. H. Mohammady, G. W. Morley, and T. S. Monteiro. (aps.org)
  • In the second approach, an octadecylsiloxane self-assembled monolayer (SAM) grown on the native oxide of a Si(100) surface was exposed to the metastable atom beam through the grid. (rice.edu)
  • Abstract We calculated the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of alkali metal Na atoms doped type-I silicon-clathrate compound (Na 8 Si 46 ) under pressure using first-principles methods. (iphy.ac.cn)
  • It was about two decades ago when bright emission from porous silicon was discovered, and it was connected with the nanocrystalline structure [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Striemer found that as parts of the silicon contracted into crystals, holes opened up in their wakes. (medgadget.com)
  • In a very short time of nanoseconds something of a microwave kind appeared, laser plasma formed the conditions that allowed the atoms to sinter into spherical nano-crystals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because metastable atom beams can be manipulated and focused using optical fields, these methods could provide the basis for a new maskless, massively-parallel approach to nanoscale fabrication on Si that is not limited in resolution by space charge or diffraction effects as in conventional charged-beam and optical techniques. (rice.edu)
  • Cottrell atmospheres are one such nonuniformity and occur when interstitial atoms interact with dislocations, pinning the dislocation and trapping the interstitial. (sciencemag.org)