Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Plasma Gases: Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Chemical Processes: The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.Hyperbaric Oxygenation: The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Submarine Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of people in submarines or sealabs.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Hexachlorobenzene: An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Aortic Rupture: The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.PhotochemistryEquipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.BooksWind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Ablation Techniques: Removal of tissue by vaporization, abrasion, or destruction. Methods used include heating tissue by hot liquids or microwave thermal heating, freezing (CRYOABLATION), chemical ablation, and photoablation with LASERS.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.

Chronic activation of neurokinin-1 receptor induces pulmonary hypertension in rats. (1/437)

In this study we explored the hypothesis that chronic activation of neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor induces pulmonary hypertension in Wistar rats. First, the activation of NK-1 receptor on the pulmonary circulation was investigated by use of a chronic injection of NK-1 agonist [Ser9,Met(O2)11]-substance P (1 x 10(-9) mol/kg) for 2 wk at sea level (rats breathed room air) and during hypoxia (rats were placed in a hypobaric 380-Torr chamber). Second, we studied the effect of NK-1 antagonist (CP-96345) on developing and developed (after 4 wk of chronic hypoxia) pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary arterial pressure, the weight ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle + septum, hematocrit, and substance P (SP) were measured. We found that NK-1 agonist significantly increased pulmonary arterial pressure in the sea-level but not in the hypoxic group. However, NK-1 agonist induced neither right heart hypertrophy nor polycythemia. CP-96345 significantly decreased pulmonary arterial pressure in the hypoxic group but had no effect in the sea-level group. Furthermore, CP-96345 significantly attenuated the acute SP-induced increase in pulmonary arterial pressure in the sea-level and hypoxic groups, with a larger increase in the hypoxic group. These results suggest that chronic activation of NK-1 receptor induces pulmonary hypertension and that there is an increase in the sensitivity of pulmonary vessels in response to SP in chronically hypoxic rats.  (+info)

Particulate air pollution and daily mortality on Utah's Wasatch Front. (2/437)

Reviews of daily time-series mortality studies from many cities throughout the world suggest that daily mortality counts are associated with short-term changes in particulate matter (PM) air pollution. One U.S. city, however, with conspicuously weak PM-mortality associations was Salt Lake City, Utah; however, relatively robust PM-mortality associations have been observed in a neighboring metropolitan area (Provo/Orem, Utah). The present study explored this apparent discrepancy by collecting, comparing, and analyzing mortality, pollution, and weather data for all three metropolitan areas on Utah's Wasatch Front region of the Wasatch Mountain Range (Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem) for approximately 10 years (1985-1995). Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used to estimate PM-mortality associations while controlling for seasonality, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Salt Lake City experienced substantially more episodes of high PM that were dominated by windblown dust. When the data were screened to exclude obvious windblown dust episodes and when PM data from multiple monitors were used to construct an estimate of mean exposure for the area, comparable PM-mortality effects were estimated. After screening and by using constructed mean PM [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) data, the estimated percent change in mortality associated with a 10-mg/m3 increase in PM10 (and 95% confidence intervals) for the three Wasatch Front metropolitan areas equaled approximately 1. 6% (0.3-2.9), 0.8% (0.3-1.3), and 1.0% (0.2-1.8) for the Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem areas, respectively. We conclude that stagnant air pollution episodes with higher concentrations of primary and secondary combustion-source particles were more associated with elevated mortality than windblown dust episodes with relatively higher concentrations of coarse crustal-derived particles.  (+info)

Unhealthy effects of atmospheric temperature and pressure on the occurrence of myocardial infarction and coronary deaths. A 10-year survey: the Lille-World Health Organization MONICA project (Monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease). (3/437)

BACKGROUND: Associations between an increase in coronary heart disease occurrence and low atmospheric temperatures have been reported from mortality data and hospital admission registries. However, concomitant increases in noncardiovascular case fatality rates and selection bias of hospital cases may weaken this observation. In this study, we addressed the question of the relationships between fatal and nonfatal coronary diseases and meteorological variables in 10-year data (1985 to 1994) collected in a morbidity registry (Lille-WHO MONICA Project) monitoring 257 000 men from 25 to 64 years of age. METHODS AND RESULTS: The impacts of atmospheric temperature (in Celsius) and pressure (in millibars) on daily rates of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary deaths were studied. Percentages of variation of event rates according to meteorological variations were derived from the relative risks estimated with a Poisson regression model. During the 10-year longitudinal survey, 3616 events occurred. Rates of events decreased linearly with increasing atmospheric temperature. For atmospheric pressure, we detected a V-shaped relationship, with a minimum of daily event rates at 1016 mbar. A 10 degrees C decrease was associated with a 13% increase in event rates (P<0.0001); a 10-mbar decrease <1016 mbar and a 10-mbar increase >1016 mbar were associated with a 12% increase (P=0.001) and an 11% increase (P=0. 01) in event rates, respectively. These effects were independent and influenced both coronary morbidity and mortality rates, with stronger effects in older age groups and for recurrent events. CONCLUSIONS: This longitudinal study is the first to estimate the attributable effect of meteorological variables on MI morbidity in population and strongly argues for a systematic fight against cold in cardiovascular disease prevention, particularly in older ages and after a first MI.  (+info)

Changes in c-Fos expression induced by noxious stimulation in the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and C1 spinal neurons of rats after hyperbaric exposure. (4/437)

The present study aims to test the hypothesis that hyperbaric exposure inhibits nociceptive processing in the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and C1 spinal neurons. We investigated the c-Fos-like immunoreactivity of the brainstem and upper cervical spinal cord (C1 region) following an injection of mustard oil (15 microliters of 20%) into the nasal mucosa of pentobarbital anesthetized rats after exposure to hyperbaric (2-atmospheres, 1 h) and normobaric pressures. After the hyperbaric exposure, the mean number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the ipsilateral laminae I-II and III-IV of the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis were significantly lower than those in the normobaric condition. Similarly, the mean number of c-Fos positive neurons in the superficial layer (I-II) of the ipsilateral C1 segment were significantly reduced as compared with that in the normobaric condition. When treated with the vehicle alone, no significant difference was detected in the numbers of c-Fos positive neurons in the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and C1 regions between hyperbaric and normobaric conditions. These results suggest that hyperbaric exposure may attenuate nociceptive signals from the area innervated by the trigeminal nerves at the level of both the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and C1 dorsal horn.  (+info)

Tissue factor activity is increased in human endothelial cells cultured under elevated static pressure. (5/437)

We tested the hypothesis that elevated blood pressure, a known stimulus for vascular remodeling and an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic disease, can modulate basal and cytokine-induced tissue factor (TF; CD 142) expression in cultured human endothelial cells (EC). Using a chromogenic enzymatic assay, we measured basal and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; 10 ng/ml, 5 h)-induced TF activities in human aortic EC (HAEC) and vena cava EC (HVCEC) cultured at atmospheric pressure and at 170 mmHg imposed pressure for up to 48 h. Basal TF activities were 22 +/- 10 U/mg protein for HAEC and 14 +/- 9 U/mg protein for HVCEC and were upregulated in both cell types >10-fold by TNF-alpha. Exposure to pressure for 5 h induced additional elevation of basal TF activity by 47 +/- 16% (P < 0.05, n = 6) for HAEC and 17 +/- 5% (P < 0.05, n = 3) for HVCEC. Pressurization also enhanced TF activity in TNF-alpha-treated cells from 240 +/- 28 to 319 +/- 32 U/mg protein in HAEC (P < 0.05, n = 4) and from 148 +/- 25 to 179 +/- 0.8 U/mg protein (P < 0.05, n = 3) in HVCEC. Cytokine stimulation caused an approximately 100-fold increase in steady-state TF mRNA levels in HAEC, whereas pressurization did not alter either TF mRNA or cell surface antigen expression, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR methodology and ELISA. Elevated pressure, however, modulated the EC plasma membrane organization and/or permeability as inferred from the increased cellular uptake of the fluorescent amphipathic dye merocyanine 540 (33 +/- 7%, P < 0.05). Our data suggest that elevated static pressure modulates the hemostatic potential of vascular cells by modifying the molecular organization of the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Influence of environmental temperature on incidence of indinavir-related nephrolithiasis. (6/437)

We analyzed the influence of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure on the 1-year incidence of nephrolithiasis among human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients treated with indinavir. One hundred three patients (13.6%) developed 326 episodes of nephrolithiasis. Eighty-two patients (79.6%) had more than one episode (range, two to seven episodes). The overall incidence ranged from 0 to 10.2 episodes per 100 patients exposed per month. There was a significant correlation between temperature and the overall incidence of nephrolithiasis and the incidence of recurrences but not with the incidence of first episodes. Nephrolithiasis was not related to humidity or atmospheric pressure. Our data support the standard recommendation of drinking at least 1.5 L of water daily to prevent nephrolithiasis in most patients treated with indinavir irrespective of meteorologic factors. However, the risk of nephrolithiasis is higher for a certain subgroup of patients when the environment is hot irrespective of adequate water intake.  (+info)

Effect of increased pressure on tracheal ciliary beat frequency. (7/437)

Effects of increased ambient pressure on mucociliary clearance have been poorly investigated. The effects of increasing pressures on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of guinea-pig tracheal rings were studied in vitro. Increased pressures of 25 and 100 kPa induced a significant and equivalent enhancement of CBF from 30 min after the pressure increase. The increase in CBF observed after a pressure increase of 50 kPa (inspiratory oxygen fraction = 21%), was significantly greater than that observed with an equivalent oxygen tension at atmospheric pressure, i.e. with a gas mixture containing 30% oxygen. Addition of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) inhibited the enhancement in CBF observed after the 25 kPa pressure increase. Addition of L-arginine reversed the effect of L-NAME. These results demonstrate that a pressure increase applied to tracheal rings, in vitro, induces an enhancement of ciliary beat frequency and that generation of nitric oxide may be involved in this ciliary stimulation.  (+info)

Intrapulmonary gas mixing and the sloping alveolar plateau in COPD patients with macroscopic emphysema. (8/437)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, especially those with emphysema, show steep slopes of the alveolar plateau (S). This study tested the hypothesis that continued gas exchange between poorly and well-ventilated lung units by means of collateral ventilation would contribute to S in these patients. Nine young volunteers, nine older volunteers and 11 patients with macroscopic emphysema performed wash-out tests with helium (He) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). S was determined for breaths 1-5 (range 1), and for breaths between 95% and 98% of complete wash-out (range 2). An unequal ventilation index (UVI) was defined as the ratio between the estimated mean alveolar pressure and the end tidal pressure (PET) of each tracer gas, calculated over range 2. Over the same range, a phase III ratio was calculated by dividing PET by the estimated pressure at Fowler dead space. In all groups of subjects, the S for He and SF6 were greater for range 2 than for range 1 (p< or =0.012). In the emphysema patients, the correlations between S and UVI were 0.72 for He (p=0.012) and 0.81 for SF6 (p=0.002), while the mean phase III ratios were 1.7 for He and 2.4 for SF6, much less than their theoretical maxima. It was concluded that in patients collateral ventilation may account for only a small part of the increase in the alveolar plateau slope between ranges 1 and 2, and that this increase was mainly caused by unequal ventilation in combination with sequential emptying of lung units. The degree of sequential emptying, however, was modest compared with its full potential.  (+info)

A comparison of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and atmospheric pressure photoionization for the liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometric analysis of bisphenols. Application to bisphenols in thermal paper receipts and U.S. currency notes Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry , 2017, 31 , 17731778 Henry...
Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisation (APCI) is an ionisation method used in mass spectrometry utilising gas-phase ion-molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure. Ionisation is effected using a corona discharge. This is a method of soft ionisation, where little fragmentation occurs in the source of the mass spectrometer.. Mass Spec uses APCI for trace analysis - primarily for drugs detection, but can be used for a wide range of other substances.. ...
... ... ... The atmospheric pressure photoionization source PhotoSp... Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydroc...,The,Analysis,of,Polycyclic,Aromatic,Hydrocarbons,(PAHs),by,LC/MS/MS,Using,,,,,,,,,,,,an,Atmospheric,Pressure,Photoionization,Source,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Interest in the exploration of environments beyond Earths atmosphere has brought unique challenges to bear on the understanding of the biological systems that will inhabit those environments. Among these challenges are alterations in atmospheric pressure, which are known to have effects on plant physiology and development (Mansell et al., 1968; Gale, 1973; Andre and Richaux, 1986; McKay and Toon, 1991; Andre and Massimino, 1992; Wheeler, 2000; He et al., 2003). Concepts for greenhouses on Mars, on the moon, and in Earth orbit incorporate low atmospheric pressures to address engineering and systems limitations (Boston, 1981; Drysdale, 2001).. Historically, low-pressure environments have been used throughout the U.S. human space exploration programs to reduce the masses of structural and consumable components of space vehicles. Such reductions have resulted in increased mission lengths and/or increased masses of launched payloads. For example, the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo environments were ...
Without any sample pretreatment,the mass spectral fingerprints of sulfur fumigated Chinese star anises and untreated samples were rapidly obtained in either a positive or negative ion detection mode with a home-made surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization(DAPCI) source.The DAPCI-MS raw data were further analyzed by principal component analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA),and several unknown samples were successfully discriminated using the PCA model.The results showed that the DAPCI-MS was able to detect some characteristic chemicals from the Chinese star anises surface and identify the components by tandem mass spectrometry(MS/MS).The further principal component analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA) of MS fingerprints allow a confident discrimination of sulfur fumigated star anise samples from the non-sulfur fumigated samples.The method developed here is attractive to provide a fast and effective way to screen sulfur fumigated products with sufficient sensitivity and no toxin
Amphetamine, methamphetamine, illicit designer phenethylamines (MDA, MDEA, MDMA, MBDB, and BDMPEA), and other phenethylamines (benzyl-1-phenylethylamine, cathinone, ephedrine, fenfluramine, norfenfluramine, phentermine, 1-phenylethylamine, phenylpropanolamine, and propylhexedrine) were extracted from serum using a solid-phase extraction procedure. The extracts were examined with high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS). The drugs were separated on ODS column in acetonitrile/50mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.0) (25:75) as a mobile phase. Full-scan mass spectra of drugs examined by means of APCI with collision-induced dissociation showed protonated molecular ions and fragments typical for particular drugs. LC-APCI-MS allowed an unequivocal differentiation of all drugs involved. The quantitation was performed using selected ion monitoring of protonated molecular ions and fragments of drugs involved and their deuterated ...
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Find right answers right now! The boiling point of liquid helium is 4^0K at atmospheric pressure. What is the temperature on (a) Celsius scale & (b) a Fahrenheit scale ? More questions about Science & Mathematics, what
In this paper, a novel approach to the synthesis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in reactors operating at atmospheric pressure is presented. Based on the literature and our own research results, the most effective methods of CNT synthesis are investigated. Then, careful selection of reagents for the synthesis process is shown. Thanks to the performed calculations, an optimum composition of gases and the temperature for successful CNT synthesis in the CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process can be chosen. The results, having practical significance, may lead to an improvement of nanomaterials synthesis technology. The study can be used to produce CNTs for electrical and electronic equipment (i.e., supercapacitors or cooling radiators). There is also a possibility of using them in medicine for cancer diagnostics and therapy.
With the aid of computer simulations of the chemistry of Earths own atmosphere that isolate what are called "dimer molecules," astronomers developed a new method of gauging the atmospheric pressure of exoplanets.. Astronomers at the University of Washington have developed a new method of gauging the atmospheric pressure of exoplanets, or worlds beyond the solar system, by looking for a certain type of molecule.. And if there is life out in space, scientists may one day use this same technique to detect its biosignature - the telltale chemical signs of its presence - in the atmosphere of an alien world.. Understanding atmospheric pressure is key to knowing if conditions at the surface of a terrestrial, or rocky, exoplanet might allow liquid water, thus giving life a chance.. The method, devised by Amit Misra, a UW astronomy doctoral student, and co-authors, involves computer simulations of the chemistry of Earths own atmosphere that isolate what are called "dimer molecules" - pairs of molecules ...
Chemical ionization of a sample that is a gas or nebulized liquid, using an atmospheric pressure corona discharge or beta emitter
Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) is an ionization method used in mass spectrometry which utilizes gas-phase ion-molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure (105 Pa), commonly coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). APCI is a soft ionization method similar to chemical ionization where primary ions are produced on a solvent spray. The main usage of APCI is for polar and relatively less polar thermally stable compounds with molecular weight less than 1500 Da. The application of APCI with HPLC has gained a large popularity in trace analysis detection such as steroids, pesticides and also in pharmacology for drug metabolites. A typical APCI usually consists of three main parts: a nebulizer probe which can be heated to 350-500oC, an ionization region with a corona discharge needle, and an ion-transfer region under intermediate pressure. The analyte in solution is introduced from a direct inlet probe or a liquid chromatography (LC) eluate into a pneumatic nebulizer ...
The SI unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa), which is a very small unit relative to atmospheric pressure on Earth, so kilopascals (kPa) are more commonly used in this context. The ambient atmospheric pressure at sea level is not constant: it varies with the weather, but averages around 100 kPa. In fields such as meteorology and underwater diving, it is common to see ambient pressure expressed in bar or millibar. One bar is 100 kPa or approximately ambient pressure at sea level. Ambient pressure may in other circumstances be measured in pounds per square inch (psi) or in standard atmospheres (atm). The ambient pressure at sea level is approximately one atmosphere, which is equal to 1.01325 bars (14.6959 psi), which is close enough for bar and atm to be used interchangeably in many applications.. ...
Electric field distributions and discharge properties of rod-rod contact electrodes were studied under the condition of DBD for the steady generation of atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma (APGD) in air. We found that under the effect of the initial electrons generated in a nanometer-scale gap, the rod-rod cross-contact electrodes yielded APGD plasma in air. Regarding the rod-rod cross-contact electrodes, increasing the working voltage expanded the strong electric field area of the gas gap so that both discharge area and discharge power increased, and the increase in the number of contact points kept the initial discharge voltage unchanged and caused an increase in the plasma discharge area and discharge power. A mesh-like structure of cross-contact electrodes was designed and used to generate more APGD plasma, suggesting high applicability. ...
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My ears pop all the time when Im driving around Hawaii. I can get my ears to pop at least once driving from Hilo to Pahoa.. My mom lives about 3 miles up Waianuenue… and my ears can pop just from driving from Bayfront, up to her house.. Im curious if atmospheric pressure has anything to do with it? When I lived on the mainland, it hardly seems like I can remember my ears popping.. For over two centuries, meteorologists were puzzled by the observation that atmospheric pressure in the tropics peaks at 10 a.m. and 10 p.m ...
Immediately download the Atmospheric pressure summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching Atmospheric pressure.
A novel ion/molecule reaction was observed to occur under electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photo ionization (APPI) conditions, leading to dimerization of ionized 4-(methyl mercapto)-phenol followed by fast H(center dot) loss. The reaction is particularly favored during ESI, which suggests that this ion/molecule reaction can occur both in the solution inside the ESI-charged droplets and in the gas-phase environment of most other atmospheric pressure ionization techniques. The dimerization reaction is inherent to the electrolytic process during ESI, whereas it is more by ion/molecule chemistry in nature during APCI and APPI. From the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data, accurate mass measurements, hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, two methyl sulfonium ions appear to be the most likely products of this electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The possible ...
Testing for anabolic steroids The performance-enhancing properties of anabolic steroids are so well established that they have been banned in sports for almost 30 years. Even so, their lure has been too strong for many sportsmen and women and WADA statistics show that they remain the most detected group of banned substances. The task of spotting...
Atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma jets (APNP-Js), which generate plasma in open space rather than in a confined discharge gap, are recently a topi
|attempt at explanation that would get you an F in 9th grade science snipped| Look, Ive tried to be nice here, but you keep insisting that youre right...
According to the American Meteorological Society, (also called barometric pressure), the net force per unit area exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the column of air lying directly above the point in question. Atmospheric pressure is independent of the orientation of the surface on which it acts. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Atmospheric_pressure ...
Pressure is an idea scientists use to describe how gases and liquids "push" on things. The atmosphere has pressure. This pressure changes if you go different places on Earth. Imagine your home is very near sea level and that it is mild day (about 60oF).. If you go to a place that is high in the mountains, it will have less pressure then at your home. If it gets really, really cold at your house, there will be less pressure. If a low pressure system passes over your house, the pressure will be less. If a high pressure system is passing over your house, that will make the pressure go up. Atmospheric pressure is measured in many different ways ...
View Notes - GasExchange_BigIdea&WordList from EE ee at UCSD. atmospheric pressure. 10. Describe how the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide vary as blood traces a complete circuit
take readings of the pressure on the scale barograph is also very simple.This device is based on the action of the diaphragm box that reacts to changes in air pressure.If the pressure is increased - the walls of the box bend inward if pressure drops - the walls are straightened.The whole system is connected with an arrow, and you just have to see what the atmospheric pressure arrow points on the scale of the instrument.Do not be alarmed if the scale is in units such as the HPA - a hectopascal: 1 hPa = 100 Pa.And for the transfer to the more familiar mmHgsimply use the equation from the previous item ...
Objectives 13.1 Describing the Properties of Gases. To learn about atmospheric pressure and how barometers work To learn the units of pressure To understand how the pressure and volume of a gas are related To do calculations involving Boyles Law To learn about absolute zero...
Below are checklists of Barometers, atmospheric pressure, and pressure units on postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.). Catalog numbers, years of issue, and notes on the items featured are given when available. If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page. See also the following topics on the Weather Maps page: ...
National Data Buoy Center - 5-day plot - Wind Speed, Wind Gust and Atmospheric Pressure at station CHDS1 (33.661N 82.199W) - Strom Thurmond Dam, SC.
National Data Buoy Center - 5-day plot - Wind Speed, Wind Gust and Atmospheric Pressure at station KBQX (28.314N 95.620W) - Brazos 538 (Transco).
An increase in atmospheric pressure raises the boiling point of a liquid by raising the vapor pressure of the water above the liquid. This increases the amount of thermal energy needed to increase...
1 Expert Answers - At 100 K and 0.1 atmospheric pressure the volume of helium gas is 10 litres If the volume and press. Answer this question and win exciting prizes
We developed a safe technique without using a toxic gas source to deposit tungsten oxide on a localized specific area using an atmospheric pressure microplasma jet. In this technique, a consumable tungsten wire, inserted into a quartz nozzle for microplasma generation, was etched with an O-2/Ar microplasma, and the resultant tungsten oxide was deposited on the substrate placed downstream. The process mechanism was determined by the detailed observation of the deposit and consumed wire surface after processing, and optical emission spectroscopy. This technique is expected to be utilized for the localized deposition of a variety of metal oxides by varying the kind of consumable metal wire. ...
Watch this video to learn about Waters Waters Atmospheric Pressure Gas Chromatography (APGC). Whether you need to reach ultra-trace levels in complex samples or perform a complete UPLC, UPC2 & GC screen to get all the information from your sample, Waters APGC brings advanced MS technologies previously unavailable to GC users.
Street Science | Wednesdays 10p Full Episodes Streaming FREE: https://www.sciencechannel.com/tv-shows/street-science/ The Street Science team crush a barrel using atmospheric pressure. Subscribe to Science Channel: http://bit.ly/SubscribeScience Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ScienceChannel Twitter: https://twitter.com/ScienceChannel
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Significant caveats of the current MSI field are the need to process samples for MS analysis, increased turnaround time and limited utility of the technique to assess processed tissue specimens. To enrich the influence of MSI in the clinic, there is a desire for direct, real-time and rapid analysis of unprocessed samples. More recently, atmospheric pressure ambient ionisation MS has gained noteworthy interest for routine clinical use due to significant advantages over other MS techniques, including simpler sample preparation, simpler instrumentation, and analysis in real time in an open environment and at atmospheric pressure, which made the in vivo analysis of tissues using MSI a feasible and attractive option. Since these early experiments in the past decade, more than 40 ambient ionisation techniques have now been described in the literature.138 139 Please refer to recent reviews for a summary of common ambient and non-ambient ionisation methods for MSI.138 139 Rapid evaporative ionisation MS ...
A transparent conductive layer forming method is disclosed which comprises the steps of introducing a reactive gas to a discharge space, exciting the reactive gas in a plasma state by discharge at atmospheric pressure or at approximately atmospheric pressure, and exposing a substrate to the reactive gas in a plasma state to form a transparent conductive layer on the substrate, wherein the reactive gas comprises a reducing gas.
Atmospheric pressure photoionization FT-ICR MS provides ultrahigh resolving power and sub-ppm mass error required to identify nickel porphyrin isotopes for unambiguous elemental composition assignment.
Atmospheric pressure is the weight of the air column exerted at the earths surface or acting on a body, it depends on altitude and weather.. To compare the atmospheric pressure (QFE) measured in different locations with one another (for example, on a map), the values must be reduced to standard altitudes. Based on the recommendations of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), pressure is reduced to sea-level only at stations at an altitude of less than 600 metres. Stations at higher altitudes, on the other hand, are reduced to the meteorological standard pressure surfaces of 850 or 700 hectopascals.. When reducing to sea-level, the (hypothetical) density of the atmosphere between station altitude and sea-level must be assumed. It is standard meteorological practice to automatically factor in the temperature measured at the station. The resulting atmospheric pressure value at sea-level is called the QFF. The currently prevailing humidity is not included in the calculations in ...
The spherical Re-Entry Module is 2.2 meters in diameter and offers an internal volume of 4.5 cubic meters to host the various payloads. Receiving power from the Service Module, the various payloads are connected to the 27-Volt main power bus of the satellite. An environmental control system maintains the temperature inside the pressurized entry module that can be selected from +10 to +30°C while the operational pressure of the module can range from 46.7 to 152 kPa and is usually set at the normal atmospheric pressure on Earth.. Thermal control inside the module is accomplished using a fluid cooling system that transports heat from the payload electronics to radiators installed on the outside of the vehicle. The payload electronics use conductive plates to transfer heat to the fluid loop. Atmospheric pressure is maintained via a pressurization system using Nitrogen and Oxygen gas.. Foton-M is equipped with a data handling system that will collect and store payload data and provide a daily status ...
A significant focus of UWAB faculty and students is working to understand the nature of the Earths environment through time, and understanding how these environments affected life on the planet. UWAB researchers study the influx of nutrients to ancient oceans, measuring phosphorous and nitrogen geochemistry in sedimentary rocks through time, to determine whether these elements reflected or influenced ecosystem evolution. Constraining the Earths ancient atmospheric pressure and composition is also crucially important, as it helps us find explanations for how the Earths climate has remained clement for billions of years, even in the face of a much dimmer early Sun. UWAB efforts in this area include determining atmospheric composition during the Archean from sedimentology of heavy minerals from eroded rocks, and determination of atmospheric pressure on the Earth over 2 billion years ago using fossil raindrop imprints. UWAB faculty and students have also used a combination of computer models of ...
Liquid Separations is a core service at Impact Analytical, and our knowledge and experience is key to providing you the best analysis and reliable results. With our state of the art equipment, liquid separations analysis can be performed to quantitate semi- and non-volatile compounds, or identify an unknown compound. Liquid chromatographs can be combined with a variety of analytical detectors to measure analytes in various ways to accommodate most testing needs. Impact Analyticals advanced equipment includes:. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) - A great way to identify unknown components. Our in-house databases have hundreds of compounds including polymer extractables, pharmaceutical impurities, surfactants, degradation products, and color bodies. We offer both electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) modes.. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) - Allows quantitation of analytes with identification based on retention time of known standards. ...
Reflection on Three Decades of Bioanalysis. As founder and CEO of pharm-analyt I go back a long way.. Back in 1975, when I started in the field of bioanalysis, HPLC was brand new technology and UV detectors with fixed wavelength at 254 nm were just becoming the new standard.. In 1978 I obtained a "SP8000". Being the "Mercedes" among the HPLC-systems, it featured a ternary gradient(!) and a Schoeffel UV detector with variable wavelength! Coming from GC-technology, it was inconceivable, that most any molecule could be determined - not only evaporable molecules or ones made evaporable through derivatisation. Back then, any new molecule determined in plasma was a little sensation, worth a publication!. In the 1990s HPLC-MS systems with ESI (Electrospray Ionisation) and APCI (Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization) became stable enough to be an option for routine work. This is presuming you had the budget, as the cost of technology was outrageously.. I remember, cleaning and establishing "good ...
A highly sensitive and enantioselective assay has been developed and validated for the estimation of torcetrapib (TTB) enantiomers [(+)-TTB and (−)-TTB] in hamster plasma with chiral liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface in the negative-ion mode. The assay procedure involves liquid-liquid extraction of TTB enantiomers and IS (DRL-16126) from 100 μL hamster plasma with acetonitrile. TTB enantiomers were separated using n-hexane:propanol (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min on a Chiralpak AD column. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were 599.2 → 340.2 for TTB and 623.2 → 298.1 for IS. Absolute recovery was found to be between 64 and 68% for TTB enantiomers and |100% for IS. The standard curves for TTB enantiomers were linear ( r 2 | 0.995) in the concentration range 5-2500 ng/mL for each enantiomer with an LLOQ of 5 ng/mL for each enantiomer. The inter- and intra-day precisions were in the range of 10.5-12.4 and 9
Recently, hard X-ray high kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy has lead to a break-through due to its non destructive way of investigating the bulk electronic properties of materials. However, due to the relatively new development of this technique there is a lack of information concerning the photoionization cross sections at high energies. Whenever compound materials are investigated or when estimating signal levels and the feasibility of an electron spectroscopy experiment the knowledge of cross sections is essential. In the present work the experimentally determined relative sub-shell photoionization cross sections of shallow levels of nickel metal in the energy range of 2-9 keV will be shown. The data are compared with calculated sub-shell photoionization cross sections.. ...
A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS) method is described for the determination and quantification of 12 dietary flavonoid glycosides and aglycons in human urine samples. Chromatographic separation of the analytes of interest was achieved by column-switching, using the first column (a Zorbax 300SB C-3 column) for sample cleanup and eluting the heart-cut flavonoid fraction onto the second column (a Zorbax SE C-18 column) for separation and detection by ultraviolet and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS using single ion monitoring in negative mode. The fragmentor voltage was optimized with regard to maximum abundance of the molecular ion and qualifier ions of the analytes. Calibration graphs were prepared for urine, and good linearity was achieved over a dynamic range of 2.5-1000 ng/mL, The inter- and intraassay coefficients of variation for the analysis of the 12 different flavonoids in quality control urine samples were 12.3% on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HPLC and HPLC-MS analysis of urinary Nε-monomethyl-lysine. AU - Kalász, H.. AU - Benkö, A.. AU - Szücs, Z.. AU - Szilágyi, Á. AU - Szarvas, T.. AU - Lengyel, J.. PY - 2005/4. Y1 - 2005/4. N2 - Administration of 14C-labelled L-deprenyl to rats results in the urinary elimination of a 14C-labelled compound. The 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride-reacted urine sample is fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on an octadecyl silica stationary phase. Nε-Monomethyl-lysine is identified in the fraction containing the majority of the radioactivity. Structural elucidation is carried out using HPLC-mass spectrometry in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode. Identification of the 14C-labelled fragment in Nε-monomethyl- lysine is an experimental proof that an N-methylated amino acid is generated by transmethylation from a well-known drug. This type of transmethylation may have basic importance in the positive side effects of certain drugs.. AB - ...
Barometric pressure, or air pressure, is lowest at high altitudes. However, barometric pressure also varies according to the weather. The lowest barometric pressures have been recorded during strong...
There is described a device and method for generating gaseous ions of a sample material such as molecules in solution at atmospheric pressure. The device includes a conduit for receiving a solution containing the material to be ionized and form a stream. A jet of gas at supersonic velocity is directed at the stream and interacts therewith. Droplets are formed and by the adiabatic expansion of the gas and vigorous evaporation of the solution gaseous ions are generated. In the method a stream of the sample solution is delivered from a conduit with an electric potential. A gas jet at supersonic velocity interacts with the delivered solution and through the action of adiabatic expansion of the gas and evaporation of the solution gaseous ions are formed.
MOST COMMON IONS: None Helium, a colorless gas at room temperature, is the first element in the noble gas group, and forms few compounds. It is rare in the atmosphere (1 part in 200,000) and recovered on Earth principally by its separation from natural gas obtained in underground wells. Named for the Sun (in Greek, helios ), helium is a component of the production of energy as well as the basis of the science and technology of cryogenics. Its presence at the surface of the Sun was first confirmed by amateur British astronomer Joseph Norman Lockyer (1868), who observed characteristic lines in the optical spectrum of the Sun, at whose surface helium is produced via the energy-releasing fusion of hydrogen and deuterium nuclei. Because it is such a light, nonreactive element, helium condenses (at atmospheric pressure) only at 4.2 kelvins. Furthermore, because of quantum mechanical effects, helium solidifies (under the application of 25.3 bars of external pressure) only at the lowest temperatures. ...
Growth of the Tooth Germ in Newborn Rats Exposed to Oxygen at Atmospheric and High Pressure. NAKAMOTO, T.; BEAN, J. W. // Journal of Dental Research;May1973, Vol. 52 Issue 3, p558 Newborn rats were exposed intermittently to oxygen at high pressure (93 psig) 15 times for a period of eight days. Growth of the tooth germs was the same as that of the control rats in air at atmospheric pressure, with the exception of the enamel and dentin layers, which grew less. The width of... ...
1. Exposure of Astasia longa to oxygen+carbon dioxide (95:5) at atmospheric pressure leads to an inhibition of growth rate and of respiration. Growth resumes at the normal rate as soon as the oxygenation is discontinued, but respiration recovers more slowly. 2. Mitochondria prepared from cells exposed to oxygen+carbon dioxide (95:5) during growth have considerably decreased activities of succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, NADH-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, succinate dehydrogenase and succinate oxidase activities as compared with mitochondria obtained from cells exposed to air+carbon dioxide (95:5). Cytochrome oxidase activity is not appreciably inhibited by exposure of the cells to 95% oxygen. 3. The mitochondrial fraction of Astasia contains rhodoquinone. The rhodoquinone concentration increases in cells exposed to 95% oxygen. The content of ergosterol-containing compounds also increases in the mitochondria of cells exposed to 95% oxygen. There is little change in the ubiquinone content of ...
Water has lots of nice properties; its biggest drawback is that it boils at the rather low temperature (at atmospheric pressure) of 373 K (212 F). This is far too low; but if we increase the pressure, the boiling point can be high enough to be usable. Therefore the primary loop is kept at a rather high pressure of about a hundred atmospheres which allows the water to stay liquid. The water comes out of the reactor at about 600 K which is sufficient (but not great) for power generation.. What would happen if the coolant pumps failed? The water inside the reactor would keep getting hotter, the pressure would build, and boom! Reactors therefore have multiple levels of redundancy in the cooling system. But if the power fails, ultimately the pumps will stop. If the system is adequately designed there is enough battery power or generator capacity so that when the pumps finally stop, the core is cool enough that it wont meltdown or be damaged.. What would happen if one of the pipes broke? The pressure ...
Water has lots of nice properties; its biggest drawback is that it boils at the rather low temperature (at atmospheric pressure) of 373 K (212 F). This is far too low; but if we increase the pressure, the boiling point can be high enough to be usable. Therefore the primary loop is kept at a rather high pressure of about a hundred atmospheres which allows the water to stay liquid. The water comes out of the reactor at about 600 K which is sufficient (but not great) for power generation.. What would happen if the coolant pumps failed? The water inside the reactor would keep getting hotter, the pressure would build, and boom! Reactors therefore have multiple levels of redundancy in the cooling system. But if the power fails, ultimately the pumps will stop. If the system is adequately designed there is enough battery power or generator capacity so that when the pumps finally stop, the core is cool enough that it wont meltdown or be damaged.. What would happen if one of the pipes broke? The pressure ...
In fact, the total cost of hypertensive medication is more than offset by the savings from stroke alone. Movement disorders, including Parkinson disease and various dystonias, are thought to result from imbalanced activity in these pathways. Its objective is to inform the people in the project area about different activities of the project. eLRT and eRLRT demonstrate significantly higher power than eScore, SKAT, and SKAT optimal (SKAT-o) across all scenarios and various samples sizes.. However, neurological recovery was minimal with persistent paraplegia. Phosphatidylinositol lipids and their modifying enzymes, particularly PI 3-kinase, are strongly implicated as mediators of integrin-regulated cytoskeletal changes and cell migration. Mass spectrometer characterization of halogen gases in air at atmospheric pressure. It is believed that they illustrate the value of pharmaceutical services viagra without prescription to the healthcare system and to the Australian community in terms of both ...
Reliable equations of state (EoS) together with heat capacities at atmospheric pressure make it possible to determine properties such as the isobaric thermal expansivity, compressibility, both isothermal and isentropic, high pressure isobaric heat capacities or speed of sound. In this work, we analysed the reliability of two density scaling based EoS, Power-Law Density Scaling (PLDS) and General Density Scaling (GDS), and the Tammann-Tait EoS to determine these quantities. For this aim, dipentaerythritol hexa(3,5,5-trimethylhexanoate), diPEiC9, was chosen because it has been recently proposed as a candidate to fill the gap of reference fluids suitable for high pressure viscometer calibration or their verification ...
The other one is ensure hydrocyclone can regular work. When drill middle and deep well, gas well and gas oil well must be matched vacuum degasser.. The degassers are used to clean the gas in the drilling fluid, to ensure the drilling fluid property relatively stable, to guarantee the steady operation of swirlers.. The degassers can be grouped into two kinds: ordinary pressure type and vacuum type. The ordinary pressure degasser is to use the centrifugal to take out gas to invade the mud, with the help of centrifugal force to make the mud spraying in the jet tanks and striking on the wall to make gas releasing. The vacuum degasser is to use the suction of the centrifugal, forming negative pressure in the vacuum tanks, under the action of drilling fluid at atmospheric pressure, through the suction pipe into the hollow shaft, then by umbrella piece of around the hollow shaft assembly, they jet to the skin of tank.. ...
In which one of the following processes is ΔH = ΔE? a. 2HI(g) → H2(g) + I2(g) at atmospheric pressure. b. Two moles of ammonia gas are cooled from 325°C to 300°C at 1.2 atm. c. H2O(l) → H2O(g) at 100°C at atmospheric asked by seth on August 15, 2009 ...
An electrostatic coating system for applying very thin coating to a substrate in air at atmospheric pressure comprises a plurality of spaced capillary needles (11) positioned in at least two rows and fed with coating liquid via a reservoir (15). The needles (11) are disposed concentric within holes (13) in an extractor plate (14), a potential is developed between the capillary needles (11) and the extractor plate (14) affording a reduction of the liquid to a mist of highly charged droplets drawn to the substrate by a second electrical field. Insulative layers (64, 66) on the extractor plate provide increased droplet control.
A hyperbaric laser welding facility has been constructed and the feasibility of high power CO2 and Nd:YAG laser welding in both high pressure gas and water environments, to simulated water depths of 500 m, has been established. From initial trials on welding through water at atmospheric pressure, it was found that the different absorption characteristics of water to 10.6 μm (CO2 laser) and 1.06 μm (Nd:YAG laser) radiation proved crucial. The Nd:YAG laser was totally unsuitable as the beam was largely diffused in the water, whereas the CO2 beam was rea... ...
In this book the authors describe experimental methods of measuring binary diffusion coefficients of liquid vapors in gases. Experimental data on binary diffusion coefficients are given over a wide range of temperature and pressure ranges, and reflect the up-to-date results. Main sections of the book cover the experimental measurement of binary diffusion coefficients, results of experimental measurements at atmospheric pressure and various temperatures, and results of experimental measurements at various pressures and temperatures. 200 pages, © 1997
While other water samples weve received under this program are being tested for lead first, this particular sample came with a note that indicated there have been complaints about water at this hospital.. Because I care deeply about the health of our veterans -- yes, Im a patriotic American who believes in supporting our soldiers and our police officers -- I decided to run this sample through our LC/MS-TOF instrument, which is part of our new, expanded organic chemistry section at CWC Labs (formerly known as the Natural News Forensic Food Lab), where I am the lab science director. Click here to see all my lab videos.. This instrumentation separates molecules using liquid chromatography while profiling retention times in an aqueous / organic solvent gradient. From there, the separated molecules are ionized at atmospheric pressure using electrospray ionization, then analyzed via Time of Flight discrimination technology in a mass spec instrument, which generates a mass-to-charge ratio spectra ...
Abraham Badu-Tawiah obtained his Ph.D. (2012) in Chemistry with R. Graham Cooks at Purdue University. During that time he worked on the mechanism of desorption electrospray ionization, which led to the development of novel instrumentation for ambient ion soft landing, and ionic reactions with neutral species adsorbed on ambient surfaces. This training in ion manipulation at atmospheric pressure laid the ground work for the creation of analytical devices that permit ion chemistry to be performed more effectively using charged micro-droplets as reaction vessels. During his time at Purdue, Dr. Badu-Tawiah was awarded Andrews (2007 - 2009), Bilsland Dissertation (2011), and Lilly Innovative (2012) Fellowships. From 2012 to 2014, he was a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University under the direction of George M. Whitesides, where his research focused on the development of methods for performing molecular recognition (immunoassay) on ambient paper surfaces for use in resource-limited disease ...
This data was collected in May 2011 by the IMOS Ship of Opportunity Underway CO2 Measurement research group on RV Southern Surveyor (IMOS platform code: VLHJ) voyage SS2011_T01.. Departed: Hobart, TAS, May 04, 2011 Arrived: Brisbane, QLD, May 12, 2011. CO2 System Overview: The fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) in surface seawater was measured using a General Oceanics Inc. automated system (Model 8050; Pierrot et al 2009). Seawater is sprayed into an equilibration chamber and CO2 in the headspace gas equilibrates with the seawater. The headspace gas is pumped through a thermoelectric condenser followed by a nafion drying tube before flowing through a Licor 7000 non-dispersive infrared gas analyser used to measure the CO2 mole fraction (XCO2) of the dried air. The gas flow is stopped temporarily for the CO2 measurements, which are made at atmospheric pressure. A set of four CO2 standards that cover the range of CO2 values expected in the ocean are analysed about every four hours to calibrate the ...
The experimental system consists of a stainless steel fixed-bed tubular micro-scale reactor, with an inner diameter of 9 mm, 30 cm long and an updraft flow of the feed. The bed contains a mixture of inert sand and catalyst and is placed inside the reactor upon a porous plate in order to conduct catalytic test. The total pressure of the system is reached with a N2 carrier gas. Nitrogen is also used as a carrier gas and as an internal standard in the gas analyses. The aqueous solution of oxygenated compounds is fed by means of a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pump. When the liquid flow exits the reactor is despressurized and cooled at atmospheric pressure by means of a Peltier cooler, where a condensable phase is recovered. The gas product is separated by means of a Peltier cooler and analysed online with a micro-GC, where N2, H2, CH4, CO2, CO, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, C3H8 are quantified. The liquid products are collected and analysed offline in the lab by means of a GC equipped with a ...
i know it has something to do with atmospheric pressure. My sketchy hypothesis is that pressure inside near the top of the inverted cup is lower than that of the pressure at the inside bottom of the cup. owing to the fact that air travels from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure, i am *thinking* that the atmospheric pressure outside the cup is striving to get to that low pressure area inside the the cup thus, causing suction ...
The feasibility of osmotic drying of various foods, pitted cherries, whole blueberries and cubed carrots, was demonstrated. The feasibility of applying the osmotically-induced migration of compounds through the membrane of food samples was also examined. The osmotic solutions included sucrose, dextrose, maltose, honey, maltodextrin and salt. Drying was accomplished at atmospheric pressure at room and boiling temperatures and under vacuum at room temperature. In some experiments, final drying was achieved in a forced air dryer.*OSMOSIS
The heat produced by combusting one unit of a substance, at atmospheric pressure under conditions such that all water in the products remains in the form of vapor. The net heat of combustion is calculated from the gross heat of combustion at 20°C by subtracting 572 cal/g (1030 Btu/lb) of water derived from one unit mass of sample, including both the water originally present as moisture and that formed by combustion. This subtracted amount is not equal to the latent heat of vaporization of water because the calculation also reduces the data from the gross value at constant volume to the net value at constant pressure. The appropriate factor for this reduction is 572 cal/g.. ...
This thesis is concerned with structural studies of ferroelectric crystals, in particular the tetragonal paraelectric and orthorhombic ferroelectric phases of KH2P04, KD2PO4 and RbH2P01 and the cubic paraelectric phase of Cu3B7013Cl and Ni3B7013I, using both neutron powder and single-crystal diffraction techniques. The methods of constrained least-squares refinement and significance testing are discussed since these techniques were used to determine the significance of certain structural features of interest in the single-crystal studies. Structural studies of tetragonal KH2PO4, KD2P04 and RbH2PO4 at atmospheric pressure revealed marked isotope and temperature effects of many of the structural features tested. On increasing pressure the P04 groups in tetragonal KH2P04 and KD2PO4 rotate such that the O-H,D 0 distance does not, within error, change. This may well explain the unexpectedly small pressure-dependence of n, the tunnelling frequency of a proton (deuteron) in the absence of any ...
The resulting acetoxime is now distilled in a current of steam (Note 2), and the distillation is continued until a 5-cc. sample, shaken with 2 cc. of ether, yields no appreciable residue on evaporating the ether. To the distillate (2-2.5 l.) is added 600 cc. of concentrated hydrochloric acid, and the acid solution is distilled at atmospheric pressure until the distillate is free of acetone (Note 3). The residual liquor is then evaporated to dryness on the steam bath, either in an open dish or preferably under reduced pressure. The crude hydroxylamine hydrochloride so obtained, weighing 296-470 g. (49-77 per cent of the theoretical amount), is suitable for many purposes, but is best purified by recrystallization from half its weight of water. By systematic recrystallization of the product from several batches, the yield of pure product, which crystallizes in long flat needles, melting when dry at 150-154°, may be brought as high as 70 per cent of the theoretical amount (Note 4) ...
During the last couple of years catalytic reactions on Pd surfaces have been studied at our department by means of a hydrogen sensitive Pd-MOS structure and work function measurements. These studies have been performed at atmospheric pressures with Ar and O2 as carrier gases. We have now extended this type of measurements to the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) region and also combined them with both UV and, in certain cases, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS, XPS) studies. With this technique we are able to detect about 0.001 of a monolayer of hydrogen, and changes in rate or equilibrium constants corresponding to changes in an energy coordinate of less than 10 meV. Furthermore, results from a Cd contaminated Pd-MOS structure indicates that the ability of Pd to dissociate H2 is related to a microscopic parameter and not to any general metal-like parameter.. ...
United States Patent O 3,677,795 METHOD OF MAKING A PROSTHETIC DEVICE Jack C. Bokros, San Diego, and Willard H. Ellis, Leucadia, Calif., assignors to Gulf Oil Corporation, San Diego, Calif. N Drawing. Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 649,811, June 29, 1967. This application May 1, 1969, Ser. No. 821,080 Int. Cl. C0lb 31/00; C23c 11/00 US. Cl. 117-46 CG 14 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This is a method for making a prosthetic device for implantation in a living body. The method comprises the steps of forming a substrate of a material stable at temperature of at least about 1350 C., heating said substrate together with particulate material to provide additional deposition surface area to a temperature of between about 1350 C. and about 1600 C. in a reaction chamber, flowing a mixture of propane or butane and an inert gas through said reaction chamber at atmospheric pressure, said propane or butane constituting between about 15 volume percent and about 40 volume percent of said ...
1. The specific heat capacity of lead is 0.13 J/g•K. How much heat (in J) is required to raise the temperature of 35 g of lead from 22 °C to 37 °C? _______ 2. Given the data in the table below, ΔH°rxn for the reaction Ca(OH)2 + 2H3AsO4 → Ca(H2AsO4)2 + 2H2O is ________ kJ. True/False questions: G) The enthalpy change of a reaction is the reciprocal of the ΔH of the reverse reaction. ________ H) Hf , the standard enthalpy of formation of a compound, is the change in enthalpy for the reaction that forms one mole of the compound from elements with all substances in their standard state._________ I) The enthalpy of a reaction is equal to the heat of the reaction. ________ J) When work is done on a system, w will be a negative value. __________ K) Bomb calorimeter measures q which is ΔH. ___________ L) Standard state of a substance is its pure form at atmospheric pressure (1 atm) and the temperature of 0 °C ...
A long rod, insulated to prevent heat loss along its sides, is in perfect thermal contact with boiling water (at atmospheric pressure) at one end and with an ice-water mixture at the other. The rod consists of a 1.00 section of copper (with one end in the boiling water) joined end-to-end to a length of steel (with one end in the ice water). Both sections of the rod have cross-sectional areas of 4.00 . The temperature of the copper-steel junction is 65.0 after a steady state has been reached ...
A Cu(ii) metal-organic framework, {[Cu2(L)(H2O)2]·(5DMF)(4H2O)}n (1), has been synthesized using an angular tetracarboxylic acid ligand (H4L) incorporating both trifluoromethyl (-CF3) and amine (-NH2) groups. Notably, the framework possesses high water and thermal stability. At atmospheric pressure, the activated f
A caesium fluoride-mediated hydrocarboxylation of olefins is disclosed that does not rely on precious transition metal catalysts and ligands. The reaction occurs at atmospheric pressures of CO2 in the presence of 9-BBN as a stoichiometric reductant. Stilbenes, β-substituted styrenes and allenes could be carboxylate
Data from The Engineering Toolbox The latent heat of evaporation is based on fluid boiling point temperature at atmospheric pressure ...
Gorbunova, N.I.; Grigoriev, V.A.; Simonov, V.M.; Shipova, V.A., Heat capacity of liquid benzene and hexafluorobenzene at atmospheric pressure, Int. J. Thermophysics, 1982, 3, 1-15. 2 matching species were found. For each matching species the following will be displayed: ...
The tube was found idle at atmospheric pressure. I guess it has been so for overnight, because the last usage seen from Coral is midnight. When I tried to run "pump10" to pump down the tube, "TCU fault" message was displayed. Thanks. From hanjun at snf.stanford.edu Wed Nov 12 18:19:27 2003 From: hanjun at snf.stanford.edu (hanjun at snf.stanford.edu) Date: Wed, 12 Nov 2003 18:19:27 -0800 Subject: Problem tylannitride 2003-11-12 18:19:27: tube not open Message-ID ...
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Upon evaporation of the ether from the extract, 52g of crude benzylamine remain which was distilled at atmospheric pressure. 41g grams of substantially pure benzylamine distilled over in the boiling range 185-192°C, while the residue was found to contain an additional 2.3g of benzylamine and 8.7g of other matter which was believed to consist entirely of dibenzyl amine. Thus the total yield of benzylamine ...
From Wikipedia: The highest recorded atmospheric pressure, 108.6 kPa (1086 mbar or 32.06 inches of mercury), occurred at Tosontsengel, Mongolia, 19 December 20012. The lowest recorded non-tornadic atmospheric pressure, 87.0 kPa (870 mbar or 25.69 inHg), occurred in the Western Pacific during Typhoon Tip on 12 October 19792. The record for the Atlantic ocean was 88.2 kPa (882 mbar or 26.04 inHg) during Hurricane Wilma on 19 October 2005. I believe the record for the Gulf of Mexico was set during Hurricane Wilma (2005), if not a record for the northern hemisphere as well. FYI Wilma also produced the largest recorded wave height of 90 ft, which managed to bend structural steel I-beams on several large offshore oil platforms 35 degree due to taking the full force of broadside waves. As far as a more useful range for daily measurements, most full sized barographs have a chart range of 955-1060mb. I regularly see dips below 990 during strong Alaskan lows. Standard barographs will have an ...
The pressure a liquid exerts against the sides and bottom of a container depends on the density and the depth of the liquid. If atmospheric pressure is neglected, liquid pressure against the bottom is twice as great at twice the depth; at three times the depth, the liquid pressure is threefold; etc. Or, if the liquid is two or three times as dense, the liquid pressure is correspondingly two or three times as great for any given depth. Liquids are practically incompressible - that is, their volume can hardly be changed by pressure (water volume decreases by only 50 millionths of its original volume for each atmospheric increase in pressure). Thus, except for small changes produced by temperature, the density of a particular liquid is practically the same at all depths.. Atmospheric pressure pressing on the surface of a liquid must be taken into account when trying to discover the total pressure acting on a liquid. The total pressure of a liquid, then, is ρgh plus the pressure of the atmosphere. ...
Snímače ATM10 i ATM11 používají pro měření atmosférického tlaku vzduchu vysoce přesné čidlo společnosti MEAS Switzerland, které se vyznačuje velmi malým teplotním driftem, vynikající linearitou a excelentní dlouhodobou stabilitou. Analogový signál tenzometrického můstku uvnitř čidla je měřen integrovaným 24 bitový AD převodníkem, který je při výrobě doplněn o interní kalibrační koeficienty. Výsledkem je vynikající citlivost a přesnost měření, při kterém je možno získat rozlišení až 0,025 mbar (to odpovídá výškovému rozdílu tlaku pouhých 20 cm). Programové vybavení snímačů ATM10 a ATM11 provádí měření a následné výpočty až pro 6 interních měřících kanálů, které lze přenášet do připojené jednotky:. Kanál K1: Tlak vzduchu, rozsah 300 až 1100 mbar, rozlišení 0,1mbar. Kanál K2: Teplota vzduchu měřená přesným snímačem Pt100, třída přesnosti A (pouze u ATM11, rozsahu -30 až +50 °C, rozlišení ...
Pulmonary ventilation is the process of breathing, which is driven by pressure differences between the lungs and the atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure is the force exerted by gases present in the atmosphere. The force exerted by gases within the alveoli is called intra-alveolar (intrapulmonary) pressure, whereas the force exerted by gases in the pleural cavity is called intrapleural pressure. Typically, intrapleural pressure is lower, or negative to, intra-alveolar pressure. The difference in pressure between intrapleural and intra-alveolar pressures is called transpulmonary pressure. In addition, intra-alveolar pressure will equalize with the atmospheric pressure. Pressure is determined by the volume of the space occupied by a gas and is influenced by resistance. Air flows when a pressure gradient is created, from a space of higher pressure to a space of lower pressure. Boyles law describes the relationship between volume and pressure. A gas is at lower pressure in a larger volume because the ...
atmospheric pressure: the pressure of the air here on the earths surface. At sea level, atmospheric pressure equals 14.7 pounds per square inch (2.6 kilograms per square centimeter). This amount of pressure is known to scientists as one atmosphere. People and other land animals are adapted to one atmosphere of pressure and thrive on the earths surface. But water is much heavier than air, and as we dive into the ocean, pressure increases. Divers feel an extra atmospheres worth of pressure with every 33 foot (10 meter) increase in depth ...
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Depth, Sea temperature, Atmospheric pressure at sea level, Atmospheric pressure hourly tendency, Horizontal wind speed, Wind from direction relative true north, Air temperature in dry bulb, Relative humidity, Dew point temperature, Generic significant wave height (Hs), Generic average wave period ...
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Heterogeneous photocatalysis on TiO2 is an emerging green technology for water disinfection. The rationale for this technology is based on in-situ generation of highly reactive transitory species for degradation of organic and inorganic pollutants as well as microorganisms. Recent research has concentrated on improving the efficiency of the photocatalytic process, however, some fundamental information on the mechanistic aspects and rate limiting properties still remain elusive. The focus of this thesis has been to identify the primary oxidant in heterogeneous TiO2 photocatalysis and to create prerequisites for further evaluation of how selected internal (material specific) and external (system specific) alterations influence the photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, an attempt to induce visible light activity to a modified TiO2 film was also made.. Production of H2O2 was used to probe the existence of the hydroxyl radical as the primary oxidizing species in aqueous TiO2 photocatalysis. The only ...
Here is a short bio I sent to press people covering the Flight 93 memorial debacle. My training is as an economist. I was in the PhD program in economics at Stanford until my research led me more towards moral theory and constitutional law, at which point I dropped the program and started working on my own. I was writing a book on republicanism (the system of liberty under law) for World Ahead Publishing when I discovered that the Flight 93 memorial was going to be a terrorist memorial mosque. World Ahead agreed to first publish my book about this rehijacking of Flight 93 (Crescent of Betrayal, temporarily available for free download at CrescentOfBetrayal.com). This is not my first venture into journalism. Over the years I have been a writer, opinions editor, and advisor for Stanfords conservative campus newspaper The Stanford Review, and am currently on the Reviews board of directors.. View my complete profile ...
File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome, 256 Grayscale) using Capture Perfect 3.0.82 on a Canon DR-9080C in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 4.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR ...
Antsipovich, V. A., Snitkovsky, A. I. & Falkovich, A. I. 1975. On the orders of the values of the meteorological elements obtained in the A/B array in the period of GATE. GATE Report, 14, vol. II, pp. 99-117. WMO ...
This MHP propane gas grill features a high profile, thick, permanent mold cast aluminum housing, 433 1/2 square inches of primary grill area (642 total area including stainless warming rack), 40,000 BTU stainless H-type dual burner, 5/16 inch two-piece stainless cooking grids, Nu-Stone fixed side shelf and electronic ignition. Includes black, aluminum column and black, cast aluminum base with 8 inch wheels and locking casters. Includes propane hose and regulator with fuel level gauge and stainless grease cup for easy clean-up. Some assembly required ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Post-cranioplasty cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamic changes. T2 - Magnetic resonance imaging quantitative analysis. AU - Dujovny, M.. AU - Fernandez, P.. AU - Alperin, N.. AU - Betz, W.. AU - Misra, Mukesh. AU - Mafee, M.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - The syndrome of the trephined has been described in many patients with cranial defects as an indication for cranioplasty. Cerebral blood flow changes, the effect of the atmospheric pressure on the brain, as well as cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamic changes have been postulated as the possible reasons for this syndrome. Using dynamic phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging we measured arterial, venous, and cerebrospinal fluid flow into and out of the skull, before and after cranioplasty in one patient whose bone flap was removed because of osteomyelitis. We report significant changes in the oscillatory CSF flow after cranioplasty. A moderate increase in venous outflow as well as a two-fold increase in craniocaudal cerebrospinal ...
Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet on Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, Quality, and Genotoxicity of Cooked Egg White and Yolk - atmospheric pressure plasma jet;cooked egg;L. monocytogenes;quality;genotoxicity;
Exercise in Hypobaric, Hyperbaric, and Microgravity Environments. Definitions. Hypobaric - low atmospheric pressure Altitude Hyperbaric - high atmospheric pressure Underwater Microgravity - low gravitational force Space. Hypobaric Environment. Slideshow 1766369 by alyn
Leaves of Arrabidaea chica (Humb. Bonpl.) Verlot are rich in anthocyanins and have been used as a medicinal plant in the Amazon region. In order to obtain different extracts from this plant, a sequential extraction in fixed bed was carried out at 40 °C and 300 bar, using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in a first step, and a mixture containing CO 2/ethanol/water at mass ratios of approximately 80/20/0, 80/14/6 and 80/10/10 in a second extraction step. The residue from the second step was extracted with water at 40 C and atmospheric pressure. Ethanolic, aqueous and hydroalcoholic (70:30, v:v) extracts were also obtained by conventional extraction methods at atmospheric pressure. All extracts were analyzed for global extraction yield, total phenolic content, total flavonoids, and carajurin content. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used both to quantify carajurin, which is the main anthocyanin component of A. chica, and to monitor qualitatively two other anthocyanin pigments ...
A limitation of Sargas technology is that the system works under pressure and only a handful of coal-fired power plants so far use the so-called Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion technology -- in Sweden, Japan and Germany.. That means it can be used in new plants, including any burning natural gas, but cannot be easily retro-fitted at plants where exhaust gases come out at atmospheric pressure.. Its not a big technology for existing plants but for future plants it could be interesting ... theoretically you dont need so much energy, said Eva-Katrin Lindman, head of research and development at Fortum Varme.. Among other projects, WE Energy and Alstom Power Inc plan to start a test carbon capture facility at the Pleasant Prairie coal-fired plant in Wisconsin by the end of the year, using a system using chilled ammonia.. Sargas is working with aluminum producers Alcan and Norsk Hydro, French metals producer Eramet and Norwegian group Tinfos on plans to build a coal-fired power plant to ...
In an in vitro study with five clinical isolates of dermatophytes, the MIC50 and MIC100 values of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) ranged from 5 to16 and from 15 to 32 μg ml− 1, respectively. The combined treatment of AgNPs with atmospheric pressure-air cold plasma (APACP) induced a drop in the MIC50 and MIC100 values of AgNPs reaching 3-11 and 12-23 μg ml− 1, respectively, according to the examined species. Epidermophyton floccosum was the most sensitive fungus to AgNPs, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most tolerant. AgNPs induced significant reduction in keratinase activity and an increase in the mycelium permeability that was greater when applied combined with plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed electroporation of the cell walls and the accumulation of AgNPs on the cell wall and inside the cells, particularly when AgNPs were combined with APACP treatment. An in vivo experiment with dermatophyte-inoculated guinea pigs indicated that the application of AgNPs combined with APACP
Titan is the only moon in our Solar System with a significant atmosphere. Titans atmosphere consists mostly of nitrogen, and is so thick that the atmospheric pressure at the moons surface is about 60% greater than Earths atmospheric pressure.. Titans atmosphere also has a significant amount of methane. Bombardment of the methane by solar ultraviolet radiation has produced trace amounts of numerous other hydrocarbons. These organic molecules create several layers of smog-like haze in the moons atmosphere, obscuring views of Titans surface.. The Cassini spacecraft has observed clouds in Titans atmosphere near the moons poles. Temperatures are so cold (-178 C, -288 F) on Titan that methane is a liquid at the surface. Scientists believe that methane and ethane may fall as rain and snow from the clouds in Titans atmosphere onto its frigid surface. This image shows the predicted structure of Titans atmosphere. New results from the Huygens probe will likely revise our knowledge of the ...
An improved method and apparatus are disclosed for producing large area diamond depositions. A mixture of a carbon compound such as methane, hydrogen and argon is introduced into a DC arc plasma torch to form a plasma jet. The plasma jet is directed and trapped into a partially enclosed chemical vapor deposition zone confined within a reaction chamber of a CVD process. The chemical vapor deposition zone is formed by walls wherein at least one such wall is a rotating substrate cooled to a set temperature. The plasma jet containing radicalized hydrogen and a carbon compound is impinged on the rotating substrate to produce large area diamond layer.
The present invention relates to iodine demand disinfectants. It relates in particular to a process for preparing a polyiodide-resin for use as an iodine demand disinfectant wherein a porous strong base anion exchange resin in a salt form, is contacted with a material capable of donating a member absorbable by the resin so as to convert the resin to the polyiodide-resin. The adsorbable member is selected from the group comprising I2 and polyiodide ion having a valence of -1. The process is characterized in that conversion of the anion exchange resin to the polyiodide-resin is effected at elevated temperature and elevated pressure, the elevated temperature being 100 degrees C or higher, the elevated pressure being greater than atmospheric pressure. The present invention also relates to disinfectant substance comprising an iodine (impregnated) resin as produced by the above process.
Define compartment pressure. compartment pressure synonyms, compartment pressure pronunciation, compartment pressure translation, English dictionary definition of compartment pressure. Noun 1. compartment pressure - the air pressure maintained in an air-tight compartment air pressure, atmospheric pressure, pressure - the pressure exerted...
Electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization[edit]. Electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization have ... Holčapek, Michal; Jirásko, Robert; Lísa, Miroslav (2010). "Basic rules for the interpretation of atmospheric pressure ... Due to the high vacuum pressure in the ionization chamber, the mean free path of molecules are varying from 10 cm to 1 km and ...
The pressure they operate at-vacuum pressure (, 10 mTorr or 1 Pa), moderate pressure (≈1 Torr or 100 Pa), atmospheric pressure ... Atmospheric pressure. *Arc discharge: this is a high power thermal discharge of very high temperature (≈10,000 K). It can be ... Laroussi, M. (1996). "Sterilization of contaminated matter with an atmospheric pressure plasma". IEEE Transactions on Plasma ... Park, J.; Henins, I.; Herrmann, H. W.; Selwyn, G. S.; Hicks, R. F. (2001). "Discharge phenomena of an atmospheric pressure ...
The alveolar air pressure is therefore always close to atmospheric air pressure (about 100 kPa at sea level) at rest, with the ... However, when the atmospheric pressure (and therefore the partial pressure of O2 in the ambient air) falls to below 50-75% of ... Doing the same at 5500 m, where the atmospheric pressure is only 50 kPa, the intrapulmonary air pressure falls to 25 kPa. ... Responses to low atmospheric pressures. The alveoli are open (via the airways) to the atmosphere, with the result that alveolar ...
Atmospheric pressure[edit]. Atmospheric pressure (AP) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is an ionization ... In vacuum MALDI, ions are typically produced at 10 mTorr or less while in AP-MALDI ions are formed in atmospheric pressure. In ... Laiko, V. V.; Moyer, S. C.; Cotter, R. J. (2000). "Atmospheric pressure MALDI/ion trap mass spectrometry". Analytical Chemistry ... Laiko, V. V.; Baldwin, M. A.; Burlingame, A. L. (2000). "Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass ...
Low atmospheric pressure[edit]. The Martian atmosphere is composed mainly of carbon dioxide and has a mean surface pressure of ... thereby increasing the atmospheric pressure. This increased pressure allows more dust to be held in the atmosphere. Moisture in ... So much of the atmosphere can condense at the winter pole that the atmospheric pressure can vary by up to a third of its mean ... It is so deep that the atmospheric pressure at the bottom reaches 1155 Pa, which is above the triple point, so if the ...
Atmospheric pressure[edit]. The surface atmospheric pressure on Mars varies annually around: 6.7-8.8 mbar and 7.5-9.7 mbar; ... This model proposes downward gas flow during increase of and upward flow during decrease of atmospheric pressure. In the ... four orders of magnitude higher than the ice overburden pressure and five orders of magnitude higher than atmospheric pressure ... causing a downward gas flow during increase of and expulsion during decrease of atmospheric pressure.[7] This cycle was first ...
The atmospheric pressure at the surface of Venus is about 92 times that of the Earth, similar to the pressure found 900 m ( ... At a height of 50 km the atmospheric pressure is approximately equal to that at the surface of Earth.[20] On the night side of ... Despite the harsh conditions on the surface, the atmospheric pressure and temperature at about 50 km to 65 km above the surface ... The temperature at the surface is 740 K (467 °C, 872 °F), and the pressure is 93 bar (9.3 MPa), roughly the pressure found 900 ...
The rising water level will counteract the low atmospheric pressure such that the total pressure at some plane beneath the ... water level in the open ocean to rise in regions of low atmospheric pressure and fall in regions of high atmospheric pressure. ... This effect is estimated at a 10 mm (0.39 in) increase in sea level for every millibar (hPa) drop in atmospheric pressure.[11] ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1994). "Superstorm of March 1993" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric ...
Sublimes at standard atmospheric pressure.. Boiling point. Decomposes. Solubility in water. 0.0015 g/100 mL at 20 °C. ... Atmospheric air can be used in its place, but once reacted needs to be purified of toxins and ozone depleters such as ...
The atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. The ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ... The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,[7] which ... Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 22 (3): 225-61. Bibcode:1965JAtS...22..225B. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1965)022,0225:OTOARO, ...
Atmospheric pressure is described and its effects demonstrated. Faraday emphasizes that several of the demonstrations and ...
One kilopascal = 1% of atmospheric pressure (near sea level). Canada's oil measure, the cubic metre, is unique in the world. It ... Special production techniques to remove this gas from its coal seam reservoir include lowering reservoir pressures rather than ... biogenic gas is considered to be an unconventional gas resource since it is not generated in the same temperature and pressure ...
But diamonds (sp3C) are unstable against high temperature (above about 400 °C (752 °F)) under atmospheric pressure. The ... Above the triple point, the melting point of diamond increases slowly with increasing pressure; but at pressures of hundreds of ... below atmospheric pressure). It involves feeding a mixture of gases (typically 1 to 99 methane to hydrogen) into a chamber and ... These anvils have reached pressures of 7011600000000000000♠600 GPa.[29] Much higher pressures may be possible with ...
The pressure they operate at-vacuum pressure (, 10 mTorr or 1 Pa), moderate pressure (≈1 Torr or 100 Pa), atmospheric pressure ... Atmospheric pressure. *Arc discharge: this is a high power thermal discharge of very high temperature (≈10,000 K). It can be ... Laroussi, M. (1996). "Sterilization of contaminated matter with an atmospheric pressure plasma". IEEE Transactions on Plasma ... "Discharge phenomena of an atmospheric pressure radio-frequency capacitive plasma source". Journal of Applied Physics. 89 (1): ...
The tank is not pressurized and operates at atmospheric pressure. As soon as the pump shuts off, flow reverses and the pipes ... High pressure, sealed solar thermal systems ultimately rely on the operation of temperature and pressure relief valves. Low ... In a bubble pump system, the closed HTF circuit is under reduced pressure, which causes the liquid to boil at low temperature ... The source of electricity in an active SWH system determines the extent to which a system contributes to atmospheric carbon ...
Solubility of oceanic gases (in mL/L) with temperature at salinity of 33‰ and atmospheric pressure[43] Temperature. O2. CO2. N2 ... Typical seawater freezes at around −2 °C at atmospheric pressure.[53] If precipitation exceeds evaporation, as is the case in ... The Solar System's giant planets are also thought to have liquid atmospheric layers of yet to be confirmed compositions. Oceans ... "NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Ocean". Noaa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-08.. ...
Water, for example, will compress by only 46.4 parts per million for every unit increase in atmospheric pressure (bar).[15] At ... Pressure and buoyancy. Main article: fluid statics. In a gravitational field, liquids exert pressure on the sides of a ... Not all gases can be liquified at atmospheric pressure, however. Carbon dioxide, for example, can only be liquified at ... would be the atmospheric pressure. Static liquids in uniform gravitational fields also exhibit the phenomenon of buoyancy, ...
"Synthesis of blue luminescent Si nanoparticles using atmospheric-pressure microdischarges". Nano Letters. 5 (3): 537-541. ... "Synthesis of high purity silicon nanoparticles in a low Pressure microwave reactor". Journal of Nanoscience and Technology. 4 ( ...
Blaise Pascal carries a barometer up a church tower and a mountain to determine that atmospheric pressure is due to a column of ... Otto von Guericke demonstrates atmospheric pressure using Magdeburg hemispheres (1654). *Robert Boyle shows that the volume of ... Robert Boyle uses an air pump to determine the inverse relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas. This relationship ... François-Marie Raoult demonstrates that the decrease in the vapor pressure and freezing point of liquids caused by the addition ...
Atmospheric pressure, ocean currents and local ocean temperature changes can affect LMSL as well. ... Generally, the pressure used to set the altimeter is the barometric pressure that would exist at MSL in the region being flown ... This is because the sea is in constant motion, affected by the tides, wind, atmospheric pressure, local gravitational ... as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight ...
This is metastable at atmospheric pressure but is a powerful explosive.[80][81] ... "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 10 (21): 10655-10678. Bibcode:2010ACP....1010655P. doi:10.5194/acp-10-10655-2010.. ... Carbon monoxide occurs dissolved in molten volcanic rock at high pressures in the Earth's mantle.[54] Because natural sources ... At pressures of over 5 gigapascals, carbon monoxide converts into a solid polymer of carbon and oxygen. ...
"Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Hexagonal Boron Nitride Synthesized at Atmospheric Pressure". Science. 317 (5840): 932-934. ... Light pollution: Because white LEDs emit more short wavelength light than sources such as high-pressure sodium vapor lamps, the ...
"Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Hexagonal Boron Nitride Synthesized at Atmospheric Pressure". Science. 317 (5840): 932-934. ... So far high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS) with an orange light spectrum were the most efficient light sources commonly used in ... emit much more short wavelength light than conventional outdoor light sources such as high-pressure sodium vapor lamps, the ... High-Pressure Sodium, PC amber LEDs, and low CCT LEDs).[192] ...
a b R.A. Wolf, "Atmospheric pressure plasma for surface modification", Scrivener Publishing LLC (2013) ... At the atmospheric pressure, the high collision frequency between the electrons and the gas molecules precludes the electrons ... Typical generator of an atmospheric pressure plasma based on a high voltage electric arc discharge. The arc is burning between ... Arc discharges at the atmospheric pressure are self-sustained DC electric discharges with large electric currents, typically ...
All stations measure wind speed, direction, and gust; atmospheric pressure; and air temperature. In addition, all buoy stations ... The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather ...
Atmospheric pressure reduces with altitude and with it, the amount of oxygen.[25] The reduction in the partial pressure of ... The ambient pressure at 190 msw is sufficient to provide a partial pressure of about 0.4 bar, which is suitable for saturation ... though gases containing sufficient oxygen to reliably maintain consciousness at normal sea level atmospheric pressure may be ... More serious cases are treated with continuous positive airway pressure.[5] The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was ...
This means that at atmospheric pressure, where there are about 2×1025 molecules per cubic meter, about a fraction 10−5 of the ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Atmospheric Rayleigh scattering.. Further reading[edit]. .mw-parser-output .refbegin{ ... Seinfeld, John H. and Pandis, Spyros N. (2006) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey ... "Atmospheric effects of volcanic eruptions as seen by famous artists and depicted in their paintings" (PDF), Atmospheric ...
... when the ambient atmospheric pressure is less than usual atmospheric pressure. Thus, because of the reduced pressure, low- ... Liquids boil when the vapor pressure equals the ambient pressure and vapor pressure increases with temperature. Effectively, ... In desalination, atmospheric pressure is reduced, thus lowering the required temperature needed. ... The Passarell process uses reduced atmospheric pressure rather than heat to drive evaporative desalination. The pure water ...
The PlasmaCone® is a new inventive atmospheric pressure plasma source for applications as local or sequential plasma cleaning ... The CTBTO uses infrasound stations to monitor the Earth mainly for atmospheric explosions. ...
Atmospheric pressure plasma is well known to be highly effective in promoting oxidation, enhancing molecular dissociation, and ... ORBITECs Non-Thermal Sanitation by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma technology sanitizes fresh fruits and vegetables without the ... It can function in reduced gravity and pressure environments, and is efficient in terms of waste and resource use. During this ...
The propagation of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is investigated by use of an intensified charge coupled device ( ...
Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas are gaining increasing attention as a potential approach for the eradication and ... In this study, the activity of a kilohertz-driven atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet, operated in a helium oxygen ...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
... and atmospheric pressure photoionization for the liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometric analysis of bisphenols. ... Journal Highlight: A comparison of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and atmospheric pressure ... A comparison of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and atmospheric pressure photoionization for ... alternative ionization methods such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and APPI were investigated to analyze ...
キーワード: silkworm survival rate, DBD plasma torch, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma, ozone, discharge current ... In this study, the influence of plasma irradiation on silkworms was investigated using a non-thermal atmospheric pressure ...
Mass Spec is a recognised leader in Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisation (APCI) analysis Atmospheric Pressure Chemical ... is an ionisation method used in mass spectrometry utilising gas-phase ion-molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure. ...
... atmospheric pressure plasma jet;cooked egg;L. monocytogenes;quality;genotoxicity; ... Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet on Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, Quality, and Genotoxicity of Cooked Egg ... Effect of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on the foodborne pathogens attached to commercial food containers, Journal of Food ... Song, H. P., Kim, B., Choe, J. H., Jung, S., Moon, S. Y., Choe, W., and Jo, C. (2009a) Evaluation of atmospheric pressure ...
In addition, some of the plates incubated under elevated hydrostatic pressure were transferred to normal atmospheric pressure ... The elevated hydrostatic pressure model used in our experiments in which 50 mm Hg pressure was applied for up to 6 hours ... Control cells were incubated at atmospheric pressure. The viability of the cells was examined using their intracellular ... Effects of elevated hydrostatic pressure on F-actin cytoskeleton. (A) Human trabecular meshwork cells incubated at atmospheric ...
... it grows better at elevated hydrostatic pressure than at atmospheric pressure. P. profundum SS9 can grow at pressures ranging ... The experiment was carried out at 28 MPa (optimal growth pressure for P. profundum SS9) and at 0.1 MPa (atmospheric pressure). ... Growth of microorganisms at pressure is achieved using a pressure vessel. The steel pressure vessel used in this work is ... This should result in the same growth rate as our sealed microplate method (at atmospheric pressure) and thus acts as a control ...
... a technique that offers improved sensitivity over atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI. Other benefits of the technology include:. ...
Most typical indications for HBOT involve the use of hyperbaric pressures above 2.0 atm. Higher atmospheric pressures are ... This present study examined hyperbaric therapy at the low and the high ends of the ranges of atmospheric pressures and oxygen ... In this study, children with autism were treated with HBOT at atmospheric pressures and oxygen concentrations in current use ... In this study, lower hyperbaric pressures were used than those traditionally employed (typically pressures of 2.0 atm and above ...
Mechanism of Action of HBOT? : At hyperbaric (higher than atmospheric) pressures, gases can accumulate at higher concentrations ... oxygen under increased atmospheric pressure in a controlled total body chamber, to treat patients. ...
Lee HJ, Shon CH, Kim YS, et al: Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure ... Cell treatment and surface functionalization using a miniature atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma torch. J Phys D Appl ... Cold atmospheric plasma treatment selectively targets head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. *Authors: *Rafael Guerrero- ... Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is an ionized gas produced at room temperature under laboratory conditions. We have previously ...
An ATA is defined as the atmospheric pressure at sea level and is equivalent to 101.3 kilopascals or about 14.7 pounds per ... During 10 days, they received HBO for 90 minutes each day, the applied pressure was 1.55 bar.. Table 1 Patient data ... The safety and effect of topically applied recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor on the healing of chronic pressure sores ...
Patients breathe pure 100 percent oxygen under atmospheric pressure up to three times higher than normal, which significantly ...
The mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) is the average atmospheric pressure at sea level. This is the atmospheric pressure normally ... Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of ... Atmospheric calculator and Geometric to Pressure altitude converter. Experiments[edit]. *Movies on atmospheric pressure ... As altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases. One can calculate the atmospheric pressure at a given altitude.[6] ...
Atmospheric-pressure plasma (or AP plasma or normal pressure plasma) is a plasma in which the pressure approximately matches ... Atmospheric-pressure plasmas have prominent technical significance because in contrast with low-pressure plasma or high- ... pressure plasma no reaction vessel is needed to ensure the maintenance of a pressure level differing from atmospheric pressure ... "Atmospheric-pressure plasma" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this ...
Atmospheric Pressure is currently unavailable to stream on-demand, but may be available on Hulu with Live TV depending on ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Atmospheric pressure. ... Immediately download the Atmospheric pressure summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character ... Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric pressure is the weight that the atmosphere exerts upon us. The measured value of the ... Atmospheric pressure Summary. Everything you need to understand or teach Atmospheric pressure. ...
App Feeds Scientists Atmospheric Data from Thousands of Smartphones. PressureNet shows the potential of distributed sensing ...
... between the wind and the pressure gradient is a right angle. This is almost exactly true in the free atmosphere, but not near ... Pressure-gradient force. atmospheric science. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica does not currently have an article on this ... Around a low-pressure centre, the pressure-gradient force directed inward balances the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force ... In ocean current: Pressure gradients. The hydrostatic pressure, p, at any depth below the sea surface is given by the equation ...
The mean sea level pressure (MSLP) is the average atmospheric pressure at sea level. This is the atmospheric pressure normally ... See pressure system for the effects of air pressure variations on weather. Atmospheric pressure shows a diurnal or semidiurnal ... Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of ... As altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases. One can calculate the atmospheric pressure at a given altitude. ...
Atmospheric and Air Pressure.. Download Free Barometer - Atmospheric and Air Pressure. and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and ... Free Barometer - Atmospheric and Air Pressure. 4+ margaret kovatch * * 1.0, 1 Rating. ...
  • Biochemists at Lancaster Laboratories are successfully characterizing proteins, complex carbohydrates and nucleic acids by developing and validating new methods for determining molecular weights using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The Applied Biosystems Voyager DE PRO Workstation in use at Lancaster Laboratories features vacuum MALDI as its method of ionization, a technique that offers improved sensitivity over atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI. (eurofinsus.com)
  • When the hydrostatic pressure was increased from 0.1 MPa to 28 MPa, growth of P. profundum SS9 was largely unaffected at intermediate salt concentrations (200-400 mM NaCl), but growth was strongly inhibited at higher NaCl concentration, compared to the results at 0.1 MPa. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Microorganisms display an astonishing ability to survive and proliferate under extreme environmental conditions, including high and low temperatures, high acidity or alkalinity, high salt concentrations, and high hydrostatic pressure. (bmglabtech.com)
  • It can function in reduced gravity and pressure environments, and is efficient in terms of waste and resource use. (sbir.gov)
  • An ATA is defined as the atmospheric pressure at sea level and is equivalent to 101.3 kilopascals or about 14.7 pounds per square inch. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Atmospheric pressure plasma is well known to be highly effective in promoting oxidation, enhancing molecular dissociation, and producing free radicals and other types of high energies. (sbir.gov)
  • This study requires us to grow P. profundum SS9 under a range of conditions of hydrostatic and osmotic pressure in the lab. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), is a non-thermal plasma that has been shown to be highly effective in germicidal irradiation and sterilization, wound healing, blood coagulation, material surface modifications and crosslinking, as well as in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer ( 9 - 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
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