Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Reproducibility of Results
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Sensitivity and Specificity
Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Encyclopedias as Topic
Analytic Sample Preparation Methods
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Chronic activation of neurokinin-1 receptor induces pulmonary hypertension in rats. (1/437)In this study we explored the hypothesis that chronic activation of neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor induces pulmonary hypertension in Wistar rats. First, the activation of NK-1 receptor on the pulmonary circulation was investigated by use of a chronic injection of NK-1 agonist [Ser9,Met(O2)11]-substance P (1 x 10(-9) mol/kg) for 2 wk at sea level (rats breathed room air) and during hypoxia (rats were placed in a hypobaric 380-Torr chamber). Second, we studied the effect of NK-1 antagonist (CP-96345) on developing and developed (after 4 wk of chronic hypoxia) pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary arterial pressure, the weight ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle + septum, hematocrit, and substance P (SP) were measured. We found that NK-1 agonist significantly increased pulmonary arterial pressure in the sea-level but not in the hypoxic group. However, NK-1 agonist induced neither right heart hypertrophy nor polycythemia. CP-96345 significantly decreased pulmonary arterial pressure in the hypoxic group but had no effect in the sea-level group. Furthermore, CP-96345 significantly attenuated the acute SP-induced increase in pulmonary arterial pressure in the sea-level and hypoxic groups, with a larger increase in the hypoxic group. These results suggest that chronic activation of NK-1 receptor induces pulmonary hypertension and that there is an increase in the sensitivity of pulmonary vessels in response to SP in chronically hypoxic rats. (+info)
Particulate air pollution and daily mortality on Utah's Wasatch Front. (2/437)Reviews of daily time-series mortality studies from many cities throughout the world suggest that daily mortality counts are associated with short-term changes in particulate matter (PM) air pollution. One U.S. city, however, with conspicuously weak PM-mortality associations was Salt Lake City, Utah; however, relatively robust PM-mortality associations have been observed in a neighboring metropolitan area (Provo/Orem, Utah). The present study explored this apparent discrepancy by collecting, comparing, and analyzing mortality, pollution, and weather data for all three metropolitan areas on Utah's Wasatch Front region of the Wasatch Mountain Range (Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem) for approximately 10 years (1985-1995). Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used to estimate PM-mortality associations while controlling for seasonality, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Salt Lake City experienced substantially more episodes of high PM that were dominated by windblown dust. When the data were screened to exclude obvious windblown dust episodes and when PM data from multiple monitors were used to construct an estimate of mean exposure for the area, comparable PM-mortality effects were estimated. After screening and by using constructed mean PM [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) data, the estimated percent change in mortality associated with a 10-mg/m3 increase in PM10 (and 95% confidence intervals) for the three Wasatch Front metropolitan areas equaled approximately 1. 6% (0.3-2.9), 0.8% (0.3-1.3), and 1.0% (0.2-1.8) for the Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem areas, respectively. We conclude that stagnant air pollution episodes with higher concentrations of primary and secondary combustion-source particles were more associated with elevated mortality than windblown dust episodes with relatively higher concentrations of coarse crustal-derived particles. (+info)
Unhealthy effects of atmospheric temperature and pressure on the occurrence of myocardial infarction and coronary deaths. A 10-year survey: the Lille-World Health Organization MONICA project (Monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease). (3/437)BACKGROUND: Associations between an increase in coronary heart disease occurrence and low atmospheric temperatures have been reported from mortality data and hospital admission registries. However, concomitant increases in noncardiovascular case fatality rates and selection bias of hospital cases may weaken this observation. In this study, we addressed the question of the relationships between fatal and nonfatal coronary diseases and meteorological variables in 10-year data (1985 to 1994) collected in a morbidity registry (Lille-WHO MONICA Project) monitoring 257 000 men from 25 to 64 years of age. METHODS AND RESULTS: The impacts of atmospheric temperature (in Celsius) and pressure (in millibars) on daily rates of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary deaths were studied. Percentages of variation of event rates according to meteorological variations were derived from the relative risks estimated with a Poisson regression model. During the 10-year longitudinal survey, 3616 events occurred. Rates of events decreased linearly with increasing atmospheric temperature. For atmospheric pressure, we detected a V-shaped relationship, with a minimum of daily event rates at 1016 mbar. A 10 degrees C decrease was associated with a 13% increase in event rates (P<0.0001); a 10-mbar decrease <1016 mbar and a 10-mbar increase >1016 mbar were associated with a 12% increase (P=0.001) and an 11% increase (P=0. 01) in event rates, respectively. These effects were independent and influenced both coronary morbidity and mortality rates, with stronger effects in older age groups and for recurrent events. CONCLUSIONS: This longitudinal study is the first to estimate the attributable effect of meteorological variables on MI morbidity in population and strongly argues for a systematic fight against cold in cardiovascular disease prevention, particularly in older ages and after a first MI. (+info)
Changes in c-Fos expression induced by noxious stimulation in the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and C1 spinal neurons of rats after hyperbaric exposure. (4/437)The present study aims to test the hypothesis that hyperbaric exposure inhibits nociceptive processing in the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and C1 spinal neurons. We investigated the c-Fos-like immunoreactivity of the brainstem and upper cervical spinal cord (C1 region) following an injection of mustard oil (15 microliters of 20%) into the nasal mucosa of pentobarbital anesthetized rats after exposure to hyperbaric (2-atmospheres, 1 h) and normobaric pressures. After the hyperbaric exposure, the mean number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the ipsilateral laminae I-II and III-IV of the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis were significantly lower than those in the normobaric condition. Similarly, the mean number of c-Fos positive neurons in the superficial layer (I-II) of the ipsilateral C1 segment were significantly reduced as compared with that in the normobaric condition. When treated with the vehicle alone, no significant difference was detected in the numbers of c-Fos positive neurons in the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and C1 regions between hyperbaric and normobaric conditions. These results suggest that hyperbaric exposure may attenuate nociceptive signals from the area innervated by the trigeminal nerves at the level of both the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and C1 dorsal horn. (+info)
Tissue factor activity is increased in human endothelial cells cultured under elevated static pressure. (5/437)We tested the hypothesis that elevated blood pressure, a known stimulus for vascular remodeling and an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic disease, can modulate basal and cytokine-induced tissue factor (TF; CD 142) expression in cultured human endothelial cells (EC). Using a chromogenic enzymatic assay, we measured basal and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; 10 ng/ml, 5 h)-induced TF activities in human aortic EC (HAEC) and vena cava EC (HVCEC) cultured at atmospheric pressure and at 170 mmHg imposed pressure for up to 48 h. Basal TF activities were 22 +/- 10 U/mg protein for HAEC and 14 +/- 9 U/mg protein for HVCEC and were upregulated in both cell types >10-fold by TNF-alpha. Exposure to pressure for 5 h induced additional elevation of basal TF activity by 47 +/- 16% (P < 0.05, n = 6) for HAEC and 17 +/- 5% (P < 0.05, n = 3) for HVCEC. Pressurization also enhanced TF activity in TNF-alpha-treated cells from 240 +/- 28 to 319 +/- 32 U/mg protein in HAEC (P < 0.05, n = 4) and from 148 +/- 25 to 179 +/- 0.8 U/mg protein (P < 0.05, n = 3) in HVCEC. Cytokine stimulation caused an approximately 100-fold increase in steady-state TF mRNA levels in HAEC, whereas pressurization did not alter either TF mRNA or cell surface antigen expression, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR methodology and ELISA. Elevated pressure, however, modulated the EC plasma membrane organization and/or permeability as inferred from the increased cellular uptake of the fluorescent amphipathic dye merocyanine 540 (33 +/- 7%, P < 0.05). Our data suggest that elevated static pressure modulates the hemostatic potential of vascular cells by modifying the molecular organization of the plasma membrane. (+info)
Influence of environmental temperature on incidence of indinavir-related nephrolithiasis. (6/437)We analyzed the influence of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure on the 1-year incidence of nephrolithiasis among human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients treated with indinavir. One hundred three patients (13.6%) developed 326 episodes of nephrolithiasis. Eighty-two patients (79.6%) had more than one episode (range, two to seven episodes). The overall incidence ranged from 0 to 10.2 episodes per 100 patients exposed per month. There was a significant correlation between temperature and the overall incidence of nephrolithiasis and the incidence of recurrences but not with the incidence of first episodes. Nephrolithiasis was not related to humidity or atmospheric pressure. Our data support the standard recommendation of drinking at least 1.5 L of water daily to prevent nephrolithiasis in most patients treated with indinavir irrespective of meteorologic factors. However, the risk of nephrolithiasis is higher for a certain subgroup of patients when the environment is hot irrespective of adequate water intake. (+info)
Effect of increased pressure on tracheal ciliary beat frequency. (7/437)Effects of increased ambient pressure on mucociliary clearance have been poorly investigated. The effects of increasing pressures on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of guinea-pig tracheal rings were studied in vitro. Increased pressures of 25 and 100 kPa induced a significant and equivalent enhancement of CBF from 30 min after the pressure increase. The increase in CBF observed after a pressure increase of 50 kPa (inspiratory oxygen fraction = 21%), was significantly greater than that observed with an equivalent oxygen tension at atmospheric pressure, i.e. with a gas mixture containing 30% oxygen. Addition of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) inhibited the enhancement in CBF observed after the 25 kPa pressure increase. Addition of L-arginine reversed the effect of L-NAME. These results demonstrate that a pressure increase applied to tracheal rings, in vitro, induces an enhancement of ciliary beat frequency and that generation of nitric oxide may be involved in this ciliary stimulation. (+info)
Intrapulmonary gas mixing and the sloping alveolar plateau in COPD patients with macroscopic emphysema. (8/437)Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, especially those with emphysema, show steep slopes of the alveolar plateau (S). This study tested the hypothesis that continued gas exchange between poorly and well-ventilated lung units by means of collateral ventilation would contribute to S in these patients. Nine young volunteers, nine older volunteers and 11 patients with macroscopic emphysema performed wash-out tests with helium (He) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). S was determined for breaths 1-5 (range 1), and for breaths between 95% and 98% of complete wash-out (range 2). An unequal ventilation index (UVI) was defined as the ratio between the estimated mean alveolar pressure and the end tidal pressure (PET) of each tracer gas, calculated over range 2. Over the same range, a phase III ratio was calculated by dividing PET by the estimated pressure at Fowler dead space. In all groups of subjects, the S for He and SF6 were greater for range 2 than for range 1 (p< or =0.012). In the emphysema patients, the correlations between S and UVI were 0.72 for He (p=0.012) and 0.81 for SF6 (p=0.002), while the mean phase III ratios were 1.7 for He and 2.4 for SF6, much less than their theoretical maxima. It was concluded that in patients collateral ventilation may account for only a small part of the increase in the alveolar plateau slope between ranges 1 and 2, and that this increase was mainly caused by unequal ventilation in combination with sequential emptying of lung units. The degree of sequential emptying, however, was modest compared with its full potential. (+info)
On-line atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry - Research Collection
Journal Highlight: A comparison of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and atmospheric pressure...
A comparison of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and atmospheric pressure photoionization for the liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometric analysis of bisphenols. Application to bisphenols in thermal paper receipts and U.S. currency notes Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry , 2017, 31 , 17731778 Henry...
Mass Spec Analytical - Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisation (APCI)
Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisation (APCI) is an ionisation method used in mass spectrometry utilising gas-phase ion-molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure. Ionisation is effected using a corona discharge. This is a method of soft ionisation, where little fragmentation occurs in the source of the mass spectrometer.. Mass Spec uses APCI for trace analysis - primarily for drugs detection, but can be used for a wide range of other substances.. ...
The Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by LC/MS/MS Using ,,, an Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization...
... ... ... The atmospheric pressure photoionization source PhotoSp... Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydroc...,The,Analysis,of,Polycyclic,Aromatic,Hydrocarbons,(PAHs),by,LC/MS/MS,Using,,,,,,,,,,,,an,Atmospheric,Pressure,Photoionization,Source,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Hypobaric Biology: Arabidopsis Gene Expression at Low Atmospheric Pressure | Plant Physiology
Interest in the exploration of environments beyond Earths atmosphere has brought unique challenges to bear on the understanding of the biological systems that will inhabit those environments. Among these challenges are alterations in atmospheric pressure, which are known to have effects on plant physiology and development (Mansell et al., 1968; Gale, 1973; Andre and Richaux, 1986; McKay and Toon, 1991; Andre and Massimino, 1992; Wheeler, 2000; He et al., 2003). Concepts for greenhouses on Mars, on the moon, and in Earth orbit incorporate low atmospheric pressures to address engineering and systems limitations (Boston, 1981; Drysdale, 2001).. Historically, low-pressure environments have been used throughout the U.S. human space exploration programs to reduce the masses of structural and consumable components of space vehicles. Such reductions have resulted in increased mission lengths and/or increased masses of launched payloads. For example, the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo environments were ...
Rapid Screening of Sulfur Fumigated Chinese Star Anises by Surface Desorption Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass...
Without any sample pretreatment,the mass spectral fingerprints of sulfur fumigated Chinese star anises and untreated samples were rapidly obtained in either a positive or negative ion detection mode with a home-made surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization(DAPCI) source.The DAPCI-MS raw data were further analyzed by principal component analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA),and several unknown samples were successfully discriminated using the PCA model.The results showed that the DAPCI-MS was able to detect some characteristic chemicals from the Chinese star anises surface and identify the components by tandem mass spectrometry(MS/MS).The further principal component analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA) of MS fingerprints allow a confident discrimination of sulfur fumigated star anise samples from the non-sulfur fumigated samples.The method developed here is attractive to provide a fast and effective way to screen sulfur fumigated products with sufficient sensitivity and no toxin
Analysis of Underivatized Amphetamines and Related Phenethylamines with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Atmospheric...
Amphetamine, methamphetamine, illicit designer phenethylamines (MDA, MDEA, MDMA, MBDB, and BDMPEA), and other phenethylamines (benzyl-1-phenylethylamine, cathinone, ephedrine, fenfluramine, norfenfluramine, phentermine, 1-phenylethylamine, phenylpropanolamine, and propylhexedrine) were extracted from serum using a solid-phase extraction procedure. The extracts were examined with high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS). The drugs were separated on ODS column in acetonitrile/50mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.0) (25:75) as a mobile phase. Full-scan mass spectra of drugs examined by means of APCI with collision-induced dissociation showed protonated molecular ions and fragments typical for particular drugs. LC-APCI-MS allowed an unequivocal differentiation of all drugs involved. The quantitation was performed using selected ion monitoring of protonated molecular ions and fragments of drugs involved and their deuterated ...
Atmospheric pressure - Wikipedia
The mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) is the average atmospheric pressure at mean sea level. This is the atmospheric pressure normally given in weather reports on radio, television, and newspapers or on the Internet. When barometers in the home are set to match the local weather reports, they measure pressure adjusted to sea level, not the actual local atmospheric pressure. The altimeter setting in aviation is an atmospheric pressure adjustment. Average sea-level pressure is 1013.25 mbar (101.325 kPa; 29.921 inHg; 760.00 mmHg). In aviation, weather reports (METAR), QNH is transmitted around the world in millibars or hectopascals (1 hectopascal = 1 millibar), except in the United States, Canada, and Colombia where it is reported in inches of mercury (to two decimal places). The United States and Canada also report sea-level pressure SLP, which is adjusted to sea level by a different method, in the remarks section, not in the internationally transmitted part of the code, in hectopascals or ...
Low atmospheric pressure system for stunning broiler chickens
Council Regulation (EC) No 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing lists in Annex I the stunning interventions currently allowed in the EU, together with the related conditions under which those interventions can be implemented. The regulation allows the Commission to amend Annex I, listing additional stunning interventions, provided they ensure a level of animal welare at least equivalent to that ensured by the one already approved. EFSA was requested to perform such assessment with regard to the implementation of the low atmospheric pressure stunning (LAPS) system on broiler chickens. The ad hoc Working Group (WG) set up by EFSA performed the assessment in three main steps, i.e. checking the data provided against the criteria laid down in the EFSA Guidance (EFSA AHAW Panel, 2013); running an extensive literature search, followed by data extraction and performing a judgemental ranking exercise based on expert opinion. As main outcome, the LAPS intervention was found to be ...
Gas Chromatography-Microchip Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Mass Spectrometry
The boiling point of liquid helium is 4^0K at atmospheric pressure. What is the temperature on (a) Celsius scale & (b) a...
Find right answers right now! The boiling point of liquid helium is 4^0K at atmospheric pressure. What is the temperature on (a) Celsius scale & (b) a Fahrenheit scale ? More questions about Science & Mathematics, what
08/21/1992 - The PSM standard involving flammable liquid stored at atmospheric pressure at or above the threshold quantity of...
08/21/1992 - The PSM standard involving flammable liquid stored at atmospheric pressure at or above the threshold quantity of 10,000 pounds.
Plasma Sterilization Using the High Voltage Pulsed Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure
Abstract: Rapid, safe and effective sterilization of harmful microorganisms is important for the public in general and hospital patients in particular. Non-equilibrium gaseous discharges have been found to be effective agents for sterilization. The ability to generate these discharges at atmospheric pressure makes the sterilization process practical and inexpensive. Cold plasmas generated by such discharges make their use suitable for applications where medium preservation is desired. In addition, these cold plasmas proved to be very effective due to the synergistic effects of active species, charged particles and UV photons which interact with the cells of microorganisms on the atomic and molecular levels. In this study, a high voltage pulsed plasma sterilization method, a simple and efficient way, was tried on the Staphylococcus aureus. ...
Nanomaterials | Free Full-Text | Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes in Thermal Plasma Reactor at Atmospheric Pressure
In this paper, a novel approach to the synthesis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in reactors operating at atmospheric pressure is presented. Based on the literature and our own research results, the most effective methods of CNT synthesis are investigated. Then, careful selection of reagents for the synthesis process is shown. Thanks to the performed calculations, an optimum composition of gases and the temperature for successful CNT synthesis in the CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process can be chosen. The results, having practical significance, may lead to an improvement of nanomaterials synthesis technology. The study can be used to produce CNTs for electrical and electronic equipment (i.e., supercapacitors or cooling radiators). There is also a possibility of using them in medicine for cancer diagnostics and therapy.
Astronomers Develop New Method of Gauging the Atmospheric Pressure of Exoplanets
With the aid of computer simulations of the chemistry of Earths own atmosphere that isolate what are called dimer molecules, astronomers developed a new method of gauging the atmospheric pressure of exoplanets.. Astronomers at the University of Washington have developed a new method of gauging the atmospheric pressure of exoplanets, or worlds beyond the solar system, by looking for a certain type of molecule.. And if there is life out in space, scientists may one day use this same technique to detect its biosignature - the telltale chemical signs of its presence - in the atmosphere of an alien world.. Understanding atmospheric pressure is key to knowing if conditions at the surface of a terrestrial, or rocky, exoplanet might allow liquid water, thus giving life a chance.. The method, devised by Amit Misra, a UW astronomy doctoral student, and co-authors, involves computer simulations of the chemistry of Earths own atmosphere that isolate what are called dimer molecules - pairs of molecules ...
atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) - Open access EPFL Mass Spectrometry tools
Chemical ionization of a sample that is a gas or nebulized liquid, using an atmospheric pressure corona discharge or beta emitter
Atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization - Wikipedia
Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) is an ionization method used in mass spectrometry which utilizes gas-phase ion-molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure (105 Pa), commonly coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). APCI is a soft ionization method similar to chemical ionization where primary ions are produced on a solvent spray. The main usage of APCI is for polar and relatively less polar thermally stable compounds with molecular weight less than 1500 Da. The application of APCI with HPLC has gained a large popularity in trace analysis detection such as steroids, pesticides and also in pharmacology for drug metabolites. A typical APCI usually consists of three main parts: a nebulizer probe which can be heated to 350-500oC, an ionization region with a corona discharge needle, and an ion-transfer region under intermediate pressure. The analyte in solution is introduced from a direct inlet probe or a liquid chromatography (LC) eluate into a pneumatic nebulizer ...
Ambient pressure - Wikipedia
The SI unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa), which is a very small unit relative to atmospheric pressure on Earth, so kilopascals (kPa) are more commonly used in this context. The ambient atmospheric pressure at sea level is not constant: it varies with the weather, but averages around 100 kPa. In fields such as meteorology and underwater diving, it is common to see ambient pressure expressed in bar or millibar. One bar is 100 kPa or approximately ambient pressure at sea level. Ambient pressure may in other circumstances be measured in pounds per square inch (psi) or in standard atmospheres (atm). The ambient pressure at sea level is approximately one atmosphere, which is equal to 1.01325 bars (14.6959 psi), which is close enough for bar and atm to be used interchangeably in many applications.. ...
A study of the glow discharge characteristics of contact electrodes at atmospheric pressure in air (Journal Article) | SciTech...
Electric field distributions and discharge properties of rod-rod contact electrodes were studied under the condition of DBD for the steady generation of atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma (APGD) in air. We found that under the effect of the initial electrons generated in a nanometer-scale gap, the rod-rod cross-contact electrodes yielded APGD plasma in air. Regarding the rod-rod cross-contact electrodes, increasing the working voltage expanded the strong electric field area of the gas gap so that both discharge area and discharge power increased, and the increase in the number of contact points kept the initial discharge voltage unchanged and caused an increase in the plasma discharge area and discharge power. A mesh-like structure of cross-contact electrodes was designed and used to generate more APGD plasma, suggesting high applicability. ...
Development of LC/MS/MS Methods for Cocktail Dosed Caco-2 Samples Using Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization and Electrospray...
Questions About Atmospheric Pressure Answered on Big Island | Hawaii News and Island Information
My ears pop all the time when Im driving around Hawaii. I can get my ears to pop at least once driving from Hilo to Pahoa.. My mom lives about 3 miles up Waianuenue… and my ears can pop just from driving from Bayfront, up to her house.. Im curious if atmospheric pressure has anything to do with it? When I lived on the mainland, it hardly seems like I can remember my ears popping.. For over two centuries, meteorologists were puzzled by the observation that atmospheric pressure in the tropics peaks at 10 a.m. and 10 p.m ...
Immediately download the Atmospheric pressure summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching Atmospheric pressure.
Repositorio da Producao Cientifica e Intelectual da Unicamp: Dimerization of ionized 4-(methyl mercapto)-phenol during ESI,...
A novel ion/molecule reaction was observed to occur under electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photo ionization (APPI) conditions, leading to dimerization of ionized 4-(methyl mercapto)-phenol followed by fast H(center dot) loss. The reaction is particularly favored during ESI, which suggests that this ion/molecule reaction can occur both in the solution inside the ESI-charged droplets and in the gas-phase environment of most other atmospheric pressure ionization techniques. The dimerization reaction is inherent to the electrolytic process during ESI, whereas it is more by ion/molecule chemistry in nature during APCI and APPI. From the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data, accurate mass measurements, hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, two methyl sulfonium ions appear to be the most likely products of this electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The possible ...
Anabolic steroids in doping control: GC/MS with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation - Ezine - spectroscopyNOW.com
Testing for anabolic steroids The performance-enhancing properties of anabolic steroids are so well established that they have been banned in sports for almost 30 years. Even so, their lure has been too strong for many sportsmen and women and WADA statistics show that they remain the most detected group of banned substances. The task of spotting...
On the Active Species Concentrations of Atmospheric Pressure Nonequilibrium Plasma Jets - IEEE Journals & Magazine
Atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma jets (APNP-Js), which generate plasma in open space rather than in a confined discharge gap, are recently a topi
Alchohol in low atmospheric pressure/vacuum | Page 2 | Sciforums
|attempt at explanation that would get you an F in 9th grade science snipped| Look, Ive tried to be nice here, but you keep insisting that youre right...
BACKBREAKDOWN PHENOMENON IN LOW CURRENT DISCHARGE AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IN TRANSVERSAL FLOW - 高温材料处理：国际期刊, 卷 3, 1999, 册 2-3 -...
One of the main challenges of modern plasma chemistry is to develop a powerful and high pressure discharge generating a non equilibrium cold plasma for chemical...
18 matching references were found. Kalinowska, B.; Jedlinska, J.; Woycicki, W.; Stecki, J., Heat capacities of liquids at temperatures between 90 and 300 K and at atmospheric pressure. I. Method and apparatus, and the heat capacities of n-heptane, n-hexane, and n-propanol, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1980, 12, 891-896. [all data] Stecki, J., Heteroazeotropic Binary Systems III. Series of (A,Hi) Systems Formed by Regular Solutions, Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Cl. 3, 1957, 5, 161. [all data] Swietoslawski, W.; Stecki, J., Series of Binary Mixtures with Limited Mutual SOlubility, Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Cl. 3, 1957, 5, 155. [all data] Zamojski, W.; Stecki, J., The microgravimetric method for determination of virial coefficients of vapors, Pol. J. Chem., 1982, 56, 563-8. [all data] Kalinowska, B.; Jedlinska, J.; Stecki, J.; Woycicki, W., Heat capacities of liquids in the temperature interval between 90 and 300 k and at atmospheric pressure: II heat capacities and excess heat capacities of propan-1-ol + ...
Atmospheric Pressure | NWCG
According to the American Meteorological Society, (also called barometric pressure), the net force per unit area exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the column of air lying directly above the point in question. Atmospheric pressure is independent of the orientation of the surface on which it acts. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Atmospheric_pressure ...
Atmospheric Pressure - Windows to the Universe
Pressure is an idea scientists use to describe how gases and liquids push on things. The atmosphere has pressure. This pressure changes if you go different places on Earth. Imagine your home is very near sea level and that it is mild day (about 60oF).. If you go to a place that is high in the mountains, it will have less pressure then at your home. If it gets really, really cold at your house, there will be less pressure. If a low pressure system passes over your house, the pressure will be less. If a high pressure system is passing over your house, that will make the pressure go up. Atmospheric pressure is measured in many different ways ...
GasExchange BigIdea&WordList - atmospheric pressure 10 Describe how the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide vary...
View Notes - GasExchange_BigIdea&WordList from EE ee at UCSD. atmospheric pressure. 10. Describe how the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide vary as blood traces a complete circuit
How to determine the atmospheric pressure - Tips for your life
take readings of the pressure on the scale barograph is also very simple.This device is based on the action of the diaphragm box that reacts to changes in air pressure.If the pressure is increased - the walls of the box bend inward if pressure drops - the walls are straightened.The whole system is connected with an arrow, and you just have to see what the atmospheric pressure arrow points on the scale of the instrument.Do not be alarmed if the scale is in units such as the HPA - a hectopascal: 1 hPa = 100 Pa.And for the transfer to the more familiar mmHgsimply use the equation from the previous item ...
PPT - To learn about atmospheric pressure and how barometers work To learn the units of pressure PowerPoint Presentation - ID...
Objectives 13.1 Describing the Properties of Gases. To learn about atmospheric pressure and how barometers work To learn the units of pressure To understand how the pressure and volume of a gas are related To do calculations involving Boyles Law To learn about absolute zero...
Barometers, Atmospheric Pressure, and Pressure Units
Below are checklists of Barometers, atmospheric pressure, and pressure units on postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.). Catalog numbers, years of issue, and notes on the items featured are given when available. If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page. See also the following topics on the Weather Maps page: ...
NDBC - 5-day plot - Wind Speed, Wind Gust and Atmospheric Pressure at ERXA2
National Data Buoy Center - 5-day plot - Wind Speed, Wind Gust and Atmospheric Pressure at C-MAN station ERXA2 (58.971N 135.221W) - Eldred Rock MXAK, AK.
NDBC - 5-day plot - Wind Speed, Wind Gust and Atmospheric Pressure at CHDS1
National Data Buoy Center - 5-day plot - Wind Speed, Wind Gust and Atmospheric Pressure at station CHDS1 (33.661N 82.199W) - Strom Thurmond Dam, SC.
How does atmospheric pressure affect the boiling point of a liquid? | Reference.com
An increase in atmospheric pressure raises the boiling point of a liquid by raising the vapor pressure of the water above the liquid. This increases the amount of thermal energy needed to increase...
Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults
We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 an …
Thermal Physics | At 100 K and 0.1 atmospheric pressure the volu-askIITians
1 Expert Answers - At 100 K and 0.1 atmospheric pressure the volume of helium gas is 10 litres If the volume and press. Answer this question and win exciting prizes
Comparative analysis of variance of several flexible contact lens materials to gas permeability at normal atmospheric pressure...
|p|Comparative analysis of variance of several flexible contact lens materials to gas permeability at normal atmospheric pressure relative to state of hydr...
Reactive evaporation of metal wire and microdeposition of metal oxide using atmospheric pressure reactive microplasma jet -...
We developed a safe technique without using a toxic gas source to deposit tungsten oxide on a localized specific area using an atmospheric pressure microplasma jet. In this technique, a consumable tungsten wire, inserted into a quartz nozzle for microplasma generation, was etched with an O-2/Ar microplasma, and the resultant tungsten oxide was deposited on the substrate placed downstream. The process mechanism was determined by the detailed observation of the deposit and consumed wire surface after processing, and optical emission spectroscopy. This technique is expected to be utilized for the localized deposition of a variety of metal oxides by varying the kind of consumable metal wire. ...
Waters Atmospheric Pressure Gas Chromatography: No-Compromise GC/MS | SelectScience
Watch this video to learn about Waters Waters Atmospheric Pressure Gas Chromatography (APGC). Whether you need to reach ultra-trace levels in complex samples or perform a complete UPLC, UPC2 & GC screen to get all the information from your sample, Waters APGC brings advanced MS technologies previously unavailable to GC users.
Watch Atmospheric Pressure Savagely Crush A Steel Barrel - videosfortube | Unblock Youtube
Street Science | Wednesdays 10p Full Episodes Streaming FREE: https://www.sciencechannel.com/tv-shows/street-science/ The Street Science team crush a barrel using atmospheric pressure. Subscribe to Science Channel: http://bit.ly/SubscribeScience Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ScienceChannel Twitter: https://twitter.com/ScienceChannel
Atmospheric Pressure | Hulu
Atmospheric Pressure is currently unavailable to stream on-demand, but may be available on Hulu with Live TV depending on regional availability. Try Live TV for free.
Linezolid (Zyvox), the first of a new class of antibiotics, the oxazolidinones, is approved for treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections, including resistant strains. The disposition of linezolid in human volunteers was determined, after a 500-mg (100-μCi) oral dose of [14C]linezolid. Radioactive linezolid was administered as a single dose, or at steady-state on day 4 of a 10-day, 500-mg b.i.d. regimen of unlabeled linezolid (n = 4/sex/regimen). Mean recovery of radioactivity in excreta was 93.8 ± 1.1% (range 91.2-95.2%, n = 15), of which 83.9 ± 3.3% (range 76.7-88.4%) was in urine and 9.9 ± 3.4% (range 5.3-16.9%) was in feces. There was no major difference in rate or route of excretion of radioactivity by dose regimen. Linezolid was excreted primarily intact, and as two inactive, morpholine ring-oxidized metabolites, PNU-142586 and PNU-142300. Other minor metabolites were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass ...
Emerging role of clinical mass spectrometry in pathology | Journal of Clinical Pathology
Significant caveats of the current MSI field are the need to process samples for MS analysis, increased turnaround time and limited utility of the technique to assess processed tissue specimens. To enrich the influence of MSI in the clinic, there is a desire for direct, real-time and rapid analysis of unprocessed samples. More recently, atmospheric pressure ambient ionisation MS has gained noteworthy interest for routine clinical use due to significant advantages over other MS techniques, including simpler sample preparation, simpler instrumentation, and analysis in real time in an open environment and at atmospheric pressure, which made the in vivo analysis of tissues using MSI a feasible and attractive option. Since these early experiments in the past decade, more than 40 ambient ionisation techniques have now been described in the literature.138 139 Please refer to recent reviews for a summary of common ambient and non-ambient ionisation methods for MSI.138 139 Rapid evaporative ionisation MS ...
Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface and mathematical modeling of release profiles. AU - Haahr, Anne-Mette. AU - Madsen, Henrik. AU - Smedsgaard, Jørn. AU - Bredie, W.L.P.. AU - Stahnke, Louise Heller. AU - Refsgaard, Hanne. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - An instrumental on-line retronasal flavor analysis was developed to obtain information about the release of flavor compounds in expired air from humans during eating. The volatile flavor compounds were measured by ion trap mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (APCI). An interface was designed to sample the breath directly from the nose. The repeat-ability in vitro for seven different flavor compounds came out with relative standard derivation less than 10% in most cases, which is acceptable. In vitro quantification was carried out by a determination of the concentration in the gas phase over a flavor solution ...
Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet on Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, Quality, and Genotoxicity of Cooked Egg...
Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet on Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, Quality, and Genotoxicity of Cooked Egg White and Yolk - atmospheric pressure plasma jet;cooked egg;L. monocytogenes;quality;genotoxicity;
Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma | SBIR.gov
ORBITECs Non-Thermal Sanitation by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma technology sanitizes fresh fruits and vegetables without the use of consumable chemicals and without significantly raising the temperature of the food, so food taste and quality are not affected. Atmospheric pressure plasma is well known to be highly effective in promoting oxidation, enhancing molecular dissociation, and producing free radicals and other types of high energies. It has recently attracted much attention in the food industry due to its potential for being a non-thermal and highly effective sanitation method. The proposed technology will support surface sanitation of delivered fresh fruit and vegetables, and freshly prepared foods in a space-based habitat. It can function in reduced gravity and pressure environments, and is efficient in terms of waste and resource use. During this Phase 2 effort, designs of the primary operating components of the system will be refined and incorporated into a plasma processing chamber ...
An added dimension: GC atmospheric pressure chemical ionization FTICR MS and the Athabasca oil sands. - Semantic Scholar
The Athabasca oil sands industry, an alternative source of petroleum, uses large quantities of water during processing of the oil sands. In keeping with Canadian environmental policy, the processed water cannot be released to natural waters and is thus retained on-site in large tailings ponds. There is an increasing need for further development of analytical methods for environmental monitoring. The following details the first example of the application of gas chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FTICR MS) for the study of environmental samples from the Athabasca region of Canada. APCI offers the advantages of reduced fragmentation compared to other ionization methods and is also more amenable to compounds that are inaccessible by electrospray ionization. The combination of GC with ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry can improve the characterization of complex mixtures where components cannot be resolved by GC
Nano-Coating Process for Si [1 0 0] Wafer Using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ)
Three-electrode plasma jet system consisting of a perforated dielectric tube with two outer and one floating inner electrodes was developed and employed for nano-coating processes of Si [1 0 0] wafer. Lowered gas breakdown voltage, increasing plasma density and increased discharge current were achieved by using the floating inner electrode. The low temperature (Nonthermal) Atmospheric Pressure Plasma protective coating technique using precursor-containing gases (Ar, O2 and OMCTS mixture) which injected into Plasma Jet (APPJ), there are several techniques are introduced here to avoid substrate damage including increasing plasma density without increasing the kinetic energy of the ion bombardment. Furthermore some few precautions are given here to insure good media for silicon wafer prepared for coating.
High-speed photographs of a dielectric barrier atmospheric pressure plasma jet - IEEE Journals & Magazine
The propagation of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is investigated by use of an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. It is shown that
The New Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Source - PlasmaCone®
The PlasmaCone® is a new inventive atmospheric pressure plasma source for applications as local or sequential plasma cleaning and plasma treatment by a plasma jet or by a plasma beam. The unique feature is a coaxial circular aperture. Hence the new PlasmaCone is the first source for a plasma jet or a plasma beam to be used with true coaxial online process control or true coaxial hybrid processes, e.g. laser-plasma-hybrid-processes. Moreover the PlasmaCone is the first source with true coaxial feeding which makes it appropriate for plasma treatment of fibres as well as for local or sequential plasma assisted depostion processes. Additionally the central aperture makes the PlasmaCone the first choice plasma source to establish plasma acitvated ionisation spectroscopy (PAIS).. ...
Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Surface Treatment Of Ceramic Filter Materials.
Atmospheric pressure plasma surface treatment of ceramic filter materials B. D. Phan\ E. P. L. Roberts*, P. J. Hayes*, N. P. Wright* Department of...
Properties of the acrylic acid polymers obtained by atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization
Autori: Ionut Topala, Nicoleta Dumitrascu, Gheorghe Popa. Editorial: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 267(2), p.442-445, 2009.. Rezumat:. Plasma polymers of acrylic acid were obtained using an atmospheric pressure discharge system. The plasma polymerization reactor uses a dielectric barrier discharge, with the ...
OPUS 4 | Search
Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has recently been shown to have broad application potential for medical as well as industrial purposes. Improved wound healing and tissue decontamination have been described as consequences of non- thermal plasma treatment. However, thus far the underlying molecular mechanisms in human tissues have only been partially characterized. In this work a two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) approach was used and an analysis-workflow to study the response of human cells to atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma was established. Human S9 bronchial epithelial cells were used as a model for airway epithelial cells. They were treated with atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) for different periods of time. Subsequently, time-resolved comparative proteome analysis was used to study the complex cellular adaptation reactions after a 120 sec plasma treatment, which accelerated wound healing in a clinically relevant model. The results indicate, ...
Functionalization of 3D Polylactic Acid Sponge Using Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma
The deposition of organic functionalities on biomaterials to immobilize biomolecules is a research area of great interest in the medical field. The surface functionalization of a 3D porous scaffolds of P|sub|DL|/sub|LA with carboxyl (-COOH) and amino (-NH|sub|2|/sub|) groups by cold plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure is described in this paper. Two methods of continuous and pulsed plasma deposition were compared to assess the degree of functionalization of the internal porous 3D scaffold. In particular, the pulsed plasma treatment was found to functionalize uniformly not only the sample surface but also inside the open cavities thanks to its permeability and diffusion in the porous 3D scaffold. The species developed in the plasma were studied by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique, while the functionalization of the sponges was evaluated by the Diffuse Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DR-FTIR) technique using also the adsorption of ammonia (NH|sub|3|/sub|) and
OPUS 4 | Search
Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has drawn more and more attention to the field of wound healing research during the last two decades. It is characterized by a unique composition, which includes amongst others free radicals, ions and electrons. Furthermore, non-thermal plasma exhibits temperatures that are below those inducing thermal cell damage. Next to its well-established anti-bacterial properties, plasma can have lethal as well as stimulating effects on mammalian cells. Therefore, the medical application of non-thermal plasma on chronic wounds seems to be a promising tool to enable healing processes. However, less is known about the plasma-mediated induction of intracellular signaling pathways in human immune cells, which play a leading part in the process of wound recovery and removal of pathogens. Therefore, this thesis examined the cellular effects of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on human immune cells using the argon plasma jet kinpen 09. Here, the CD4+ T ...
PLURAL DISTILLATIONS PERFORMED ON SAME MATERIAL patent application class
PURIFICATION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF ORGANIC ACIDS - The invention relates to a method and a device for the purification of an aqueous solution of an organic acid having a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of less than 450° C., which further has approximately 275 g carboxylate ions/l or less, preferably 250 g carboxylate ions/l or less, and preferably less than 1% by weight ionic impurities, calculated on the basis of the total solution. In particular, the invention relates to a method and a device for the continuous purification and concentration, on an industrial scale, of an aqueous solution of an organic acid having a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of less than 450° C. According to the method, this solution is subjected to two or more distillation steps, the first distillation step being carried out at a temperature of from 80° to 150° C. and a pressure of from 50 to 250 mbar, and the second distillation step being carried out at a temperature of from 80° to 200° C. and a ...
NFPA 52: Vehicular Natural Gas Fuel Systems Code
|p class=MsoNormal>1.1*Scope.|br />A.1.1 Natural gas is a flammable gas. It is colorless, tasteless, and nontoxic. It is a light gas, weighing about two-thirds as much as air. As used in the systems covered by this standard, it tends to rise and diffuses rapidly in air when it escapes from the system.|br />Natural gas burns in air with a luminous flame. At atmospheric pressure, the ignition temperature of natural gas–air mixtures has been reported to be as low as 900°F (482°C). The flammable limits of natural gas–air mixtures at atmospheric pressure are about 5 percent to 15 percent by volume natural gas.|br />Natural gas is nontoxic but can cause anoxia (asphyxiation) when it displaces the normal 21 percent oxygen in air in a confined area without adequate ventilation.|br />The concentrations at which flammable or explosive mixtures form are much lower than the concentration at which asphyxiation risk is significant.|br />NFPA 704 rating is as follows:|br />(1) Health — 0|br
PLOS ONE: Eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms by Atmospheric Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma
Bacteria exist, in most environments, as complex, organised communities of sessile cells embedded within a matrix of self-produced, hydrated extracellular polymeric substances known as biofilms. Bacterial biofilms represent a ubiquitous and predominant cause of both chronic infections and infections associated with the use of indwelling medical devices such as catheters and prostheses. Such infections typically exhibit significantly enhanced tolerance to antimicrobial, biocidal and immunological challenge. This renders them difficult, sometimes impossible, to treat using conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Effective alternative approaches for prevention and eradication of biofilm associated chronic and device-associated infections are therefore urgently required. Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas are gaining increasing attention as a potential approach for the eradication and control of bacterial infection and contamination. To date, however, the majority of studies have been conducted with
Atmospheric Pressure and the Bends | HubPages
Most people are aware of decompression sickness and how it affects divers, but its easy to overlook the effects on fighter pilots and astronauts who must rapidly ascend to high altitudes. The rapid ascension through decreasing levels of atmospheric pressure can induce decompression sickness in fighter pilots and astronauts much the same as it does with SCUBA divers.
silkworm survival rate, DBD plasma torch, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma, ozone, discharge current - Begell House...
Silkworms have recently been proposed as an animal model for safety testing in basic research. We propose using silkworms for |i|in vivo|/i| trials of direct pl...
Surface molecules on HaCaT keratinocytes after interaction with non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma - Haertel - 2013 - Cell...
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Atmospheric pressure free liquid infrared MALDI mass spectrometry: toward a combined ESI/MALDI-liquid chromatography interface....
Author: Rapp, E. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2009-01-01; Title: Atmospheric pressure free liquid infrared MALDI mass spectrometry: toward a combined ESI/MALDI-liquid chromatography interface.
Effect of the Applied Power of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on the Adhesion of Composite Resin to Dental Ceramic
Materials and Methods: A pencil-type APP torch was used to modify the surface chemical composition and hydrophilicity of dental ceramic and to improve the adhesion of composite resin to the surface. The effect of the applied power on chemical changes of the plasma polymer on a ceramic surface and the adhesive strength between the composite resin and feldspathic porcelain were examined. Adhesion was evaluated by comparing shear bond strengths (SBS) using the iris method. The chemical composition of the plasma polymer deposited on the ceramic surface was evaluated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Hydrophilicity was evaluated by contact angle measurements. The fracture mode at the interface was also evaluated ...
Effect of liquid modified by non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas on bacteria inactivation rates
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A tomographic visualization of electric discharge sound fields in atmospheric pressure plasma using laser diffraction | The...
The European Physical Journal Applied Physics (EPJ AP) an international journal devoted to the promotion of the recent progresses in all fields of applied physics
Partial molar volumes of organic solutes in water. VI.o-Chlorophenol andp-chlorophenol at temperatures from 298 K to 573 K and...
Density data for dilute aqueous solutions of two isomeric chlorohydroxybenzenes (chlorophenols) obtained in the temperature range 298.15 K to 573.15 K and at either atmospheric pressure, or at pressures close to the saturated vapour pressure of water, and at pressures up to 30 MPa are presented together with partial molar volumes calculated from the experimental data. The data were obtained using either a high-temperature and high-pressure flow vibrating-tube densimeter for measurements at elevated pressures or a commercial vibrating-tube cell DMA 602HT for measurements at atmospheric pressure.. ...
Abstract P57: Atmospheric Conditions Predict an Occurrence of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests: A 9-year Population-based...
Introduction: Although an association between low temperatures and an increase in sudden cardiac arrest occurrence is reported, it is unclear other weather conditions including atmospheric pressure influence the occurrence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).. Methods: Design Population-based cohort study.. Participants We enrolled all OHCA of presumed cardiac etiology in adults (,17 years old) treated by emergency medical service (EMS) in Osaka Prefecture (population, 8.8 million), Japan from May 1st 1998 through December 31st 2006.. Data collection and analyses Patients data were prospectively collected by EMS personnel using an Utstein-style database. Meteorological data including mean and circadian variation of temperature and atmospheric pressure were collected from the database of Japan Meteorological Agency. We stratified temperature data to tertile categories and atmospheric pressure to quintile, and an association between a daily event rate of OHCA and weather conditions was ...
Rice University Qilins Research Group: Research
To identify release points, assess fate, and monitor exposure, we need reliable methods for detecting and quantifying engineered carbon nanomaterials (ECNs) in the environment. However, quantitative extraction and separation of ECNs from environmental sample is extremely difficult. Additionally, ECNs are indistinguishable from graphitic carbon ubiquitous in the environment in regions of the electromagnetic spectrum probed by modern spectroscopy, including absorption, fluorescence, scattering (at UV, IR, and X-ray wavelengths), and NMR. We use a novel approach based upon a unique molecular signature of ECNs C zero mass defect. The detection is enabled by atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) coupled with ultrahigh resolution ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. We were able to detect trace concentration of molecular C60 in the presence of aquatic natural organic matter ...
Association between the incidence of varicella and meteorological conditions in Jinan, Eastern China, 2012-2014 | BMC...
Varicella remains an important public health issue in China. In this study we explored the effect of weather conditions on the incidence of varicella in the temperate city of Jinan, Eastern China during 2012-2014 to inform public health prevention and control measures. Data on reported cases of varicella were obtained from National Notifiable Disease Report System. Meteorological data for the same time period were obtained from the Jinan Meteorological Bureau. A negative binomial regression model was used to assess the relationships between meteorological variables and the incidence of varicella. Given collinearity between average temperature and atmospheric pressure, separate models were constructed: one including average temperature without atmospheric pressure, the other including atmospheric pressure but without average temperature. Both models included relative humidity, wind velocity, rainfall, sunshine, and year as independent variables. Annual incidence rates of varicella were 44.47, 53.69, and
Publishers of academic thesis & dissertations. Free search & preview. PDF downloads. Instant access to paperback & ebook...
The aim of this thesis was the elucidation of different ionization methods (resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization - REMPI, electrospray ionization - ESI, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization - APCI) in ion mobility (IM) spectrometry. In order to gain a better understanding of the ionization processes, several spectroscopic, mass spectrometric and theoretical methods were also used. Another focus was the development of experimental techniques, including a high resolution spectrograph and various combinations of IM and mass spectrometry. The novel high resolution 2D spectrograph facilitates spectroscopic resolutions in the range of commercial echelle spectrographs. The lowest full width at half maximum of a peak achieved was 25 pm. The 2D spectrograph is based on the wavelength separation of light by the combination of a prism and a grating in one dimension, and an etalon in the second dimension. This instrument was successfully employed for the acquisition of Raman and laser-induced breakdown
Determination of the triacylglycerol fraction in fish oil by comprehensive liquid chromatography techniques with the support of...
Fish oil made from menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) can be used as a dietary supplement for the presence of high levels of the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids, viz. epentaenoic and docosahexanoic. In this work, for the first time, two different multidimensional approaches were developed and compared, in terms of peak capacity, for triacylglycerol characterization. In particular, silver ion chromatography with a silver-ion column and non-aqueous reverse-phase liquid chromatography with a C18 column were tested in both comprehensive (stop-flow) and off-line modes. The use of mass spectra attained by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for both LC approaches, and the fatty acids methyl esters profile of menhaden oil obtained by gas chromatography analysis, greatly supported the elucidation of the triacylglycerol content in menhaden oil. The off-line approach afforded a better separation and, thus, higher peak capacity to allow identifying and semiquantifying more than 250 triacylglycerols. Such a huge
Atmospheric pressure resistive barrier air plasma jet induced bacterial inactivation in aqueous environment
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Virginia Barometric Pressure Map
Virginia Barometric Pressure Map. Current Barometric Pressure map for Virginia. Weather map with the current Barometric Pressure for Virginia.
Observation of intermediate states of the human prion protein by high pressure NMR spectroscopy - University of Regensburg...
Conformational intermediates of the human prion protein huPrPC were characterized by a combination of hydrostatic pressure (up to 200 MPa) with two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. All pressure effects showed to be reversible and there is virtually no difference in the overall pressure response between the folded core of the N-terminal truncated huPrPC(121-230) and the full-length huPrPC(23-230). The only significant differences in the pressure response of full-length and truncated PrP suggest that E168, H187, T192, E207, E211 and Y226 are involved in a transient interaction with the unfolded N-terminus. High-pressure NMR spectroscopy indicates that the folded core of the human prion protein occurs in two structural states N1and N2 in solution associated with rather small differences in free enthalpies (3.0 kJ/mol). At atmospheric pressure approximately 29% of the protein are already in the pressure favored conformation N2. There is a second process representing two possible folding intermediates ...
IRI - International Research Institute for Climate and Society | La Niña Related Impacts Likely to Continue
Experts Corner: Brad Lyon & Paul Block on ENSO impacts in Africa from IRI on Vimeo.. Climate scientists have found La Niñas signature in the widespread flooding that occurred in Pakistan last year, as well as flooding in West Africa, South Africa, and most recently in Queensland, Australia, where an area estimated to be the size of France and Germany combined was left underwater. Places such as Indonesia and northern South America have also been receiving above-normal rainfall. But La Niña probably isnt to blame for the recent flooding in southeastern Brazil, says Barnston. The more likely culprit there was a pocket of above-average sea-surface temperatures in the southwest Atlantic that promoted low atmospheric pressure and an increased tendency for heavy rainfall.. La Niña can be associated with droughts as well. Its keeping east Africa drier-than-usual, sparking food-security concerns in areas lacking irrigation, including parts of Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Areas in ...
How to Take Care of Back Pain in Changing Weather - INDreport.com
Barometric pressure is known as the measurement of air atmospheric pressure that is exerted onto our earth. The air weight or the air pressure on human beings is measured by a particular instrument and it is called barometer. When it comes to the question of a human being, the alterations in barometric pressure can be noticed to trigger bulging joints, discs, old persistent injuries, including sprained ankles and knees, radiating nerve conditions, excessive back pain, previous surgeries, cluster headaches, and migraines.. Back pain is one of the most irritating problems that are about a huge trouble. When the barometric pressure system is low, it can heavily affect the body by getting less compressive forces applied to it. Hence, more inflammation will occur. In case of the low barometric pressure and high humidity, the enhanced inflammation obstructs the mobility of people by inflaming their joints.. Rapid as well as repeated alterations in the air pressure blocks the body of a person from ...
Taipei Medical University Shuang Ho Hospital
The hyperbaric oxygen therapy center (HBOT) opened on January of 2010 utilizing a multi-person chamber-system. The HBOT center has established a Wound Center comprised of our team of plastic surgeons, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and wound care specialists. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment places a patient within a high pressure chamber breathing at a level 1.5 - 2.5 times higher than atmospheric pressure. The amount of oxygen patients breathe in while in the hyperbaric chamber is 8 to 15 times that of the amount in a normal atmosphere. At pressures greater than normal, the body is able to incorporate more oxygen into blood cells, blood plasma, cerebral-spinal fluid and other bodily fluids. The increased oxygen absorption significantly enhances the bodys ability to aid in its own healing. Once a person is in the increased atmospheric pressure the body responds by reducing inflammation. With the inflammation reduced the blood flow increases the delivery of oxygen to oxygen deprived areas ...
Flow reactor studies of carbon monoxide/hydrogen/oxygen kinetics<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Flow reactor studies of carbon monoxide/hydrogen/oxygen kinetics. AU - Yetter, R. A.. AU - Dryer, F. L.. AU - Rabitz, H.. PY - 1991/9/1. Y1 - 1991/9/1. N2 - New data on the kinetics of CO/H2O/O2and H2/O2mixtures in the temperature range of 852-1138 K and at 1 atmosphere pressure are reported. The data were obtained from adiabatic, constant pressure flow reactor experiments for variations in the initial carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen contents of the mixture and also for variations in the initial temperature. In particular, the results define explosion limit temperatures for near stoichiometric mixtures of CO/H2O/O2and H2/O2systems at atmospheric pressure without the presence of surfaces and also demonstrate the complex relationship between water vapor concentration and the carbon monoxide oxidation rate.. AB - New data on the kinetics of CO/H2O/O2and H2/O2mixtures in the temperature range of 852-1138 K and at 1 atmosphere pressure are reported. The data were obtained from adiabatic, ...
Re: Does water under pressure have a lower freezing point then water at normal
Hello Donald, Yes it does. The classic example taught in school is an ice skate. The pressure from the skate causes a thin film of ice to melt. The liquid water layer reduces the friction so the skater can go faster. This is something that is peculiar to water. If you look up the density of water vs temperature, you will find the maximum density is at 4 degrees centigrade. Solid water or ice increases in volume as it gets colder. This is the reason that antifreeze is used in heating systems. If the water solidifies the expansion in volume will burst the pipes. The effect of pressure is much greater when water boils. This is because the change in volume upon vaporization is much greater than the change in volume during solidification. Auto cooling systems use pressure to operate at higher temperatures than are possible at atmospheric pressure. Now that the weather is getting more like December here in the NorthEast, you might want to go try a physics experiment. Get some ice skates and check it ...
Indian Patents. 242919:A SUBSTITUTED DIKETOPIPERAZINE COMPOUND OF FORMULA (1)
pressure. The solution was the diluted with dichloromethane (200mL) and washed with water (2 x 200mL). The organic phase was then diluted with N-methyl pyrrolidinone (460mL) was and the dichloromethane removed by stirring at 40°C under vacuum for 2hrs. Acetic acid 46mL) was then added followed by palladium on carbon catalyst (69.0g of 10% Pd wt, 57% water, Johnson Matthey type 87L) and the mixture hydrogenated under balloon pressure of hydrogen with rapid stirring for 2hrs. The reaction mixture was then filtered, washed through with ethyl acetate (960mL) and washed with 3%w/v aq sodium chloride solution (960mL). The biphasic mixture was filtered and the organic phase separated and washed with 3%w/v aq sodium chloride solution (2 x 960mL). The organic solution was then diluted with ethyl acetate (200ml_) and concentrated by distillation at atmospheric pressure by distilling out 385mL of solvent.. The concentrated solution at 20-25°C was treated with 1,1-carbonyldiimidazole (21.46g, 0.132mol) ...
Boiling of Water and Surfactants in Confined Space | Engineering Systems Design and Analysis | ASME Digital Collection
Natural convection boiling of water and surfactant solutions at atmospheric pressure in narrow horizontal annular channels was studied experimentally. The Alkyl (8-16) Glucoside with molecular weight of 390 g/mol was used in the experiments. It is a nonionic surfactant with negligible environmental impact. The length of the horizontal channels was 24 mm and 36 mm, the gape size was in the range of 0.45-3.7 mm, the heat flux was in the range of 20-500 kW/m2, the concentration of surfactant solutions was varied from 10 to 600 ppm. The gap size of the vertical channels was changed in the range of 1-80 mm. The flow pattern was visualized by high-speed video recording to identify the different regimes of boiling of water and surfactant solutions with different concentrations. At heat flux q,100 kW/m2 the rapid growth of elongated bubble was observed in the water. The rapid bubble growth pushes the liquid-vapor interface on both open sides of the channel. When a bubble departs from a nucleus cavity, ...
Mass spectrometry investigation of positive and negative ions generated by a RF capacitively coupled discharge at atmospheric...
TY - GEN. T1 - Mass spectrometry investigation of positive and negative ions generated by a RF capacitively coupled discharge at atmospheric pressure in He-H2O. AU - Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.. AU - Iza, F.. AU - Bruggeman, P.J.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Abstract only.. AB - Abstract only.. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - KWP.00050-. BT - Proceedings of the 63rd Gaseous Electronics Conference and 7th International Conference on Reactive Plasmas, Paris, France, 4-8 October 2010. A2 - M. Hori, W.G. Graham. A2 - Japan Society of Applied Physics, xx. PB - GEC. CY - Paris France. T2 - 63rd Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference and 7th International Conference on Reactive Plasmas, Paris, France. Y2 - 4 October 2010 through 8 October 2010. ER - ...
Polyimidazolium Salts: Robust Catalysts for the Cycloaddition of Carbon Dioxide into Carbonates in Solvent-Free Conditions
There is a growing interest in sustainable heterogeneous catalysts based on organic polymers. Here, we describe a series of polyimidazolium salt catalysts, prepared from the direct reaction of arene- bridged bis- and tris-alkyl halides with trimethylsilylimidazole. The polyimidazolium salts were characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques and it was found that their morphology and porosity could be controlled by adjusting the steric parameters of the spacer in the alkyl-halide starting materials. Moreover, the polymers are excellent heterogeneous organocatalysts for the cycloaddition of CO2 to epoxides to afford cyclic carbonates at atmospheric pressure under solvent-free conditions. The polymer catalysts exhibit long-term stability and may be recycled and reused at least.. Keywords: carbon dioxide ; cyclic carbonates ; cycloaddition ; organocatalysis ; polyimidazolium. ...
Pheromone Reviews - Real People - Real Reviews - If This Doesnt Scare The Shit Out Of You!
I realized that if 5,000 bbl/day of oil are now being collected at the surface along with 15 million cubic feet per day of natural gas being flared, then roughly that same ratio of gas to oil should apply to the fluid we see coming out of the well, adjusted for the effects of depth. Under 5,000 feet of seawater with a pressure gradient of 0.445 psi/foot, that gas will behave differently and take up a much smaller, but still not insignificant volume. At this point in my logic some dormant engineering brain cells sprang to life and I started figuring out the volume that the gas being measured at the drill-ship, at atmospheric pressure and temperature, would occupy at 2,225 psi and a degree or two above freezing, using standard pressure-volume-temperature relationships. My back-of-the-envelope calculation indicates that this amount of natural gas would equate to 16,600 barrels per day (of compressed gas , not oil) at the depth of the broken well and riser: in other words, a higher apparent volume ...
IDEALS @ Illinois: Hydrogen gas generation by water vapor dissociation in an Al/Al2O3 microchannel plasma device
An aluminum/alumina (Al/Al2O3) microchannel plasma reactor is used to generate H2 with an energy efficiency of 2.5 % by dissociating water vapor in Ar at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The value compares favorably to other plasma reactors reported in the literature, having reported energy efficiencies ≤ 2 %. Additionally, spectra of the Hα line are used to calculate electron densities, which are in the vicinity of 1.5 ± 0.2 × 1016 cm-3, while spectra of the OH(A-X) transition show a distinctly non-equilibrium population distribution in the OH(A2Σ+) state. Al/Al2O3 microchannel plasma device was shown to be efficient in water dissociation as compared with other plasma reactors recently reported in the literature ...
Simple Accordion with CSS & jQuery by Soh Tanaka
A. 2-Chloro-2,3,3-trifluorocyclobutyl acetate (Note 1). A mixture of 1.0 g. of hydroquinone, 3 drops of a terpene inhibitor (Note 2), and 140 g. (1.63 moles) of inhibited redistilled vinyl acetate (Note 3) is placed in a 400-ml. high-pressure shaker tube lined with stainless steel (Note 4). The shaker tube is closed, cooled in a mixture of solid carbon dioxide and acetone, evacuated, and charged with 47 g. (0.40 mole) of chlorotrifluoroethylene (Note 5). The shaker tube is heated with agitation to 215° in a period of about 1 hour and is then heated at 215° for 3 hours. The shaker tube is cooled to room temperature and is bled slowly to remove excess chlorotrifluoroethylene. The black, viscous reaction mixture (Note 6) is transferred to a distillation flask and heated on a steam bath. After a fore-run of dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane and vinyl acetate is collected at atmospheric pressure, a receiver cooled in solid carbon dioxide and acetone is attached, and crude ...
Novel halogen free hydrophobic trioctylammonium-based protic ionic liquids with carboxylate anions: Synthesis, characterization...
A three novel hydrophobic trioctylammonium-based protic ionic liquids (PILs) with 3,4-dimethylbenzoate, salicylate, and nonanedioate anions were synthesized and their structure were confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The three synthesized PILs were liquids at room temperature. The thermal properties were determined using thermogravimetric analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry. Density, viscosity, surface tension, and refractive index were measured for the synthesized PILs at temperature between 293.15 and 363.15 K at atmospheric pressure and as expected, it was found to decrease with increasing temperature. The density measurements were correlated as a linear function of temperature, and the viscosities were fitted to a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation. The density measured values were used to calculate the molar volume, molecular volume, standard entropy, lattice potential energy and the isobaric thermal expansion ...
Adaptive metalenses with simultaneous electrical control of focal length, astigmatism, and shift | Science Advances
Device fabrication. A film stack was first prepared for nanofabrication (fig. S2A). Starting with a silicon wafer, we deposited a 0.4-μm layer of elemental germanium (Ge) by electron beam evaporation. The sample was then placed in a furnace (Tystar Tytan) for dry oxidization in the presence of O2 at atmospheric pressures at 550°C for 3 hours, which converted the layer of Ge into GeO2, completing the sacrificial layer. We found that the GeO2 layer made by dry-oxidizing Ge was significantly more soluble in water than were layers deposited by either electron evaporation or thermal evaporation directly using GeO2 as the source material, possibly due to formation of GeOx species at high temperatures. GeO2 also dissolved much faster in water than did Ge in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and water solution, in which the rate-limiting step was the oxidation of Ge into GeO2 by H2O2. The metasurface itself was composed of nanoposts made of amorphous silicon (a-Si) with a height of 950 nm, so a layer of a-Si ...
Mass spectral interpretation
Electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. Electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization have ... Holčapek, Michal; Jirásko, Robert; Lísa, Miroslav (2010). "Basic rules for the interpretation of atmospheric pressure ... Due to the high vacuum pressure in the ionization chamber, the mean free path of molecules are varying from 10 cm to 1 km and ...
The pressure they operate at-vacuum pressure (, 10 mTorr or 1 Pa), moderate pressure (≈1 Torr or 100 Pa), atmospheric pressure ... Atmospheric pressure. *Arc discharge: this is a high power thermal discharge of very high temperature (≈10,000 K). It can be ... Laroussi, M. (1996). "Sterilization of contaminated matter with an atmospheric pressure plasma". IEEE Transactions on Plasma ... Park, J.; Henins, I.; Herrmann, H. W.; Selwyn, G. S.; Hicks, R. F. (2001). "Discharge phenomena of an atmospheric pressure ...
The alveolar air pressure is therefore always close to atmospheric air pressure (about 100 kPa at sea level) at rest, with the ... However, when the atmospheric pressure (and therefore the partial pressure of O2 in the ambient air) falls to below 50-75% of ... Doing the same at 5500 m, where the atmospheric pressure is only 50 kPa, the intrapulmonary air pressure falls to 25 kPa. ... Responses to low atmospheric pressures. The alveoli are open (via the airways) to the atmosphere, with the result that alveolar ...
Climate of Mars
Low atmospheric pressure. The Martian atmosphere is composed mainly of carbon dioxide and has a mean surface pressure of ... thereby increasing the atmospheric pressure. This increased pressure allows more dust to be held in the atmosphere. Moisture in ... So much of the atmosphere can condense at the winter pole that the atmospheric pressure can vary by up to a third of its mean ... It is so deep that the atmospheric pressure at the bottom reaches 1155 Pa, which is above the triple point, so if the ...
Geysers on Mars
Atmospheric pressure. The surface atmospheric pressure on Mars varies annually around: 6.7-8.8 mbar and 7.5-9.7 mbar; ... This model proposes downward gas flow during increase of and upward flow during decrease of atmospheric pressure. In the ... four orders of magnitude higher than the ice overburden pressure and five orders of magnitude higher than atmospheric pressure ... causing a downward gas flow during increase of and expulsion during decrease of atmospheric pressure. This cycle was first ...
Atmosphere of Venus
The atmospheric pressure at the surface of Venus is about 92 times that of the Earth, similar to the pressure found 900 m ( ... At a height of 50 km the atmospheric pressure is approximately equal to that at the surface of Earth. On the night side of ... Despite the harsh conditions on the surface, the atmospheric pressure and temperature at about 50 km to 65 km above the surface ... The temperature at the surface is 740 K (467 °C, 872 °F), and the pressure is 93 bar (9.3 MPa), roughly the pressure found 900 ...
The rising water level will counteract the low atmospheric pressure such that the total pressure at some plane beneath the ... water level in the open ocean to rise in regions of low atmospheric pressure and fall in regions of high atmospheric pressure. ... This effect is estimated at a 10 mm (0.39 in) increase in sea level for every millibar (hPa) drop in atmospheric pressure. ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1994). "Superstorm of March 1993" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric ...
Water, for example, will compress by only 46.4 parts per million for every unit increase in atmospheric pressure (bar). At ... Pressure and buoyancy. Main article: fluid statics. In a gravitational field, liquids exert pressure on the sides of a ... Not all gases can be liquified at atmospheric pressure, however. Carbon dioxide, for example, can only be liquified at ... would be the atmospheric pressure. Static liquids in uniform gravitational fields also exhibit the phenomenon of buoyancy, ...
Sublimes at standard atmospheric pressure.. Boiling point. Decomposes. Solubility in water. 0.0015 g/100 mL at 20 °C. ... Atmospheric air can be used in its place, but once reacted needs to be purified of toxins and ozone depleters such as ...
The atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. The ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ... The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms, which ... Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 22 (3): 225-61. Bibcode:1965JAtS...22..225B. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1965)022,0225:OTOARO, ...
Boiling point at atmospheric pressure (common cooling agent; for reference) 21.15 −252 Hydrogen: Boiling point at atmospheric ... Boiling point at atmospheric pressure (common cooling agent; for reference) 77 −196 Nitrogen: Boiling point at atmospheric ... metallic superconductor with relatively high critical temperature at atmospheric pressure 30 −243 La2−xBaxCuO4 First high- ... Helium: Boiling point at atmospheric pressure (common cooling agent of low temperature physics; for reference) ...
The Chemical History of a Candle
Atmospheric pressure is described and its effects demonstrated. Faraday emphasizes that several of the demonstrations and ...
History of the petroleum industry in Canada (natural gas)
One kilopascal = 1% of atmospheric pressure (near sea level). Canada's oil measure, the cubic metre, is unique in the world. It ... Special production techniques to remove this gas from its coal seam reservoir include lowering reservoir pressures rather than ... biogenic gas is considered to be an unconventional gas resource since it is not generated in the same temperature and pressure ...
But diamonds (sp3C) are unstable against high temperature (above about 400 °C (752 °F)) under atmospheric pressure. The ... Above the triple point, the melting point of diamond increases slowly with increasing pressure; but at pressures of hundreds of ... below atmospheric pressure). It involves feeding a mixture of gases (typically 1 to 99 methane to hydrogen) into a chamber and ... These anvils have reached pressures of 7011600000000000000♠600 GPa. Much higher pressures may be possible with ...
But diamonds (sp3C) are unstable against high temperature (above about 400 °C (752 °F)) under atmospheric pressure. The ... Rapid conversion of graphite to diamond requires pressures well above the equilibrium line: at 2000 K, a pressure of 35 GPa is ... Above the triple point, the melting point of diamond increases slowly with increasing pressure; but at pressures of hundreds of ... below atmospheric pressure). It involves feeding a mixture of gases (typically 1 to 99 methane to hydrogen) into a chamber and ...
The pressure they operate at-vacuum pressure (, 10 mTorr or 1 Pa), moderate pressure (≈1 Torr or 100 Pa), atmospheric pressure ... Atmospheric pressure. *Arc discharge: this is a high power thermal discharge of very high temperature (≈10,000 K). It can be ... Laroussi, M. (1996). "Sterilization of contaminated matter with an atmospheric pressure plasma". IEEE Transactions on Plasma ... "Discharge phenomena of an atmospheric pressure radio-frequency capacitive plasma source". Journal of Applied Physics. 89 (1): ...
Solar water heating
The tank is not pressurized and operates at atmospheric pressure. As soon as the pump shuts off, flow reverses and the pipes ... High pressure, sealed solar thermal systems ultimately rely on the operation of temperature and pressure relief valves. Low ... In a bubble pump system, the closed HTF circuit is under reduced pressure, which causes the liquid to boil at low temperature ... The source of electricity in an active SWH system determines the extent to which a system contributes to atmospheric carbon ...
Solubility of oceanic gases (in mL/L) with temperature at salinity of 33‰ and atmospheric pressure Temperature. O2. CO2. N2 ... Typical seawater freezes at around −2 °C at atmospheric pressure. If precipitation exceeds evaporation, as is the case in ... The Solar System's giant planets are also thought to have liquid atmospheric layers of yet to be confirmed compositions. Oceans ... "NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Ocean". Noaa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-08.. ...
"Synthesis of blue luminescent Si nanoparticles using atmospheric-pressure microdischarges". Nano Letters. 5 (3): 537-541. ... "Synthesis of high purity silicon nanoparticles in a low Pressure microwave reactor". Journal of Nanoscience and Technology. 4 ( ...
List of experiments
Blaise Pascal carries a barometer up a church tower and a mountain to determine that atmospheric pressure is due to a column of ... Otto von Guericke demonstrates atmospheric pressure using Magdeburg hemispheres (1654). *Robert Boyle shows that the volume of ... Robert Boyle uses an air pump to determine the inverse relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas. This relationship ... François-Marie Raoult demonstrates that the decrease in the vapor pressure and freezing point of liquids caused by the addition ...
Oxfam: Ox-Tales Archived 20 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine Mark Lawson (6 June 2009). "Atmospheric pressures". The Guardian. ...
National Data Buoy Center
All stations measure wind speed, direction, and gust; atmospheric pressure; and air temperature. In addition, all buoy stations ... The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather ...
Atmospheric pressure, ocean currents and local ocean temperature changes can affect LMSL as well. ... Generally, the pressure used to set the altimeter is the barometric pressure that would exist at MSL in the region being flown ... This is because the sea is in constant motion, affected by the tides, wind, atmospheric pressure, local gravitational ... as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight ...
This is metastable at atmospheric pressure but is a powerful explosive. ... "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 10 (21): 10655-10678. Bibcode:2010ACP....1010655P. doi:10.5194/acp-10-10655-2010.. ... Carbon monoxide occurs dissolved in molten volcanic rock at high pressures in the Earth's mantle. Because natural sources ... At pressures of over 5 gigapascals, carbon monoxide converts into a solid polymer of carbon and oxygen. ...
"Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Hexagonal Boron Nitride Synthesized at Atmospheric Pressure". Science. 317 (5840): 932-934. ... Light pollution: Because white LEDs emit more short wavelength light than sources such as high-pressure sodium vapor lamps, the ...
"Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Hexagonal Boron Nitride Synthesized at Atmospheric Pressure". Science. 317 (5840): 932-934. ... So far high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS) with an orange light spectrum were the most efficient light sources commonly used in ... emit much more short wavelength light than conventional outdoor light sources such as high-pressure sodium vapor lamps, the ... High-Pressure Sodium, PC amber LEDs, and low CCT LEDs). ...
a b R.A. Wolf, "Atmospheric pressure plasma for surface modification", Scrivener Publishing LLC (2013) ... At the atmospheric pressure, the high collision frequency between the electrons and the gas molecules precludes the electrons ... Typical generator of an atmospheric pressure plasma based on a high voltage electric arc discharge. The arc is burning between ... Arc discharges at the atmospheric pressure are self-sustained DC electric discharges with large electric currents, typically ...
To find weather regimes or preferred sea level pressure atmospheric patterns.. Renewable energy. To find abandoned areas ... 2008). "Classifications of Atmospheric Circulation Patterns: Recent Advances and Applications". Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1146: 105- ...
1886 Atlantic hurricane season
"Atmospheric Pressure" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. 14 (6): 149. June 1886. Bibcode:1886MWRv...14R.147.. doi:10.1175/1520-0493 ... Partagás & Díaz 1996, p. 39 "Atmospheric Pressure" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. 14 (7): 176-177. July 1886. Bibcode:1886MWRv ... Galveston recorded peak winds of 50 mph (81 km/h), and a barometer in town registered a minimum pressure of 29.43 inHg (997 mb ... Little more than a day after the dissipation of the previous hurricane, a broad area of low pressure over the western Caribbean ...
Atmospheric pressure reduces with altitude and with it, the amount of oxygen. The reduction in the partial pressure of ... The ambient pressure at 190 msw is sufficient to provide a partial pressure of about 0.4 bar, which is suitable for saturation ... though gases containing sufficient oxygen to reliably maintain consciousness at normal sea level atmospheric pressure may be ... More serious cases are treated with continuous positive airway pressure. The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was ...
Atmospheric pressure - Wikipedia
The mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) is the average atmospheric pressure at sea level. This is the atmospheric pressure normally ... Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of ... Atmospheric calculator and Geometric to Pressure altitude converter. Experiments. *Movies on atmospheric pressure ... As altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases. One can calculate the atmospheric pressure at a given altitude. ...
Atmospheric-pressure plasma - Wikipedia
Atmospheric-pressure plasma (or AP plasma or normal pressure plasma) is a plasma in which the pressure approximately matches ... Atmospheric-pressure plasmas have prominent technical significance because in contrast with low-pressure plasma or high- ... pressure plasma no reaction vessel is needed to ensure the maintenance of a pressure level differing from atmospheric pressure ... "Atmospheric-pressure plasma" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this ...
atmospheric pressure tagged stories - MIT Technology Review
Pressure-gradient force | atmospheric science | Britannica.com
... between the wind and the pressure gradient is a right angle. This is almost exactly true in the free atmosphere, but not near ... Pressure-gradient force. atmospheric science. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica does not currently have an article on this ... Around a low-pressure centre, the pressure-gradient force directed inward balances the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force ... In ocean current: Pressure gradients. The hydrostatic pressure, p, at any depth below the sea surface is given by the equation ...
Free Barometer - Atmospheric and Air Pressure. on the App Store
Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jets: Fundamentals, Diagnos
2019 by CRC Press Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets (N-APPJs) generate plasma in open space rather than in a ... Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jets Fundamentals, Diagnostics, and Medical Applications By XinPei Lu. , Stephan ... Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jets: Fundamentals, Diagnostics, and Medical Applications. ISBN , Quantity: ... Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets (N-APPJs) generate plasma in open space rather than in a confined chamber and ...
Atmospheric pressure - Wikipedia
The mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) is the average atmospheric pressure at mean sea level. This is the atmospheric pressure ... Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure (after the sensor), is the pressure within the atmosphere of ... Atmospheric calculator and Geometric to Pressure altitude converter. ExperimentsEdit. *Movies on atmospheric pressure ... As altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases. One can calculate the atmospheric pressure at a given altitude. ...
Atmospheric Pressure by Aaron Frale | NOOK Book (eBook) | Barnes & Noble®
Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) is a tactic that is used on fire grounds across the world everyday, both to improve ... Infrasound as upper atmospheric monitor Understanding and specification of the higher altitudes of the atmosphere with global ... Infrasound as upper atmospheric monitor Understanding and specification of the higher altitudes of the atmosphere with global ... Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) is a tactic that is used on fire grounds across the ... ...
CHANGES IN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
... METEOROLOGIST JEFF HABY. One of the earliest forecasting tools was the use of atmospheric ... There is also a small diurnal variation in pressure caused by the atmospheric tides. The barometric pressure can lower by ... 1. The approach of a low pressure trough 2. The deepening of a low pressure trough 3. A reduction of mass caused by upper level ... If the pressure began to lower, that was a sign of approaching inclement weather. If the pressure began to rise, that was a ...
Atmospheric Pressures: On Race and Affect
Benzene Destruction in Direct Current Atmospheric Pressure Air Glow Discharges | SpringerLink
F. Leipold, R. H. Stark, A. El-Habachi, and K. H. Schoenbach, "Electron Density Measurements in an Atmospheric Pressure Air ... Jiang C., Stark R.H., Schoenbach K.H. (2001) Benzene Destruction in Direct Current Atmospheric Pressure Air Glow Discharges. In ... R. H. Stark and K. H. Schoenbach, "Direct Current High-Pressure Glow Discharges," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2075 (1999).CrossRefGoogle ... R. H. Stark and K. H. Schoenbach, "Direct Current Glow Discharges in Atmospheric Air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,3568 (2001).Google ...
Efficacy of Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Tooth Bleaching
... Seoul Hee Nam,1 Hae June Lee,2 Jin Woo Hong,3 and Gyoo ... H. W. Lee, G. J. Kim, J. M. Kim, J. K. Park, J. K. Lee, and G. C. Kim, "Tooth bleaching with nonthermal atmospheric pressure ... H. W. Lee, S. H. Nam, A.-A. H. Mohamed, G. C. Kim, and J. K. Lee, "Atmospheric pressure plasma jet composed of three electrodes ... "High-efficiency tooth bleaching using nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma with low concentration of hydrogen peroxide," ...
What does an atmospheric pressure sensor do? | Reference.com
They are connected to a computer that reads the signal from the pressure... ... Atmospheric pressure sensors are fitted at the engine air inlet to measure the air pressure that affects engine calibration. ... Atmospheric pressure sensors are fitted at the engine air inlet to measure the air pressure that affects engine calibration. ... The atmospheric pressure sensors may fail because of their location, but this is indicated by the check engine light on the ...
Efficacy of Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Tooth Bleaching
... Seoul Hee Nam,1 Hae June Lee,2 Jin Woo Hong,3 and Gyoo ... Figures 1(a) and 1(b) show a schematic of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma and a photo of tooth bleaching using a ... H. W. Lee, G. J. Kim, J. M. Kim, J. K. Park, J. K. Lee, and G. C. Kim, "Tooth bleaching with nonthermal atmospheric pressure ... H. W. Lee, S. H. Nam, A.-A. H. Mohamed, G. C. Kim, and J. K. Lee, "Atmospheric pressure plasma jet composed of three electrodes ...
Waters Atmospheric Pressure Gas Chromatography (APGC) : Waters
Waters Atmospheric Pressure Gas Chromatography (APGC). APGC - No Compromise GC-MS. Waters Atmospheric Pressure Gas ... Home , Products , Instruments & Systems , Mass Spectrometry , Ion Sources , Waters Atmospheric Pressure Gas Chromatography ( ... Food Safety Magazine Webinar: Improved Identification of Pesticides using Atmospheric Pressure Gas Chromatography ...
The New Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Source - PlasmaCone®
Boiling point Atmospheric/hydrostatic pressure | Physics Forums
... when the vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure so that the vapor within the medium can overcome the atmospheric pressure ... when the vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure so that the vapor within the medium can overcome the atmospheric pressure ... If we add that hydrostatic pressure to atmospheric pressure at the surface, what would the boiling point be?. Chet ... If the vapor in the bubble is only at atmospheric pressure, wouldnt it collapse under the weight of the water above it? Is it ...
Evidence of iPhone 6 Atmospheric Pressure Sensor Found in iOS 8 - MacRumors
Apple may add an atmospheric pressure sensor to the iPhone 6, according to a report by 9to5Mac. This follows on a rumor from ... Apple may add an atmospheric pressure sensor to the iPhone 6, according to a report by 9to5Mac. This follows on a rumor from ... I can tell you the atmospheric pressure almost anywhere in the world right now. 1 atmosphere. Sorry youre bad at science. Edit ... Evidence of iPhone 6 Atmospheric Pressure Sensor Found in iOS 8. Wednesday June 18, 2014 10:58 am PDT by Jordan Golson ...
'Bulge' in Atmospheric Pressure Responsible for Cold Winter Amid Global Warming - Scientific...
"Bulge" in Atmospheric Pressure Responsible for Cold Winter Amid Global Warming. The cold in places like Florida actually could ... The ongoing disappearance of sea ice in the Arctic from elevated temperatures is a factor to changes in atmospheric pressure ... That unusually warm air can contribute to a bulge effect to the atmospheric pressure controlling how cold air flows, ... Last year was the waviest example of this pressure phenomenon in 145 years, said Overland. What also is happening is that the ...
Atmospheric pressure - Griffith Review
But the atmospheric growth rate of CFC-11 was so rapid that ambient concentrations of the gas had far outstripped the ... But atmospheric carbon dioxide will keep rising, because we continue to emit it at a ferocious pace. Levels of methane, nitrous ... In the past 800,000 years, the most rapid natural changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide occurred at a rate of around ten ppm ... But I can speak to the imperative to maintain an atmospheric vigil - to keep watch, to chart our trajectory and provide the ...
Atmospheric Pressure Cups, Magdeburg Hemispheres - Arbor Scientific
An economical version of the classic Magdeburg Hemisphere demonstration, students push two rubber cups together and find that it takes tremendous force to pull them apart. This set includes two rubber hemisphere and each features a 7.5cm diameter, a two-finger tug handle, and two release posts. Instructions included.
Atmospheric pressure - Wikipedia
The mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) is the atmospheric pressure at mean sea level (PMSL). This is the atmospheric pressure ... Atmospheric pressure is thus proportional to the weight per unit area of the atmospheric mass above that location. Pressure on ... See pressure system for the effects of air pressure variations on weather. Atmospheric pressure shows a diurnal or semidiurnal ... Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure (after the barometer), is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth. ...
... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, ... Atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure exerted by the weight of ... Atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure exerted by the weight of ... Atmospheric Pressure. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE. © Electric Babylon Music Author: M.M.. The night breeds incessant days from the ...
MIP NL 2P: MIPAS Temperature , Pressure and Atmospheric Constituents Profiles
Atmospheric Temperature, Pressure & Wind Speed | Earth Observing Laboratory
Atmospheric Temperature, Pressure & Wind Speed This list describes many of the basic measurements made on the NSF/NCAR GV ... Static Pressure (mbar): ¨This is the output from a calibrated absolute (barometric) transducer. The value is a static pressure ... Dynamic Pressure (mbar): This is the output from a calibrated differential pressure transducer. The measurement is the ... This is a derived variable based upon a Mach number calculated from both the dynamic pressure at location x and static pressure ...
Coatings | Free Full-Text | Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Coating of Bismuth Oxide Circular Droplets
... was deposited by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet onto borosilicate glass. The layer produced through this method is to be ... Keywords: bismuth oxide; atmospheric pressure; plasma; coating; powder; spectroscopy bismuth oxide; atmospheric pressure; ... Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Coating of Bismuth Oxide Circular Droplets Robert Köhler 1,*. , Gisela Ohms 1, Holger Militz 2 and ... In this study, bismuth oxide powder (Bi2O3) was deposited by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet onto borosilicate glass. The ...
NDBC - 5-day plot - Wind Speed, Wind Gust and Atmospheric Pressure at YKRV2
PlasmasMass spectrometryDischargesEarth'sDecreasesDischargeMeasure atmospheric pressureNonthermal atmospheric pressureHydrostatic pressureTemperatureBarometersAtmosphereInactivationChemical IonizationBarometerGasesPhotoionizationOxygenChanges in atmospheric pressureIncrease in atmospheric pressureAverage atmospheric pressureAltitudeChemistryRecord atmosphericAPPIIonizationEffects of atmosphericVariationAbstractBelow atmospheric1.00 atmMbarDensityAdhesionPartial14.7Radio frequencyUnderstandingBarometric pressureMeasurements2018CentreEfficacyHighProcessesPounds perDriven1013AltimeterPlasma jetsDependenceCompoundsHydrophilicVapor
- Atmospheric-pressure plasmas have prominent technical significance because in contrast with low-pressure plasma or high-pressure plasma no reaction vessel is needed to ensure the maintenance of a pressure level differing from atmospheric pressure. (wikipedia.org)
- Various forms of excitation are distinguished: AC (alternating current) excitation DC (direct current) and low-frequency excitation Excitation by means of radio waves Microwave excitation Atmospheric-pressure plasmas that have attained any noteworthy industrial significance are those generated by DC excitation (electric arc), AC excitation (corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge, piezoelectric direct discharge and plasma jets as well as 2.45 GHz microwave microplasma). (wikipedia.org)
- This kind of atmospheric-pressure plasmas is different. (wikipedia.org)
- Atmospheric-pressure plasmas that have attained any noteworthy industrial significance are those generated by DC excitation ( electric arc ), AC excitation ( corona discharge , dielectric barrier discharge , piezoelectric direct discharge and plasma jets as well as 2.45 GHz microwave microplasma). (wikipedia.org)
- gives an introduction, overview and details on state of the art diagnostics of small scale high gradient atmospheric pressure plasmas. (routledge.com)
- Experiments have been performed involving directly irradiating body tissues with atmospheric pressure plasma for various medical engineering applications of plasmas. (aps.org)
- In this study, capillary dielectric covered dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate the atmospheric plasmas and the effect of various gas combinations such as He+0 2 , (He+O 2 )/Ar, and (He+O 2 )/SF 6 on the photoresist etch rate and the change of contact angle were studied. (begellhouse.com)
- Single cell analysis is performed by mass spectrometry on plant and animal cells at atmospheric pressure by using a sharpened optical fiber to sample the cells for laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry. (jove.com)
- The invention relates generally to mass spectrometry and specifically to atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry and enhanced ionization chambers which employ multiple ports for accepting any type of sprayer, lamp, microscope, camera or other such device in various combinations. (google.com)
- A method based on normal-phase liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure photo ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APPI-MS) was developed for this purpose. (uva.nl)
- The integration of the liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) ion source with Orbitrap mass spectrometers has resulted in new opportunities in the field of isotope ratio mass spectrometry. (springer.com)
- The extracts were examined with high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS). The drugs were separated on ODS column in acetonitrile/50mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.0) (25:75) as. (oup.com)
- The extracts were examined with high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS). The drugs were separated on ODS column in acetonitrile/50mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.0) (25:75) as a mobile phase. (oup.com)
- Atmospheric-pressure solution-cathode glow discharge: A versatile ion source for atomic and molecular mass spectrometry. (semanticscholar.org)
- Atmospheric discharges are thus difficult to maintain as they require a large amount of energy. (wikipedia.org)
- R. H. Stark and K. H. Schoenbach, "Direct Current High-Pressure Glow Discharges," J. Appl. (springer.com)
- Jiang C., Stark R.H., Schoenbach K.H. (2001) Benzene Destruction in Direct Current Atmospheric Pressure Air Glow Discharges. (springer.com)
- The ability to generate these discharges at atmospheric pressure makes the sterilization process practical and inexpensive. (scialert.net)
- The study presented in this thesis was motivated by the large uncertainty on the concentration of atmospheric electrical discharges to the global nitrogen budget. (diva-portal.org)
- Atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD's) generated in contact with liquid are of great importance due to their potential applications in analytical spectrometry [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ] as compact and low operating cost atomic emission micro-sources. (springer.com)
- The emission and electrical properties of atmospheric pressure glow discharges generated between a metal pin electrode and surface of tap water (working as a cathode or anode) were investigated by Bruggeman et al. (springer.com)
- Pressure varies smoothly from the Earth's surface to the top of the mesosphere . (wikipedia.org)
- the Earth's rotation) and the pressure-gradient force . (britannica.com)
-  The atm unit is roughly equivalent to the mean sea-level atmospheric pressure on Earth, that is, the Earth's atmospheric pressure at sea level is approximately 1 atm. (wikipedia.org)
- How do you suppose Earth's gravity is related to atmospheric pressure? (bartleby.com)
- The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level and the way in which the Earth's gravity is related to atmospheric pressure. (bartleby.com)
- The Earth's atmosphere has pressure and it is not constant. (windows2universe.org)
- Since the pressure exerted by Earth's atmosphere is of great practical importance, pressure is sometimes expressed in terms of "atmospheres" (abbreviated atm). (windows2universe.org)
- With the aid of computer simulations of the chemistry of Earth's own atmosphere that isolate what are called "dimer molecules," astronomers developed a new method of gauging the atmospheric pressure of exoplanets. (scitechdaily.com)
- The method, devised by Amit Misra, a UW astronomy doctoral student, and co-authors, involves computer simulations of the chemistry of Earth's own atmosphere that isolate what are called "dimer molecules" - pairs of molecules that tend to form at high pressures and densities in a planet's atmosphere. (scitechdaily.com)
- The presence of such molecules, he said, likely means the planet has at least one-quarter to one-third the pressure of Earth's atmosphere. (scitechdaily.com)
- 2- The earth's atmospheric pressure p is often modeled by assuming that the rate dpdhat Which p changes with the altitude above sea level is proportional to hp. (jiskha.com)
- The earth's atmospheric pressure, P, in terms of height above sea level is often modeled by an exponential decay function. (jiskha.com)
- Atmospheric pressure is the hydrostatic pressure of air on the earth's surface and objects on it. (morehealthis.com)
- As elevation increases, there is less overlying atmospheric mass, so that atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing elevation. (wikipedia.org)
- Atmospheric pressure is higher at sea level, and decreases as you go higher up in the atmosphere. (windows2universe.org)
- If atmospheric pressure decreases, downward force on the mercury lessens and the height of the mercury inside the tube lowers. (windows2universe.org)
- Compressibility is a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure. (slideserve.com)
- Small decreases of 6-10 hPa relative to the standard atmospheric pressure of 1013 hPa induced migraine attacks most frequently in patients with migraine. (springeropen.com)
- It all depends on whether the person is hypertensive( high blood pressure) or hypotonic( low blood pressure).When the atmospheric pressure decreases, the oxygen content decreases. (morehealthis.com)
- As a result, the arterial blood pressure decreases and the rate of blood circulation slows down. (morehealthis.com)
- When the atmospheric pressure decreases, both the upper and lower pressure levels rise. (morehealthis.com)
- During inspiration, the increased volume of alveoli as a result of lung expansion decreases the intra-alveolar pressure to a value below atmospheric pressure about -1 cmH2O. (wikipedia.org)
- Laser Schlieren Deflectometry List of plasma (physics) articles Dielectric barrier discharge Plasma pencil Wolf, Rory A., Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Surface Modification, Wiley, 2012 Fazeli, M. (wikipedia.org)
- An atmospheric pressure discharge is an electrical discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. (wikipedia.org)
- Electric field distributions and discharge properties of rod-rod contact electrodes were studied under the condition of DBD for the steady generation of atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma (APGD) in air. (osti.gov)
- Plasma polymers of acrylic acid were obtained using an atmospheric pressure discharge system. (ad-astra.ro)
- Polyester/cotton blended woven fabric has been treated with atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma to improve its hydrophilic properties. (niscair.res.in)
- The miniaturized atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) generated between a solid electrode and a flowing small size liquid cathode (dimension 2 mm) was investigated here using optical emission spectroscopy. (springer.com)
- Nevertheless, the phenomena of glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure are still poorly understood. (springer.com)
- This is the first report to investigate the influence of the type of the atmospheric gas on the two-dimensional sound field distribution for the coplanar dielectric barrier discharge using the OWM with CT. (epjap.org)
- One of the main challenges of modern plasma chemistry is to develop a powerful and high pressure discharge generating a non equilibrium cold plasma for chemical applications. (begellhouse.com)
- Preliminary Assessment of Potential for Metal-Ligand Speciation in Aqueous Solution via the Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge (LS-APGD) Ionization Source: Uranyl Acetate. (semanticscholar.org)
Measure atmospheric pressure3
- A barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure, giving indications on current and future weather trends as well as altitude data. (macrumors.com)
- Barometers can be used to measure atmospheric pressure. (wikipedia.org)
- A barometer is a weather instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. (windows2universe.org)
Nonthermal atmospheric pressure1
- RETRACTED: Safety evaluation of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma liquid treatment: Single. (deepdyve.com)
- In most circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of air above the measurement point. (wikipedia.org)
- So I understand that you get boiling when the vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure so that the vapor within the medium can overcome the atmospheric pressure pressing on the surface of the liquid, but how do the bubbles overcome the hydrostatic pressure from the water above the bubble. (physicsforums.com)
- If the depth of the water in the pot is 8 cm, how much hydrostatic pressure would that correspond to? (physicsforums.com)
- If we add that hydrostatic pressure to atmospheric pressure at the surface, what would the boiling point be? (physicsforums.com)
- Is it because, if being boiled over a stove-top, the temperature source is heating the vapor in the bubbles to a pressure above atmospheric? (physicsforums.com)
- So, if the equilibrium vapor pressure of water is 101kPa at 100C, what temperature is required for the equilibrium vapor pressure to be 102 kPa? (physicsforums.com)
- If the bubble forms at the bottom of the pot, the pressure inside the bubble will be102kPa, and it will form at the slightly higher temperature. (physicsforums.com)
- When boiling in a partial vacuum, you have reduced the pressure in the chamber to a value equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid at its temperature in the vessel. (physicsforums.com)
- This follows on a rumor from March that suggested the iPhone 6 could include humidity, temperature and pressure sensors when it comes out this fall. (macrumors.com)
- The Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) is a passive remote sensing system that provides researchers with atmospheric temperature structure above and below the aircraft. (ucar.edu)
- Weather balloons are used to carry weather instruments that measure temperature, pressure, humidity, and winds in the atmosphere. (windows2universe.org)
- The altimeter is the vital instrument that measures height of the aircraft off the ground once the altimeter is adjusted for nonstandard pressure and temperature levels. (windows2universe.org)
- This does consume some heat energy though, so temperature will drop, making it so the vapor pressure that is in equilibrium with the solid or liquid will drop as well, and eventually, ideally, balance will be achieved. (yahoo.com)
- Eventually it moves up into lower pressure and lower temperature, where there is more water vapor than the air can handle, so we get rain or snow or something. (yahoo.com)
- You can consult tables of vapor pressure vs temperature to determine the vapor pressure of water at various temperatures. (yahoo.com)
- If you elevate the temperature of the water in the closed container the pressure of the water vapor will increase. (yahoo.com)
- If you increase the temperature so that the vapor pressure is equal to the ambient pressure then boiling will occur. (yahoo.com)
- That's the definition of the boiling point: 'The temperature where the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the ambient pressure. (yahoo.com)
- The built-in sensors of this watch measure barometric pressure, temperature and altitude. (scribd.com)
- Consider a cylinder containing 2 mol of an ideal gas at an initial temperature of 25 C. The cylinder is fitted with a piston on which a weight is placed, subjecting the gas to a constant pressure of 2.66 atm. (jiskha.com)
- Reduction of the partial pressure of CO 2 at cool temperature also enhanced the activation state of Rubisco. (plantphysiol.org)
- We developed a device that makes possible the normal generation of low-temperature plasma under atmospheric pressure. (scientific.net)
- The amount of gas, volume, and temperature are factors that affect gas pressure. (slideserve.com)
- Topical issue: 13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII). (epjap.org)
- Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui. (epjap.org)
- However, because of changes in temperature, average molecular weight, and gravity throughout the atmospheric column, the dependence of atmospheric pressure on altitude is modeled by separate equations for each of the layers listed above. (freeforumboard.net)
- When barometers in the home are set to match the local weather reports, they measure pressure adjusted to sea level, not the actual local atmospheric pressure. (wikipedia.org)
- Atmospheric-pressure plasma (or AP plasma or normal pressure plasma) is a plasma in which the pressure approximately matches that of the surrounding atmosphere - the so-called normal pressure. (wikipedia.org)
- Atmospheric pressure , sometimes also called barometric pressure , is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet). (wikipedia.org)
- The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as 1013.25 mbar (101.325 kPa ), equivalent to 760 mmHg ( torr ), 29.92 inches Hg , or 14.696 psi . (wikipedia.org)
- Atmospheric pressure is caused by the gravitational attraction of the planet on the atmospheric gases above the surface, and is a function of the mass of the planet, the radius of the surface, and the amount and composition of the gases and their vertical distribution in the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
- The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as 1013.25 mbar (101325 Pa ), equivalent to 760 mm Hg ( torr ), 29.9212 inches Hg , or 14.696 psi . (wikipedia.org)
- A mercury barometer is not actually measuring the pressure applied by the atmosphere but it measures with response to atmospheric pressure. (bartleby.com)
- What does the atmosphere pressure have to be to make the boiling point of water 20 C? (physicsforums.com)
- Atmospheric pressure is a force in an area pushed against a surface by the weight of the atmosphere of Earth , a layer of air . (wikipedia.org)
- Atmospheric pressure , sometimes also called barometric pressure , is the pressure exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet). (wn.com)
- On average, a column of air one square centimeter in cross-section, measured from sea level to the top of the atmosphere, has a mass of about 1.03 kg and weight of about 10.1 N (2.28 lb f ) That force over one square centimeter is a pressure of 10.1 N/cm 2 or 101000 N/m 2 . (wn.com)
- At sea level, the atmosphere exerts pressure on Earth at a force of 14.7 pounds per square inch. (windows2universe.org)
- The atmosphere has pressure. (windows2universe.org)
- The push of the atmosphere is called pressure. (windows2universe.org)
- question is at 11km below sea level what is the pressure in atmosphere. (physicsforums.com)
- Meteorologists frequently use the bar and millibar (mb) when describing pressure associated with the atmosphere and weather phenomena. (windows2universe.org)
- On earth, the warmer and higher pressure of the lower atmosphere means that more water vapor can be present int he air. (yahoo.com)
- Let's start with liquid water in a container which is open to the atmosphere where the ambient pressure is 1.00 atm. (yahoo.com)
- Exposure of plants to an atmosphere of 10 kPa compared with the sea-level pressure of 101 kPa resulted in the significant differential expression of more than 200 genes between the two treatments. (plantphysiol.org)
- Historically pressure was measured by means of a mercury barometer, with the air pressure given by the height of mercury supported by the atmosphere in an evacuated tube, complemented by an aneroid barograph which gave a continuous graph of air pressure. (met.ie)
- Dimer molecules absorb light in a distinctive pattern, and the rate at which they form is sensitive to the pressure, or density, in the planet's atmosphere. (scitechdaily.com)
- Lightning is not the only process in the atmosphere that causes ionisation and dissociation of atmospheric air. (diva-portal.org)
- The maintenance of ordinary air pressure is essential to human health and well-being: the body is perfectly suited to the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere, and if that pressure is altered significantly, a person may experience harmful or even fatal side-effects. (encyclopedia.com)
- Another important measure of pressure is the atmosphere (atm), which the average pressure exerted by air at sea level. (encyclopedia.com)
- If atmospheric density were to remain constant with height the atmosphere would terminate abruptly at 8.50 km (27,900 ft). (freeforumboard.net)
- The pressure of the atmosphere is created by the gravitational field of the earth. (morehealthis.com)
- Reactive hydroxyl radical-driven oral bacterial inactivation by radio frequency atmospheric plasma," Applied Physics Letters , vol. 98, no. 14, Article ID 143702, 2011. (hindawi.com)
- Along with APPI, other techniques include Atmospheric Pressure Gas Chromatography (APGC), Atmospheric Pressure Solids Analysis Probe (ASAP), combined ElectroSpray-Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (ESCi), or NanoFlow Technologies. (waters.com)
- In this work, the potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), a softer form of ionization, combined with GC and a triple quadrupole mass analyzer was investigated, taking pyrethroids as a case study and their determination in fruit and vegetables as example application. (wur.nl)
- A comparison of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and atmospheric pressure photoionization for the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric analysis of bisphenols. (separationsnow.com)
- While native sulfone bisphenols and sulfone-derivatized bisphenols are amenable to electrospray ionization (ESI), alternative ionization methods such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and APPI were investigated to analyze non-derivatized, non-sulfone-containing bisphenols. (separationsnow.com)
- An added dimension: GC atmospheric pressure chemical ionization FTICR MS and the Athabasca oil sands. (semanticscholar.org)
- Free Barometer - Atmospheric and Air Pressure. (apple.com)
- The basic instrument that measures the atmospheric pressure is mercury barometer and the instrument is invented by Evangelista Torricelli, a student of Galileo in 1643. (bartleby.com)
- Standard sea-level pressure is equal 1013.2 millibars and it causes 76 centimeter rise of mercury in barometer. (bartleby.com)
- This image shows three common ways that atmospheric pressure is measured - using a mercurial barometer, an aneroid barometer or a barograph. (windows2universe.org)
- Traditionally, atmospheric pressure has been measured by a mercurial barometer. (windows2universe.org)
- Either a mercury barometer or an aneroid barometer can be set up to make constant measurements of atmospheric pressure. (windows2universe.org)
- Pressure is an idea scientists use to describe how gases and liquids "push" on things. (windows2universe.org)
- assuming the standard values for the atmospheric partial pressure of N2, O2, AND CO2 at sea level, what is the approximate total partial pressure of the remainig atmospheric gases? (jiskha.com)
- Though solids exert pressure, the most interesting examples of pressure involve fluids - that is, gases and liquids - and in particular water and air. (encyclopedia.com)
- The atmospheric pressure photoionization source PhotoSp. (bio-medicine.org)
- The atmospheric pressure photoionization source, PhotoSpray ion source (Robb, Covey and Bruins1) uses photons to ionize large quantities of a dopant molecule added along with the vaporized mobile phase. (bio-medicine.org)
- Atmospheric pressure photoionization is a new technique that uses the energy of photons to generate ions from the vaporized eluent of an LC. (bio-medicine.org)
- Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) using a dopant enables both polar and nonpolar compounds to be analyzed by LC/MS. To date, the charge exchange ionization pathway utilized for nonpolar compounds has only been efficient under restrictive conditions, mainly because the usual charge exchange reagent ions-the dopant photoions themselves-tend to be consumed in proton transfer reactions with solvent and/or dopant neutrals. (ubc.ca)
- The influence of low atmospheric pressures and low oxygen concentrations on 0-24-h-old Ephestia cautella (Wlk. (springer.com)
- Effects on respiration, insect mortality and loss in weight obtained, were due to low oxygen tension only, at both normal and low atmospheric pressure. (springer.com)
- The importance of administration of oxygen under atmospheric positive pressure in the treatment of gas phlegmon]. (nih.gov)
- Less than one-half of the genes induced by hypobaria are similarly affected by hypoxia, suggesting that response to hypobaria is unique and is more complex than an adaptation to the reduced partial pressure of oxygen inherent to hypobaric environments. (plantphysiol.org)
- Quick burial, decay by bacteria without presence of oxygen, millions of years of heat and pressure caused by overlaying sediments convert to petroleum. (majortests.com)
- What is the partial pressure of CO2(torr) in exhaled breathe at 37.0 degree C if the partial pressure of Oxygen is 116 torrr and that of nitrogen is 659 torr. (jiskha.com)
- Corneal swelling at low atmospheric oxygen pressures. (arvojournals.org)
- Corneas of 28 human subjects were exposed to oxygen partial pressures, in a gas goggle, of either 6.9, 17.1, or 22.2 mm Hg, and the corneal swelling was measured by pachometry for 4 hr. (arvojournals.org)
- The average corneal swelling after 4 hr for the three oxygen partial pressures was 5.07%, 2.13%, and 1.66%, respectively. (arvojournals.org)
Changes in atmospheric pressure2
- The ongoing disappearance of sea ice in the Arctic from elevated temperatures is a factor to changes in atmospheric pressure that control jet streams of air, explained James Overland, an oceanographer of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. (scientificamerican.com)
- The response of the human body to changes in atmospheric pressure will be different. (morehealthis.com)
Increase in atmospheric pressure4
- This plastic bottle was sealed at approximately 14,000 feet (4,300 m) altitude, and was crushed by the increase in atmospheric pressure, recorded at 9,000 feet (2,700 m) and 1,000 feet (300 m), as it was brought down towards sea level. (wikipedia.org)
- This plastic bottle was sealed at approximately 14,000 feet altitude, and was crushed by the increase in atmospheric pressure (at 9,000 feet and 1,000 feet) as it was brought down towards sea level. (wikipedia.org)
- The indicators of blood pressure, with an increase in atmospheric pressure - are increased. (morehealthis.com)
- The increase in atmospheric pressure entails a decrease in immunity in general. (morehealthis.com)
Average atmospheric pressure2
- Variation in atmospheric pressure with altitude, computed for 15 °C and 0% relative humidity. (wikipedia.org)
- Air pressure declines with increasing height on the Earth and with altitudes above it because in higher altitude, the air molecules become more widely spaced and diffused. (bartleby.com)
- The altitude and pressure sensors could make an appearance in the phone as well as new iPads that are expected later this fall. (macrumors.com)
- At higher altitude , the atmospheric density and pressure are lower. (wikipedia.org)
- This means that the altitude of each station measuring pressure must be known precisely. (met.ie)
- For surface pressure in physical chemistry, see Pressure § Surface pressure and surface tension . (wikipedia.org)
- Nowadays, many, but not all, mechanical weather instruments have been replaced by electronic instruments that record atmospheric pressure onto a computer. (windows2universe.org)
- All of patients with migraine maintained a headache diary to record atmospheric pressures when they developed a migraine. (springeropen.com)
- This application brief demonstrates the applicability of Atmospheric Pressure Photo Ionization (APPI) with the Xevo TQD for the analysis of a range of widely used polymer additives. (waters.com)
- Understanding the atmospheric pressure ionization of petroleum components: The effects of size, structure, and presence of heteroatoms. (semanticscholar.org)
Effects of atmospheric1
- This can be seen by the effects of atmospheric drag on satellites. (freeforumboard.net)
- Movement and development of pressure systems affecting the country very often cause much larger hour-to-hour changes in the atmospheric pressure than those resulting from diurnal variation. (met.ie)
- Pressure shows seasonal variation. (met.ie)
- As well as being an important climate variable, pressure is an important variable in describing day to day weather variation and in weather forecasting and modelling. (met.ie)
- The mean annual pressure series show little variation, maximum and minimum series show greater variability, particularly the minimum values which is due to the frequency of mid-latitude cyclones. (met.ie)
- The mass of organic aerosol formed under typical atmospheric conditions was found to be very sensitive to the variation in vapour pressure values typically present when comparing estimation methods. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
- We report our examination of the stage in which migraine tends to be induced focusing on the variation of atmospheric pressure. (springeropen.com)
- Abstract An atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma (APNEP) jet has been developed and used to deposit thin ceramic films on ceramic substrates. (witpress.com)
- Seal for fluid pressure below atmospheric (e.g., vacuum, etc. (patentgenius.com)
- At a total atmospheric pressure of 1.00 atm, the partial pressure of CO2 in air is approximately 4.0×10−4 atm. (jiskha.com)
- Static Pressure (mbar): ¨This is the output from a calibrated absolute (barometric) transducer. (ucar.edu)
- Dynamic Pressure (mbar): This is the output from a calibrated differential pressure transducer. (ucar.edu)
- Water Vapor Pressure (mbar): This is a derived intermediate variable used in the calculation of several derived thermodynamic variables. (ucar.edu)
- F. Leipold, R. H. Stark, A. El-Habachi, and K. H. Schoenbach, "Electron Density Measurements in an Atmospheric Pressure Air Plasma by Means of Infrared (IR) Heterodyne Interferometry," J. Phys. (springer.com)
- In this study, nitrogen plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure was used to modify the surface of polylactic acid (PLA), especially its low surface energy and wettability, which do not favor the interface adhesion with another material when blended. (asme.org)
- A column of air with a cross-sectional area of 1 in 2 (6.45 cm 2 ) would have a mass of about 6.65 kg and a weight of about 65.4 N or 14.7 lb f , resulting in a pressure of 10.1 N/cm 2 or 14.7 lb f /in 2 . (wikipedia.org)
- Here, the involvement of plasma produced species in the reduction of silver ions at the plasma-liquid interface is investigated using a well-characterized radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet. (osti.gov)
- As a step in developing an understanding of plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures, we have identified genes central to the initial response of Arabidopsis to hypobaria. (plantphysiol.org)
- Understanding how it behaves at very large pressures is crucial to our understanding of matter and the nature of hydrogen-rich planets. (zmescience.com)
- Understanding atmospheric pressure is key to knowing if conditions at the surface of a terrestrial, or rocky, exoplanet might allow liquid water, thus giving life a chance. (scitechdaily.com)
- More knowledge about the effects of different environmental changes on behavior, including rising or falling barometric pressure, can lead to improved models of psyllid movement and improved timing of pest management activities. (ufl.edu)
- In this study, we investigated the relationship between migraine attacks and barometric pressure changes. (springeropen.com)
- Specifically, we report the range of pressure changes associated with migraine and we discuss methods for preventing migraines that develop in response to variations in barometric pressure. (springeropen.com)
- The relationship between the onset of migraine and barometric pressure levels resulting from the approach of the tropical cyclone was examined using the Mann-Whitney U test. (springeropen.com)
- The present radome measurements all have pressure sensors located in the nose area of the aircraft connected to the radome by semi-rigid tubing. (ucar.edu)
- To allow for comparison between measurements at different locations, all pressure readings are converted to mean sea level pressure. (met.ie)
- Global pressure data are often needed for processing or interpreting modern geodetic and oceanographic measurements. (colorado.edu)
- 2018. "Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Coating of Bismuth Oxide Circular Droplets. (mdpi.com)
- They are formed by the mixing of cold and warm air, the warm air is lighter, so it rises above the denser, cold air and forms a centre of low pressure. (majortests.com)
- For that reason both test models were equally qualified for the analysis of efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma. (egms.de)
- Record high temperatures are currently outnumbering record low temperatures by about two to one, and those ratios are projected to be about 20 to 1 by mid-century and 50 to 1 by 2100, said Jerry Meehl, a scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. (scientificamerican.com)
- Low-pressure areas have less atmospheric mass above their location, whereas high-pressure areas have more atmospheric mass above their location. (wn.com)
- If you go to a place that is high in the mountains, it will have less pressure then at your home. (windows2universe.org)
- If a high pressure system is passing over your house, that will make the pressure go up. (windows2universe.org)
- weather forecasters often talk about High pressure and Low pressure weather systems. (windows2universe.org)
- You'll often hear millibar used by meteorologists when describing low or high pressure weather systems. (windows2universe.org)
- Essay on 'Low pressure atmospheric systems have more of a short term impact than high pressure systems. (majortests.com)
- Low pressure atmospheric systems are also known as depressions or cyclones and they form in mid- and high-latitudes. (majortests.com)
- High pressure atmospheric systems are also known as anticyclones and have very different characteristics to depressions. (majortests.com)
- Anticyclones are large masses of subsiding air, which produces high pressure at the surface. (majortests.com)
- Location does have a result on the impact of low and high atmospheric pressure systems because they can be underdeveloped or have a lot of technology that can be damaged or ruined. (majortests.com)
- Near the surface, friction causes winds to blow across the isobars from high towards low pressure at an angle which depends on surface roughness but is typically about 25 degrees. (met.ie)
- It has two very different types molecules in its structure - one which interacts very weakly with its neighboring molecules (highly unusual for matter at such high pressures), and another which bonds with its neighbors, forming surprising planar sheets. (zmescience.com)
- This simple element-with only one electron and one proton-continues to surprise us with its richness and complexity when it is subjected to high pressures," Russell Hemley, Director of the Geophysical Laboratory, said. (zmescience.com)
- If the pressure is too high, the ball may burst when it is kicked. (slideserve.com)
- People with high blood pressure are hypertensive. (morehealthis.com)
- The cold with the record-breaking anomalously high atmospheric pressure in recent years has a negative impact on well-being and efficiency. (morehealthis.com)
- Two forms of cobalt(II) hydride exist under high pressure. (wikipedia.org)
- High pressure synthesis and stability of cobalt hydrides" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
- In the English or British system, pressure is measured in terms of pounds per square inch, abbreviated as lbs./in 2 . (encyclopedia.com)
- However, the British unit of pressure is a familiar part of an American driver's daily life, because tire pressure in the United States is usually reckoned in terms of pounds per square inch. (encyclopedia.com)
- Atmospheric pressure is an important parameter in monitoring the climate system, as the local and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns are driven by differences in air pressure. (met.ie)
- Kondeti, V. S. Santosh K., Gangal, Urvashi, Yatom, Shurik, and Bruggeman, Peter J.. Ag+ reduction and silver nanoparticle synthesis at the plasma-liquid interface by an RF driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet: Mechanisms and the effect of surfactant . (osti.gov)
- The standard atmospheric pressure was defined as 1013 hPa, and with this value as the criterion, we investigated slight fluctuations in the atmospheric pressure when they developed a migraine. (springeropen.com)
- Standard atmospheric pressure was defined as 1013 hPa, and deviations from this value at the time of onset were calculated. (springeropen.com)
- The altimeter setting in aviation is an atmospheric pressure adjustment. (wikipedia.org)
- Surface modification achieved by plasma jets is comparable to the effects obtained with low-pressure plasma. (wikipedia.org)
- Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets (N-APPJs) generate plasma in open space rather than in a confined chamber and can be utilized for applications in medicine. (routledge.com)
- This dependence is observed in individuals with normal blood pressure. (morehealthis.com)
- A selection of models for estimating vapour pressures have been tested against experimental data for a set of compounds selected for their particular relevance to the formation of atmospheric aerosol by gas-liquid partitioning. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
- The films produced by plasma polymerization at atmospheric pressure showed a hydrophilic character, in correlation with the strong absorbance of OH groups in the FTIR spectrum. (ad-astra.ro)
- If the vapor in the bubble is only at atmospheric pressure, wouldn't it collapse under the weight of the water above it? (physicsforums.com)
- What is the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at 25C? (physicsforums.com)
- The vapor pressure is obtained from the Goff-Gratch Formulation (1946). (ucar.edu)
- For example, if we completely take the air pressure away will the liquid water start to turn into vapor? (yahoo.com)
- A system where that vapor pressure is lower than the equilibrium condition will see the conversion of some solid or liquid into the gas phase. (yahoo.com)
- It will stop once the vapor pressure gets into equilibrium with the liquid. (yahoo.com)
- If you keep removing the vapor, though, the water will continue to try to raise the vapor pressure and continue to evaporate. (yahoo.com)
- At zero pressure, water is either solid ice (below -68 C), or vapor. (yahoo.com)
- If the ambient pressure in the closed container were decreased, then the water would boil at lower temperatures because the vapor pressure would equal the ambient pressure at lower temperatures. (yahoo.com)