Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and Specificity
Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Chronic activation of neurokinin-1 receptor induces pulmonary hypertension in rats. (1/437)In this study we explored the hypothesis that chronic activation of neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor induces pulmonary hypertension in Wistar rats. First, the activation of NK-1 receptor on the pulmonary circulation was investigated by use of a chronic injection of NK-1 agonist [Ser9,Met(O2)11]-substance P (1 x 10(-9) mol/kg) for 2 wk at sea level (rats breathed room air) and during hypoxia (rats were placed in a hypobaric 380-Torr chamber). Second, we studied the effect of NK-1 antagonist (CP-96345) on developing and developed (after 4 wk of chronic hypoxia) pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary arterial pressure, the weight ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle + septum, hematocrit, and substance P (SP) were measured. We found that NK-1 agonist significantly increased pulmonary arterial pressure in the sea-level but not in the hypoxic group. However, NK-1 agonist induced neither right heart hypertrophy nor polycythemia. CP-96345 significantly decreased pulmonary arterial pressure in the hypoxic group but had no effect in the sea-level group. Furthermore, CP-96345 significantly attenuated the acute SP-induced increase in pulmonary arterial pressure in the sea-level and hypoxic groups, with a larger increase in the hypoxic group. These results suggest that chronic activation of NK-1 receptor induces pulmonary hypertension and that there is an increase in the sensitivity of pulmonary vessels in response to SP in chronically hypoxic rats. (+info)
Particulate air pollution and daily mortality on Utah's Wasatch Front. (2/437)Reviews of daily time-series mortality studies from many cities throughout the world suggest that daily mortality counts are associated with short-term changes in particulate matter (PM) air pollution. One U.S. city, however, with conspicuously weak PM-mortality associations was Salt Lake City, Utah; however, relatively robust PM-mortality associations have been observed in a neighboring metropolitan area (Provo/Orem, Utah). The present study explored this apparent discrepancy by collecting, comparing, and analyzing mortality, pollution, and weather data for all three metropolitan areas on Utah's Wasatch Front region of the Wasatch Mountain Range (Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem) for approximately 10 years (1985-1995). Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used to estimate PM-mortality associations while controlling for seasonality, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Salt Lake City experienced substantially more episodes of high PM that were dominated by windblown dust. When the data were screened to exclude obvious windblown dust episodes and when PM data from multiple monitors were used to construct an estimate of mean exposure for the area, comparable PM-mortality effects were estimated. After screening and by using constructed mean PM [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) data, the estimated percent change in mortality associated with a 10-mg/m3 increase in PM10 (and 95% confidence intervals) for the three Wasatch Front metropolitan areas equaled approximately 1. 6% (0.3-2.9), 0.8% (0.3-1.3), and 1.0% (0.2-1.8) for the Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem areas, respectively. We conclude that stagnant air pollution episodes with higher concentrations of primary and secondary combustion-source particles were more associated with elevated mortality than windblown dust episodes with relatively higher concentrations of coarse crustal-derived particles. (+info)
Unhealthy effects of atmospheric temperature and pressure on the occurrence of myocardial infarction and coronary deaths. A 10-year survey: the Lille-World Health Organization MONICA project (Monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease). (3/437)BACKGROUND: Associations between an increase in coronary heart disease occurrence and low atmospheric temperatures have been reported from mortality data and hospital admission registries. However, concomitant increases in noncardiovascular case fatality rates and selection bias of hospital cases may weaken this observation. In this study, we addressed the question of the relationships between fatal and nonfatal coronary diseases and meteorological variables in 10-year data (1985 to 1994) collected in a morbidity registry (Lille-WHO MONICA Project) monitoring 257 000 men from 25 to 64 years of age. METHODS AND RESULTS: The impacts of atmospheric temperature (in Celsius) and pressure (in millibars) on daily rates of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary deaths were studied. Percentages of variation of event rates according to meteorological variations were derived from the relative risks estimated with a Poisson regression model. During the 10-year longitudinal survey, 3616 events occurred. Rates of events decreased linearly with increasing atmospheric temperature. For atmospheric pressure, we detected a V-shaped relationship, with a minimum of daily event rates at 1016 mbar. A 10 degrees C decrease was associated with a 13% increase in event rates (P<0.0001); a 10-mbar decrease <1016 mbar and a 10-mbar increase >1016 mbar were associated with a 12% increase (P=0.001) and an 11% increase (P=0. 01) in event rates, respectively. These effects were independent and influenced both coronary morbidity and mortality rates, with stronger effects in older age groups and for recurrent events. CONCLUSIONS: This longitudinal study is the first to estimate the attributable effect of meteorological variables on MI morbidity in population and strongly argues for a systematic fight against cold in cardiovascular disease prevention, particularly in older ages and after a first MI. (+info)
Changes in c-Fos expression induced by noxious stimulation in the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and C1 spinal neurons of rats after hyperbaric exposure. (4/437)The present study aims to test the hypothesis that hyperbaric exposure inhibits nociceptive processing in the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and C1 spinal neurons. We investigated the c-Fos-like immunoreactivity of the brainstem and upper cervical spinal cord (C1 region) following an injection of mustard oil (15 microliters of 20%) into the nasal mucosa of pentobarbital anesthetized rats after exposure to hyperbaric (2-atmospheres, 1 h) and normobaric pressures. After the hyperbaric exposure, the mean number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the ipsilateral laminae I-II and III-IV of the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis were significantly lower than those in the normobaric condition. Similarly, the mean number of c-Fos positive neurons in the superficial layer (I-II) of the ipsilateral C1 segment were significantly reduced as compared with that in the normobaric condition. When treated with the vehicle alone, no significant difference was detected in the numbers of c-Fos positive neurons in the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and C1 regions between hyperbaric and normobaric conditions. These results suggest that hyperbaric exposure may attenuate nociceptive signals from the area innervated by the trigeminal nerves at the level of both the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and C1 dorsal horn. (+info)
Tissue factor activity is increased in human endothelial cells cultured under elevated static pressure. (5/437)We tested the hypothesis that elevated blood pressure, a known stimulus for vascular remodeling and an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic disease, can modulate basal and cytokine-induced tissue factor (TF; CD 142) expression in cultured human endothelial cells (EC). Using a chromogenic enzymatic assay, we measured basal and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; 10 ng/ml, 5 h)-induced TF activities in human aortic EC (HAEC) and vena cava EC (HVCEC) cultured at atmospheric pressure and at 170 mmHg imposed pressure for up to 48 h. Basal TF activities were 22 +/- 10 U/mg protein for HAEC and 14 +/- 9 U/mg protein for HVCEC and were upregulated in both cell types >10-fold by TNF-alpha. Exposure to pressure for 5 h induced additional elevation of basal TF activity by 47 +/- 16% (P < 0.05, n = 6) for HAEC and 17 +/- 5% (P < 0.05, n = 3) for HVCEC. Pressurization also enhanced TF activity in TNF-alpha-treated cells from 240 +/- 28 to 319 +/- 32 U/mg protein in HAEC (P < 0.05, n = 4) and from 148 +/- 25 to 179 +/- 0.8 U/mg protein (P < 0.05, n = 3) in HVCEC. Cytokine stimulation caused an approximately 100-fold increase in steady-state TF mRNA levels in HAEC, whereas pressurization did not alter either TF mRNA or cell surface antigen expression, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR methodology and ELISA. Elevated pressure, however, modulated the EC plasma membrane organization and/or permeability as inferred from the increased cellular uptake of the fluorescent amphipathic dye merocyanine 540 (33 +/- 7%, P < 0.05). Our data suggest that elevated static pressure modulates the hemostatic potential of vascular cells by modifying the molecular organization of the plasma membrane. (+info)
Influence of environmental temperature on incidence of indinavir-related nephrolithiasis. (6/437)We analyzed the influence of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure on the 1-year incidence of nephrolithiasis among human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients treated with indinavir. One hundred three patients (13.6%) developed 326 episodes of nephrolithiasis. Eighty-two patients (79.6%) had more than one episode (range, two to seven episodes). The overall incidence ranged from 0 to 10.2 episodes per 100 patients exposed per month. There was a significant correlation between temperature and the overall incidence of nephrolithiasis and the incidence of recurrences but not with the incidence of first episodes. Nephrolithiasis was not related to humidity or atmospheric pressure. Our data support the standard recommendation of drinking at least 1.5 L of water daily to prevent nephrolithiasis in most patients treated with indinavir irrespective of meteorologic factors. However, the risk of nephrolithiasis is higher for a certain subgroup of patients when the environment is hot irrespective of adequate water intake. (+info)
Effect of increased pressure on tracheal ciliary beat frequency. (7/437)Effects of increased ambient pressure on mucociliary clearance have been poorly investigated. The effects of increasing pressures on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of guinea-pig tracheal rings were studied in vitro. Increased pressures of 25 and 100 kPa induced a significant and equivalent enhancement of CBF from 30 min after the pressure increase. The increase in CBF observed after a pressure increase of 50 kPa (inspiratory oxygen fraction = 21%), was significantly greater than that observed with an equivalent oxygen tension at atmospheric pressure, i.e. with a gas mixture containing 30% oxygen. Addition of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) inhibited the enhancement in CBF observed after the 25 kPa pressure increase. Addition of L-arginine reversed the effect of L-NAME. These results demonstrate that a pressure increase applied to tracheal rings, in vitro, induces an enhancement of ciliary beat frequency and that generation of nitric oxide may be involved in this ciliary stimulation. (+info)
Intrapulmonary gas mixing and the sloping alveolar plateau in COPD patients with macroscopic emphysema. (8/437)Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, especially those with emphysema, show steep slopes of the alveolar plateau (S). This study tested the hypothesis that continued gas exchange between poorly and well-ventilated lung units by means of collateral ventilation would contribute to S in these patients. Nine young volunteers, nine older volunteers and 11 patients with macroscopic emphysema performed wash-out tests with helium (He) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). S was determined for breaths 1-5 (range 1), and for breaths between 95% and 98% of complete wash-out (range 2). An unequal ventilation index (UVI) was defined as the ratio between the estimated mean alveolar pressure and the end tidal pressure (PET) of each tracer gas, calculated over range 2. Over the same range, a phase III ratio was calculated by dividing PET by the estimated pressure at Fowler dead space. In all groups of subjects, the S for He and SF6 were greater for range 2 than for range 1 (p< or =0.012). In the emphysema patients, the correlations between S and UVI were 0.72 for He (p=0.012) and 0.81 for SF6 (p=0.002), while the mean phase III ratios were 1.7 for He and 2.4 for SF6, much less than their theoretical maxima. It was concluded that in patients collateral ventilation may account for only a small part of the increase in the alveolar plateau slope between ranges 1 and 2, and that this increase was mainly caused by unequal ventilation in combination with sequential emptying of lung units. The degree of sequential emptying, however, was modest compared with its full potential. (+info)
In the medical field, atmospheric pressure refers to the amount of force exerted by the weight of the Earth's atmosphere on the surface of the planet. This force is measured in units of pressure, such as millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or pounds per square inch (psi). Atmospheric pressure is an important factor in medical practice because it can affect the body's ability to function properly. For example, changes in atmospheric pressure can cause altitude sickness, which can lead to symptoms such as headache, nausea, and dizziness. In addition, changes in atmospheric pressure can affect the delivery of oxygen to the body's tissues, which can be particularly important for people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In some medical procedures, such as blood pressure monitoring, atmospheric pressure is taken into account to ensure accurate readings. For example, a sphygmomanometer, which is a device used to measure blood pressure, is calibrated to account for changes in atmospheric pressure. This helps to ensure that the readings obtained are accurate and reliable.
In the medical field, plasma gases refer to gases that have been ionized or partially ionized to form a plasma state. Plasma is a highly reactive state of matter that contains ions, electrons, and neutral particles. Plasma gases are used in various medical applications, including: 1. Plasma sterilization: Plasma gases are used to sterilize medical equipment and instruments by exposing them to a high-energy plasma stream. The plasma generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that can kill bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms. 2. Plasma wound treatment: Plasma gases are used to treat wounds by promoting tissue regeneration and reducing inflammation. The plasma generates a variety of reactive species that can stimulate the production of growth factors and other molecules that promote healing. 3. Plasma cancer treatment: Plasma gases are being investigated as a potential treatment for cancer. The plasma generates reactive species that can damage cancer cells and promote their destruction. 4. Plasma surface modification: Plasma gases are used to modify the surface properties of materials, such as medical implants, by introducing new functional groups or changing the surface chemistry. This can improve the biocompatibility of the material and enhance its performance in medical applications. Overall, plasma gases have a wide range of potential applications in the medical field, and ongoing research is exploring new ways to harness their unique properties for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.
Air ionization is a process in which electrically charged particles, known as ions, are introduced into the air. In the medical field, air ionization is often used to improve air quality and reduce the concentration of airborne particles, such as dust, pollen, and bacteria. There are two types of air ionization: positive ionization and negative ionization. Positive ionization involves the introduction of positively charged ions into the air, while negative ionization involves the introduction of negatively charged ions. Positive ions are typically produced by electrical devices, such as air purifiers, and are believed to have a calming effect on the body. Negative ions, on the other hand, are produced by natural sources, such as lightning, and are believed to have a energizing effect on the body. In medical settings, air ionization is often used to improve the air quality in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities. This can help to reduce the risk of respiratory infections and other illnesses, as well as improve the overall comfort and well-being of patients and staff.
Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels as the heart pumps blood through the body. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is typically expressed as two numbers: systolic pressure (the pressure when the heart beats) and diastolic pressure (the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats). Normal blood pressure is considered to be below 120/80 mmHg, while high blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as a systolic pressure of 140 mmHg or higher and/or a diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or higher. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and other health problems.
In the medical field, air pressure refers to the amount of force exerted by the air molecules in a given space. This force is measured in units of pressure, such as millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or pounds per square inch (psi). Air pressure plays an important role in the respiratory system, as it helps to move air in and out of the lungs. The lungs are designed to expand and contract in response to changes in air pressure, allowing air to flow in and out of the airways. In medical settings, air pressure is often used to measure the pressure inside the lungs or other air-filled spaces in the body. This can be useful in diagnosing and treating a variety of respiratory conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. Air pressure is also used in medical equipment such as ventilators, which are used to help patients breathe when they are unable to do so on their own. These machines use controlled air pressure to move air in and out of the lungs, helping to keep the patient's airways open and providing them with the oxygen they need to survive.
Chromatography, Liquid, also known as liquid chromatography (LC), is a separation technique used in the medical field to separate and analyze complex mixtures of compounds. It involves the use of a liquid mobile phase to separate and separate components of a mixture based on their chemical properties, such as polarity, molecular weight, and charge. In liquid chromatography, the mixture is introduced into a column packed with a stationary phase, which is typically a solid or a liquid. The mobile phase is then pumped through the column, and the components of the mixture are separated based on their interactions with the stationary and mobile phases. The separated components are then detected and quantified using various detection methods, such as UV-Vis absorbance, fluorescence, or mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography is widely used in the medical field for a variety of applications, including drug discovery and development, quality control of pharmaceuticals, analysis of biological samples, and environmental monitoring. It is a powerful and versatile technique that can be used to separate and analyze a wide range of compounds, from small molecules to large proteins and polymers.
In the medical field, chemical processes refer to the various chemical reactions and transformations that occur within the body to maintain homeostasis and carry out essential functions. These processes involve the breakdown of molecules, the synthesis of new molecules, and the transport of molecules throughout the body. Some examples of chemical processes in the medical field include: 1. Metabolism: This is the process by which the body breaks down food and other substances to produce energy and other molecules needed for growth and repair. 2. Enzyme catalysis: Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body. They play a crucial role in many chemical processes, including metabolism, digestion, and the synthesis of hormones and other signaling molecules. 3. Oxidation-reduction reactions: These are chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another. They play a key role in many biological processes, including energy production, detoxification, and the synthesis of important molecules like DNA and RNA. 4. Acid-base balance: The body must maintain a delicate balance of acids and bases to ensure proper functioning of cells and organs. Chemical processes like respiration and ion transport help to regulate this balance. Overall, chemical processes are essential for the proper functioning of the body and play a critical role in maintaining health and preventing disease.
In the medical field, "air" typically refers to the mixture of gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere, which is composed primarily of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%), with trace amounts of other gases such as carbon dioxide, argon, and neon. In medical contexts, air can refer to the inhalation of air into the lungs, which is necessary for respiration and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Air can also refer to the presence of air in the body, such as in the case of pneumothorax, where air leaks into the space between the lung and the chest wall, causing the lung to collapse. In some medical procedures, such as bronchoscopy or endoscopy, air is used to inflate the airways and create a clear view of the inside of the body. In other cases, air may be used as a contrast medium to help visualize certain structures on medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or CT scans.
High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a technique used in the medical field to separate and analyze complex mixtures of compounds. It involves the use of a liquid mobile phase that is forced through a column packed with a stationary phase under high pressure. The compounds in the mixture interact with the stationary phase to different extents, causing them to separate as they pass through the column. The separated compounds are then detected and quantified using a detector, such as a UV detector or a mass spectrometer. HPLC is commonly used in the analysis of drugs, biological samples, and other complex mixtures in the medical field.
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a synthetic organic chemical compound that is composed of six chlorine atoms attached to a benzene ring. It is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless solid that is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. In the medical field, HCB has been used as a pesticide and as a flame retardant in the past. However, it has been banned in many countries due to its toxicity and persistence in the environment. HCB is a persistent organic pollutant, which means that it does not break down easily and can accumulate in the environment and in living organisms. It has been linked to a range of health effects, including liver and kidney damage, reproductive problems, and cancer. In humans, exposure to HCB can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and is considered a high priority for regulation by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
In the medical field, argon is a noble gas that is used in various medical applications, including: 1. Argon Plasma Coagulation (APC): APC is a surgical technique that uses an argon plasma beam to coagulate and cut tissue. It is commonly used in endoscopic procedures to treat bleeding, remove polyps, and cut tissue. 2. Argon Laser: An argon laser is a type of laser that uses argon gas to produce a beam of light. It is used in various medical procedures, including eye surgery, dermatology, and urology. 3. Argon Gas Therapy: Argon gas therapy is a treatment for various medical conditions, including chronic wounds, ulcers, and burns. It involves the use of argon gas to promote healing and reduce inflammation. 4. Argon Cryotherapy: Argon cryotherapy is a treatment that uses argon gas to produce a cold temperature that can be used to freeze and destroy abnormal cells, such as cancer cells. Overall, argon is a versatile gas that has many medical applications due to its unique properties, including its low reactivity and ability to produce a plasma beam.
In the medical field, ions are charged particles that are either positively or negatively charged. They are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, and they play a crucial role in many bodily functions. For example, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride are essential for maintaining the proper balance of fluids in the body, which is necessary for proper nerve and muscle function. Imbalances in these ions can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and muscle cramps. In addition, ions are also important in the transmission of nerve impulses and the functioning of the immune system. They are also used in medical treatments such as electrotherapy and iontophoresis, which involve the application of electrical currents to the body to treat various conditions.
In the medical field, gases are substances that exist in a gaseous state at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature. Gases are typically composed of atoms or molecules that are highly energetic and move rapidly in all directions. Gases are important in medicine because they play a role in many physiological processes, such as respiration, circulation, and gas exchange. For example, oxygen is a gas that is essential for respiration, and carbon dioxide is a waste product that is exhaled from the body. In medical settings, gases can be used for a variety of purposes, such as anesthesia, oxygen therapy, and carbon dioxide removal. Gases can also be used in diagnostic tests, such as pulmonary function tests, which measure the amount of air that a person can inhale and exhale. It is important for healthcare professionals to be familiar with the properties and effects of different gases, as well as the proper handling and administration of gases in medical settings.
In the medical field, complex mixtures refer to a type of substance that is composed of multiple components or ingredients, often with varying chemical structures and properties. These mixtures can be found in a variety of contexts, including pharmaceuticals, food and beverages, environmental pollutants, and consumer products. Complex mixtures can be challenging to study and understand because their individual components interact with each other in complex ways, and their overall effects on health and the environment may not be predictable based on the properties of the individual components alone. As a result, researchers and regulators often rely on a variety of analytical techniques and modeling approaches to study complex mixtures and assess their potential risks. Some examples of complex mixtures in the medical field include tobacco smoke, diesel exhaust, and certain types of air pollution. These mixtures contain a variety of chemicals, including carcinogens, irritants, and toxicants, that can have a range of adverse effects on human health, including respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.
Helium is a noble gas that is commonly used in the medical field for various purposes. Here are some of the ways helium is used in medicine: 1. Inhalation therapy: Helium is used as a carrier gas for oxygen in inhalation therapy to treat respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and bronchitis. Helium-oxygen mixtures are less dense than air, which makes it easier for patients to breathe and reduces the workload on their lungs. 2. Cryotherapy: Helium is used in cryotherapy to freeze and destroy abnormal cells or tissues in the body. This technique is used to treat various medical conditions such as skin cancer, warts, and keloids. 3. MRI imaging: Helium is used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines to cool the superconducting magnets that generate the magnetic field used in the imaging process. This cooling process helps to maintain the stability of the magnetic field and improve the quality of the images. 4. Medical research: Helium is used in medical research to study the properties of gases and their interactions with living organisms. It is also used in the development of new medical technologies and treatments. Overall, helium is a versatile gas that has many applications in the medical field, from treating respiratory conditions to improving the quality of medical imaging.
In the medical field, calibration refers to the process of verifying and adjusting the accuracy and precision of medical equipment or instruments. Calibration is important to ensure that medical equipment is functioning properly and providing accurate results, which is critical for making informed medical decisions and providing appropriate patient care. Calibration typically involves comparing the performance of the medical equipment to known standards or references. This can be done using specialized equipment or by sending the equipment to a calibration laboratory for testing. The calibration process may involve adjusting the equipment's settings or replacing worn or damaged components to restore its accuracy and precision. Calibration is typically performed on a regular basis, depending on the type of equipment and the frequency of use. For example, some medical equipment may need to be calibrated daily, while others may only require calibration every six months or so. Failure to properly calibrate medical equipment can lead to inaccurate results, which can have serious consequences for patient safety and outcomes.
In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.
Aortic rupture is a medical emergency that occurs when the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body, ruptures or tears. This can happen due to a variety of factors, including trauma, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), aneurysms (ballooning of the aorta), and certain medical conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Aortic rupture is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms of aortic rupture may include severe chest pain, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and loss of consciousness. If left untreated, aortic rupture can lead to rapid bleeding and death. Treatment for aortic rupture typically involves emergency surgery to repair or replace the damaged section of the aorta. In some cases, aortic rupture may be treated with medications to control blood pressure and prevent further bleeding. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may be experiencing aortic rupture.
Blood pressure determination is the process of measuring the force of blood against the walls of arteries as it flows through the body. This measurement is an important indicator of cardiovascular health and is typically taken using a sphygmomanometer, a device that consists of an inflatable cuff and a gauge to measure the pressure inside the cuff. During a blood pressure determination, the cuff is placed around the upper arm and inflated to a point where blood flow is temporarily blocked. The pressure is then slowly released, and the gauge records the pressure at which blood flow begins to resume. This pressure is known as the systolic pressure, which represents the maximum pressure in the arteries during a heartbeat. The pressure at which blood flow returns to normal after the heartbeat is known as the diastolic pressure, which represents the minimum pressure in the arteries between heartbeats. Blood pressure determination is typically performed in a healthcare setting by a healthcare provider, such as a doctor or nurse. It is an important part of routine health screenings and is used to diagnose and manage conditions such as hypertension (high blood pressure) and hypotension (low blood pressure).
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
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- Usually, atmospheric temperature is measured in Celsius degrees (°C), but there are also other scales of thermal measurement, like Fahrenheit or Kelvin. (icarito.cl)
- The unit used to measure pressure is the atmosphere, defined as the amount of weight a 760 millimeter high column of mercury exerts at a latitude of 45° at sea level and at a temperature of 0° centigrade. (icarito.cl)
- ICH is strongly affected by barometric and temperature alterations, especially with reductions in atmospheric pressure and temperature extremes. (phoenixrising.me)
- In a study funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Program/Public Health Program (fully cited below), scientists at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center/ Universities Space Research Association developed computer programs to process the NLDAS-2 hourly primary forcing files, extract the hourly air temperature, specific humidity, and atmospheric pressure data, and compute the daily Maximum Air Temperature, Minimum Air Temperature, and Maximum Heat Index. (cdc.gov)
- As elevation increases, there is less overlying atmospheric mass, so atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing elevation. (wikipedia.org)
- As altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases. (wikipedia.org)
- Atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude due to the fact that the higher a point is over sea level, the fewer layers of air is has above it. (icarito.cl)
- No, decreases in atmospheric pressure have an outsized impact on intracranial pressure. (phoenixrising.me)
- Small decreases of 6-10 hPa relative to the standard atmospheric pressure of 1013 hPa induced migraine attacks most frequently in patients with migraine. (phoenixrising.me)
- that is, the Earth's atmospheric pressure at sea level is approximately 1 atm. (wikipedia.org)
- Because the atmosphere is thin relative to the Earth's radius-especially the dense atmospheric layer at low altitudes-the Earth's gravitational acceleration as a function of altitude can be approximated as constant and contributes little to this fall-off. (wikipedia.org)
- On average, a column of air with a cross-sectional area of 1 square centimetre (cm2), measured from the mean (average) sea level to the top of Earth's atmosphere, has a mass of about 1.03 kilogram and exerts a force or "weight" of about 10.1 newtons, resulting in a pressure of 10.1 N/cm2 or 101 kN/m2 (101 kilopascals, kPa). (wikipedia.org)
- Surface pressure is the atmospheric pressure at a location on Earth's surface (terrain and oceans). (wikipedia.org)
- Pressure varies smoothly from the Earth's surface to the top of the mesosphere. (wikipedia.org)
- Within planetary atmospheres (including the Earth's ), the pressure gradient is a vector pointing roughly downwards, because the pressure changes most rapidly vertically, increasing downwards. (wikidoc.org)
- Near the Earth's surface , this horizontal pressure gradient is typically pointing towards high pressure air masses ( anticyclones ), its particular orientation at any one time and place depends strongly on the weather situation. (wikidoc.org)
- Pressure on Earth varies with the altitude of the surface, so air pressure on mountains is usually lower than air pressure at sea level. (wikipedia.org)
- One can calculate the atmospheric pressure at a given altitude. (wikipedia.org)
- Because pressure varies depending on altitude, it's possible you may see pressure measured in pounds per square inch absolute (psia). (greasebook.com)
Chemical Ionization Source1
- with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (APCI). (cdc.gov)
- Atmospheric pressure, also known as air pressure or barometric pressure (after the barometer), is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth. (wikipedia.org)
- You can measure barometric pressure variations using a barometer app on your phone, which has an inbuilt barometer for GPS. (phoenixrising.me)
- mono-n-butyl phthalate is chromatographically resolved by reverse-phase HPLC, detected by negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified by isotope dilution. (cdc.gov)
- And yes, these small changes do have a measurable impact on intracranial pressure specifically. (phoenixrising.me)
- Any condition that increases intracranial pressure (ICP) may decrease cerebral perfusion pressure, resulting in secondary brain ischemia. (msdmanuals.com)
- Brain Herniation Brain herniation occurs when increased intracranial pressure causes the abnormal protrusion of brain tissue through openings in rigid intracranial barriers (eg, tentorial notch). (msdmanuals.com)
- A column of air with a cross-sectional area of 1 in2 would have a weight of about 14.7 lbf, resulting in a pressure of 14.7 lbf/in2. (wikipedia.org)
- At sea level the pressure of the atmosphere pressing down is about 14.7 psi. (greasebook.com)
- The tire would be at 49.7 psia, however, as that number includes the atmospheric pressure (35 psi of the tire + 14.7 psi of the atmosphere at sea level). (greasebook.com)
- Differences in air pressure between different locations are critical in weather forecasting and climate. (wikidoc.org)
- Under stochastic forcing, largest differences between surface and bottom pressure signals reach 10%-20% of the surface signals and tend to occur in regions of enhanced topographic gradients. (aer.com)
- They travel trough the atmosphere based on pressure differences and are capable of moving air from areas of higher pressure to lower ones. (icarito.cl)
- Wind is caused by differences in atmospheric pressure between one region and and another. (phoenixrising.me)
- The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as 101,325 Pa (1,013.25 hPa), which is equivalent to 1,013.25 millibars, 760 mm Hg, 29.9212 inches Hg, or 14.696 psi. (wikipedia.org)
- The United States and Canada also report sea-level pressure SLP, which is adjusted to sea level by a different method, in the remarks section, not in the internationally transmitted part of the code, in hectopascals or millibars. (wikipedia.org)
- The pressure exerted by the weight of air above a given point, sometimes expressed in millibars (mb) or inches of mercury (Hg). (gc.ca)
- Return to Start page for Atmospheric Chemistry and Aerosol Names PLEASE DO NOT USE THE NAVIGATION BAR ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE! (esipfed.org)
- The proposed standard_names listed below are based on the ideas provided at Construction of Atmospheric Chemistry and Aerosol Terms and Future Standard_Names . (esipfed.org)
- Atmospheric pressure is caused by the gravitational attraction of the planet on the atmospheric gases above the surface and is a function of the mass of the planet, the radius of the surface, and the amount and composition of the gases and their vertical distribution in the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
- The average pressure at mean sea level (MSL) in the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is 1,013.25 hPa, or 1 atmosphere (atm), or 29.92 inches of mercury. (wikipedia.org)
- As you get higher, there's less atmosphere pressing down and so the pressure is lower. (greasebook.com)
- Pounds per square inch gauge (psig), on the other hand, measures pressure in comparison to the local atmosphere. (greasebook.com)
- Robert G. Fleagle and Joost A. Businger (1980) An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics , Second Edition, Academic Press, International Geophysics Series, Volume 25 , ISBN 0-12-260355-9. (wikidoc.org)
- In atmospheric sciences ( meteorology , climatology and related fields), the pressure gradient (typically of air , more generally of any fluid ) is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the pressure changes the most rapidly around a particular location. (wikidoc.org)
- The pressure gradient is a dimensional quantity expressed in units of pressure per unit length. (wikidoc.org)
- Strictly speaking, the concept of pressure gradient is a local characterization of the air (more generally of the fluid under investigation). (wikidoc.org)
- The pressure gradient is defined only at those spatial scales at which pressure (more generally fluid dynamics ) itself is defined. (wikidoc.org)
- The value of the strength (or norm ) of the pressure gradient in the troposphere is typically of the order 9 Pa/m (or 90 hPa/km). (wikidoc.org)
- The pressure gradient often has a small but critical horizontal component, which is largely responsible for the wind circulation. (wikidoc.org)
- The horizontal pressure gradient is a 2-dimensional vector resulting from the projection of the pressure gradient onto a local horizontal plane. (wikidoc.org)
- At mid- latitudes , the typical horizontal pressure gradient may take on values of the order of 10 -2 Pa/m (or 10 Pa/km), although rather higher values occur within meteorological fronts . (wikidoc.org)
- As indicated above, the pressure gradient constitutes one of the main forces acting on the air to make it move as wind. (wikidoc.org)
- Note that the pressure gradient force points from high towards low pressure zones, it is thus oriented in the opposite direction from the pressure gradient itself. (wikidoc.org)
- Single-layer (barotropic) models have been commonly used in studies of the inverted barometer effect and the oceanic response to atmospheric pressure loading. (aer.com)
- Pressure measures force per unit area, with SI units of pascals (1 pascal = 1 newton per square metre, 1 N/m2). (wikipedia.org)
- The way these pressure areas are distributed over the Arctic are a big factor in the annual extent decrease. (typepad.com)
- In the same period during 2008 and 2009 we see how low-pressure areas engulf the Arctic around the 10th of September, bringing extent decrease to a screeching halt and effectively ending the melting season. (typepad.com)
- while in the higher atmospheric layers the decrease is slower. (icarito.cl)
- In most circumstances, atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of air above the measurement point. (wikipedia.org)
- Although the pressure changes with the weather, NASA has averaged the conditions for all parts of the earth year-round. (wikipedia.org)
- of material enriched in relatively volatile Na-species as well as more refractory Ca-species provides evidence for an oxygen-rich fireball based on the vapor pressure of the two species under oxidizing conditions. (osti.gov)
- The particles produced are examined during production at operational pressures close to atmospheric conditions and exhibit a lognormal size distribution ranging from 5-100 nm. (lu.se)
- Whenever your produced fluid moves from a higher pressure to a lower pressure system, or has a lower pressure due to motion, additional gas is going to be released. (greasebook.com)
- In this study, we explore the possibility of using atmospheric pressure plasma as a dry process to treat 100% grey cotton knitted fabric (single jersey and interlock) before processing. (mdpi.com)
- A novel approach to generate hydrogel coatings composed of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and the tertiary amine methacrylate 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) copolymerized in 1:1 volume ratio through atmospheric-pressure plasma polymerization is presented. (materialstoday.com)
- This coating was synthesized by using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. (materialstoday.com)
- Tooth bleaching with nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma. (bvsalud.org)
- General implications for modeling the ocean response to high-frequency atmospheric and tidal forcing are discussed. (aer.com)
- For example, with our sub-atmospheric inlet pressure systems you can be sure that not only are your compressors designed specifically with your application in mind, but they will offer maximum reliability. (reavell.com)
- Atmospheric pressure varies depending on your height above or below sea level. (greasebook.com)
- I don't think you can have any region of the world at sea level which has a higher atmospheric pressure, because that high pressure would be rapidly neutralized by wind. (phoenixrising.me)
- The first End Zone instalment compared air temperatures, the second one was about ice displacement , and now we'll be looking at atmospheric pressure or sea level pressure. (typepad.com)
- Again the colour bars on the right displaying atmospheric pressure in millibar are continually switching, but it's not as disturbing as with air temperatures. (typepad.com)
- The Mediterranean region seems to be the best place to move for such a person, as it has some of the highest atmospheric pressures in the world along with ideal temperatures, not too hot or cold. (phoenixrising.me)
- John M. Wallace and Peter V. Hobbs (2006) Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey , Second Edition, Academic Press, International Geophysics Series, ISBN 0-12-732951-X. (wikidoc.org)
- Atmospheric pressure is thus proportional to the weight per unit area of the atmospheric mass above that location. (wikipedia.org)
- That unit means that the pressure has been measured in comparison to a vacuum, meaning it was compared to a complete lack of pressure. (greasebook.com)
- The internationally recognized unit for measuring atmospheric pressure is the kilopascal (kPa). (gc.ca)
- The magnitude of the pressure determines how strong these winds are. (typepad.com)
- However, in Canada's public weather reports, sea level pressure is instead reported in kilopascals. (wikipedia.org)
- Periodic forcing by the diurnal and semidiurnal atmospheric tides and 6-hourly stochastic forcing from weather center analyses are both examined. (aer.com)
- The nice thing about SLP (sea level pressure) is that we can have a look at weather models that forecast 10 days in advance. (typepad.com)
- If you feel worse when the weather is rainy, then this might make sense to you, as the atmospheric pressure reduces during cloudy weather. (phoenixrising.me)
- NLDAS Phase 2 is a collaboration project among several groups: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Environmental Modeling Center (EMC), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Princeton University, the National Weather Service (NWS) Office of Hydrological Development (OHD), the University of Washington, and the NCEP Climate Prediction Center (CPC). (cdc.gov)
- If that gas can be recovered, it can be sold, so most atmospheric vessels actually have a small amount of back pressure to reduce loss of gas and lighter weight components than produced oil through evaporation. (greasebook.com)
- In addition to the backpressure, these tanks have to also handle pressure from the weight of the fluids inside. (greasebook.com)
- For numerical reasons, atmospheric models such as general circulation models (GCMs) usually predict the nondimensional logarithm of surface pressure. (wikipedia.org)
- For finding the streamlines entirely in terms of the pressure field and all of its individual derivatives, one such solution is arrived at from a bicubic pressure polynomial in angular ageostrophic deviation. (ametsoc.org)
- Technological exploited plasmas, inspired by natural atmospheric discharges, offers unique capabilities of surface engineering including modifying selected surface properties and enabling surface functionalization along with the fabrication of special surface structures. (materialstoday.com)
- Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación. (medlineplus.gov)
- Difficulties are encountered not only because of the ensuing ambiguity but also in carrying out the graphical algebra and analysis of the pressure-wise expressed wind vector. (ametsoc.org)
- First, though, it's probably helpful to have a clear idea of what is meant by atmospheric pressure and pressure in general, particularly when you're talking about lease pumping. (greasebook.com)
- Pressure (P), mass (m), and acceleration due to gravity (g) are related by P = F/A = (m*g)/A, where A is the surface area. (wikipedia.org)
- It is composed of ice of different thicknesses formed under pressure during ebb tide, the whole mass freezes together and gradually increasing in size, with each successive tide. (gc.ca)
- The average value of surface pressure on Earth is 985 hPa. (wikipedia.org)
- The influence of stratification in the dynamics is assessed by comparing surface and bottom pressure signals. (aer.com)
- The mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) is the atmospheric pressure at mean sea level (PMSL). (wikipedia.org)
- So, a water disposal tank full to about 8 feet would have a bottom pressure of about 4 psi, plus any backpressure. (greasebook.com)
- For long-term coma, adjunctive treatment includes passive range-of-motion exercises, enteral feedings, and measures to prevent pressure ulcers. (msdmanuals.com)