Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Radon: A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Radon Daughters: Short-lived radioactive decay products of radon that include 216-Po, 214-Pb, 214-Bi, and 214-Po. They have an effective half-life of about 30 minutes and are solids that can deposit on the bronchial airways during inhalation and exhalation. This results in exposure of the respiratory airways to alpha radiation and can lead to diseases of the respiratory system, including lung cancer. (From Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, 4th ed, p740)Air Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Air Pollution, RadioactiveAir Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.MiningWater Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Radioactive Pollutants: Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Methylococcus capsulatus: A species of METHYLOCOCCUS which forms capsules and is capable of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Methylosinus trichosporium: A species of METHYLOSINUS which is capable of degrading trichloroethylene and other organic pollutants.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Background Radiation: Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.ScandinaviaRain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Sculpture

*Soil gas

... the chief concerns among these pollutants are radon which is radioactive and causes cancer and methane which can be flammable ... Other natural soil gases are atmospheric methane and radon. Some environmental contaminants below ground produce gas which ... the soil. This aeration network becomes blocked when water enters soil pores. Not only are both soil air and soil water very ... Gases fill soil pores in the soil structure as water drains or is removed from a soil pore by evaporation or root absorption. ...

*Marcellus Formation

Wanty, Richard B. (1993). Field studies of radon in rocks, soils, and water. Chelsea, Michigan: C.K. Smoley. p. 216. ISBN 0- ... The Marcellus also contains uranium, and the radioactive decay of the uranium-238 (238U) makes it a source rock for radioactive ... outcrops makes an east-west band running through the city of Syracuse a high-risk area for radon as an indoor air pollutant. ... Because carbon adsorbs carbon dioxide (CO2) at a greater rate than methane (CH4), carbon dioxide injected into the formation ...

*Air pollution

... and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon. Secondary pollutants include: Particulates created from gaseous ... They are categorized as either methane (CH4) or non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), atmospheric particulate matter, or fine particles, are tiny ... soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen, dust, and mold. Indoors, the lack of air circulation allows these airborne ...
Indoor radon concentrations are presented as means with standard deviations and geometric means. To consider repeated measures within the same residence, a generalized estimating equation with a linear model was applied according to individual residential environments. To identify factors affecting higher indoor radon concentrations, we divided residences into five groups according to radon concentrations based on indoor radon reference levels as international standards (,74 Bq/m3, 74100 Bq/m3, 100-148 Bq/m3, 148-200 Bq/m3, and ≥200 Bq/m3) and applied a generalized estimating equation based on a multinomial probability distribution with a cumulative probit link function. Spearmans rho was used to analyze correlations among greenery ratio, impermeable layer ratio, and indoor radon concentrations. Decision tree analysis was conducted to highlight factors and to suggest optimal cut point of each parameter affecting high indoor ...
As a standard instrument to calibrate the radon monitors, radon chamber is in urgent need with the deepening study on Radon and its progeny. According to the requirement of calibrating the radon monitors and radon detectors, the multifunctional and automatic controlled radon chamber is designed and constructed. By the reason of radon decay, the radon concentration in the chamber is continuously changing. The radon concentration must keep stability and homogeneity in order to calibrate the radon monitors and bio-culture. The supply and control of radon in the chamber is a critical problem in the design of Radon chamber. The paper introduced the mathematic model of dynamic radon replenishment according to the law of radon decay, three time parameters to replenish ...
A radon alleviation framework is any structure or steps proposed to diminish radon focuses in the indoor idea of a building.. The EPA prescribes Radon Mitigation make a move to reduce your homes indoor radon levels, Radon close me if your radon test result is 4 pCi/L or higher.. Radon Framework. A secured level of radon gas is no radon gas. Radon gas is a disease causing professional which causes lung tumor. The US EPA has put it evidently, passing on, "Any radon introduction has some peril of causing lung change. The lower the radon levels in your home, the lower your familys danger of lung hazard." The standard individual gets higher estimations of radiation from the radon levels in their home than from their joined preamble to all other radiation sources, conventional or man-made. ...
Radon is a deadly gas that can easily accumulate in your newer or older home, whether you have a full or partial basement, crawl space, or cement slab. You may be breathing harmful levels of radon and not know it. Have you tested your house for radon? Purchase a radon test kit today. WHAT IS RADON? Radon is a colorless, odorless tasteless radioactive gas Radon comes from naturally decaying uranium 289 in soil, rocks and water Radon is a known carcinogen Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, next to smoking 1 in 15 homes in the U.S. has high levels of radon Radon is found in all 50 states Radon accumulates in poorly ventilated areas of the home such as basements and crawlspaces No level of radon is safe in your home. Upon ...
Exposure to radon gas is the second most common cause of lung cancer after smoking. A large number of studies have reported that exposure to indoor radon, even at low concentrations, is associated with lung cancer in the general population. This paper reviewed studies from several countries to assess the attributable risk (AR) of lung cancer death due to indoor radon exposure and the effect of radon mitigation thereon. Worldwide, 3-20 % of all lung cancer deaths are likely caused by indoor radon exposure. These values tend to be higher in countries reporting high radon concentrations, which can depend on the estimation method. The estimated number of lung cancer deaths due to radon exposure in several countries varied from 150 to 40,477 annually. In general, the percent ARs were higher among never-smokers than among ever-smokers, whereas much more lung cancer deaths attributable to ...
Mike Adams. November is radon awareness month so it is the perfect time of year to consider testing your home. Radon gas is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. It may contribute to as much as 16% of all lung cancers. Radon, when combined with tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, can increase the risk substantially. Health Canada estimates that one in three smokers exposed to high radon levels will develop lung cancer.. Radon is a naturally occurring gas found in the ground throughout the world. Most homes that are in contact with the ground will contain some amount of radon gas. Radon becomes more of a concern when it reaches high levels. According to Health Canada about seven per cent of the Canadian homes have radon levels that may be putting residents at risk. Here in the B.C. Interior we have some "hot spot" areas with high ...
Digital Continuous Radon Gas Monitoring with Home Radon Alarm Protect your family from lung cancer from radon gas exposure with the only EPA evaluated radon gas alarm, the Safety Siren Pro 3 Electronic Radon Gas Detector from Family Safety Products. As seen on TV, this is not like a single use radon test detection kit: this digital radon gas monitor for home testing is a continuous radon tester that performs continuous radon gas monitoring. The clear, easily read digital radon level display shows short-term radon levels as well as long-term radon level averages. The Safety Siren electronic radon monitor gives its first radon reading after 48 hours of radon gas sampling. Radon gas in air or water is a health hazard resulting from uranium ...
Long-term exposure to elevated indoor radon concentrations has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in adults after tobacco smoking. With the establishment of a National Radon Program in Canada in 2007 thousands of homes across the country have been tested for radon. Although the vast majority of people are exposed to low or moderate radon concentrations; from time to time; there are homes found with very high concentrations of radon. Among those living in homes with very high radon concentrations, it is typically parents of young children that demonstrate a great deal of concern. They want to know the equivalent risk in terms of the lifetime relative risk of developing lung cancer when a child has lived in a home with high radon for a few years. An answer to this question of risk equivalency is proposed in this paper. The results demonstrate clearly that the higher ...
Transport of Radon in soil Part of the radon originating from the decay of radium located in rocks and soil particles is emitted in the pore volume of soil and stones. Due to atmospheric conditions (temperature, air pressure, weather), the radon concentration in a depth of less than one meter varies considerably. With increasing depth, the radon concentration rises to a saturation value.. The permeability of the soil plays a decisive role. Generally, starting from a depth of one meter, the radon concentration in the soil air changes only in a minor way. Due to the half-life (circa 1,600 years) of Radium-226, the parent of radon, the radon soil air concentration is stable over a long term. If the radon concentration of a particular site is known, new ...
You may or may not have heard of Radon gas. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is everywhere. Radon is odorless, colorless, and tasteless. The Radon levels in your neighbors house arent related to the Radon levels in your house. The only way to know how much Radon is in your house is to test for it. Soil type determines in part how much Radon gets into your house, with construction also playing a role.. Weve all heard of someone who has been diagnosed with lung cancer, and they have "never smoked a day in their life". Dont let that be anyone you know! Radon is documented to be the second leading cause of lung cancer behind smoking, causing approximately 21,000 deaths each year. Radon testing is easy and affordable, with accurate results usually produced within 48-72 hours of the start of a test. The piece of ...
NORMAN, OKLA. - A University of Oklahoma-led study shows that paddy rice (both area and plant growth) is significantly related to the spatial-temporal dynamics of atmospheric methane concentration in monsoon Asia, where 87% of paddy rice fields are situated in the world.. Methane is one of the major greenhouse gases. It has a lifetime of 12.4 years and its global warming potential is approximately 86 times higher than carbon dioxide over a 20-year period.. "Rice paddy is a large source of methane emission; however, it has been a challenging task to attribute relative role of rice paddy in the spatial distribution, seasonal dynamics and interannual variation of atmospheric methane concentration as measured by spaceborne sensors," said Xiangming Xiao, a member of the Earth Observation and Modeling Facility at OU and a professor in the Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology who coordinated this ...
Anaerobic bacterial metabolism in the colon produces hydrogen, methane, volatile fatty acids and carbon dioxide. Hydrogen and methane are excreted in flatus and the expired breath. Investigations in this Thesis attempted to identify factors which may influence methane excretion in man and explain why all subjects do not excrete methane. The proportions of methane producing subjects in two healthy populations studied in Edinburgh were 33% and 70% respectively. Age and sex did not significantly alter methane excretion. Dietary intakes, faecal components and bowel function were found to be similar in methane producing and non-methane producing subjects. An association was found between the ingestion of the pentose fraction of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and the concentration of breath methane in methane producing subjects. This association ...
An interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing organic loadingAn interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing organic loading ...
Methane is a flammable gas that is the main component of natural gas. It is a highly potent greenhouse gas, and accounts for about 20% of greenhouse gas emissions. Methane is routinely flared in many industrial processes without harnessing any of its energy. The environmental impact and wasted energy potential make it highly desirable to find an economically feasible process to use this methane.One possibility is to convert methane into liquid fuels for transportation and energy generation. Current technologies to convert methane gas to liquid fuels (GTL) are complex, and the facilities are only economical at huge scales. Methane gas is very difficult to transport and store, so GTL plants must be located at the source of the methane, typically at large petroleum fields or refineries.Biological conversion of methane to liquid fuels is an attractive alternative to traditional ...
The Potential to Feed Nitrates to Reduce Enteric Methane Production in Ruminants. By R A Leng AO, D.Rur.Sc. Emeritus Professor UNE-Armidale. The issues in a nut shell 1. Globally ruminants produce around 80x10 6 tonnes of methane Slideshow 1284979 by gigi
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide ...
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide ...
Communications Sterically Flexible Carbene Ligands An N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligand with Flexible Steric Bulk Allows Suzuki Cross-Coupling of Sterically Hindered Aryl Chlorides at Room Temperature ** Gereon Altenhoff, Richard Goddard, Christian W. Lehmann, and Frank Glorius* However, despite considerable efforts, the coupling of aryl chlorides to give biaryl compounds with more than one ortho substituent at room temperature has not been realized to date.[7] To overcome this problem, an electron-rich ligand is required that is small enough to accept sterically hindered substrates yet sufficiently bulky to support monoligation and promote reductive elimination. We rationalized that these stringent requirements could be met by new NHC 1, which exhibits flexible steric bulk. Imidazolium salt 4 (Scheme 1) and the corresponding NHC 1 derived thereof are expected to exist in the form of three different conformers a, b and c. Conformation a should allow the coordinated Pd0 to undergo oxidative addition, ...
A map of Porter Ranch methane levels (Image: Rob Jackson, Nathan Phillips, and Bob Ackley). Its been three months since Southern California Gas Co. first reported a massive leak in its Aliso Canyon gas field, on the edge of Los Angeles, and the faulty well is still pouring methane into the air. If you look at the map above, of Porter Ranch, the neighborhood where thousands of people have been displaced, and of methane levels measured in the area, you can roughly guess where the leak is.. This map was created by Rob Jackson, a scientist at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, and his colleagues Nathan Phillips, a professor at Boston University, and Bob Ackley. Recently, they took a tool they use regularly in their research-a very accurate laser-based methane detector-and spent a weekend sampling methane in Porter Ranch. The red line shows the path they drove around the neighborhood, and its height indicates the ...
The Pd-catalysed asymmetric intramolecular α-arylation of amideenolates containing heteroatom substituents gives chiral 3-alkoxy or 3-aminooxindoles in high yield and with enantioselectivities up to 97% ee when a new chiral N-heterocyclic carbene ligand is used.
J.U.M. - 109L - Heated Non Methane/ Methane/ Total Hydrocarbon FID Analyzer by J.U.M. Engineering GmbH. The J.U.M 109L is a heated FID analyzer to continuously and simultaneously measure the Methane concentration, the Total Hydrocarbon concentration ...
Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are bacterial biomarkers with a likely potential to identify present and past methanotrophic communities. To unravel the methanotrophic community in peat bogs, we report the BHP signatures of type I and type II methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum mosses and of an extreme acidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph. A type I Methylovulum-like strain (M200) contains a remarkable combination of BHPs, including a complete suite of mono-unsaturated aminobacteriohopanepentol, -tetrol and -triol. The Methylomonas-like strain (M5) mainly produces aminobacteriohopanepentol, characteristic for type I methanotrophs, and the Methylosinus-like strain (29) contains both aminobacteriohopanetetrol and aminobacteriohopanetriol, typical for a type II methanotroph. The type II methanotroph Methylocella palustris and the verrucomicrobial Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum strain SolV primarily produce aminotriol, which is also produced by many other bacteria. In Sphagnum mosses and ...
There are three large seas close to North Pole surrounded by dozens of smaller lakes. When researchers used Cassini radar instrument, that found that one of those seas are filled with pure methane. Ligeia Mare is the second largest reservoir of liquid on Titan after Kraken Mare and before the latest research; it was believed that the sea is made up of ethane. Cassini instrument is the first one to show that Ligeia Mare is composed of pure methane.. "Before Cassini, we expected to find that Ligeia Mare would be mostly made up of ethane, which is produced in abundance in the atmosphere when sunlight breaks methane molecules apart. Instead, this sea is predominantly made of pure methane." Lead researcher Alice Le Gall, a Cassini radar team member at the French research laboratory LATMOS said in a statement.. There could be several explanations for the abundance of methane in Ligeia Mare such as fresh methane ...
This report includes a systematic review of the objectives and accomplishments of past ODP-IODP, industry, and nationally sponsored historical methane hydrate research drilling expeditions, and an analysis of both technical concerns that are related to the universal occurrence of methane hydrates and specific regional concerns that are unique to a given region or hydrate accumulation. It also reviews our present understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of methane hydrate in nature and how these factors may impact the energy, hazard, and climate change aspects of methane hydrate research, and summarizes some of the more important drilling related operational understandings and technology developments, such as pressure coring, downhole logging, and borehole instrumentation, which have contributed to our growing understanding of methane hydrates. This report concludes with a systematic review of planning ...
Different environmental samples reveal that methanogenic Archaea are part of a multi-species biofilm on corroding metallic structures. Studies on microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) focus mainly on sulphate reducing Bacteria (SRB), leading to the assumption that they are exclusively responsible for metal corrosion. In fact, methanogenic Archaea are known to be involved in metal corrosion as well (e.g. Methanococcus maripaludis DSM 2067). In some cases SRB and methanogenic Archaea have comparable high corrosion rates. However, the underlying mechanisms causing corrosion are still unknown. The goal of this study is to develop suitable methods for analyzing two environmental isolates (M. maripaludis DSM 2067, M. maripaludis KA1) and two human-related isolates (Methanobrevibacter oralis and Methanobrevibacter smithii) for their ability to deteriorate/transform metals, which are relevant for technical and clinical applications. Moreover, the studies will provide essential information on the interaction
Lakes are a source of methane, an important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. In order to understand increasing methane emissions in the present, it is important to study the variations of methane release during past periods of climate change. However, records of methane release from lakes over time scales longer ... read more than a few years are extremely rare. In this thesis a method is explored to reconstruct past methane availability in lakes based on the stable carbon isotope composition (delta 13C) of aquatic invertebrate remains. Methane-derived 13C-depleted carbon can be an alternative carbon source to plant-derived material for invertebrates in the sediment and water column of lakes, that can lead to markedly depleted delta 13C values in invertebrate tissues. Using culturing experiments, it was demonstrated that methane-derived carbon is incorporated into chironomid head capsules. ...
D-arabino-3-Hexulose 6-phosphate was prepared by condensation of formaldehyde with ribulose 5-phosphate in the presence of 3-hexulose phosphate synthase from methane-grown Methylococcus capsulatus. The 3-hexulose phosphate was unstable in solutions of pH greater than 3, giving a mixture of products in which, after dephosphorylation, allulose and fructose were detected. A complete conversion of d-ribulose 5-phosphate and formaldehyde into d-fructose 6-phosphate was demonstrated in the presence of 3-hexulose phosphate synthase and phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (prepared from methane-grown M. capsulatus). d-Allulose 6-phosphate was prepared from d-allose by way of d-allose 6-phosphate. No evidence was found for its metabolism by extracts of M. capsulatus, thus eliminating it as an intermediate in the carbon assimilation process of this organism. A survey was made of the enzymes involved in the regeneration of pentose phosphate during C1 assimilation via a modified pentose phosphate ...
Abstract - Cat-alyt-ic oxi-da-tion of methane in the pres-ence of excess of oxy-gen is of great inter-est as a prac-ti-cal tech-nol-o-gy to reduce methane emis-sions from com-pressed nat-ur-al gas vehi-cles, engines, and tur-bines. Typ-i-cal com-mer-cial methane oxi-da-tion cat-a-lysts are alu-mi-na-sup-port-ed pal-la-di-um cat-a-lysts. When oper-at-ed at low tem-per-a-tures, these cat-a-lysts exhib-it rapid deac-ti-va-tions on stream due to water inhi-bi-tion. In addi-tion, these Pd-cat-a-lysts are sen-si-tive to sul-fur poi-son-ing, even with the pres-ence of a trace amount (≤ 1 ppm) of SO2 in the feed. Among oth-er oxide mate-ri-als, zeo-lites were also inves-ti-gat-ed as a poten-tial sup-port for pal-la-di-um - such as the effects of frame-works and exchange or impreg-na-tion meth-ods - but no sig-nif-i-cant ben-e-fits were dis-cov-ered in the past com-par-ing to con-ven-tion-al alu-mi-na-based cat-a-lysts. Here, we demon-strate the appli-ca-tion of ...
In several of these studies, the researchers admitted that they actively sought out "super-emitters" in the Barnett Shale, yet they still found methane emissions to be very low.. EDF also points to a report it did in conjunction with the Rhodium Group, which argued that $30 billion in unburned natural gas is "being emitted globally by the oil and gas industry" but does not mention that that same study found a very low methane leakage rate in the United States of only 1.3 percent.. The researchers quote the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC) latest climate assessment, pointing out that it states that "nearly a quarter of the warming we are experiencing today is caused by methane and other short term climate pollutants." However, EDF does not include that the IPCC also said its largely thanks to hydraulic fracturing and natural gas that the United States has been able to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions dramatically. As the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficient and phosphine-free bidentate N-heterocyclic carbene/ruthenium catalytic systems for the dehydrogenative amidation of alcohols and amines. AU - Wu, Xuan Jun. AU - Wang, Hua Jing. AU - Yang, Zhao Qi. AU - Tang, Xiao Sheng. AU - Yuan, Ye. AU - Su, Wei. AU - Chen, Cheng. AU - Verpoort, Francis. PY - 2019/3/7. Y1 - 2019/3/7. N2 - The direct amide synthesis from alcohols and amines applying various transition metal catalysts has been demonstrated as an attractive and promising process. Among various catalytic systems, N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-based ruthenium (Ru) ones have been testified to be active for this atom-economic transformation. Although a variety of imidazole-based NHC/Ru catalytic systems were reported to be active for this reaction, the benzimidazole-based analogs exhibited higher catalytic performance in most cases. However, these catalytic systems, which comprise a monodentate NHC ligand and a Cl or phosphine ligand as the key components, require relatively ...
Microalgae have recently drawn attention as a potential resource for biofuels generation. In the short term, anaerobic digestion seems the most viable downstream process. Still, microalgae cell wall restrains the hydrolysis, hampering the methane production potential. This work aimed at improving the anaerobic biodegradability of microalgae through different pretreatment methods: microwave, low temperature and high temperature. For the microwave pretreatment, the specific energy was the main parameter affecting biomass solubilisation, increasing up to 800 % compared to untreated biomass. For the low and high temperature pretreatments, temperature was the most important factor, increasing biomass solubilisation up to 1190 and 2140 % in each case. BMP tests showed an increased methane yield after all pretreatments (40-80 %), with the highest results for the microwave pretreatment. In semi-continuous reactors operated at 15 days HRT, the methane production was ...
Different environmental samples reveal that methanogenic Archaea are part of a multi-species biofilm on corroding metallic structures. Studies on microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) focus mainly on sulphate reducing Bacteria (SRB), leading to the assumption that they are exclusively responsible for metal corrosion. In fact, methanogenic Archaea are known to be involved in metal corrosion as well (e.g. Methanococcus maripaludis DSM 2067). In some cases SRB and methanogenic Archaea have comparable high corrosion rates. However, the underlying mechanisms causing corrosion are still unknown. The goal of this study is to develop suitable methods for analyzing two environmental isolates (M. maripaludis DSM 2067, M. maripaludis KA1) and two human-related isolates (Methanobrevibacter oralis and Methanobrevibacter smithii) for their ability to deteriorate/transform metals, which are relevant for technical and clinical applications. Moreover, the studies will provide essential information on the ...
Objective and Background: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in pathogenesis of IBS. We aimed to study frequency and predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS.. Methodology: We included 59 consecutive patients of IBS & 37 healthy controls (HC). Evaluation for SIBO was done by glucose breath test (GBT) using 100 gm of glucose after an overnight fast. Breath hydrogen & methane concentration were noted at baseline & every 15 min after administration of glucose for a total of 3 h. Persistent rise in breath hydrogen or methane , 12 ppm above basal was considered diagnostic of SIBO.. Results: Of 59 patients, 27 were diarrhoea predominant (D-IBS), 11 were constipation predominant (C-IBS) and 21 were mixed type (M-IBS). Median age of patients (34 [18-47] years) were comparable to controls (35 [20-48] years) (P = 0.21). Patient group was similar to HC in gender distribution (male 41/59 [69.5%]vs 25/37 [67.6%], P = 0.36). SIBO was more frequent in patients ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Archaea human intestine prokaryote (Methanobrevibacter smithii). Methanobrevibacter smithii is the main human gut (intestine) archeon (from the Archaea domain) that is a methanotroph (methanogen). It recycles the hydrogen in methane and allows for an increase in energy extraction for nutrients. It plays a role in the digestion of polysaccharides (complex sugars) by consuming the end products of bacterial fermentation. The human gut flora consists of three main groups of hydrogen consuming microbes: methanogens; a polyphyletic group of acetogenic bacteria; and sulphate reducing bacteria. Magnification: x5,335 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/1307
The question of how much liquid is on the surface is an important one because methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Titan as well as on Earth, but there is much more of it on Titan. If all the observed liquid on Titan is methane, it would only last a few million years, because as methane escapes into Titans atmosphere, it breaks down and escapes into space. If the methane were to run out, Titan could become much colder. Scientists believe that methane might be supplied to the atmosphere by venting from the interior in cryovolcanic eruptions. If so, the amount of methane, and the temperature on Titan, may have fluctuated dramatically in Titans past ...
Gas-hydrate-bearing sand-core samples have been obtained from the Canadian Mallik wells, and the Nankai Trough wells of offshore Japan. The chloride-content anomalies in extracted pore waters, core-temperature depression, core observations, and visible gas hydrates, as well as continuous down-hole well-log data, confirm the presence of pore-space hydrateas an intergranular pore filling within sandy layers, clarifying the characteristics of subsurface natural gas hydrate in marine and permafrost zones. Gas-hydrate saturations (percent of pore volume) as high as 80% have been measured, which requires enough original pore space in the host sediment to allow the gas to accumulate. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of methane and hydrocarbon compositions in gas hydrate and gas-hydrate-bearing shallow sediments in the Nankai Trough show that methane is generated by microbial reduction of CO2 and suggest progressive decreases in microbial (biogenic) activity with depth and ...
It has recently been unveiled that a wide variety of microbial eukaryotes (protists) occur in chemosynthetic ecosystems, such as hydrothermal vents and methane seeps. However, there is little knowledge regarding protists associated with endemic animals inhabiting these environments. In the present study, utilizing PCR techniques, we detected fragments of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA gene) from a particular protist from gill tissues of a significant fraction of the vesicomyid clams Calyptogena soyoae and C. okutanii complex and of the mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons and B. japonicus, all of which harbor chemosynthetic endosymbiont bacteria and dominate methane seeps in Sagami Bay, Japan. Based on the phylogeny of SSU rRNA gene, the organism in question was shown to belong to Alveolata. It is noteworthy that this protist did not affiliate with any known alveolate group, although being deeply branched within the lineage of Syndiniales, for which the monophyly ...
Estimates of uncertainties are essential when comparing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a variety of sources. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) was applied to estimate the uncertainties in methane emissions and the methane emission intensities from livestock in Canada, calculated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology. National methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management in 2008 were 21·2 and 4·3 Teragram CO2 equivalents (Tg CO2e) with uncertainties of 38 and 73%, respectively. The methane emission intensities (kg of CO2e per kg of live animal weight) were 5·9, 0·9 and 4·9 from Canadian beef, swine and lamb, respectively, with overall uncertainties of 44, 99 and 101%, defined as the 95% confidence interval relative to the mean. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that IPCC default parameters such as the methane conversion rate (Y m), the coefficient for calculating net ...
The anaerobic treatment of waste water has been studied with an emphasis on the Up- flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. A model to describe the processes occurring in a UASB reactor was developed and an experimental study of the anaerobic wastewater treatment systems in Nicaragua was also performed.. Experimental work was carried out in order to link the study to the wastewater treatment situation in Nicaragua, a developing country. In order to assess the performance of the treatment plants, the methanogenic activity of sludge from seven anaerobic wastewater treatment plants was first addressed. Due to a lack of Standards for the measurement of methanogenic activity, a laboratory method was developed based on the methods found in the literature. An additional aim of this study was to find adequate inoculum for the wastewater treatment plant in a brewery using an anaerobic reactor. Physic-chemical characteristics of the sludge were also determined to provide a basis for decisions ...
This dissertation describes the use of strongly acidic solvents, such as concentrated sulfuric acid, with homogeneous catalysts, such as palladium and gold salts, for the activation and functionalization of methane; and the design, synthesis, and study of ruthenium and osmium complexes in a nitrogen and oxygen ligand environment intended for the low temperature, selective, activation and conversion of methane into oxidatively functionalized products, such as methanol. Also, the principle of using polynitratoaluminate anions, specifically tetranitratoaluminate, as a high oxygen carrier for oxidizer balanced energetic ionic liquids is demonstrated. The structure and properties of other salts of the polynitratoaluminate anions are given. Chapter 2 highlights the use of homogeneous Pd(II) sulfate in concentrated sulfuric acid solution for the direct, selective, oxidative condensation of two methane molecules to acetic acid at 180°C. Chapter 3 focuses on the uses ...
Transparent polycrystalline diamond films with grain size ranging from a few tens to hundreds of nanometres were prepared on fused silica substrate by Microwave Chemical Plasma Vapour Deposition method (MPCVD). The new technique, called alternating nanodiamonds injection, was applied for substrate pretreatment. It was demonstrated that nanodiamonds injected on fused silica substrate serve as nucleation centres and make possible an increase in nucleation density to 1010 cm-2. The influence of MPCVD parameters such as methane concentration, total pressure and substrate temperature on the crystalline structure and optical properties of diamond films were investigated by using micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, transmittance and reflectance measurements in the wavelength range of 400-1000 nm. Under appropriate MPCVD parameters, diamond films with optical transmission ~70% from 650 to 1000 nm and high content of diamond phase were fabricated ...
Biogas production from organic materials can be used as a renewable vehicle fuel, provide heat and generate electricity and can thereby reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. This thesis focuses on the biogas production based on lignocelluloses. There is an abundant availability of lignocelluloses, constituting 50% of the total biomass worldwide. However, the biomass recalcitrance limits the microbial degradation as well as the biogas production from these types of materials. In the present work different pretreatment methods have been performed in order to decrease the biomass recalcitrance and improve the biogas production. Steam explosion pretreatment, together with the addition of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide, has been performed on lignocellulosic-rich paper tube residuals. The pretreatment has resulted in methane yields of up to 493 NmL/gVS, which is an increase by 107% compared with untreated material. Furthermore, the use of an organic solvent, N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide ...
Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1). Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of fatty acid transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid ...
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All of this leaves us with two interesting questions. The first question is why would organisms evolve to need these elements that are in such low concentrations in seawater? We can only speculate on the answer, but there are probably several important factors. First of all, rare earth element ions have some chemical similarity to the calcium ions which are more commonly found in enzymes such as MDH. Additionally, the rare earths actually possess some chemical properties that make them potentially better catalysts than calcium. Methanotrophy is thought to be one of the oldest metabolic pathways. So, it may well be that methanotrophy first evolved in an environment more rich in rare earths than todays ocean. Indeed, the hydrothermal systems at Solfotara have dissolved rare earth element concentrations 40,000 times higher than seawater at the Deepwater Horizon site and hydrothermal systems are often observed to have significant dissolved methane. So the enzymatic rare earth element requirement ...
Journal Publications. Choi, D.-W., R.C. Kunz, E.S. Boyd, J.D. Semrau, W.E. Antholine, J.-I. Han, J.A. Zahn, J.M. Boyd, A.M. de la Mora, and A.A. DiSpirito. 2003. The membrane-associated methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and pMMO-NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. J. Bacteriol. 185: 5755 -5764.. Choi, D.-W, W. E. Antholine, Y.S. Do, Jeremy D. Semrau, C.J. Kisting, R.C. Kunz, D. Campbell, V. Rao, S.C. Hartsel, and A.A. DiSpirito. 2005. Effect of methanobactin on the activity and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the membrane associated methane monooxygenase on Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. Microbiology 151, 3417-3426.. Choi, D.-W, C.J. Zea, Y.S. Do, J.D. Semrau, W.E. Antholine, M.S. Hargrove, N.L. Pohl, E.S. Boyd, G. G. Geesey, S.C. Hartsel, P.H. Shafe, M.T. McEllistrem, C.J. Kisting, D. Campbell, V. Rao, A.M. de la Mora, and A.A. DiSpirito. 2006. Spectral, Kinetic, and thermodynamic properties of Cu(I) and Cu(II) binding by ...
LOS ANGELES -- Scientists peering through a ground-based telescope say the surface of Saturns planet-sized moon Titan appears dry and not awash in oceans of liquid hydrocarbons as is commonly believed. Titan - one of two moons in the solar system known to have a significant atmosphere - has long baffled scientists because its surrounded by a thick blanket of nitrogen and methane. Scientists have speculated that the atmospheric methane probably came from seas of liquid methane and ethane. But telescopes and orbiting spacecraft have yet to turn up evidence of a global ocean of methane on Titan. In the latest study, scientists using the Keck II telescope in Hawaii failed to see any reflections of sunlight that would indicate a body of liquid on the frozen moon during several viewings in 2003 and 2004, said lead researcher Robert West of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena. Results appear in Thursdays issue of the journal ...
List of Tables and Figures Figure Liquid Natural Gas Product Picture Table Liquid Natural Gas Key Market Segments in This Study Table Key Manufacturers Liquid Natural Gas Covered in This Study Table Global Liquid Natural Gas Market Size Growth Rate by Type 2018-2025 (K MT) & (Million US$) Figure Global Liquid Natural Gas Production Market Share 2013-2025 Figure Methane Product Picture Table Major Manufacturers of Methane Figure Ethane Product Picture Table Major Manufacturers of Ethane Figure Propane Product Picture Table Major Manufacturers of Propane Figure Other Product Picture Table Major Manufacturers of Other Table Global Liquid Natural Gas Market Size Growth Rate by Application 2018-2025 (K MT) Figure Automotive Fuel Figure Marine Fuel Figure Industrial Power Generation Figure Living Fuel Figure Others Figure Liquid Natural Gas Report Years Considered Figure Global Liquid Natural Gas Revenue 2013-2025 (Million US$) Figure Global Liquid Natural Gas Production 2013-2025 ...
As fossil fuels remain the key component of the worlds primary energy supply, their responsible and sustainable management and use is critically important, if we are to achieve climate change objectives.. On 27-30 October representatives from the UNECE member States, private sector and academia will gather in Geneva for UNECEs Energy Week to discuss a wide range of topic ranging from carbon capture and storage and cleaner electricity production in electricity production to best practices in sustainable management of coal mine methane.. On 27 October a Joint Meeting of UNECE and the Coal Subcommittee of the Global Methane Initiative will discuss coal mine methane projects and activities throughout the world.. The tenth session of the Group of Experts on Coal Mine Methane will be held on 28 October and will discuss, among other topics, its new work for 2016-17, a new extra-budgetary project on dissemination of good practices in effective ...
Cassini found the surface temperature responds more rapidly to sunlight changes than does the thick atmosphere. The changing circulation pattern produced clouds in Titans equatorial region.. Clouds on Titan are formed of methane as part of an Earth-like cycle that uses methane instead of water. On Titan, methane fills lakes on the surface, saturates clouds in the atmosphere, and falls as rain.. Though there is evidence that liquids have flowed on the surface at Titans equator in the past, liquid hydrocarbons, such as methane and ethane, had only been observed on the surface in lakes at polar latitudes. The vast expanses of dunes that dominate Titans equatorial regions require a predominantly arid climate.. Scientists suspected that clouds might appear at Titans equatorial latitudes as spring in the northern hemisphere progressed. But they were not sure if dry channels previously observed were cut by seasonal rains or remained from an ...
Titan is the only moon in our Solar System with a significant atmosphere. Titans atmosphere consists mostly of nitrogen, and is so thick that the atmospheric pressure at the moons surface is about 60% greater than Earths atmospheric pressure.. Titans atmosphere also has a significant amount of methane. Bombardment of the methane by solar ultraviolet radiation has produced trace amounts of numerous other hydrocarbons. These organic molecules create several layers of smog-like haze in the moons atmosphere, obscuring views of Titans surface.. The Cassini spacecraft has observed clouds in Titans atmosphere near the moons poles. Temperatures are so cold (-178 C, -288 F) on Titan that methane is a liquid at the surface. Scientists believe that methane and ethane may fall as rain and snow from the clouds in Titans atmosphere onto its frigid surface. This image shows the predicted structure of Titans atmosphere. New ...
The use of lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate in agricultural biogas plants is very popular and yields good results. However, the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, and thus biogas production, is not always satisfactory due to the slow or incomplete degradation (hydrolysis) of plant matter. To enhance the solubilization of the lignocellulosic biomass various physical, chemical and biological pretreatment methods are used.The aim of this study was to select and characterize cellulose-degrading bacteria, and to construct a microbial consortium, dedicated for degradation of maize silage and enhancing biogas production from this substrate.Over one hundred strains of cellulose-degrading bacteria were isolated from: sewage sludge, hydrolyzer from an agricultural biogas plant, cattle slurry and manure. After physiological characterization of the isolates, sixteen strains (representatives of Bacillus, Providencia and Ochrobactrum genera) were chosen for the construction of a Microbial Consortium with High
Introduction. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), convened by the United Nations, has reported evidence that human activities over the past 50 years have influenced Global Climate through the production of Green House Gases (GHG), which results in increased absorption in the atmosphere of infrared radiations emitted from the earths surface. The accumulation of GHG results in increased global temperature (approximately 0.6 to 0.7°C), which in turn can increase annual precipitation in high rainfall regions and decrease precipitation in regions of low rainfall (Gerstengarbe & Werner, 2008). The most important GHGs are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), which have increased in the last 150 years (Monteny et al., 2006) and have different global warming potential. According to Ramaswany et al. (2001) and Solomon et al. (2007), the warming potential of CO2, CH4 and N2O is 1, 23, and 298, respectively. Burning of fossil fuels is the main source of CO2 ...
A kitchen gas stove produces almost 5 to 15 parts per million of natural gas in the air, with a leaking gas stove producing in excess of 30 parts per million. That level of toxicity is very dangerous to ones health but you can easily monitor the level of methane gas in your house through natural gas detectors or carbon monoxide detectors. They are alarm systems that help you monitor how much gas is in your home and youll be warned if it reaches levels beyond a dangerous limit. You can buy these alarms in our store. In our homes we use methane or natural gas in various appliances - kitchen stoves, heaters, water heaters and ovens. Even in wintertime there is an additional threat from carbon monoxide because of fires heating up the house. Houses are often closed during winter so that heat will stay inside. A Carbon Monoxide Alarms is very useful in preventing one from getting poisoned from a carbon monoxide leak at home. Usually a distress signal is released when high levels ...
WASHINGTON, December 5, 2017 - Americas natural gas and oil industry today announced a landmark partnership to accelerate improvements to environmental performance in operations across the country. Focused initially on reducing methane and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, the Environmental Partnership includes 26 natural gas and oil producers, who produce a significant portion of American energy resources. Participating companies will begin implementing the voluntary program starting January 1, 2018.
Biogas is produced when organic material is broken down in oxygen-free (anaerobic) conditions. This process is called anaerobic digestion and is used in most large and medium-sized municipal wastewater treatment plants in Sweden. In the wastewater treatment sewage sludge is obtained, from the mecanical-, biological and chemical treatment step, which contains decomposable organic material. The sludge is pumped into a digester, which is an airtight container. In the digester raw biogas, consisting of methane and carbon dioxide, is produced. The material that comes out of the digester is a nutrient rich residue (digestate) which can be used as a fertilizer or soil conditioner. The purpose of this study was to explore ways to increase the biogas production that takes place at the municipal wastewater treatment plants by either co-digestion of sewage sludge with microalgae from a possible future biological purification steps or to use two digestion stages in series with different ...
The recent boom in shale gas production and the subsequent decrease in the price of natural gas have put natural gas front and center in the national energy discussion. This abundant source of domestic fuel presents a great opportunity for the United States to increase our energy independence and reduce carbon emissions. The current low prices are likely to result in greater overall consumption of natural gas by the power, industry, transportation, and export sectors, which could expose our economy to renewed price volatility and potentially lead to premature depletion of our natural gas reserves.. Changes in the natural gas market represent challenges and opportunities for energy efficiency measures. Electric and natural gas efficiency help reduce consumption of natural gas. Some natural gas efficiency measures on the margin are not cost-effective with natural gas prices at $2 per million British thermal units (MMBtu) but the price of natural gas is already increasing and is projected to level ...
Efficiency of feed utilisation is a key economically relevant trait to the beef cattle industry worldwide given that feed typically accounts for the greatest single input cost [24]. Improved feed efficiency is not only linked to increased profitability, but also reduces the environmental burden, with efficient animals producing less nutrient excretion [25] and reduced CH4 emissions [5, 6]. As CH4 is a terminal product of methanogen mediated feed fermentation, recent research has focused on characterising the methanogen population in animals selected for divergent feed efficiency. Studies [17, 26, 27] have identified both a diet effect and a correlation between host feed efficiency and rumen microbial composition. Methanobrevibacter spp. and Methanosphaera sp. are consistently identified as dominant methanogenic archaea in the rumen irrespective of geographical location or dietary feeding regime [17, 27-31]. Rumen methanogens were previously characterised by our group [9] in cattle divergent for ...
Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are major global sources of methane (CH4); hence, it is important to understand the seasonal and climatic controls on CH4 emissions from these systems. Here, we report year-round CH4 emissions from Alaskan Arctic tundra eddy flux sites and regional fluxes derived from aircraft data. We find that emissions during the cold season (September to May) account for ≥50% of the annual CH4 flux, with the highest emissions from noninundated upland tundra. A major fraction of cold season emissions occur during the "zero curtain" period, when subsurface soil temperatures are poised near 0 °C. The zero curtain may persist longer than the growing season, and CH4 emissions are enhanced when the duration is extended by a deep thawed layer as can occur with thick snow cover. Regional scale fluxes of CH4 derived from aircraft data demonstrate the large spatial extent of late season CH4 emissions. Scaled to the circumpolar Arctic, cold season fluxes from tundra ...
Ruminal microbes are vital to the conversion of lignocellulose-rich plant materials into nutrients for ruminants. Although protozoa play a key role in linking ruminal microbial networks, the contribution of protozoa to rumen fermentation remains controversial; therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively summarize the temporal dynamics of methanogenesis, ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles and dietary fiber digestibility in ruminants following the elimination of protozoa (also termed defaunation). A total of 49 studies from 22 publications were evaluated. The results revealed that defaunation reduced methane production and shifted ruminal VFA profiles to consist of more propionate and less acetate and butyrate, but with a reduced total VFA concentration and decreased dietary fiber digestibility. However, these effects were diminished linearly, at different rates, with time during the first few weeks after defaunation, and eventually reached relative stability. The ...
I / 13 hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and sulphur compounds. … Nitrogen Carbon dioxide Hydrogen sulphide Mercaptan Fraction 82 . Because of its sour nature and its corrosive components the gas must neither be fed into the gas pipeline nor combusted unconditioned.beginning from raw gas quality up to final natural gas quality for combustion and supply to the natural gas grid.% 0. which make the gas corrosive.% 3 . risk assessment and Hazop studies of the whole natural gas treatment process chain . salts. It also contains solid components like sand. drilling sludge and corrosion products and even liquid components.g.1 below: Component Methane / Higher hydrocarbons such as ethane.10 Vol.94 Vol. propane. inhibitor and condensate.1 - 1. Configuration and dimensioning of the gas conditioning system depend on the requirements such as raw gas composition. plant size and further use of the natural gas. butane.0 Vol.1 - Typical natural gas composition II / 13 . We are also experienced in sour gas conditioning ...
0058] The following polyamines are particularly suitable as polyamine B2: [0059] aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, or arylaliphatic primary diamines, for example, ethylenediamine, 1,2-propanediamine, 1,3-propanediamine, 2-methyl-1,2-propanediamine, 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine, 1,3-butanediamine, 1,4-butanediamine, 1,3-pentanediamine (DAMP), 1,5-pentanediamine, 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane (MPMD), 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,5-pentanediamine (C11-neodiamine), 1,6-hexanediamine, 2,5-dimethyl-1,6-hexanediamine, 2,2,4- and 2,4,4-trimethylhexamethylenediamine (TMD), 1,7-heptanediamine, 1,8-octanediamine, 1,9-nonanediamine, 1,10-decanediamine, 1,11-undecanediamine, 1,12-dodecanediamine, 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-diaminocyclohexane, bis(4-aminocyclohexyl)methane (H12-MDA), bis(4-amino-3-methylcyclohexyl)methane, bis(4-amino-3-ethylcyclohexyl)methane, bis(4-amino-3,5-dimethylcyclohexyl)methane, bis(4-amino-3-ethyl-5-methylcyclohexyl)methane (M-MECA), ...
This grant will investigate the potential of carbon-14 in ice cores as an absolute dating tool, as a tracer of the past cosmic ray flux and as a recorder of the past fossil fraction of the global methane budget. Cosmic ray particles produce carbon-14 from oxygen-16 directly within near-surface glacial ice and firn. This in-situ produced carbon-14 quickly reacts to form 14C-containing carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane in the ice matrix. Some or all of the resulting 14C-bearing gases may be lost from the firn to the atmosphere. This research will provide a thorough characterization of in-situ cosmogenic 14C in glacial firn and shallow ice in the Summit region of Greenland. It will examine the retention of cosmogenic 14C in ice grains at all depth levels in the firn column, the partitioning of 14C between carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane, as well as the production rates and accumulation of cosmogenic 14C in shallow ice below firn ...
This review with 206 references covers the literature published until March 2004 on the development and applications of new efficient catalyst systems for the Suzuki palladium-catalysed cross-coupling reaction of organoboron compounds with organic electrophiles. Where possible, the relative advantages of the new catalyst systems in this synthetically very important carbon-carbon bond forming reaction have been compared. 1 Introduction 2 Palladacycle Complexes as Catalyst Precursors 3 Catalyst Systems Composed of Pd(0) or Pd(II) Derivatives and Electron-Rich and/or Bulky Phosphine Ligands 4 Catalyst Systems Composed of Pd(0) or Pd(II) Derivatives and N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands 5 Water-Soluble Catalyst Precursors 6 Ligandless Catalyst Precursors 7 Other Novel Pd Catalyst Precursors 8 Conclusions.. ...
Video articles in JoVE include Study of Protein-protein Interactions in Autophagy Research, Palladium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes: Synthesis from Benzimidazolium Salts and Catalytic Activity in Carbon-carbon Bond-forming Reactions, Fiber Connections of the Supplementary Motor Area Revisited: Methodology of Fiber Dissection, DTI, and Three Dimensional Documentation, En Face Preparation of Mouse Blood Vessels, Evaluating the Effect of Environmental Chemicals on Honey Bee Development from the Individual to Colony Level, Preparation and Observation of Thick Biological Samples by Scanning Transmission Electron Tomography, Efficient and Site-specific Antibody Labeling by Strain-promoted Azide-alkyne Cycloaddition, Preparation and In Vitro Characterization of Dendrimer-based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hybrid-Cut: An Improved Sectioning Method for Recalcitrant Plant Tissue Samples, Assessment of the Immunomodulatory Properties of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs).
TY - GEN. T1 - Simulating Carbon Dioxide Sequestration/ECBM Production in Coal Seams. T2 - Effects of Coal Properties and Operational Parameters. AU - Sams, W. Neal. AU - Bromhal, Grant. AU - Odusote, Olufemi. AU - Jikich, Sinisha. AU - Ertekin, Turgay. AU - Smith, Duane H.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Carbon dioxide sequestration is a promising technology for reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions while fossil fuels are still being used. The costs associated with CO 2 sequestration are often high; however, in certain circumstances (e.g., enhanced oil recovery) these costs can be more than offset by the benefits of additional incremental hydrocarbon production. Primary production of coalbed methane is a well-developed technology, but secondary production, through the injection of CO 2 or N 2 has undergone relatively little study. Recent research suggests that carbon dioxide preferentially sorbs to coal, displacing methane, making CO 2-enhanced coalbed ...
Anaerobic digestion is one of the best available technologies for food waste (FW) and pig manure (PM) management by producing methane-rich biogas. However, mono digestion of FW or PM is easily inhibited by high volatile fatty acid (VFA) or ammonia. Co-digestion of FW and PM can provide an effective solution to address these issues due to the buffering interactions between the VFA and ammonia. Compared with wet digestion, dry digestion can reduce the digester volume significantly, thereby decreasing initial capital expenditure and the energy consumption required for heating. In this research, batch dry co-digestion of FW and PM was conducted in laboratory-scale digesters at the total solid (TS) content of 20%. The research objectives were to assess (1) the feasibility and optimal operation conditions of dry co-digestion systems; (2) methane production kinetics and the inhibition mechanisms; (3) the biosafety of digestate, i.e. the inactivation of enteric indicator bacteria, ...
The olefin metathesis reaction has become a widely used method for the construction of new carbon-carbon double bonds. The development of well-defined, ruthenium-based catalysts with high air- and moisture-stability and functional group tolerance has allowed synthetic chemists to exploit this reaction in many areas. The main goal of this thesis was to better understand the impact of changes in catalyst and monomer structure on the olefin metathesis reaction. The introduction of chelating alkylidene ligands to olefin metathesis catalysts has resulted in systems with high activity and stability that, for the most part, are active at or below room temperature. However, for some applications, catalysts that react only at higher temperatures are desirable. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis of latent olefin metathesis catalysts with chelating alkylidenes with a range of donor ligands: including phosphines, pyridines, imines, amines, and thioethers. The nature of the donor ligand was found to have a ...
Ruminal fermentation is accompanied by production of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) which are greenhouses making the Earth warmer. Therefore, the sustainable production of CH4 and CO2 as well as fermentation kinetics when corn grain (CG) was replaced with prickly pear cactus flour (PC) was investigated. Besides, the effect of different levels of organic acid salts (OAS) was studied. Three total mixed rations used as substrates were prepared where CG was replaced with PC at three levels (/kg): 0 g (Control), 75 g (PC75) or 150 g (PC150). The OAS was used at three levels: 0, 5 and 10 mg/g dry matter (DM) of substrates. Asymptotic gas (GP), CH4, and CO2 productions as well as lag time had linear responses (P , 0.05) as PC level increased in the ration. Fractional rate of GP (P ¼ 0.007), GP, organic matter degradability, short chain fatty acid, and microbial biomass production (P , 0.001) were increased with increasing level of PC. Fermentation pH (P , 0.001), and DM degradability (P ¼ ...
0140] Bisphenol compounds such as bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl)methane, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)methane, bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)methane, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)butane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pentane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-methylbutane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)hexane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methylpentane, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclopentane, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane, bis(3-phenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methane, 1,1-bis(3-phenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane, 1,1-bis(3-phenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(3-phenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)ethane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-ethylphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-isopropylphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-sec-butylphenyl)propane, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl)ethane, ...
I scrolled through the posts before pasting and copying the text below, which I read in an article pertaining initially to Titan (and posted in the Huygens Probe to Titan thread by me a few days ago). The relation to Mars is in the 3rd paragraph:. Although Titans underlying surface is thought to be water ice, the complex chemistry in the upper atmosphere might have resulted in the icy surface being at least partly covered in liquid ethane and methane and solid hydrocarbons. One class of the solid hydrocarbons, often referred to as Titan tholins (from the Greek word, muddy), was artificially created in a laboratory by a team led by the late Cornell astronomer Carl Sagan.. When scientists analyze the building blocks of tholins by burning them (pyrolysis), splitting up the tholins using plasma, scientists find a rich array of biomolecular building blocks such as pyrroles, pyrazines, pyridines and pyrimidines.. All of these molecules have played an important role in the evolution of terrestrial ...
silver nitrate. This article describes a method for imparting antimicrobial properties to textile materials by impregnation using water solutions and gels based on L-cysteine and silver nitrate. The results of microbiological testing of the samples are presented.. Key words: antimicrobial textile materials, impregnation, L-cysteine, silver nitrate. V. S. Federyaeva, R. F. Vitkovskaya, J. Goralski, I. Kotsemba, S. V. Petrov. Catalytic oxidation of carbon oxide and methane over nickel oxide catalysts supported on basalt fibers. In this paper properties of oxide catalysts supported on novel basalt fiber supports are considered. Catalysts were prepared by impregnation of basalt fibers with 5 wt.% solution of nickel nitrate. In this paper we considered an influence of basalt fibers treatment with solution of hydrochloric acid on metal content of catalysts prepared, carbon oxide and methane conversion, activation energy and interaction in metal oxide - support system using ...
Factory Dairy Farms Have Excessive Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Carcinogen Emissions Due to Long Trucking Distances for Forage Crop and Waste Transport Factory dairy farms have extremely high greenhouse gas emissions and carcinogen emissions due to several energy use factors. The magnitude of these emissions are such that any greenhouse gas emissions reductions that might…
Products list dioxotitanium Zinc oxide sodium formic acid Sodium tripolyphosphate acetic acid methane oxalic acid hexasodium Lithopone disodium oxo oxochromiooxy chromium 2,2 bis hydroxymethyl propane 1,3 diol
This illustration shows Cassini diving through the Enceladus plume in 2015. New ocean world discoveries from Cassini and Hubble will help inform future exploration and the broader search for life beyond Earth. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech The paper from researchers with the Cassini mission, published in the journal Science, indicates hydrogen gas, which could potentially provide a chemical energy source for life, is pouring into the subsurface ocean of Enceladus from hydrothermal activity on the seafloor.. The presence of ample hydrogen in the moons ocean means that microbes - if any exist there - could use it to obtain energy by combining the hydrogen with carbon dioxide dissolved in the water. This chemical reaction, known as "methanogenesis" because it produces methane as a byproduct, is at the root of the tree of life on Earth, and could even have been critical to the origin of life on our planet.. Life as we know it requires three primary ingredients: liquid water; a source of energy for ...
Sloths are renowned for their low metabolic rate, low food intake and low defecation frequency. We investigated factors of digestive physiology and energy metabolism in four captive individuals (mean body mass 10.0 ± SD 3.7 kg) of a hitherto mostly unstudied sloth species, Linnés two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus), in a 2-week digestion recording and 23-h respiration experiment on animals fed a standard zoo diet of vegetables and starchy components. Dry matter intake, defecation frequency and particle mean retention time (MRT) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were 12 ± 3 g/(kg0.75 day), once every 5 days and |140 h in three individuals, but 53 g/(kg0.75 day), daily and 82 h in one individual that was apparently compensating for a period of weight loss prior to the experiment. In all animals, solute marker was eliminated at a faster rate than the particle marker, indicating digesta washing in the sloths GIT. The overall metabolic rate calculated from oxygen consumption matched the
Introduction. Common measures of efficiency is feed conversion ratio (feed consumed/weight gain) or feed efficiency (weight gain/feed consumed). However, efficiency is highly associated with growth rate, leading to an increase in mature size, which in turn increases the maintenance cost of the breeding herd. It has been shown that residual feed intake (RFI) is independent from growth rate and mature weight, leading to the reduction of feed intake without affecting growth performance or mature size. RFI is defined as the difference between the actual feed intake and that predicted from the requirements for maintenance and growth (Koch et al., 1963).. The selection for reduced RFI will reduce feed costs and thus improve beef production profitability. It will also lead to less methane emissions, since a positive correlation exists between RFI and methane production, thus reducing the carbon footprint of beef cattle (Nkrumah et al., 2006). The objective of this paper is to give ...
Despite the City of Vancouvers war on natural gas, the city and FortisBC, B.C.s natural gas utility, have reached an agreement to work together on projects that will reduce Vancouvers carbon footprint. The city and FortisBC announced November 24 that they have signed a memorandum of understanding to co-operate on a number projects, including incentives to switch city vehicles from diesel and gasoline to cleaner burning natural gas. The city and FortisBC will also work to enhance the existing methane extraction system at the Vancouver landfill to capture and clean up methane that is currently flared for use as renewable natural gas (RNG).. "By working together, were finding solutions whereby we can get more efficient appliances in, reduce emissions, create pathways for things like renewable natural gas and natural gas vehicles," said Jason Wolfe, director of energy solutions for FortisBC.. The citys Renewable City Strategy aims to phase out natural gas, which has caused ...
We asked our leaders their thoughts on which next generation feedstocks they thought would be the most promising in 2012. The responses were fairly evenly split among municipal solid waste (MSW at 26%), Nonfood energy crops (such as camelina and jatropha at 24% and algae (at 20%). Cellulosic trailed slightly at about 17%.. The prominence of MSW suggesting that not only is waste ideal because it reduces landfill demand, methane gases and is a low cost feedstock, but also likely because of promising advances in technology and commercialisation from companies such as Enerkem and Fulcrum Bioenergy. Although waste gas did not perform well (8 %), we consider that to be in the same general category, and with companies like LanzaTech launching pilot plants later this year, this category could come into play.. Close on the heels of MSW are the non-energy feedstocks like jatropha and camelina - the latter which has received significant testing and use by the US military and commercial airlines. Many ...
The Greenhouse gas footprint, or GHG footprint, refers to the amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted during the creation of products or services. It is more comprehensive than the commonly used carbon footprint, which measures only carbon dioxide, one of many greenhouse gases. Human activities are one of the main causes of greenhouse gas. These increase the earths temperature and are emitted from fossil fuel usage in electricity and other byproducts of manufacturing. The major effects mainly consist of extreme climate changes, such as extreme precipitation and acidification and warming of oceans. Climate change has been occurring since the start of the Industrial Revolution in the 1820s. Due to humans heavy reliance on fossil fuels, energy usage, and constant deforestation, the amount of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is increasing, which makes reducing a greenhouse gas footprint harder to achieve. However, there are several ways to reduce ones greenhouse gas footprint, such as using ...
The stability of submarine gas hydrates is largely dictated by pressure and temperature, gas composition, and pore water salinity. However, the physical properties and surface chemistry of deep marine sediments may also affect the thermodynamic state, growth kinetics, spatial distributions, and growth forms of clathrates. Our conceptual model presumes that gas hydrate behaves in a way analogous to ice in a freezing soil. Hydrate growth is inhibited within fine-grained sediments by a combination of reduced pore water activity in the vicinity of hydrophilic mineral surfaces, and the excess internal energy of small crystals confined in pores. The excess energy can be thought of as a capillary pressure in the hydrate crystal, related to the pore size distribution and the state of stress in the sediment framework. The base of gas hydrate stability in a sequence of fine sediments is predicted by our model to occur at a lower temperature (nearer...
... from the composting process of swine manure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aeration condition on the greenhouse gas (GHG) mission from the composting process of swine manure. The swine manure was piled in the composting plant X, Y and Z with 3, 0.5 and 0 min/hr of aeration, respectively. The results of this study showed aeration during the compost process can accelerate the degradation of organic matters, shorten the period of composting, and reduce the production of methane from the compost.. (M. P. Cheng ...
Article Laser gas detector systems for greenhouse gas emissions monitoring. Two types of portable laser based gas detector for measuring emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from oil and gas operations are describe...
The global inventory of carbon in gas hydrate at present day is comparable to that in oil & coal reserve, therefore, gas hydrate could have played an important role in earth carbon cycle, e.g., during the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) event. However, ocean floor temperatures were ~6°C higher than today, so the hydrate abundance under warmer conditions was a question to be clarified. By using numeric simulations, this work showed that gas hydrate abundance is not only affected by ocean floor temperature, but, more essentially, greatly dominated by the organic carbon buried into sediment. During PETM, higher organic carbon contents due to less dissolved oxygen at seafloor and increased methanogenesis rates, both resulted from higher ocean temperatures, enhanced hydrate accumulation. Therefore, though hydrate stability zone would be thinner and shallower than present-day, depending on water depth and sedimentation rate, gas hydrate abundance could be still higher in some marine sediment ...
Unlike many other greenhouse gases, fluorinated gases have no natural sources and only come from human-related activities. They are emitted through their use as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (e.g., as refrigerants) and through a variety of industrial processes such as aluminum and semiconductor manufacturing. Many fluorinated gases have very high global warming potentials (GWPs) relative to other greenhouse gases, so small atmospheric concentrations can have disproportionately large effects on global temperatures. They can also have long atmospheric lifetimes-in some cases, lasting thousands of years. Like other long-lived greenhouse gases, most fluorinated gases are well-mixed in the atmosphere, spreading around the world after they are emitted. Many fluorinated gases are removed from the atmosphere only when they are destroyed by sunlight in the far upper atmosphere. In general, fluorinated gases are the most potent and longest lasting type of greenhouse gases ...
Foaming incidents have been recorded in many biogas plants causing severe operational, economical and environmental problems (Kougias et al., 2014). However, the foaming phenomenon in biogas reactors fed with agro-industrial wastes has not been extensively investigated, especially with respect to the microbial composition of the digesters (Moeller et al., 2012). In the cited literature, it has been reported that specific microorganisms, which are mainly filamentous (e.g. Gordonia species, Microthrix parvicella), are attached to biogas bubbles and transferred to the air/liquid interface of sludge reactors or wastewater treatment works (Ganidi et al., 2009). Once these microorganisms accumulate on the liquid surface, they initiate biosurfactants production due to their metabolic activity, leading to the decrease of the surface tension and thus generate foaming. The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial diversity in the liquid versus the foaming layer in manure-based biogas ...
Uncertainty about anaerobic digestion process stability is the main issue preventing more widespread use of the process as a source of energy recovery in wastewater treatment facilities. The overall objective of this research was to study the feasibility of enhancing biogas production inside wastewater facilities using co-digestion of municipal sludge with bakery waste. Another objective was to improve the stability index and a mathematical model that can be useful tools to predict the process stability of municipal sludge digestion alone, and when it is mixed with bakery waste, as a substrate for microorganisms. Experiments were conducted in three phases. In phase 1, a full-scale anaerobic digester at Central Weber Sewer Improvement District, Ogden, UT, receiving a mixture of primary and secondary sludge, was monitored for one hundred days. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), and volatile solids (VS) mass balances were conducted to evaluate the stability of the digester and its capability of producing
Agriculture accounts for 10 to 12% of the Worlds total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Manure management alone is responsible for 13% of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. During the last decade, Québecs egg production systems have shifted from deep-pit housing systems to manure belt housing systems. The objective of this study was to measure and compare carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from three different cage layer housing systems: a deep liquid manure pit and a manure belt with natural or forced air drying. Deep liquid manure pit housing systems consist of
Researchers in Japan have engineered a membrane with advanced features capable of removing harmful greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Their findings, published in the British journal Nature Communications, may one day contribute to lower greenhouse gas emissions and cleaner skies.. Greenhouse gases, originating from industrial processes and the burning of fossil fuels, blanket the earth and are the culprits behind current global warming woes. The most abundant among them is carbon dioxide, which made up 84% of the United States greenhouse gases in 2012, and can linger in Earths atmosphere for up to thousands of years.. Countries all over the world are looking to reduce their carbon dioxide footprint. However, carbon dioxide is essentially a waste product with little immediate commercial value and large treatment costs. Therefore, new low-cost technologies are sorely needed to incentivize greenhouse gas capture by industry.. Easan Sivaniah - an associate professor at Kyoto Universitys ...
This thesis describes the synthesis of supported Schrock-type initiators immobilised via polymer-bound alcohol and their activity in olefin metathesis, together with a parallel study of the synthesis and reactivity of their model homogeneous counterparts.;Chapter 1 presents an overview of the inorganic and organic supports used in order to achieve the heterogeneisation of a range of different homogenous catalysts. A review of the nature of various organic supports and examples of supported metalligand complexes are given. The terms olefin metathesis, and their corresponding metathesis reactions such as ROMP, RCM, ADMET, ROM, and cross metathesis are defined. A review of previously reported classical multi-component initiator systems, well-defined single component initiators, together with well-defined supported initiators for use in olefin metathesis reactions is given.;Chapter 2 describes the synthesis of diol ligands such as TADDOL and those based upon a pentanediol skeleton together with that ...
Shale gas is defined as natural gas occurring in shale formations. It is an unconventional energy resource, which has become an increasingly important source of natural gas globally and has the potential to grow as a major energy source in the next decade. However, production of shale gas remains technically and economically challenging.. Shale acts both as source rock and reservoir rock. Having high total organic content and falling in the gas window (302°F-392°F), shale has sufficient potential to generate huge amounts of natural gas. Generally, natural gas is stored in a shale matrix, which is highly porous but has very poor permeability. This makes it difficult for gas to move into the wellbore. Gas production in commercial quantities requires the presence of fractures to provide permeability. Some shale formations have natural fractures, which act both as storage space for natural gas and as a transport medium from the matrix interior to the wellbore. The recent boom in shale gas ...
With the defeat of the Democrats climate legislation in the filibuster-ruled Senate this year, that would have capped pollutants and reduced them annually, President Obama is today transferring to the EPA the regulation of greenhouse gases from refineries and coal plants that emit more than 25,000 tons of greenhouse gases, as promised.. In a statement today noting that these sources collectively contribute up to 40% of US greenhouse gas pollution, EPA chief Lisa Jackson said, "We are following through on our commitment to proceed in a measured and careful way to reduce greenhouse gas pollution that threatens the health and welfare of Americans and contributes to climate change.". The US Environmental Protection Agency is issuing the final series of actions that will ensure that the largest industrial facilities must have annually declining Clean Air Act permits that cover greenhouse gas emissions beginning in January 2011. These actions are part of EPAs common sense approach to permitting ...
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HARRISBURG - A House vote last week approving bills providing millions of dollars of state tax credits to develop natural gas markets followed a debate over whether it would promote sound economic policies for Pennsylvania. The House approved three bills to authorize $25 million in tax credits for companies to convert their vehicle fleets to natural gas, $30 million in tax credits for individuals who purchase large natural gas vehicles and $5 million in tax credits to companies that build natural gas fueling stations along designated corridors, including interstates 80 and 81. Lawmakers debated whether state government should aid the development of the Marcellus Shale industry or let the industry invest in the infrastructure to make domestic use of the natural gas being produced in Pennsylvania.. House Majority Whip Stan Saylor, R-94, Red Lion, touted the bills as a way to create jobs, promote clean air and reduce American dependence on foreign oil. Rep. Phyllis Mundy, D-120, Kingston, called ...
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes characterized by an unusually high metabolic versatility, therefore representing a promising source for biofuels and high value bioproducts with a wide range of commercial applications. However, the enormous potential of cyanobacteria for carbon sequestration technologies and end-product development remains far more unexplored than that of green microalgae. Here we present the first results of the research project "Bioremediation of methane from mine ventilation air" jointly funded by the Advanced Manufacturing Cooperative Research Centres (AMCRC) and MBD Energy Ltd, Australia, which aims to remediate CH4 and CO2 emissions from a coal mine using a dual bioreactor system of methanotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria. Strain selection was based on a culture collection of native cyanobacteria from tropical freshwaters and soils in Queensland, NE Australia, comprising at least 5 different genera whose phylogeny and biochemical profiles ...
Near the end of 2019, astronomers watching the red giant Betelgeuse noted how much the star had dimmed, continuing to steadily fade for months.. Its a variable star, and its known to get dimmer and brighter, but the big surprise is that its still continuing to dim, recently passing magnitude 1.56 and still getting dimmer. This is unprecedented in the decades that astronomers have been watching the star.. The worlds biggest telescopes are on the case, and the European Southern Observatory released dramatic new images of Betelguese, resolving features on the stars surface and surrounding area showing how its dramatically changed over the course of 2019.. Our Book is out!. https://www.amazon.com/Universe-Today-Ultimate-Viewing-Cosmos/dp/1624145442/. Audio Podcast version:. ITunes: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/universe-today-guide-to-space-audio/id794058155?mt=2. RSS: https://www.universetoday.com/audio. Weekly email newsletter:. https://www.universetoday.com/newsletter. Weekly Space ...
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site on June 7 and 8, 2011. Natural gas sampling consists of collecting both gas samples and samples of produced water from gas production wells. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, analyzed water samples. Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois, analyzed natural gas samples.
WASHINGTON - In response to a court deadline, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has finalized standards to reduce harmful air pollution associated with oil and natural gas production. The updated standards, required by the Clean Air Act, were informed by the important feedback from a range of stakeholders including the public, public health groups, states and industry. As a result, the final standards reduce implementation costs while also ensuring they are achievable and can be met by relying on proven, cost-effective technologies as well as processes already in use at approximately half of the fractured natural gas wells in the United States. These technologies will not only reduce 95 percent of the harmful emissions from these wells that contribute to smog and lead to health impacts, they will also enable companies to collect additional natural gas that can be sold. Natural gas is a key component of the nations clean energy future and the standards released today make sure that ...
Biogas is one of the most untapped sources of natural and sustainable energy available. It is used all over the world and by far the largest number of biogas plant (technically known as anaerobic digestion plants) are relatively small installations and are found in the developing nations. India for instance has more than 12 million digesters). The Africa Biogas Partnership Programme (ABPP) 70,000 biogas plants in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Senegal and Burkina Faso. That project alone will be expected to be providing about half a million people access to a sustainable source of energy by this year 2013. Biogas plants can be useful resources wherever you are. An example of this is the Mount Everest area. It is a destination for climbers and trekkers from all over the world. While visiting our worlds highest mountain, climbers, trekkers, and walkers take away great memories, lots of photos and new friends, but leave behind their untreated waste. At the Mount Everest Biogas Project they are ...

Soil gas - WikipediaSoil gas - Wikipedia

... the chief concerns among these pollutants are radon which is radioactive and causes cancer and methane which can be flammable ... Other natural soil gases are atmospheric methane and radon. Some environmental contaminants below ground produce gas which ... the soil. This aeration network becomes blocked when water enters soil pores. Not only are both soil air and soil water very ... Gases fill soil pores in the soil structure as water drains or is removed from a soil pore by evaporation or root absorption. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_gas

Primary air pollutants and their sources | Self Study  IASPrimary air pollutants and their sources | Self Study IAS

7. Radioactive decay: Radon gas is released into the atmosphere by radioactive decay occurring in the Earths crust. ... The methane is produced by their normal digestive process.. 12. Lightning: Lightning converts atmospheric nitrogen to nitrogen ... Soil outgassing: Another biogenic source wherein microbial action in soils result in the formation and release of significant ... A secondary pollutant is not directly emitted as such, but forms when other pollutants (primary pollutants) react in the ...
more infohttp://selfstudyias.com/primary-air-pollutants-and-their-sources/

Types of pollution : Air pollutionTypes of pollution : Air pollution

Radon, a radioactive gas given off through the decay of uranium in rocks within Earth, is another harmful indoor pollutant. It ... It is created by carbon dioxide, methane, and other atmospheric gases, which allow sunlight to reach Earth but prevent heat ... People can be exposed to radon when the gas leaks into basements of homes built over radioactive soil or rock. Energy-efficient ... Ozone, the same gas that is a harmful pollutant in smog, forms a protective layer in the upper atmosphere. It shields Earths ...
more infohttp://irshut.com/Environmental_Types_of_pollution.html

Nouvelle page 4Nouvelle page 4

acid rain: Precipitation which has been rendered (made) acidic by airborne pollutants. acidic: The condition of water or soil ... decay products: Degraded radioactive materials, often referred to as daughters or progeny; radon decay products of most ... between two or more primary pollutants, or by reaction with normal atmospheric constituents, with or without photoactivation. ... Flares also burn off methane gas in a landfill. flash point: The lowest temperature at which evaporation of a substance ...
more infohttp://vietsciences.free.fr/tuvung/environment.htm

Air pollution - New World EncyclopediaAir pollution - New World Encyclopedia

Radioactive pollutants produced by nuclear explosions and war explosives, and natural processes such as radon. ... National Emission Ceilings (NEC) for certain atmospheric pollutants are regulated by Directive 2001/81/EC (NECD).[23] As part ... Waste deposition in landfills, which generate methane.. *Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and ... soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen, dust, and mold. Indoors, the lack of air circulation allows these airborne ...
more infohttps://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Air_pollution

cosmochemistry: Topics by WorldWideScience.orgcosmochemistry: Topics by WorldWideScience.org

... radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only ... natural pollutants,artificial pollutants and the unknown substances.The different types of dust grains have different ... The meteorite samples (1.36 and 1.09 g) analyzed in this study were allocated by C. Y. Ornek, along with a soil sample (1.5 g) ... Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, ...
more infohttps://worldwidescience.org/topicpages/c/cosmochemistry.html

Marcellus Formation - WikipediaMarcellus Formation - Wikipedia

Wanty, Richard B. (1993). Field studies of radon in rocks, soils, and water. Chelsea, Michigan: C.K. Smoley. p. 216. ISBN 0- ... The Marcellus also contains uranium, and the radioactive decay of the uranium-238 (238U) makes it a source rock for radioactive ... outcrops makes an east-west band running through the city of Syracuse a high-risk area for radon as an indoor air pollutant. ... Because carbon adsorbs carbon dioxide (CO2) at a greater rate than methane (CH4), carbon dioxide injected into the formation ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcellus_Formation

The atmosphere is the key symbol of global interdependence. If we cant solve some of our problems in the face of threats to...The atmosphere is the key symbol of global interdependence. If we can't solve some of our problems in the face of threats to...

Radioactive radon-222 gas. Very small fine and ultrafine particles. 35 Indoor Pollutants 1. Levels of 11 common pollutants are ... Radon-222, a radioactive gas found in some soils and rocks, can seep into some houses and increase the risk of lung cancer. ... which generate methane. Methane is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane may displace oxygen in an ... Atmospheric pressure is the force, or mass, per unit area of a column of air. (the weight of the air on your body). At sea ...
more infohttp://slideplayer.com/slide/10713318/

Air-lock | Article about air-lock by The Free DictionaryAir-lock | Article about air-lock by The Free Dictionary

The radioactive gas radon and its isotopes actinon and thoron, which have short half-lives and are observed in atmospheric air ... Air penetrates the soil, making up 10 to 23-28 percent of its volume. Soil air, because of biological processes in the soil, is ... Radioactive air pollutants are particularly dangerous; as a result of the constant movement of air masses, they are global in ... methane (CH4), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Taking into account the molecular weight of each component and its proportion in the ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/air-lock

Aired | Article about aired by The Free DictionaryAired | Article about aired by The Free Dictionary

The radioactive gas radon and its isotopes actinon and thoron, which have short half-lives and are observed in atmospheric air ... Air penetrates the soil, making up 10 to 23-28 percent of its volume. Soil air, because of biological processes in the soil, is ... Radioactive air pollutants are particularly dangerous; as a result of the constant movement of air masses, they are global in ... methane (CH4), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Taking into account the molecular weight of each component and its proportion in the ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/aired

Air gap technique | Article about air gap technique by The Free DictionaryAir gap technique | Article about air gap technique by The Free Dictionary

The radioactive gas radon and its isotopes actinon and thoron, which have short half-lives and are observed in atmospheric air ... Air penetrates the soil, making up 10 to 23-28 percent of its volume. Soil air, because of biological processes in the soil, is ... Radioactive air pollutants are particularly dangerous; as a result of the constant movement of air masses, they are global in ... methane (CH4), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Taking into account the molecular weight of each component and its proportion in the ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/air+gap+technique

ROE Glossary | EPAs Report on the Environment (ROE) | US EPAROE Glossary | EPA's Report on the Environment (ROE) | US EPA

secondary pollutant:. Any pollutant that is formed by atmospheric reactions of precursor or primary emissions. An example of a ... radioactive waste:. Waste containing substances that emit ionizing radiation. Radioactive waste is classified by regulation ... Hazardous waste is applied directly to the soil surface or incorporated into the upper layers of the soil, where its ... Greenhouse gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (Ch4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), ...
more infohttps://www.epa.gov/report-environment/roe-glossary

üds 2008 Fen Sonbahar Ekim | Tropical Cyclones | Apollo Programüds 2008 Fen Sonbahar Ekim | Tropical Cyclones | Apollo Program

Wetlands filter out excess nutrients and pollutants by trapping them in roots and soil, ---- plants and bacteria break them ... Although radon causes many deaths, it is clear that a lot of them are preventable. Radon tests are cheap, and when the gas (19 ... Hurricanes, which are circular storms spinning around a region of low atmospheric pressure, are powered by energy released by ... at the time there was complete ignorance of the dangers of radioactive fallout. A) since D) so that B) so as to E) unless C) ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/106801183/uds-2008-Fen-Sonbahar-Ekim

GlossaryGlossary

Radon:. A radioactive gas that occurs naturally, but when trapped in buildings can cause health problems such as lung cancer. ... Removal of a pollutant from air or water by collecting the pollutant on the surface of a solid material. Top. Advanced ... Soil Removal - The vacuum must remove a set quantity of soil from carpet in four passes. - Dust Containment - The vacuum must ... Atmospheric Pressure:. The pressure due to the weight of the atmosphere (14.7 PSI at sea level). Top. Attainment Area:. An area ...
more infohttp://fairgreentrade.com/glossary.aspx

Enviro - Glossary - Furmans Sustainability Business Education ProgramsEnviro - Glossary - Furman's Sustainability Business Education Programs

Radon. A colorless, naturally occurring gas formed by radioactive decay of radium atoms. Radon accumulating in basements and ... The use of living organisms (e.g., bacteria) to clean up oil spills or remove other pollutants from soil, water, and wastewater ... The greenhouse gases of most concern are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides. If these gases in our atmosphere double, ... A complex chemical and atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and other substances ...
more infohttp://www.fusbp.com/2010/09/enviro-glossary/

Air pollution - WikipediaAir pollution - Wikipedia

... and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon.. Secondary pollutants include: *Particulates created from gaseous ... They are categorized as either methane (CH4) or non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which ... set maximum atmospheric concentrations for specific pollutants. Environmental agencies enact regulations which are intended to ... soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen, dust, and mold. Indoors, the lack of air circulation allows these airborne ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_quality

Health Impacts of the Different Energy SourcesHealth Impacts of the Different Energy Sources

These pollutants are transported by the wind and diluted by atmospheric turbulence until they are deposited to the ground by ... For a radioactive contamination, the slope of this concentration-response is evaluated at 5% per sievert of effective dose. For ... This is the case for uranium miners who are exposed to radon. More than 10,000 of them have died of lung cancer since 1946, ... NMVOC: Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). PCDD/F: Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins (PCDD) and Polychlorinated ...
more infohttps://www.sauvonsleclimat.org/en/document-database/health-impact-different-energy-sources

Air pollution - WikipediaAir pollution - Wikipedia

... and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon. Secondary pollutants include: Particulates created from gaseous ... They are categorized as either methane (CH4) or non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), atmospheric particulate matter, or fine particles, are tiny ... soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen, dust, and mold. Indoors, the lack of air circulation allows these airborne ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_pollution

Country Profile - Russian FederationCountry Profile - Russian Federation

Radioactive wastes x. 24. Women in sustainable development x. 25. Children and youth x. 26. Indigenous people x. 27. Non- ... International Board of Soil Resources and Management. ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations. ICES International ... There are also plans to step up the work on a schedule of pollutants, primarily ozone, and the establishment of critical levels ... As a result of atmospheric pollution by mining and iron and steel industries areas of phytopathogenic damage are becoming ...
more infohttps://www.un.org/esa/earthsummit/rusia-cp.htm

European Commission - Science for Environment Policy - News Alert - Archive - Environment and HealthEuropean Commission - Science for Environment Policy - News Alert - Archive - Environment and Health

Chickens foraging on soils containing environmental pollutants can accumulate these chemicals in their tissues and eggs. This ... The damaging health impacts of some key air pollutants can occur at lower atmospheric concentrations than indicated by the most ... Human health benefits from reducing short-lived air pollutants and methane concentrations A recent global study has estimated ... A study on the transport of radioactive isotopes from Fukushima in the two months after the nuclear incident suggests that they ...
more infohttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/archive/environment-health.htm

Docphin | Medical Research Articles Published in July 2006 | Page 70 of 70Docphin | Medical Research Articles Published in July 2006 | Page 70 of 70

Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment. (PubMedID: 16125215) The Science ... Advances in cement solidification technology for waste radioactive ion exchange resins: a review. (PubMedID: 16388899) Journal ... Comparative field study on precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, fog water, and atmospheric aerosol and gases at urban and ... Field assessment of treatment efficacy by three methods of phosphoric acid application in lead-contaminated urban soil. ( ...
more infohttps://www.docphin.com/medical-research-articles-published-in-month?month=7&year=2006&page=70

एन्विस सेन्टर ऑफ मध्य प्रदेश स्टेट ऑफ एनवायरमेंटएन्विस सेन्टर ऑफ मध्य प्रदेश स्टेट ऑफ एनवायरमेंट

Radon. A common radioactive gas emitted from ordinary soils and rock. Radon has no smell, taste or colour and can seep into ... The insulating effect of atmospheric greenhouse gases (e.g., water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, etc.) that keeps the Earths ... Parts per million/parts per billion, a way of expressing tiny concentrations of pollutants in air, water, soil, human tissue ... A facility or mobile source that emits pollutants into the air or releases hazardous wastes into water or soil. ...
more infohttp://mpenvis.nic.in/glossary.aspx?langid=2&mid=10&v=1

EPA AbbreviationsEPA Abbreviations

LLRW: Low Level Radioactive Waste. LMFBR: Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. LMOP: Landfill Methane Outreach Program. LNAPL: ... HAP: Hazardous Air Pollutant. HAPEMS: Hazardous Air Pollutant Enforcement Management System. HAPPS: Hazardous Air Pollutant ... SCD/SWDC: Soil or Soil and Water Conservation District. SCFM: Standard Cubic Feet Per Minute. SCLDF: Sierra Club Legal Defense ... GAW: Global Atmospheric Watch. GCC: Global Climate Convention. GC/MS: Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectograph. GCVTC: Grand Canyon ...
more infohttp://pipingnews.com/epa.htm

ESRM Midterm 2 - Free Courseworks For StudentsESRM Midterm 2 - Free Courseworks For Students

7) ______ is a product of uranium decay as well as an indoor air pollutant.. A) Radon. B) Radium. C) Plutonium. D) Lead. ... 36) In ideal farming, the amount of soil lost would never be than the amount of new soil.. A) less, eroded. B) greater, ... 46) An example of persistent organic pollutant is:. A) CFCs. B) methane. C) dioxin. D) hydrocarbons. ... 40) How much atmospheric carbon is emitted in the United States?. A) 10%. B) 20%. C) 30%. D) 35%. ...
more infohttps://catalinaislandbrewhouse.com/esrm-midterm-2/
  • The oxygen is critical because it allows for respiration of both plant roots and soil organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of toxic air pollutants include benzene (found in gasoline), perchloroethylene (emitted from some dry cleaning facilities), and methylene chloride (used as a solvent by a number of industries). (epa.gov)
  • One of the most prominent air pollutants, this reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Precipitation which has been rendered (made) acidic by airborne pollutants. (free.fr)
  • Scientists believe high concentrations of acid rain can harm forests and soil. (irshut.com)
  • Substances not naturally found in the air or at greater concentrations or in different locations from usual are referred to as pollutants . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The analysis used 21 682 soil samples from the EU-funded Land Use and Coverage Area frame Survey (LUCAS) 1 and found that vineyards, olive groves, and orchards had the highest mean soil Cu concentrations of all land use categories. (europa.eu)
  • The findings highlight the major impact of land use and agricultural practices on soil Cu concentrations and emphasise a need for more sustainable land management practices. (europa.eu)
  • According to Verner (1977) the detection of pollutants in water is more complex because the light attenuation characteristics of water limit detection of below-surface pollutants to the visible and near-visible portions of the spectrum. (blogspot.com)
  • On the other hand, there are classes of pollutants that may be detected when water surface conditions and sun angle permit. (blogspot.com)