Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Hyperbaric Oxygenation: The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Water Loss, Insensible: Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Jupiter: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Incubators: Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Tradescantia: A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE that is used in genotoxic bioassays.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)HydrocarbonsHydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems: A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.FiresDrug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Astronomical Phenomena: Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Confined Spaces: A space which has limited openings for entry and exit combined with unfavorable natural ventilation such as CAVES, refrigerators, deep tunnels, pipelines, sewers, silos, tanks, vats, mines, deep trenches or pits, vaults, manholes, chimneys, etc.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Fomites: Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include CLOTHING, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.AcetyleneSeawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Serratia liquefaciens: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SERRATIA found in plants and the DIGESTIVE TRACT of rodents. It is the most prevalent Serratia species in the natural environment.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Urticaceae: The nettles plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Many have stinging hairs on stems and leaves. Flowers are small and greenish in leaf axils. The fruit is dry and one-seeded.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Minor Planets: Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.Hygroscopic Agents: Materials that readily absorb moisture from their surroundings.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.Capillary Action: A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Neptune: The eighth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its two natural satellites are Nereid and Triton.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.TextilesDental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Osmeriformes: An order of fish including smelts, galaxiids, and salamanderfish.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Housing, AnimalPlants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Incubators, Infant: Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.
... humidity, fungus, salt fog for rust testing; sand and dust exposure; explosive atmosphere; leakage; acceleration; shock and ... Humidity, Vibration, and Altitude Test Method 521.3 Icing/Freezing Rain Test Method 522.1 Ballistic Shock Test Method 523.3 ... Test Method 506.5 Rain Test Method 507.5 Humidity Test Method 508.6 Fungus Test Method 509.5 Salt Fog Test Method 510.5 Sand ... Test Method 515.6 Acoustic Noise Test Method 516.6 Shock Test Method 517.1 Pyroshock Test Method 518.1 Acidic Atmosphere Test ...
It likes high humidity and a draft-free atmosphere. It should not be placed in front of an air-conditioner unit or fan. After ...
Atmospheres. 118: 8840-8853. doi:10.1002/jgrd.80589. Tschanz, B.; Straub, C.; Scheiben, D.; Walker, K.A.; Stiller, G.P.; ... ARTS has been used at the University of Maryland to assess radiosonde humidity measurements, by the University of Bern for ... Moradi, I.; Soden, B.; Ferraro, R.; Arkin, P.; Vömel, H. (2013). "Assessing the quality of humidity measurements from global ... Herbin, Hervé; Dubuisson, Philippe (2015). Infrared Observation of Earth's Atmosphere. John Wiley & Sons. p. 198. ISBN ...
These, similarly to the lichens, use the humidity of the atmosphere. If the mixture of salts is right, they may support liquid ... simply by using the humidity from the atmosphere. They are also highly tolerant of UV radiation, using melanin and other more ... Due to the lack of a magnetic field and the low shielding of the Martian atmosphere (the Martian overhead airmass is 16 g cm-2 ... The air on Mars approaches 100% humidity in evening and morning, and at those times frosts form on the surface. These are also ...
... the purity of its atmosphere (high altitude and low average humidity). The solar power plant of Themis and the Mont-Louis Solar ... This heating can be done in a controlled atmosphere (the vacuum of space, the upper atmosphere of Mars, etc.) The research ...
They could make use of the humidity of the Mars atmosphere. Though the absolute humidity is low, the relative humidity at night ... On Mars the relative humidity of the atmosphere goes through extremes. It reaches 100% humidity every night in the extreme cold ... It can do this using the high relative humidity of the Mars atmosphere at night. All of this work was done after the Phoenix ... See #Life able to take up water from the 100% night time humidity of the Mars atmosphere Already detected on the surface A ...
They could make use of the humidity of the Mars atmosphere. The lichens studied in these experiments have protection from UV ... Thus, a vision of Mars was born of a world much like the Moon, but with just a wisp of an atmosphere to blow the dust around. ... The atmosphere of Mars contains a great deal of fine dust particles, the water vapor condenses on these particles that then ... The atmosphere of Mars contains a great deal of fine dust particles. Water vapor condenses on the particles, then they fall ...
Vortices are prominent features of the atmospheres of other planets. They include the permanent Great Red Spot on Jupiter, the ... These vortices are often driven by temperature and humidity variations with altitude. The sense of rotation of hurricanes is ... Vortices in the Earth's atmosphere are important phenomena for meteorology. They include mesocyclones on the scale of a few ... Vallis, Geoffrey (1999). Geostrophic Turbulence: The Macroturbulence of the Atmosphere and Ocean Lecture Notes (PDF). Lecture ...
The measurements are usually expressed as specific humidity or percent relative humidity. The temperatures of the atmosphere ... During times of low humidity, static discharge is quick and easy. During times of higher humidity, fewer static discharges ... In turn, the temperature of the atmosphere drops slightly. In the atmosphere, condensation produces clouds, fog and ... These include vapor pressure, specific humidity, mixing ratio, dew point temperature, and relative humidity. Play media Because ...
In the Earth's atmosphere, temperature varies greatly at different heights relative to the Earth's surface. The coldest ... It is governed by many factors, including incoming solar radiation, humidity and altitude. When discussing surface temperature ... temperature, pressure, density, and the speed of sound derived from the 1962 U.S. Standard Atmosphere. "Station statistics". ... Atmospheric temperature is a measure of temperature at different levels of the Earth's atmosphere. ...
Relative humidity is indicative of the amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere. Humidity in the Philippines as in the ... The lowest average relative humidity occurs in May with 85.9%; highest in February with 93.4%; and the annual average humidity ...
In biology, abiotic factors can include water, light, radiation, temperature, humidity, atmosphere, and soil. The macroscopic ... For example, there is a significant difference in access in both water and humidity between temperate rain forests and deserts ... In addition, fungi have also evolved to survive at the temperature, the humidity, and stability of their environment. ...
... and the relative humidity of the atmosphere. The development of nanometer-scale lithographies is the focus of an intense ... Controlling the relative humidity generally helps to obtain more reproducible results. The size of the fabricated features ... In order to perform Local Oxidation Nanolithography, the relative humidity in the AFM chamber is kept between 30% and 60%. A ... It is recommendable to enclose the microscope in a chamber where the atmosphere is controlled. In the simplest case, the ...
... the density of the air in terms of altitude in the International Standard Atmosphere in the air The Earth's atmosphere is ... Aircraft performance depends on density altitude, which is affected by barometric pressure, humidity and temperature. On a very ... Near space Atmosphere of Earth Coffin corner (aerodynamics) At higher altitudes, the air density is lower than at sea level. At ... Regions on the Earth's surface (or in its atmosphere) that are high above mean sea level are referred to as high altitude. High ...
Human development leads to a change in the local atmosphere, including a decrease in humidity. Deforestation paired with ... The area is ideal of Papilio homerus, with abundant host plants and high levels of rain, leading to a regular high humidity. ... This less than 100% humidity results in developmental defects in pupae reared in the lab. The disappearance of this population ...
In the atmosphere, Varying degrees of humidity, temperature, and pressure change the density of air. Isopycnals are not used in ... Density Stratification (water) Atmosphere of Earth Internal Wave Lectures 3&4: Properties of Seawater Archived 2014-09-20 at ... Isopycnals are often displayed graphically to help visualize "layers" of water in the ocean or gases in the atmosphere in a ... In Meteorology, isopycnals are used to display different layers of gases in the atmosphere. ...
Temperature stays constant at 60 degrees and humidity at 75%, the perfect atmosphere for aging wine. The cave houses its own ...
Its purpose is to study the atmosphere. The Laboratory of Optical Signals Propagation gathers satellite data on aerosols, ozone ... The Laboratory of Aerosol Optics collects information on temperature, humidity, soot, and atmospheric scattering at Tomsk. The ... TOR Station measures gas constituents in the atmosphere, in cluding carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, ...
The instrument can also be advantageously used to measure changes in the humidity of the atmosphere. In this case the strip of ...
Most importantly, the atmosphere and also vegetation is semi-transparent in the microwave spectral range. This means its ... The second type is used to measure along absorption lines to retrieve temperature and humidity profile. Furthermore, limb ... Signals at the center of the absorption complex are dominated by the atmosphere closest to the radiometer (when ground-based). ... As oxygen is homogeneously distributed within the atmosphere and around the globe, the brightness temperature signals can be ...
For a while he experimented with means of obtaining water from the atmosphere. He was a gifted linguist and a student of ... Nelson, Robert A. (2003). "Air Wells, Fog Fences & Dew Ponds - Methods for Recovery of Atmospheric Humidity". Rex Research. ... A doubtful character: Wolf Klaphake Klaphake, Wolf (1936). "Practical Methods for Condensation of Water from the Atmosphere". ...
High humidity is needed, especially in the lower-to-mid troposphere; when there is a great deal of moisture in the atmosphere, ... Bart van den Hurk and Eleanor Blyth (2008). Global maps of Local Land-Atmosphere coupling. Archived 2009-02-25 at the Wayback ... within the atmosphere. Cyclogenesis is the opposite of cyclolysis, and has an anticyclonic (high-pressure system) equivalent ... waters of this temperature cause the overlying atmosphere to be unstable enough to sustain convection and thunderstorms. ...
... can be monitored by modifying the atmosphere of the culture vessels. Adjusting the relative humidity in the ... high relative humidity, low light intensity, gas accumulation in the atmosphere of the jar, length of time intervals between ...
Controlled atmosphere facilities are used to keep apples fresh year-round. Controlled atmosphere facilities use high humidity, ... apples can be stored for some months in controlled atmosphere chambers to delay ethylene-induced ripening. Apples are commonly ...
... s on produce packaging have been used to control the atmosphere and relative humidity within the packaging. In many ...
Their surfaces are waterproofed by the plant cuticle and gas exchange between the mesophyll cells and the atmosphere is ... Hairs on the leaf surface trap humidity in dry climates and create a boundary layer reducing water loss. ... Other factors include the need to balance water loss at high temperature and low humidity against the need to absorb ... by which time the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere had dropped significantly. This occurred independently in ...
Here in the midwest, we have lots of humidity. If I put dry ice in a cooler, it makes frost on the outside of the cooler. This ... Since the partial pressure of CO2 in the atmosphere is very low and coolers are not anything like air tight, sublimation is not ... just a product of temperature, but of the CO2 trying to equilibrate with the atmosphere. So, what I have been taught is to take ...
But this is not a great risk to the atmosphere and us when one considers that 90% of the sulphur dioxide in our atmosphere and ... Type 2 Sites are also designed to measure relative humidity, temperature, and atmospheric pressure. Additional analyzers may be ... is ultimately released to the atmosphere. The other 160 million tons never makes it to the atmosphere because it is destroyed ... The cause of this is because there is carbon dioxide in our atmosphere and when it mixes with water it created carbonic acid. ...
The cone represents the probable track of the center of a tropical cyclone, and is formed by enclosing the area swept out by a set of circles along the forecast track (at 12, 24, 36 hours, etc). The size of each circle is set so that two-thirds of historical official forecast errors over a 5-year sample fall within the circle. Based on forecasts over the previous 5 years, the entire track of a tropical cyclone can be expected to remain within the cone roughly 60-70% of the time. It is important to note that the area affected by a tropical cyclone can extend well beyond the confines of the cone enclosing the most likely track area of the center ...
... oxides obtained through temperature programmed calcinations of ammonium vanadate in hydrogen atmosphere and their humidity ... oxides obtained through temperature programmed calcinations of ammonium vanadate in hydrogen atmosphere and their humidity ...
Select 2017 high quality Humidity Station products in best price from certified Chinese Electric Station manufacturers, Control ... Portable Digital Wireless Atmosphere Moniting Weather Station FOB Price: $1500 - $10000 / Set Min. Order: 1 Set ... Humidity Display Base Station Temperature And Humidity Sensor Relative Humidity Electric Power Station Humidity Sensor Battery ... Temperature And Humidity Sensor Manufacturers Relative Humidity Suppliers Electric Power Station Suppliers Humidity Sensor ...
How does the atmosphere affect human weight on Earth? (Replies: 8) * Relative Humidity and feeling of comfort (Replies: 1) ... Similar Discussions: How can an increase in relative humidity affect visibility * Can We Cool, Without Increasing Warming? ( ... If relative humidity exceeds 100% then you will be getting condensation in the form of fog or rain which will reduce visibility ... Analysis of extinction properties as a function of relative humidity using a K-EC-Mie model in Nanjing. http://www.atmos-chem- ...
Modified atmosphere and modified humidity packaging of fresh mushrooms. J Food Sci 61:391-7. *Wiley Online Library , ... Controlling relative humidity in modified atmosphere packages of tomato fruit. HortScience 27:336-9. *Web of Science® Times ... CDs are delivery systems that can be controlled throughout high humidity levels in the atmosphere. When a CD-antimicrobial ... Increment of RH within package atmosphere of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables stored at 5 °C in 1 L polypropylene containers. ...
The new Humitector Type 2 Non-Reversible Humidity Indicator Cards are low-halogen and free of cobalt dichloride, a substance of ... the originator of the color change humidity indicator card, introduce an industry-first innovation to better ensure that the ... integrity of dry packing that protects moisture-sensitive devices has not been compromised by high humidity at any time during ... Clariant unveils controlled-atmosphere packaging solutions. Clariant, a world leader in specialty chemicals, will present new ...
Also, if the atmosphere is as warm as or warmer than the skin during times of high humidity, blood brought to the body surface ... Relative humidity[edit]. Main article: Relative humidity. The relative humidity (. R. H. {\displaystyle (RH}. or ϕ. ). {\ ... Relative humidity, expressed as a percentage, indicates a present state of absolute humidity relative to a maximum humidity ... "Climate - Humidity indexes". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 February 2018.. *^ "Climate/humidity table". Transport ...
"The decrease in humidity is the biggest one so as the temperature falls we have decreased humidity both inside and outside, and ... How is the amount of evaporated water of precipitable water in the atmosphere determined?. ... When the humidity level is so low it draws the moisture from the skin into the air." ... were stripping that natural barrier.That skin barrier is not only something to retain humidity and moisture but its also anti ...
Make research projects and school reports about humidity easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... humidity, moisture content of the atmosphere, a primary element of climate. Humidity measurements include absolute humidity, ... Humidity World of Earth Science COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group, Inc.. Humidity. Humidity is a measure of the quantity of water ... humidity The concentration of water vapour in the atmosphere. The absolute humidity is the mass of water vapour per unit volume ...
3 sec ago 69.4 F Partly Cloudy Humidity: 71% Dew Point: 60 F Wind: 7.0 ... Location: planet octupulous is nearing earths atmosphere. 13,618 posts, read 10,361,314 times ... Humidity: 71% Dew Point: 60 F Wind: 7.0 mphfrom the ESE Wind Gust: 9.0 mph Pressure: 30.11 in (Rising) Visibility: 10.0 miles ... 2 C) Humidity: 109 % Wind Speed: NNE 0 MPH. Barometer: N/A Dewpoint: 31 F (-1 C) Wind Chill: 29 F (-2 C) Visibility: Miles. ...
Earth sciences - Atmosphere and hydrosphere sciences Keyword [sv] Geovetenskap - Atmosfärs- och hydrosfärsvetenskap National ... This licentiate thesis is based on two papers which are related to the study ofatmospheric humidity. The first paper mainly ... Satellite and radiosonde measurements of atmospheric humidity. Kottayil, Ajil Luleå University of Technology, Department of ... The mainaim of this study was to provide a better first guess humidity profile for physicalretrieval algorithms which can ...
Is the Temperature Humidity Index (THI) the same as dew point?. * Ask Tom Why Weather Weather Blog ... How much water vapor do forest fires contribute to the atmosphere?. * Ask Tom Why Weather Weather Blog ...
Humidity measurements include absolute humidity, the mass of water vapor per unit volume of natural air; relative humidity ( ... usually meant when the term humidity alone is used), the ratio ... moisture content of the atmosphere, a primary element of ... humidity, moisture content of the atmosphere, a primary element of climate . Humidity measurements include absolute humidity, ... Absolute humidity finds greatest application in ventilation and air-conditioning problems. Humidity is measured by means of a ...
Humidity Test Parameters. Atmosphere (°C). Relative Humidity (%). Test Time (h). Militaryspecification a 48.9. ±. 2.2. 90. -. ... coating fulfilled the temperature and humidity requirements of military specification. Thus, the IBS deposited fluoride films ... Humidity Test Parameters. Atmosphere (°C). Relative Humidity (%). Test Time (h). Militaryspecification a 48.9. ±. 2.2. 90. -. ...
The crystal systems of pharmaceuticals and foods may change due to factors such as temperature and humidity. The climate of ... of phase transition of pharmaceuticals by XRD-DSC simultaneous measurement under temperature and humidity atmosphere. The ... climate of Japan in particular exhibits extreme changes in temperature and humidity, with hot and humid summers, and dry, low- ... crystal systems of pharmaceuticals and foods may change due to factors such as temperature and humidity. The. ...
Humidity.. Too much water in the atmosphere of the spacecrafts cabin is a problem. If relative humidity is too high (from 25 ... Although 100% oxygen at a pressure of 1/3 atmosphere was employed in early American space vehicles, air at 1 atmosphere is the ... Suit pressures of the order of 0.3 to 0.5 atmosphere are generally employed, with an internal suit atmosphere of 100% oxygen. ... oxygen and the high risk of fire associated with an oxygen atmosphere. Air at a pressure of 1 atmosphere does, however, have ...
Reduce humidity. Dust mites thrive in humid environments because they absorb water from the atmosphere. Avoid humidifying, and ... This reduces humidity and can help move dust and other allergens out. Do this often to reduce dust mite populations. ... Control temperatures. Dust mites do very well in temperatures between 65°F and 84°F and a relative humidity of more than 50%. ... Along with a reduction in humidity, consider lowering your in-home temperatures to below 70°F or more. [14] ...
... *Air pressure is the weight of the atmosphere pressing down on the earth. It is measured by a ... Relative humidity is the amount of moisture the air can hold before it rains. The most it can hold is 100 percent. Humidity is ...
5.3 Humidity variables 100. 5.4 Moist static energy 104. Problems 106. 6 Vertical structure of the moist atmosphere 109 ... 4 The atmosphere under gravity 67. 4.1 Geopotential 67. 4.2 Hydrostatic balance 69. 4.3 Adiabatic lapse rate 74. 4.4 Buoyancy ... Thermal Physics of the Atmosphere offers a concise and thorough introduction on how basic thermodynamics naturally leads on to ... 5 Water in the atmosphere 93. 5.1 The Clausius-Clapeyron equation 94. 5.2 Calculation of saturated vapour pressure 97. ...
Ocean- atmosphere dynamics coupled with the seasonal cycle of relative humidity explain the existence of the long-lasting ... Such strong humidity gradients do not exist in other seasons. Greater westerly extent or horizontal advection of high humidity ... of the equator the use of monthly mean temperature and relative humidity to estimate changes in specific humidity is a good ... of the observed change in relative humidity. It is also shown that large relative humidity anomalies exist over the equatorial ...
  • We discuss scalar similarities and dissimilarities based on analysis of the dissipation terms in the variance budget equations, considering the turbulent kinetic energy and the variances of temperature, specific humidity and specific CO \(_2\) content. (springer.com)
  • Correct compliance with storage temperature and humidity is an important prerequisite for the quality assurance of many products, e.g. in the area of food and pharmaceutical products. (testo.com)
  • The book concludes with a discussion of non-equilibrium thermodynamics as applied to the atmosphere. (wiley.com)
  • CDs can function as antimicrobial delivery systems as they can release antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds (guest molecules) as the humidity levels increase in the headspace. (wiley.com)
  • If you are storing cheese in a refrigerator, it is best to store it in the salad drawer, which although may be running at a slightly higher temperature, it is a confined space that will retain humidity levels. (paxtonandwhitfield.co.uk)
  • The new Humitector Type 2 Non-Reversible Humidity Indicator Cards are low-halogen and free of cobalt dichloride, a substance of concern to the European Chemical Bureau. (webpackaging.com)
  • Each ADSORMAT® desiccant plug is fitted with a reversible humidity indicator, the colour change showing when its capacity limit has been reached. (clariant.com)
  • Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a complex mixture of hundreds of semi-volatile to extremely low-volatility organic compounds that are chemically processed in the atmosphere, including via heterogeneous oxidation by gas-phase radicals. (osti.gov)