Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A widely used industrial solvent.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.
A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
A plant genus of the family BIGNONIACEAE that is a source of lapachol.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain wedelolactone.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A drugless system of therapy, making use of physical forces such as air, light, water, heat, massage. Treatments are often diet- and nutrition-oriented with attention given to the patient's personal history and lifestyle. (From Cassileth, Alternative Medicine Handbook, 1998, p329)
Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity to citric acid challenge during a simulated ascent to extreme altitude. (1/168)

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of cough and the citric acid cough threshold during hypobaric hypoxia under controlled environmental conditions. Subjects were studied during Operation Everest 3. Eight subjects ascended to a simulated altitude of 8,848 m over 31 days in a hypobaric chamber. Frequency of nocturnal cough was measured using voice-activated tape recorders, and cough threshold by inhalation of increasing concentrations of citric acid aerosol. Spirometry was performed before and after each test. Subjects recorded symptoms of acute mountain sickness and arterial oxygen saturation daily. Air temperature and humidity were controlled during the operation. Cough frequency increased with increasing altitude, from a median of 0 coughs (range 0-4) at sea level to 15 coughs (range 3-32) at a simulated altitude of 8,000 m. Cough threshold was unchanged on arrival at 5,000 m compared to sea level (geometric mean difference (GMD) 1.0, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.5-2.1, p=0.5), but fell on arrival at 8,000 m compared to sea level (GMD 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.3, p=0.043). There was no relationship between cough threshold and symptoms of acute mountain sickness, oxygen saturation or forced expiratory volume in one second. Temperature and humidity in the chamber were controlled between 18-24 degrees C and 30-60%, respectively. These results confirm an increase in cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity associated with hypobaric hypoxia, and refute the hypothesis that high altitude cough is due to the inhalation of cold, dry air. The small sample size makes further conclusions difficult, and the cause of altitude-related cough remains unclear.  (+info)

Acute mountain sickness is not related to cerebral blood flow: a decompression chamber study. (2/168)

To evaluate the pathogenetic role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes occurring before and during the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS), peak mean middle cerebral artery flow velocities () were assessed by transcranial Doppler sonography in 10 subjects at 490-m altitude, and during three 12-min periods immediately (SA1), 3 (SA2), and 6 (SA3) h after decompression to a simulated altitude of 4,559 m. AMS cerebral scores increased from 0. 16 +/- 0.14 at baseline to 0.44 +/- 0.31 at SA1, 1.11 +/- 0.88 at SA2 (P < 0.05), and 1.43 +/- 1.03 at SA3 (P < 0.01); correspondingly, three, seven, and eight subjects had AMS. Absolute and relative at simulated altitude, expressed as percentages of low-altitude values (%), did not correlate with AMS cerebral scores. Average % remained unchanged, because % increased in three and remained unchanged or decreased in seven subjects at SA2 and SA3. These results suggest that CBF is not important in the pathogenesis of AMS and shows substantial interindividual differences during the first hours at simulated altitude.  (+info)

Chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors in A/J strain mice with dietary myo-inositol and dexamethasone. (3/168)

Male A/J strain mice were fed AIN-76A diet supplemented with myo-inositol/dexamethasone (10 g and 0.5 mg/kg diet) or acetylsalicylic acid (300 mg/kg) and exposed for 5 months to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke at a concentration of 132 mg total suspended particulates/m3. After tobacco smoke exposure, they were allowed to recover for another 4 months in filtered air. In the animals fed AIN-75A diet alone or acetylsalicylic acid, the average number of tumors/lung was 2.1, whereas in the animals given the myo-inositol/dexamethasone diet, the average lung tumor multiplicity was 1.0 (P < 0.05). In animals exposed to filtered air, lung tumor multiplicities were 0.6 for animals fed AIN-76A or myo-inositol/dexamethasone and 1.2 for animals fed acetylsalicylic acid. It was concluded that the combination of myo-inositol and dexamethasone constitutes an effective chemopreventive regimen against tobacco smoke-induced lung tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Biotransformation and kinetics of excretion of methyl-tert-butyl ether in rats and humans. (4/168)

Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as an additive to gasoline to increase oxygen content and reduce tail pipe emission of pollutants. Therefore, widespread human exposure may occur. To contribute to the characterization of potential adverse effects of MTBE, its biotransformation was compared in humans and rats after inhalation exposure. Human volunteers (3 males and 3 females) and rats (5 each, males and females) were exposed to 4 (4.5 +/- 0.4) and 40 (38.7 +/- 3.2) ppm MTBE for 4 h in a dynamic exposure system. Urine samples from rats and humans were collected for 72 h in 6-h intervals, and blood samples were taken in regular intervals for 48 h. In urine, MTBE and the MTBE metabolites tertiary-butanol (t-butanol), 2-methyl-1,2-propane diol, and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate were quantified; MTBE and t-butanol were determined in blood samples. After the end of the exposure period, inhalation of 40 ppm MTBE resulted in blood concentrations of MTBE 5.9 +/- 1.8 microM in rats and 6.7 +/- 1.6 microM in humans. The MTBE blood concentrations after inhalation of 4 ppm MTBE were 2.3 +/- 1.0 in rats and 1.9 +/- 0.4 microM in humans. MTBE was rapidly cleared from blood with a half-life of 2.6 +/- 0.9 h in humans and 0.5 +/- 0.2 h in rats. The blood concentrations of t-butanol were 21.8 +/- 3.7 microM in humans and 36.7 +/- 10.8 microM in rats after 40 ppm MTBE, and 2.6 +/- 0.3 in humans and 2.9 +/- 0.5 in rats after 4 ppm MTBE. In humans, t-butanol was cleared from blood with a half-life of 5.3 +/- 2.1 h. In urine samples from controls and in samples collected from the volunteers and rats before the exposure, low concentrations of t-butanol, 2-methyl-1,2-propane diol and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate were present. In urine of both humans and rats exposed to MTBE, the concentrations of these compounds were significantly increased. 2-Hydroxyisobutyrate was recovered as a major excretory product in urine; t-butanol and 2-methyl-1,2-propane diol were minor metabolites. All metabolites of MTBE excreted with urine were rapidly eliminated in both species after the end of the MTBE exposure. Elimination half-lives for the different urinary metabolites of MTBE were between 7.8 and 17.0 h in humans and 2.9 to 5.0 h in rats. The obtained data indicate that MTBE biotransformation and excretion are similar in rats and humans, and MTBE and its metabolites are rapidly excreted in both species. Between 35 and 69% of the MTBE retained after the end of the exposure was recovered as metabolites in urine of both humans and rats.  (+info)

Absence of prenatal developmental toxicity from inhaled arsenic trioxide in rats. (5/168)

A review of the literature revealed no published inhalational developmental toxicity studies of arsenic performed according to modern regulatory guidelines and with exposure throughout gestation. In the present study, inorganic arsenic, as arsenic trioxide (As(+3), As2O3), was administered via whole-body inhalational exposure to groups of twenty-five Crl:CD(SD)BR female rats for six h per day every day, beginning fourteen days prior to mating and continuing throughout mating and gestation. Exposures were begun prior to mating in order to achieve a biological steady state of As(+3) in the dams prior to embryonal-fetal development. In a preliminary exposure range-finding study, half of the females that had been exposed to arsenic trioxide at 25 mg/m3 died or were euthanized in extremis. In the definitive study, target exposure levels were 0.3, 3.0, and 10.0 mg/m3. Maternal toxicity, which was determined by the occurrence of rales, a decrease in net body weight gain, and a decrease in food intake during pre-mating and gestational exposure, was observed only at the 10 mg/m3 exposure level. Intrauterine parameters (mean numbers of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions and viable fetuses, and mean fetal weights) were unaffected by treatment. No treatment-related malformations or developmental variations were noted at any exposure level. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for maternal toxicity was 3.0 mg/m3; the NOAEL for developmental toxicity was greater than or equal to 10 mg/m3, 760 times both the time-weighted average threshold limit value (TLV) and the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for humans. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that arsenic trioxide, when administered via whole-body inhalation to pregnant rats, is not a developmental toxicant.  (+info)

Effects of a thirteen-week inhalation exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether on fischer-344 rats and CD-1 mice. (6/168)

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that oxygenates be added to automotive fuels to reduce emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. One potential oxygenate is the aliphatic ether ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). Our objective was to provide data on the potential toxic effects of ETBE. Male and female Fisher 344 rats and CD-1 mice were exposed to 0 (control), 500, 1750, or 5000 ppm of ETBE for 6 h/day and 5 days/wk over a 13-week period. ETBE exposure had no effect on mortality and body weight with the exception of an increase in body weights of the female rats in the 5000-ppm group. No major changes in clinical pathology parameters were noted for either rats or mice exposed to ETBE for 6 (rats only) or 13 weeks. Liver weights increased with increasing ETBE-exposure concentration for both sexes of rats and mice. Increases in kidney, adrenal, and heart (females only) weights were noted in rats. Degenerative changes in testicular seminiferous tubules were observed in male rats exposed to 1750 and 5000 ppm but were not seen in mice. This testicular lesion has not been reported previously for aliphatic ethers. Increases in the incidence of regenerative foci, rates of renal cell proliferation, and alpha2u-globulin containing protein droplets were noted in the kidneys of all treated male rats. These lesions are associated with the male rat-specific syndrome of alpha2u-globulin nephropathy. Increases in the incidence of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy and rates of hepatocyte cell proliferation were seen in the livers of male and female mice in the 5000-ppm group, consistent with a mitogenic response to ETBE. These two target organs for ETBE toxicity, mouse liver and male rat kidney, have also been reported for methyl tertiary butyl ether and unleaded gasoline.  (+info)

Developmental toxicity evaluation of inhaled toluene diisocyanate vapor in CD rats. (7/168)

Mated female CD (Sprague-Dawley) rats, 25/group, were exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) vapor, for six h/day on gestational days (gd) 6 through 15, at 0.00, 0.02, 0.10, or 0.50 p.p.m.. Maternal clinical signs, body weights, and feed and water consumption were recorded throughout gestation. At termination (gd 21), maternal body, gravid uterine, and liver weights were recorded. Corpora lutea were counted, and implantation sites were identified: resorptions and dead and live fetuses. All live fetuses were examined for external alterations. One-half of the live fetuses/litter were examined for visceral (including craniofacial) alterations. The remaining intact fetuses/litter were stained with alizarin red S and examined for ossified skeletal alterations. Maternal toxicity at 0.50 ppm consisted of reduced body weights, body weight gains, feed consumption, and clinical signs of toxicity. Water consumption was unaffected. Gestational parameters exhibited no significant treatment-related changes, including pre- and postimplantation loss, sex ratio/litter, or fetal body weights/litter. Incidences of individual malformations, malformations by category (external, visceral, and skeletal), total malformations, individual external and visceral variations, variations by category, and total variations were unaffected. Of 111 skeletal variants observed, only 1, incidence of poorly ossified cervical centrum 5, was increased at 0.50 ppm, indicating possible minimal fetotoxicity, although it occurred in the absence of any other indications of developmental toxicity. Therefore, exposure to TDI vapor by inhalation, during major organogenesis in CD rats, resulted in maternal toxicity and minimal fetotoxicity at 0.50 ppm no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity was 0.10 ppm. No treatment-related embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was observed.  (+info)

Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of inhaled toluene diisocyanate vapor in CD rats. (8/168)

Twenty-eight 42-day-old pups/sex/group (F0) were exposed to toluene diisocyanate vapor (TDI; 80% 2,4-TDI, 20% 2,6-TDI) by inhalation at 0.0, 0.02, 0.08, or 0.3 ppm, 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 10 weeks, then mated within groups for 3 weeks, with exposure 7 days/week during mating, gestation, and lactation. F0 maternal animals were not exposed from gestational day (gd) 20 through postnatal day (pnd) 4; maternal exposures resumed on pnd 5. Twenty-eight weanlings/sex/group continued exposure for 12 weeks (starting on pnd 28) and were bred as described above. F0 and F1 parents and ten F1 and F2 weanlings/sex/group were necropsied, and adult reproductive organs, pituitary, liver, kidneys, and upper respiratory tract (target organs) were evaluated histologically in ten/sex/group. Adult toxicity was observed in both sexes and generations at 0.08 and 0.3 ppm, including occasional reductions in body weights and weight gain, clinical signs of toxicity at 0.08 and 0.3 ppm, and histologic changes in the nasal cavities at 0.02, 0.08, and 0.3 ppm (including rhinitis, a nonspecific response to an irritating vapor, at all concentrations). There was no reproductive toxicity, reproductive organ pathology, or effect on gestation or lactation at any exposure concentration. Postnatal toxicity and reduced body weights and weight gains during lactation occurred only in F2 litters at 0.08 and 0.3 ppm. Therefore, under the conditions of this study, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was not determined for adult toxicity; the NOAEL for reproductive toxicity was at least 0.3 ppm, and the NOAEL for postnatal toxicity was 0.02 ppm.  (+info)

The vertical diffusion chamber system is used for transport studies on both filter grown cell monolayers and surgically excised tissue sections. The vertical diffusion chamber system consists of six diffusion chambers, a 12-channel gas manifold and a heat block. 14 general types of vertical chambers are currently available: one for use with cells grown on Snapwell™ membrane supports and the others for use with tissue.
West Virginia Universitys new Inhalation Facility will be the home for research and collaborations that measure, identify and discover how the particles we breathe affect our health. Timothy Nurkiewicz, a microvascular physiologist in the School of Medicines Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, is the director of the new lab.
Physiologic Instruments designs and manufactures instrumentation, Ussing Chamber Systems and Data Acquisition products for studying transport across epithelial barriers. Transepithelial voltage, short-circuit current and resistance are measured using single and multi-channel voltage/current clamps that may be directly connected to Acquire & Analyze for automating data collection and analysis.
The relationship between intestinal epithelial integrity and the development of intestinal disease is of increasing interest. A reduction in mucosal integrity has been associated with ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease and potentially could have links with colorectal cancer development. The Ussing chamber system can be utilised as a valuable tool for measuring gut integrity. Here we describe step-by-step methodology required to measure intestinal permeability of both mouse and human colonic tissue samples ex vivo, using the latest equipment and software. This system can be modified to accommodate other tissues. An Ussing chamber was constructed and adapted to support both mouse and human tissue to measure intestinal permeability, using paracellular flux and electrical measurements. Two mouse models of intestinal inflammation (dextran sodium sulphate treatment and T regulatory cell depletion using C57BL/6-FoxP3DTR mice) were used to validate the system along with human colonic biopsy samples. Distinct
The relationship between intestinal epithelial integrity and the development of intestinal disease is of increasing interest. A reduction in mucosal integrity has been associated with ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease and potentially could have links with colorectal cancer development. The Ussing chamber system can be utilised as a valuable tool for measuring gut integrity. Here we describe step-by-step methodology required to measure intestinal permeability of both mouse and human colonic tissue samples ex vivo, using the latest equipment and software. This system can be modified to accommodate other tissues. An Ussing chamber was constructed and adapted to support both mouse and human tissue to measure intestinal permeability, using paracellular flux and electrical measurements. Two mouse models of intestinal inflammation (dextran sodium sulphate treatment and T regulatory cell depletion using C57BL/6-FoxP3DTR mice) were used to validate the system along with human colonic biopsy samples. Distinct
T-TAS is a microchip flow chamber system to analyze thrombus formation under flow conditions. T-TAS offers assessments of pharmacological efficacy of aspirin, clopidogrel, thrombin inhibitor, t-PA under arterial and venous shear conditions.
I was shocked to learn, from a comment made by a reader of my blog, that Wikipedia does not mention the gas chamber at Dachau. I couldnt believe it. I had to check it out for myself, and sure enough, there is no mention of any gas chambers, of any kind at Dachau, on the…
Soil respiration is the largest C-flux component in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, yet in many biomes this flux and its environmental responses are still poorly understood. Several methodological techniques exist to measure this flux, but mostly there remain comparability uncertainties. For example, the closed static chamber (CSC) and the closed dynamic chamber (CDC) systems are widely used, but still require a rigorous comparison. A major issue with the CSC approach is the generally long manual gas sampling periods causing a potential underestimation of the calculated fluxes due to an asymptotic increase in headspace CO2 concentrations. However, shortening the sampling periods of the static chamber approach might provide comparable results to the closed dynamic chamber system. We compared these two different chamber systems using replicated CSC cover boxes and a Li-Cor 8100 CDC system under field conditions, and performed tests on both, mineral and peat soil. Whereas the automated CDC system ...
Article Use of an exposure chamber to maintain aqueous‐phase nanoparticle dispersions for improved toxicity testing in fish. A novel chamber for maintaining aqueous phase dispersions of nanoparticles (NPs) to enable improved toxicity testing in larva...
Beginning on GD 5, groups of 56 time-mated F0 female rats were housed in specially designed reverberation chambers and received whole-body exposures to CDMA-modulated cell phone RFR at power levels of 0 (sham control), 1.5, 3, or 6 W/kg for 7 days per week, continuing throughout gestation and lactation. Exposure was up to 18 hours and 20 minutes per day with continuous cycling of 10 minutes on and 10 minutes off during the exposure periods. There were seven exposure groups per sex, including a shared sham control and three exposure groups for each modulation. At weaning, three males and three females per litter from 35 litters were randomly selected per exposure group for continuation. Weaning occurred on the day the last litter reached PND 21, marking the beginning of the 2-year studies. Groups of 105 male and 105 female F1 offspring continued to receive whole-body exposures to CDMA-modulated cell phone RFR at the same power levels and under the same exposure paradigm, 7 days per week for up to ...
Victoria councillors are calling on the province to provide supervised drug inhalation facilities. Only Coun. Geoff Young opposed the motion brought forward by Coun. Sarah Potts.
The present disclosure is directed to a novel apparatus and novel methods for the separation, characterization, and manipulation of matter. In particular, the invention combines the use of frequency-dependent dielectric and conductive properties of particulate matter and solubilized matter with the properties of the suspending and transporting medium to discriminate and separate such matter. The apparatus includes a chamber having at least one electrode element and at least one inlet and one output port into which cells are introduced and removed from the chamber. Matter carried through the chamber in a fluid stream is then displaced within the fluid by a dielectrophoretic (DEP) force caused by the energized electrode. Following displacement within the fluid, matter travels through the chamber at velocities according to the velocity profile of the chamber. After the matter has transitted through the chamber, it exists at the opposite end of the chamber at a characteristic position. Methods according to
The present disclosure is directed to a novel apparatus and novel methods for the separation, characterization, and manipulation of matter. In particular, the invention combines the use of frequency-dependent dielectric and conductive properties of particulate matter and solubilized matter with the properties of the suspending and transporting medium to discriminate and separate such matter. The apparatus includes a chamber having at least one electrode element and at least one inlet and one output port into which cells are introduced and removed from the chamber. Matter carried through the chamber in a fluid stream is then displaced within the fluid by a dielectrophoretic (DEP) force caused by the energized electrode. Following displacement within the fluid, matter travels through the chamber at velocities according to the velocity profile of the chamber. After the matter has transmitted through the chamber, it exits at the opposite end of the chamber at a characteristic position. Methods according to
Glaucoma, often referred to as the silent thief of sight, can occur with no warning signs, pain or symptoms. It affects 3 million people in the United States and has caused blindness in over 120,000 people. Glaucoma cannot be cured, but if detected early can be managed to limit its effects.. Glaucoma usually occurs when there is an increase of pressure within your eye, but can occur with normal eye pressure as well. This pressure causes damage to the optic nerve, which is the weakest part of your eye, leading to decreased peripheral vision and possibly blindness.. Your eye is divided into two chambers, the anterior chamber at the front of the eye, and the posterior chamber at the back. A fluid, called the aqueous humor, is produced by the cilliary body and circulates between the two chambers to clean and nourish your eye. Once it reaches the edge of your iris it leaves the eye through an opening called the trabecular meshwork.. With glaucoma, more fluid is produced than can be removed, which ...
Cardiac catheterisation and coronary angiography can provide important information about the heart and the surrounding blood vessels supplying it.. This can help diagnose heart conditions, plan future treatments, and carry out certain procedures.. The heart has 4 chambers: the 2 small chambers at the top are called atria and the 2 larger chambers at the bottom are called ventricles. Each ventricle has 2 valves to control the flow of blood in and out of the ventricle.. Using cardiac catheterisation, your cardiologist (heart specialist) can tell how well your heart valves and chambers are working. The procedure can also provide important information about the blood pressure inside your heart.. Coronary angiography also gives video images (angiograms) that can show whether the blood vessels surrounding your heart are narrowed or blocked. You may need treatment if there are any narrow areas or blockages.. ...
Encyclopedia of Jewish and Israeli history, politics and culture, with biographies, statistics, articles and documents on topics from anti-Semitism to Zionism.
The application range of our couting chambers reaches from the couting of erythrocytes, and leucocytes to the analysis of urinaly and cerebrospinal liquids. Our standard assortment comprises of the counting chamber systems of improved neubauer and improved neubauer brightline ...
HCAECs (Lonza) were cultured in endothelial growth medium (EGM-2 MV) containing endothelial growth factors, 5% FBS, 100 U/mL of penicillin, and 100 μg/mL of streptomycin at 37°C in humidified air (5% CO2). Cells passaged 3 to 5 times and at 80% to 90% confluence were used for this study. For hypoxia studies, confluent HCAECs were exposed to hypoxia (0.1% O2) by incubation in a ProOxC hypoxia chamber system (BioSpherix) at 37°C that subjected the cells to a controlled anoxic gas mixture consisting of N2 and 5% CO2. For reoxygenation and normoxic controls, cells were returned to/incubated in the standard CO2 incubator under normoxic conditions (21% O2, 5% CO2, and 74% N2).. We first examined the effect of hypoxia on Egfl7 expression in HCAECs. Cells were subjected to 0, 3, or 6 hours of hypoxia, and Egfl7 expression was detected by Western immunoblot analysis. We then examined the effect of recombinant human Egfl7 (0.1 to 100.0 ng/mL for 6 or 48 hours, Abnova) on HCAEC total cellular ICAM-1 ...
The Self-Contained Ussing Chambers systems come in single- and dual-channel models and offer many advantages over the Classic design. The single-channel U9926 and dual-channel U2500 are shown above and to the right. Both systems make use of inserts to secure and position the tissue or culture cup within the chamber body.. Chamber bodies (single- and dual-chamber models) consist of chamber-halves which clamp around the insert(s). Each chamber-half has four ports that enter into its respective bath compartment: a voltage electrode port, a current electrode port, an air/gas port, and a solution drain port. Solution warming is provided by pumping heated water through each chamber-half and there are no delicate glass heat exchangers to be broken. The dual-chamber U2500 has the additional feature of including four needle valves for adjusting the air/gas mixture into each individual chamber-half.. ...
A dual chamber aseptic suction collection system and method employing separable blood and collection reservoirs one of which retains withdrawn blood capable of reinfusion into the patient. The collection system provides an automatic sealing mechanism to completely seal the blood reservoir upon detachment from the collection reservoir. The invention furthermore encompasses a method for using the dual chamber system which includes the isolation of collected blood in a sealable container.
Immune cure supports the body and the immune system with a combination of 15 micronutrients, especially during the cold seasonIt contains 15 micronutrients that help support the immune system, energy metabolism, protect cells and maintain normal mucous membranesImmune cure is: vegan | Lactose free | Gluten free | Fructose free | Sugar free | has not been tested on animals | free of fillers | suitable for vegetarians and diabeticsThe 2-chamber system: enables fresh preparation, anytime and anywhere. The vitamins are directly available to the body in liquid form.
Physiologic Instruments designs and manufactures instrumentation, Ussing Chamber Systems and Data Acquisition products for studying transport across epithelial barriers. Transepithelial voltage, short-circuit current and resistance are measured using single and multi-channel voltage/current clamps that may be directly connected to Acquire & Analyze for automating data collection and analysis.
German doctors have successfully implanted insulin-producing cells in a patient with Type 1 diabetes using a specially constructed chamber system that does not require the use of immunosuppresant
In an acute inhalation toxicity study according to OECD guideline 403 a group of 5 rats per sex was exposed to an aerosol concentration of 2.75 +/-0.19 mg/L air for 4h by the inhalation route. No adverse effects were noted, no clinical signs, no effects on body weight and no adverse findings at final necropsy after a 14 days observation period. It was noted that the MMAD was slight above 4 micron whereas 1 -4 micron is required. The LC50(rat, dermal) exceeded 2.75 +/- 0.19 mg/L air. ...
An apparatus and method for synthesis and screening of materials are disclosed. According to one aspect of the present invention, a parallel batch reactor for effecting chemical reactions includes a pressure chamber, and a plurality of reaction wells. Each of the reaction wells is in isolatable fluid communication with the pressure chamber such that during a first pressurizing stage of operation, each of the reaction wells can be simultaneously pressurized through common fluid communication with the pressure chamber, and such that during a second reaction stage of operation, each of the reaction wells can be fluidically isolated from at least one other of said plurality of reaction wells.
A continuous flow fluid bed dryer has a dryer housing having a drying chamber and a plenum chamber located beneath the drying chamber. Moist product to be dried is introduced to the drying chamber at a product inlet and proceeds through the drying chamber to a discharge housing. A porous screen partially separates the drying chamber and the plenum chamber. Heated air is introduced into the plenum chamber which then passes through the screen to the drying chamber to dry product in the drying chamber. A shaft extends centrally through the drying chamber and is mounted for slow rotation therein. A plurality of paddles are connected to the shaft. The paddles move about a path of rotation whereby paddle ends sequentially sweep over the surface of the screen. In doing so, the paddles momentarily move product away from the screen permitting a rush of heated into the drying chamber locally fluidizing the bed and further drying the product. The product is treated very gently in the process so as to suffer
An electric insecticidal apparatus comprising a vessel for storing insecticidal solution, which is oriented in a direction in use; a heating chamber in which the vessel is mounted, said heating chamber containing a heating element; a wick for drawing up the insecticidal solution in the vessel, said wick being provided in the vessel such that the insecticidal solution drawn up by the wick is heated and vaporized by the heating element; an inlet provided at a side of the heating chamber for inserting the vessel into the heating chamber, said vessel being laterally inserted into the heating chamber through the inlet by orienting the vessel in the proper direction; and a guide and holding means for guiding the wick to and holding the wick at a predetermined position at the time of insertion of the vessel into the heating chamber such that the wick confronts the heating element of the heating chamber at a predetermined distance from the heating element, which is provided in the heating chamber.
STS-91 , 6/2/1998 , Crew: 6. SUMMARY:. Main engine pressure chamber sensor failed. If it occurred later, logic error may have triggered at RTLS.. EVENT DESCRIPTION:. After the launch of STS-91 on June 2, 1998, a channel A main engine pressure chamber sensor froze. The sensor was disqualified by engine control software when the sensor exceeded allowable limits during the max Q engine throttle down sequence however the sensor remained qualified for engine redline monitoring since the reading was still within reasonableness limits / operational range for the sensor. The channel B sensor and the main engine performed nominally throughout ascent. If an engine problem had occurred, the channel B sensor would have displayed the correct information and indicated the proper corrective action. However, the channel B sensor would have been ignored due to the frozen channel A sensor.. The post-flight inspection revealed that contamination from a seal leak check caused the sensor to freeze. Marshall Space ...
The pope is scheduled to arrive at the Capitol shortly after 9 a.m. EDT, meet with House Speaker John Boehner, then address a joint meeting of Congress in the House chamber at 10 a.m. Vice President Joe Biden, diplomats, justices and Cabinet members are expected in a jam-packed chamber ...
We had an opportunity to walk this years ICFF show and found some new things that were quite impressive. But there was one particular sighting that got us really excited. In 2011, the design duo Salto & Sigsgaard won a design competition under the auspices of the Danish Ministry of Culture to design the furniture for one of the permanent chambers at the United Nations headquarters here in New York, The Trusteeship Council Chamber also referred to as the Finn Juhl Chamber. In connection with this, Onecollection has developed, produced, and delivered a completely new unique and beautiful chair named Council Chair designed by Kasper Salto and Thomas Sigsgaard and it made its public debut at ICFF (the grand opening of the TCC, was held in the UN on April 25th 2013). The chairs pass on the baton from Finn Juhls iconic design heritage in a sculptural and pleasant direction, which merges shape, color and natural materials. The chairs are a construction of moulded 3D veneer in oak or walnut, ...
We had an opportunity to walk this years ICFF show and found some new things that were quite impressive. But there was one particular sighting that got us really excited. In 2011, the design duo Salto & Sigsgaard won a design competition under the auspices of the Danish Ministry of Culture to design the furniture for one of the permanent chambers at the United Nations headquarters here in New York, The Trusteeship Council Chamber also referred to as the Finn Juhl Chamber. In connection with this, Onecollection has developed, produced, and delivered a completely new unique and beautiful chair named Council Chair designed by Kasper Salto and Thomas Sigsgaard and it made its public debut at ICFF (the grand opening of the TCC, was held in the UN on April 25th 2013). The chairs pass on the baton from Finn Juhls iconic design heritage in a sculptural and pleasant direction, which merges shape, color and natural materials. The chairs are a construction of moulded 3D veneer in oak or walnut, ...
In one aspect of the present invention a drill bit assembly comprises a body portion intermediate a shank portion and a working portion. The working portion has at least one cutting element. The body portion has at least a portion of a reactive jackleg apparatus which has a chamber at least partially disposed within the body portion and a shaft movably disposed within the chamber, the shaft having at least a proximal end and a distal end. The chamber also has an opening proximate the working portion of the assembly.
Union County Chamber member Atrium Health is getting a head start on International Womens Day by celebrating Strong Females in Healthcare. Join Atrium and YOUR Union County Chamber at our Women in Business Connections Event Tuesday, March 3 at Atrium Health, Women & Childrens Center in Monroe, NC. The evening wil...
WWE Monday Night Raw John Cena takes on Shawn Michaels. If the HBK wins, JBL will be entered into the Elimination Chamber at No Way Out.
Former fashion director at Vogue, Lucinda Chambers at London Fashion Week in February 2017.Image: Hunter Abrams/BFA/REX/Shutterstock The inner machinations of Vogue have been a source of intrigue and fascination for many years now. But, one former British Vogue editor just lifted the lid on what its really like to work at Vogue. And, her account […]. Read More ». ...
Recently, physiologic sampling pumps (PSPs), which can adjust their sampling rates in proportion to wearers minute ventilation ((V) over dot(E)), have been proposed to better estimate exposure to airborne contaminants in the workplace. A laboratory evaluation was conducted to compare the performance of a new PSP with a traditional sampling pump (TSP) in an exposure chamber. Fifteen subjects (aged
The health risks of crack cocaine smoking in public settings have not been well described. We sought to identify factors associated with public crack smoking, and assess the potential for a supervised inhalation facility to reduce engagement in this behavior, in a setting planning to evaluate a medically supervised crack cocaine smoking facility. Data for this study were derived from a Canadian prospective cohort of injection drug users. Using multivariate logistic regression we identified factors associated with smoking crack cocaine in public areas. Among public crack smokers we then identified factors associated with willingness to use a supervised inhalation facility. Among our sample of 623 people who reported crack smoking, 61% reported recently using in public locations. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with public crack smoking included: daily crack cocaine smoking; daily heroin injection; having encounters with police; and engaging in drug dealing. In sub analysis, 71%
Looking for online definition of Pressure chamber in the Medical Dictionary? Pressure chamber explanation free. What is Pressure chamber? Meaning of Pressure chamber medical term. What does Pressure chamber mean?
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A mobile whole-body exposure system was developed for exposing mice to concentrated ambient particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microm in mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD). Each 20-L exposure cage was designed to hold 9 mice within individual compartments. This allowed for transport and subsequent exposure. Airflow mixing and the potential for stagnant areas within the compartments were modeled using computational fluid dynamic modeling (CFD). CFD analysis showed no stagnant areas and good mixing throughout the exposure cage. The actual performance of the exposure system was determined for 0.5 to 2.0 microm diameter aerosols by measuring (1) uniformity of aerosol distribution and (2) particle deposition in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary regions of mice exposed in the system. A 0.6-microm MMAD (GSD=2.0) cigarette smoke aerosol was used to experimentally measure the uniformity of aerosol distribution to the nine individual compartments. The average data from three runs showed no statistically
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of simulated altitude erythrocythemia in women on hemoglobin flow rate during exercise. AU - Robertson, R. J.. AU - Gilcher, R.. AU - Metz, K. F.. AU - Caspersen, C. J.. AU - Allison, T. G.. AU - Abbott, R. A.. AU - Skrinar, G. S.. AU - Krause, J. R.. AU - Nixon, P. A.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - The effect of simulated altitude erythrocythemia on hemoglobin flow rate and maximal O 2 uptake (V̇O(2max)) was determined for nine women sea-level residents. Test conditions included normoxia and normobaric hypoxia (16% O 2-84% N 2). Cycle tests were performed under normoxia (T 1-N) and hypoxia (T 1-H) at prereinfusion control and under hypoxia 48 h after a placebo infusion (T 2-H) and 48 h after autologous infusion of 334 ml of erythrocytes (T 3-H). Hematocrit (38.1-44.9%) and hemoglobin concentration (12.7-14.7 g·dl -1) increased from control to postreinfusion. At peak exercise, V̇O(2max) decreased from T 1-N (2.40 l·min -1) to T 1-H (2.15 l·min -1) then increased at T 3-H ...
Man-made microwave and radiofrequency (RF) radiation technologies have been steadily increasing with the growing demand of electronic appliances such as microwave oven and cell phones. These appliances affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, thus leading to oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on histology and the level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in Wistar rats. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats with 180 ± 10 g body weight were used for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: sham exposed (control) and microwave exposed. These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm2). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO ...
The chronic toxicity of a combination of nitrous-oxide (10024972) (N2O) and halothane (151677) was investigated in rats. Male and female Fischer-344 rats were exposed to N2O and halothane mixtures in inhalation chambers, 7 hours/day, 5 days/week for 104 weeks. Group 1 was control group exposed only to room air, group 2 was exposed to 50 parts per million (ppm) N2O and 1ppm halothane, and group 3 w
MILWAUKEE, April 17 /PRNewswire/ -- Aurora St. Lukes Medical Centers new hyperbaric chamber will triple the hospitals capacity to treat patients with hyperbaric oxygen therapy and improve its regional wound care services. (Photo: http://www.newscom.com/cgi-bin/prnh/20080417/AQTH107) The 52-foot-long, 66-ton chamber, the second-largest in the U.S. and the largest in Wisconsin, will be able to treat up to 24 patients at one time. The chamber was installed today after being lifted by a huge crane and placed into the basement of Aurora St. Lukes through a 1,100-square-foot hole. Hyperbaric chambers are primarily used to help treat difficult wounds, such as diabetic foot ulcers, but also are used for carbon monoxide poisoning and a host of other medical conditions. During hyperbaric treatment, patients breathe 100 percent oxygen in a pressurized chamber. The increased oxygen in the blood stimulates small blood vessel and skin growth and helps fight infection. This new chamber will allow us to ...
General, the Hyperbaric Chamber has been found to improve many situations and diseases. Cerebral palsey is amongst these. Most of the signs have been lessened and even eradicated by strategic use of the Hyperbaric Chambers. Brain harm from head accidents and even strokes have been found to be reversed from the usage of the hyperbaric oxygen chambers. The oxygen thats saturated into the physique targets harmed and broken tissues. This aids those tissues, even within the brain, to change into productive and functioning once again ...
Between the 10th and 12th August, many of the the most influential names in the world of Hyperbaric Medicine gathered at the eighth IHMA HBOT 2012 conference in Long Beach, California. Distinguished speakers , including Prof. Paul G Harch MD, Prof. Philip James MD, Kenneth Stoller MD, and James Wright MD, who all gave presentations that provided further empirical evidence for the benefits of hyperbaric oxygen treatment and advancements in Oxygen Therapy perspectives.. A presentation by James Wright MD USAF (Rtd.) instigated the use of the SOS Hyperlite hyperbaric chambers for the transportation of casualties from the battlefront to the nearest available medical facility. The paper investigated the benefits of immediate hyperbaric oxygen treatment and provided evidence to suggest that the availability of on-scene hyperbaric chambers for immediate treatment or transfer-under-pressure capabilities would provide a capability to oxygenate wounds rapidly thus preventing hypoxia. The availability of a ...
Publikations-Datenbank der Fraunhofer Wissenschaftler und Institute: Aufsätze, Studien, Forschungsberichte, Konferenzbeiträge, Tagungsbände, Patente und Gebrauchsmuster
Three crossover experiments (each randomized, balanced with regard to order, and separated by appropriate washout interval) will expose healthy subjects to well-characterized DEP in two-hour sessions in an inhalation chamber system mimicking ambient particulate matter from contemporary diesel engines.. First, 24 subjects will be exposed to DEP at each of three concentrations [0 (filtered air, FA), 100, or 200 µg/m3], and endothelial function will be assessed post-exposure through ultrasonographic measurement of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery, plasma markers of endothelial homeostasis (endothelin-1, ICAM-1, e-selectin, NO3-/NO2-, IL-6, and TNF-a), and markers of thrombosis associated with endothelial activation (PAI-1, D-dimer, and VWF).. Second, 10 subjects will be exposed to FA or DEP at 200 µg/m3 and then monitored intensively in the clinical research center for evidence of systemic oxidative stress using serial assessment of markers in plasma ...
The hydroxyl free radical (OH) is the major oxidizing species in the lower atmosphere. Measuring the OH concentration is generally difficult and involves elaborate, expensive, custom-made experimental setups. Thus other more economical techniques, capable of determining OH concentrations at environmental chambers, would be valuable. This work is based on an indirect method of OH concentration measurement, by monitoring an appropriate OH tracer by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). 3-pentanol, 3-pentanone and pinonaldehyde (PA) were used as OH tracers in α-pinene (AP) secondary organic aerosol (SOA) aging studies. In addition we tested butanol-d9 as a potential universal OH tracer and determined its reaction rate constant with OH: k butanol-d9 = 3.4(±0.88) × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. In order to make the chamber studies more comparable among each other as well as to atmospheric measurements we suggest the use of a chemical (time) dimension: the OH clock, which ...
Influence of A Thermogenic Dietary Supplement on Safety Markers, Body Composition, Energy Expenditure, Muscular Performance and Hormone Concentrations: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial
Influence of A Thermogenic Dietary Supplement on Safety Markers, Body Composition, Energy Expenditure, Muscular Performance and Hormone Concentrations: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial
Atmospheric chemistry is simulated in the laboratory using several types of environmental chambers; these include the batch chamber, the continuously mixed flow reactor, and the flow tube reactor. These reactors are used to study gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the process by which VOCs undergo oxidation to form low-volatility products that condense onto particles. This chapter focuses on the design and characterization of environmental chambers, including: (1) radiation conditions; (2) chamber mixing state; (3) chemical blank experiments; (4) free radical generation (principally the hydroxyl (OH) radical); (5) high-versus-low-NO conditions that govern the nature of VOC oxidation chemistry; (6) deposition of particles onto chamber walls; (7) deposition of organic vapors onto chamber walls; and (8) determination of the yield of SOA. Comparison of the design and behavior of the different types of reactor is ...
DIDAC EXPORT - Exporter, Manufacturer, Distributor & Supplier of Environmental Chambers For Universal Testing Machines UTM based in New Delhi, India
Democratic lawmakers accused Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger of hiding from the public his plans to build a new execution chamber at San Quentin State Prison in a legislative hearing Tuesday in which the governors top prison official admitted the controversial project would cost twice as much as first estimated. While a Schwarzenegger spokesman and Corrections Secretary Jim Tilton said the administration wanted to quickly build a new execution chamber to meet a federal judges concerns, lawmakers suggested a deliberate attempt to keep the project secret. Fogel listed numerous problems with capitol punishment protocol, including concerns over the drug cocktail the state used, the training of staff, and the dimly lit and cramped space inside the lime-green death chamber at San Quentin.
5 p.m. the first and third Tuesdays of the month in Commission Chambers at the Administrative Office Complex, 601 N. Laurel St., Springfield. For a complete agenda, go to effinghamcounty.org.. School board. The Effingham County Board of Education meets at 2 p.m. the first Wednesday and at 7 p.m. the third Thursday of the month in the conference room at the Central Office Complex, 405 N. Ash St., Springfield. Agendas and minutes of past meetings can be found at effinghamschools.com. For information, call 754-6491.. County planning board. The Effingham County Planning Board meets at 7 p.m. the fourth Monday of the month in Commission Chambers at the County Administrative Complex, 601 N. Laurel St., Springfield. Agendas and minutes can be found at effinghamcounty.org. For information, call 754-2105.. Elections board. The Effingham County Board of Elections and Registration meets at 8:30 a.m. the second Monday of the month in the conference room at the elections office, 284 Ga. 119 S., Springfield. ...
7 p.m. the fourth Monday of the month in Commission Chambers at the County Administrative Complex, 601 N. Laurel St., Springfield. Agendas and minutes can be found at effinghamcounty.org. For information, call 754-2105.. Elections board. The Effingham County Board of Elections and Registration meets at 8:30 a.m. the second Monday of the month in the conference room at the elections office, 284 Ga. 119 S., Springfield. Agendas and minutes of past meetings are not currently available online. For information, go to effinghamcounty.org or call 754-8030.. Guyton council. The Guyton City Council meets at 7 p.m. the second Tuesday of the month and at 8 a.m. the fourth Tuesday of the month at City Hall, 310 Central Blvd., Guyton. Agendas and minutes of past meetings are not currently available online. For information, go to cityofguyton.com or call City Hall at 722-3353.. Springfield council. The Springfield City Council meets at 6 p.m. the second and fourth Tuesdays of the month in Council Chambers at ...
Rats and mice were exposed for periods of up to six months and two successive generations of mice were raised in a ground-level chamber system filled with 80% helium −20% oxygen, at 24°C. A duplicate...
This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation
These can include Holding Tanks, Septic Tanks, Chamber Systems, Absorption Fields, Mounds, Jets and Lagoons. It is recommended that an experienced installer be contacted to carry out the installation of onsite wastewater systems, and in certain sensitive areas this may be mandatory. Which system you are permitted to install and use will depend on several factors. The following steps will guide you through the process for receiving approval to install your system right through to passing inspection so you can safely enjoy the use of your system for years to come. ...
GÁL István, GLANT T. Tibor, MIKECZ Katalin. [INTRODUCTION - The CD44 molecule - the physiologic hialuronic acid receptor - is one of key mediators that direct the traffic of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. When applied in animal models of autoimmune arthritis, parenteral anti-CD44 antibody treatment exerts a dramatic antiinflammatory effect, but at high doses also a leukopenic effect. The goal of the present work is to elucidate the cellular basis of these phenomena. METHODS - In this study the authors used Western blot, immunoprecipitation, cell adhesion studies, flow chamber system studies (leukocyte rolling) and fluorescence microscopy following fluorescent labeling of actin cytoskeleton. RESULTS - Adhesion of CD44-expressing leukocytes to immobilized hialuronic acid does not result marked changes in cellular morphology. When incubated on immobilized anti-CD44 antibody, however, these cells spread, reorganize the actin cytoskeleton, and they adhere strongly to the surface. Studying the ...
ABSTRACT: The settlement phase of crustaceans is critical and can ultimately affect population structure. Underwater sound has been proposed as one of the most important sensory cues these animals use during this phase because it can provide direction and habitat quality information. Here, we evaluated the effect of different acoustic signals (biological and anthropogenic ones) on the orientation response of different stages (megalopae and juveniles) of four crabs (Cyrtograpsus angulatus, C. altimanus, Neohelice granulata, Leptuca uruguayensis) from a coastal lagoon. A binary choice chamber system was used and different sound sources: crustacean, fish and motorboat signals selected from recordings of the lagoon soundscape, were reproduced. Cyrtograpsus angulatus megalopae and juveniles responded positively towards crustacean signals, while juveniles responded negatively towards fish sounds. N. granulata juveniles orientated negatively towards crustacean, motorboat and fish signals. C. altimanus ...
The headline numbers from the Chambers study are derived from a fictional scenario that does not reflect any current proposals or realistic plans to achieve our climate goals.. By design, the Chamber study intentionally imposes the most stringent greenhouse gas regulations on the sectors that would face the highest costs per ton of GHG reduction.. This scenario greatly exaggerates the likely costs of any future program to achieve the economy-wide reductions set forth in the Paris Agreement, because any real program to meet those goals would be designed with cost-saving flexibility the Chamber deliberately left out.. The public-facing summary also neglects to mention that the report actually analyzed a wide range of scenarios, including one that allowed for a market-based, economy-wide approach. In that scenario, the report finds that the Paris goals can actually be achieved at much lower costs than the headline numbers suggest.. Although even that scenario still inflates costs (as well discuss ...
EDITORS NOTE: This is Tom Christensens first-person account of his visits to the hyperbaric chambers. It was a scary day for me and my wife as we made our way down the hall at McKay-Dee Hospital to...
It is well established that strong electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can give rise to acute health effects, such as burns, which can be effectively prevented by respecting exposure guidelines and regulations. Current concerns are instead directed toward the possibility that long-term exposure to weak EMF might have detrimental health effects due to some biological mechanism, to date unknown. (1) The possible risk due to pulsed EMF at frequency 2.45 GHz and mean power density 2.8 mW/cm(2) on rat postnatal neurogenesis was studied in relation to the animal's age, duration of the exposure dose, and post-irradiation survival. (2) Proliferating cells marker, BrdU, was used to map age- and dose-related immunohistochemical changes within the rostral migratory stream (RMS) after whole-body exposure of newborn (P7) and senescent (24 months) rats. (3) Two dose-related exposure patterns were performed to clarify the cumulative effect of EMF: short-term exposure dose, 2 days irradiation (4 h/day), versus ...
Base station mobile phone antennas, which are often placed on building rooftops, represent a source of occupational exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) to professionals who have to work in close proximity to the antennas. Examples of such workers include firemen, construction workers, janitors and many other professionals. The specific exposure systematic measurement data for antenna models for the unperturbed fields and the specific absorption rates (SARs) in close proximity (,1m) are still unavailable. The ICNIRP occupational limits consist of the basic restrictions of local SAR as an average whole-body exposure. However, in the very inhomogeneous near field of an antenna, the local exposure is more relevant than who-body average exposure. Objectives ...
Pregnant mice were assigned to the following groups: sham-exposed CDMA control mice (group 1); CDMA exposed mice (group 2); sham-exposed CDMA+WCDMA control mice (group 3); CDMA+WCDMA exposed mice (group 4). Whole-body exposures to CDMA (849 MHz) and WCDMA (1.95 GHz) at SAR of 2.0 W/kg were conducted for two 45 minute periods separated by a 15 minute interval, daily, throughout the gestation period (days 1-17). On gestation day 18, the mice were sacrificed; the uterine contents and ovaries were examined for the number of implantation sites, number of resorptions, sex and number of viable fetuses, fetal head and body size, external abnormalities, number of dead fetuses, fetal and placental weights. One-half of the live fetuses per litter were examined for visceral malformations and the other half - for skeletal malformations. Results ...
I had heard a lot about Cryotherapy so when a friend told me about Cryo Elite Therapy in Buckhead I had to give it a try. Located inside Buckhead Elite Training center (just up the street from Piece of Cake bakery-how fitting) CryoEliteTherapy is a whole-body exposure to subzero temperatures to decrease inflammation, stimulate weight. Read More. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Maria Sehlstedt, Rosamund Dove, Christoffer Boman, Joakim Pagels, Erik Swietlicki, Jakob Löndahl, Roger Westerholm, Jenny Bosson, Stefan Barath, Annelie F Behndig, Jamshid Pourazar, Thomas Sandström, Ian S Mudway, Anders Blomberg].
The Mortar Permeability Apparatus comprises brass / Gun Metal Cells mounted on a stand and a pressure chamber with a pressure regulator. The cell can accommodate 100mm Dia x 50mm High Specimen. Each Cell assembly consists of one base plate. The base plate has one outlet for water and recessed to hold the specimen in place with ring washer in between. The top plate has an inlet for water and a suitable connector for the application of pressurized water in the cell. The mould and collar are clamped between the base plate and the top plate with the help of four tension rods and nuts. The cells are mounted on a stand. The pressure chamber is fitted with a pressure regulator, which helps in regulating the pressure from 0-7 kg / cm². The regulator has two pressure gauges, one for indicating the pressure in the chamber (0-10.5kg / cm²) and the other for indicating the testing pressure (0-7kg / cm²). The Pressure Chamber is connected to the cells with pressure hoses and with couplings. This ...
A method of cleaning a surface of an object is disclosed. The object is placed onto a support region within a pressure chamber. The pressure chamber is then pressurized. A cleaning process is performed. A series of decompression cycles are performed. The pressure chamber is then vented.
RESULTS During a flight (200 mmHg pressure decrease), excess insulin delivery of 0.623% of the cartridge volume occurred (P , 0.001, Student t test). In hypobaric chamber studies, bubbles developed in the insulin when the pressure decreased and displaced the insulin out of the cartridge. Pre-existing bubbles changed in size consistent with Boyle law. Cartridge plunger movement did not occur in normal flight conditions but did occur when catastrophic plane depressurization was mimicked. ...
Every temperature chamber used in a lab environment needs to be perfectly accurate, consistent and uniform, as well as being reliable, and that goes doubly so for used environmental chambers. To ensure accuracy and reliability in your used environmental test chamber, you need to source it from a trustworthy refurbisher. Bid Service sources, refurbishes and restores environmental chambers used in laboratory settings and provides you with equipment you can rely on, including used Thermotron environmental chambers. Every used environmental test chamber that leaves our warehouse has been thoroughly vetted and tested for reliability and accuracy, and recalibrated to factory standards. We endeavour to carry a full and comprehensive range of refurbished temperature chambers, environmental testing systems and more. As refurbishers and distributors of quality second-hand environmental chambers, our range can vary from time to time and we recommend browsing our site regularly, or getting in touch to find out if
PURPOSE: To analyze and to evaluate the effect of the hyperbaric hyperoxygenation in the mechanical resistance of ischemic colon of rats. METHODS: Eighty rats, distributed in four groups of 20 animals in each one, were used. In group 1 (G1), the control group, ischemia was not caused. Group 2 was submitted to the lesser degree of ischemia. Group 3 was submitted to the intermediate degree of ischemia. In group 4, a bigger degree of intestinal ischemia was provoked. Each group was divided in two sub-groups often animals each: with hyperbaric chamber (CC) and without hyperbaric chamber (SC). The animals of the four CC subgroups were placed in an experimental hyperbaric chamber in order to inhale oxygen at 100%, at two Absolute Atmospheres, for 120 minutes, for a four-day consecutive period. The animals of the four SC subgroups were kept in environment air during the five days of the experiment. All animals have been submitted to the mechanical study of the intestinal loop by the pressure test of ...
A new environmental chamber constructed by Argonne National Laboratory allows researchers to watch materials as they grow step-by-step while interacting in elevated-temperature, reactive-gas environments.
Environmental Chamber for testing with the Vantage Series Tensile Testers from Thwing-Albert. Hot or Cold applications available for materials testing.
This study tested glycerol hyperhydration against water hyperhydration on the ability to reduce cardiovascular and thermal strain and improve performance when Ss ran a set distance as quickly as possible. It was hypothesized that compared with water hyperhydration, glycerol hyperhydration would result in: a) greater fluid retention, b) no differences in heart rates and core temperatures, and c) decreased run time performances. Male endurance trained runners (N = 6) completed a treadmill run in an environmental chamber at a self-selected pace, estimated to take one hour. Temperature was set at 30 C with 50% relative humidity. Beginning 2.5 hours before exercise, glycerol was given at 1.2 g/kgBW with a total fluid ingestion of 26 ml/kgBW. The placebo condition involved ingesting water of an equal amount. Runners ingested up to 500 ml during the run and were unable to see their elapsed time or chosen speed; only distance covered.. Fluid retention and time to complete the run were no different ...
Clouds in clean air have low aerosol concentration and are composed of a small number of large droplets. They do not scatter light well and are somewhat dark and translucent. Much of the Suns radiation passes through these clouds and reaches the surface.. Clouds in polluted air have much higher aerosol concentration. As aerosol concentration increases within a cloud, the water in the cloud is divided into a larger number of smaller droplets, scattering more light and becoming more reflective. These clouds appear brighter which blocks sunlight from reaching the Earths surface, shading the planet and producing net cooling. This is the cloud albedo effect. These clouds also last longer since smaller cloud droplets are less likely to fall out of the atmosphere as rain. Both effects increase the amount of radiation from the Sun that is reflected to space without reaching the surface.. According to NASA, aerosols and the clouds seeded by them reflect about 25% of the Suns radiation back to space. ...
The work presented forms part of an ongoing investigation, focusing on modeling the motion of a wall oil film present in a bearing chamber and comparison to existing experimental data. The film is generated through the impingement of oil droplets shed from a roller bearing. Momentum resulting from the impact of oil droplets, interfacial shear from the airflow, and gravity cause the film to migrate around the chamber. Oil and air exit the chamber at scavenge and vent ports. A previously reported numerical approach to the simulation of steady-state two-phase flow in a bearing chamber, which includes in-house submodels for droplet-film interaction and oil film motion, has been extended. This paper includes the addition of boundary conditions for the vent and scavenge together with a comparison to experimental results obtained from ITS, University of Karlsruhe. The solution is found to be sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions applied to the vent and scavenge. ...
A method for cleaning dirty objects using cleaning fluid and rinsing fluid and an apparatus using the method. The method has consecutive steps of spraying the surface of a dirty object with high pressure spray of cleaning fluid, immersing the dirty object in an immersion chamber containing cleaning fluid, spraying additional cleaning fluid at high pressure into the immersion chamber at a location downstream from the initial location where the dirty object is immersed to turbulate cleaning fluid therein to scrub the surface of the dirty object, removing the dirty object from the immersion chamber, and spraying the surface of the dirty object with a high pressure spray of rinsing fluid.
Thats not an unreasonable idea about the altitude. If that were the case, I wonder if treating the pigs in a hypobaric chamber would do anything? I dont even know if those exist but it seems like you could use the same hyperbaric chambers that divers and mountain climbers use but instead pump the pressure in lower than 1atm (760mmHg). No clue if you could do something like that as a treatment or if it would have to be a permanent living condition. Ill have to think through the physiology on that one. It just strikes me as very reasonable. Plus, Im procrastionating today, as usual ...
Tuesday: Marketing Yourself - Being Seen and Heard, Greater Wilkes-Barre Chambers Women in Business Luncheon, 11:30 a.m. to 1:15 p.m., Ruths Chris at Mohegan Sun, Plains Twp. Event registration begins at 11:30. Cost is $20 for chamber members and $25 for non-members. Reservations are required. For more information, call 570-823-2101 ext. 149 or email [email protected] ■ Be Awesome: How to Motivate & Energize You & Your Employees seminar by the Greater Hazleton Chamber of Commerce, May 13, 8:15 to 10:30 a.m., Top of the 80s Restaurant, 3 Top of the 80s Road, Hazleton. Registration is $25 for chamber members and $30 for non chamber members. Continental breakfast will be provided. Registration is required online at www.hazletonchamber.org or by contacting the Chamber at 455-1509 or [email protected] Saturday: Food for Profit workshop, 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Penn State Extension, Monroe County Office, 724 Phillips St., Stroudsburg. The cost is $45, and includes all materials ...
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These calibrations are performed in a thermal vacuum chamber at the instrument calibration contractors site (TNO/TPD).. Other measurements include comprehensive instrument characterisation and consistency cross checks. In particular, full radiance and irradiance calibration using Earth and sun observation paths are performed with NIST calibrated light sources for the Polarisation Unit (PU) and the main channels.. Additional calibration includes:. ...
Water vapor is the hardest natural element to remove from vacuum chamber walls upon exposure to the atmosphere due to monolayer ... Most production equipment utilizing a cryopump have a means to isolate the cryopump from the vacuum chamber so regeneration ... a solid state to a gaseous state and thereby be released from the cryopump through a pressure relief valve into the atmosphere ...
The contribution of VOCs to the levels of SOA in the atmosphere have been modeled using simulation chamber experiments to gain ... In particular, exposure to the VOC benzene during crude oil production could pose potentially serious health risks to workers. ... Gases And The Atmosphere. "Chemical Reactions in the Atmosphere" (PDF). Hazardous Air Pollutants. (2017, March 17). Retrieved ... Thief hatches are also used in gauge tanks and in transport vehicles where they must be opened to the atmosphere to take ...
... diver pressure exposure used in decompression tables and the unit of calibration for pneumofathometers and hyperbaric chamber ... or two atmospheres absolute. For every additional 33 feet of depth, another atmosphere of pressure accumulates. Therefore at ... One atmosphere is approximately equal to 33 feet of sea water or 14.7 psi, which gives 4.9/11 or about 0.445 psi per foot. ... The pressure of seawater at a depth of 33 feet equals one atmosphere. The absolute pressure at 33 feet depth in sea water is ...
The hyperbaric atmosphere in the accommodation chambers and the bell are controlled to ensure that the risk of long term ... which is near the upper limit for long term exposure. Carbon dioxide is removed from the chamber gas by recycling it through ... The entire system is managed from a control room ("van"), where depth, chamber atmosphere and other system parameters are ... More than one living chamber can be linked to the transfer chamber through trunking so that diving teams can be stored at ...
... the structure of the hive or the stores of honey and pollen it contains by sufficiently lengthy exposure to an atmosphere of ... Nectar stored in contaminated cells will contain spores and soon the brood chamber becomes filled with contaminated honey. As ... ethylene oxide gas, as in a closed chamber, as hospitals do to sterilize equipment that cannot withstand steam sterilization. ...
Due to the lack of any atmosphere of substance on the Moon, plants would need to be grown in sealed chambers, though ... As an alternative to excavating, a lava tube could be covered and insulated, thus solving the problem of radiation exposure. An ... Due to the lack of atmosphere, the location is also suitable for an array of optical telescopes, similar to the Very Large ... Mag-Lev systems are particularly attractive as there is no atmosphere on the surface to slow down the train, so the vehicles ...
Characterization of nanoparticles in inhalation exposure chambers for inhalation toxicity testing ISO/TS 10811 Mechanical ... Corrugated flexible metallic hose assemblies for the protection of electrical cables in explosive atmospheres ISO 10808:2010 ...
... diver pressure exposure used in decompression tables and the unit of calibration for pneumofathometers and hyperbaric chamber ... The reference face can be open to atmosphere to measure gauge pressure, open to a second port to measure differential pressure ... have connections both to the internal part of the aneroid chamber and to an external enclosing chamber. These gauges use the ... These devices use the sealed chamber as a reference pressure and are driven by the external pressure. Other sensitive aircraft ...
C and 1 standard atmosphere of pressure. This unit of radiation exposure was named the roentgen in honour of Wilhelm Röntgen, ... of measuring the intensity of X-rays was to measure their ionising effect in air by means of an air-filled ion chamber. At the ... The absorbed dose is equal to the radiation exposure (ions or C/kg) of the radiation beam multiplied by the ionization energy ... "Radiation Exposure and Contamination - Injuries; Poisoning - Merck Manuals Professional Edition". Merck Manuals Professional ...
C and 1 standard atmosphere of pressure. This unit of radiation exposure was named the roentgen in honour of Wilhelm Röntgen, ... of measuring the intensity of X-rays was to measure their ionising effect in air by means of an air-filled ion chamber. At the ... A whole-body acute exposure to 5 grays or more of high-energy radiation usually leads to death within 14 days. LD1 is 2.5 Gy, ... Kerma, when applied to air, is equivalent to the legacy roentgen unit of radiation exposure, but there is a difference in the ...
To observe this in a dry atmosphere, air would have needed to first be moistened by exposure to water. The nephelescope enabled ... The nephelescope has been described as an "early cloud-chamber". Espy, James Pollard (1841). The philosophy of storms. C.C. ... As it warms up, pressure inside the container once again increases above atmosphere. This increase in pressure can be used to ... The stopclock is then opened, allowing the pressure of the container to equilibriate the atmosphere, and then closed again. The ...
It is used in chambers for gas hypersensitization, a process in which photographic film is heated in forming gas to drive out ... It is sometimes called a "dissociated ammonia atmosphere" due to the reaction which generates it: 2 NH3 → 3 H2 + N2 It can also ... requires long exposure times, and is thus particularly sensitive to contaminants in the film. Forming gas is also used to ... Forming gas is used as an atmosphere for processes that need the properties of hydrogen gas. Typical forming gas formulations ( ...
When Lodovico Altieri was named cardinal, Bedini gained exposure to the diplomatic atmosphere, and he was subsequently called ... His work led the Chamber of Deputies of Rio de Janeiro to improve the living conditions of the German immigrants. Giuseppe ...
Human and animal exposure to such gases can cause long term breathing and health issues. The rotation of toxic air does not ... This is the process of which waste is fed to a combustion chamber and combustion air begins to dry and facilitates ... As a result, carbon dioxide and other excess gases are released into the atmosphere. The second type of incineration is the ... Human exposure to such toxins can stunt human growth development and cause birth defects. The high volume of plastic use in the ...
If the pressure is rapidly diminished to normal after exposure to saturation in compressed air, the venous blood will give off ... In 1907 Haldane made a decompression chamber to help make deep-sea divers safer and produced the first decompression tables ... Schrötter, Heller and Mager framed rules for safe decompression and believed that the decompression rate of one atmosphere (atm ... Results showed that a certain minimum pressure is required to give symptoms on goats and that duration of exposure to high ...
This splits Titan's atmosphere into two separate resonating chambers. The source of natural ELF waves on Titan is unclear as ... low-level exposure is evaluated as average exposure to residential power-frequency magnetic field above 0.3 to 0.4 µT, and it ... low-level exposure to ELF fields insufficient to justify lowering these quantitative exposure limits. In summary, when all of ... high-level exposure have been established and form the basis of two international exposure limit guidelines (ICNIRP, 1998; IEEE ...
... monitoring and therapeutic devices in chambers Risk assessment, incidents monitoring and safety plan in HBO chambers HBO Safety ... The most important medical examination is the one before starting diving, as the diver can be screened to prevent exposure when ... The ambient pressure underwater increases by 1 standard atmosphere (100 kPa) for every 10 metres (33 ft) of depth. The ... Hyperbaric medicine is a corollary field associated with diving, since recompression in a hyperbaric chamber is used as a ...
Methods to administer CO2 include placing animals directly into a closed, prefilled chamber containing CO2, or exposure to a ... Carbon dioxide has no liquid state at pressures below 5.1 standard atmospheres (520 kPa). At 1 atmosphere (near mean sea level ... Toxicity of Carbon Dioxide Gas Exposure, CO2 Poisoning Symptoms, Carbon Dioxide Exposure Limits, and Links to Toxic Gas Testing ... warming the surface and the lower atmosphere. Less energy reaches the upper atmosphere, which is therefore cooler because of ...
Determination of Shelf Life Many products degrade with exposure to the atmosphere: foods, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, etc. The ... This can be in a conditioned room or in a chamber enclosing the test. With some testing, the package is conditioned to a ... Exposures to expected and elevated temperatures and humidities are commonly used for shelf life testing. The ability of ... Exposure to elevated temperatures accelerates some degradation mechanisms. An Arrhenius equation is often used to correlate ...
Hypobaric Chamber Facility or HCF (altitude chambers) Two Class D chambers (man-rated) rarefied air atmosphere, non-oxygen ... 23,656 simulated altitude exposures of human volunteers over 33 years of studies 13 Environmental Chambers Temperatures from - ... ft.) Small Study Chamber: internal volume of 1100 cu. ft. (floor area 108 sq. ft.) Environmentally controlled (altitude, ... DeGroot DW, Devine JA, Fulco CS (September 2003). "Incidence of adverse reactions from 23,000 exposures to simulated ...
Exposure to ionizing radiation can also cause cataracts, a problem with the eye. The atmosphere of Mars is much thinner than ... Three types of tests planned for the Z-2 include tests in a vacuum chamber, tests in NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (a ... But the Martian atmosphere contains only 0.13-0.14% oxygen, compared to 20.9% of Earth's atmosphere. Thus breathing the Martian ... however any radiation exposure carries risk so there is a focus on keeping exposure as low as possible. On the surface of Mars ...
Coupons are weighed before and after exposure. The surface deposits are assumed to be copper (I) sulfide, Cu2S, in the case of ... Coupons are typically hung in the test chamber located in proximity to the materials under test. Metal coupons should ideally ... to evaluate resistance to corrosion due to gases in the atmosphere. Mixed Flowing Gas (MFG) test is a laboratory test in which ... The purpose of this test is to simulate corrosion phenomenon due to atmospheric exposure. The electronic product is exposed to ...
A positive pressure enclosure, also known as welding habitats or hot work habitats, is a chamber used to provide a safe work ... A positive pressure enclosure works by providing a constant inflow of breathable atmosphere, which in turn causes gas to ... It can include temperature, humidity, lack of outside air (poor ventilation), mold from water damage, or exposure to other ... This constant outflow of gases from the chamber also serves to cleanse the air within of the undesirable gaseous by-products of ...
This holds with exposures up to a second or so, but in general does not hold over exposure times of minutes or hours. Several ... Amateurs were able to buy hypersensitizing equipment and gas from Lumicon or build their own hypering chambers. Details of the ... plates were usually exposed at the telescope in an atmosphere of nitrogen. In the AAS Photo Bulletin Jack Marling describes the ... Most photographic materials are designed for snapshot exposure of much less than one second. In longer exposures, such as those ...
Beginning in 1991 all astronauts were trained for G-exposure at USAFSAM. Multiple altitude chambers of various sizes including ... And much of the work in space food, radiation studies, space cabin atmospheres, and pressure suits were adopted by NASA during ... Training Altitude Chambers The USAFSAM operates two training altitude chambers to provide initial hypoxia training to all ... "Altitude chamber training begins at the new 711th Human Performance Wi". Air Force Medical Service. Retrieved 2016-03-01. ...
The study of ozone concentration in the atmosphere started in the 1920s. The highest levels of ozone in the atmosphere are in ... Exposure of 0.1 to 1 μmol/mol produces headaches, burning eyes and irritation to the respiratory passages. Even low ... Redlands Chamber of Commerce Collection, City Archives, A.K. Smiley Public Library, Redlands, CA Henry Henshaw to William ... In the clear atmosphere, with only nitrogen and oxygen, ozone can react with the atomic oxygen to form two molecules of O2 O 3 ...
PMID 16992479.Note: 1 atmosphere (atm) is 1.013 bars. Toxicity of Carbon Dioxide Gas Exposure, CO2 Poisoning Symptoms, Carbon ... as hearing sensitivity is not significantly affected by the breathing gas or chamber atmosphere composition or pressure. ... Prolonged exposure to above-normal oxygen partial pressures, or shorter exposures to very high partial pressures, can cause ... The onset of seizure depends upon the partial pressure of oxygen in the breathing gas and exposure duration. However, exposure ...
Gaining a natural sense of the importance of the arts came with this childhood exposure. Along with the early passion Todd ... Todd's musical development was impacted by the cultural, political and community atmosphere of the civil rights movement. ... chamber music, jazz, dance, plays and religious concerts. With his father he enjoyed going to sports, however listening to ... and an atmosphere of deep love for the arts. While his parents had professional livelihoods - his father, in the automobile ...
Long-term skin exposure to these compounds can produce "tar warts", which can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Coal tar was ... Chambers & Company (owners of Izal brand disinfectant) Sadlers Chemicals Side effects of coal tar products include skin ... most of the coal tar binders are vaporised and are generally burned in an incinerator to prevent release into the atmosphere, ... Exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles can occur in the workplace by breathing, skin contact, or eye contact. The Occupational ...
Because his lamp was dying, he had to leave quickly before losing all light to the chamber, but became trapped in a small ... Vendors set up stalls to sell food and souvenirs, creating a circus-like atmosphere. The Sand Cave rescue attempt grew to ... Collins died of thirst and hunger compounded by exposure through hypothermia after being isolated for 14 days, just three days ... George Tucker Carmichael, determined the cave impassable and too dangerous and began to dig a shaft to reach the chamber behind ...
Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on April 3, 2016. Retrieved December 1, 2016.. ... "absorbed and assumed something of the atmosphere and emotional climate of the picture." She said it offered "a new and exciting ... Gary Merrill NBC series Justice in the role of a desperately poor and aging film star who attempts suicide to avoid exposure as ...
Leaves need to support their own mass and align themselves in such a way as to optimize their exposure to the sun, generally ... The pores or stomata of the epidermis open into substomatal chambers, which are connected to the intercellular air spaces ... Their surfaces are waterproofed by the plant cuticle and gas exchange between the mesophyll cells and the atmosphere is ... The internal organization of most kinds of leaves has evolved to maximize exposure of the photosynthetic organelles, the ...
Access to the water is made via the 'wet porch', a chamber equipped with a moon pool, which keeps the air pressure inside the ... wet porch the same as the water pressure at that depth ('ambient pressure'), about 2.6 atmospheres, through hydrostatic ... This design enables personnel to return to the surface without the need for a decompression chamber when they get there. ... Exposure assessment. *Occupational exposure limit. *Workplace health surveillance. *Safety culture *Code of practice ...
a b c d For more information on this, see Atmosphere of Earth#Evolution of Earth's atmosphere, Carbon dioxide in the Earth's ... Chambers, John E. (July 2004). "Planetary accretion in the inner Solar System" (PDF). Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 223 ... was named by a French geologist Alexandre Brongniart for the extensive marine limestone exposures of the Jura Mountains. The " ... The atmosphere becomes oxygenic. Vredefort and Sudbury Basin asteroid impacts. Much orogeny. Penokean and Trans-Hudsonian ...
... combustion chamber and valves. Attempts to overcome these problems included heating of the vegetable oil, blending it with ... and the increased surface area exposure of the mixture. ... by the constant flow of hydrogen found in the atmosphere. ...
Average annual occupational exposure is 0.7 mSv; mining workers have higher exposure. Populations near nuclear plants have an ... Cosmic rays kept the level of carbon-14[81] in the atmosphere roughly constant (70 tons) for at least the past 100,000 years,[ ... "Cloud Chambers and Cosmic Rays: A Lesson Plan and Laboratory Activity for the High School Science Classroom" (PDF). Cornell ... Average annual radiation exposure (millisieverts) Radiation UNSCEAR[83][84] Princeton[85] Wa State[86] MEXT[87] Remark ...
Li, J et al: Quantitatively assessing the health risk of exposure to PAHs from intake of smoked meats. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf ... The heat and smoke cook and flavor the meat before escaping through an exhaust vent at the opposite end of the cooking chamber ... Forsberg ND, et al: Effect of Native American fish smoking methods on dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ... The main characteristics of the offset smoker are that the cooking chamber is usually cylindrical in shape, with a shorter, ...
Many metal artists benefited from the exposure they received on MTV, which began airing in 1981-sales often soared if a band's ... a dark atmosphere[224] and intentionally lo-fi production, with ambient noise and background hiss.[228] ... Coal Chamber, The Smashing Pumpkins, Electric Light Orchestra, Lita Ford and Queen.[307] ... Even though Slayer did not receive substantial media exposure, their music played a key role in the development of extreme ...
The K-Pg boundary exposure in Trinidad Lake State Park, in the Raton Basin of Colorado, shows an abrupt change from dark- to ... Once the atmosphere cleared, photosynthetic organisms, initially ferns and other ground-level plants, returned.[64] Just two ... MacLeod, N.; Rawson, P.F.; Forey, P.L.; Banner, F.T.; Boudagher-Fadel, M.K.; Bown, P.R.; Burnett, J.A.; Chambers, P.; Culver, S ... 2 content of the atmosphere and caused a temporary greenhouse effect once the dust clouds and aerosol settled, and, this would ...
... chamber shapes, intake temperatures, lean or rich mixtures and others. This led to a confusing variety of test engines that ... when in the atmosphere, reacts in sunlight to produce photochemical smog. Vapor pressure initially rises with some addition of ... Users have been advised to keep gasoline containers more than half full and properly capped to reduce air exposure, to avoid ... the violent crime curve virtually tracks the lead exposure curve.[65][66] ...
"Greater Eureka Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved December 9, 2012.. *^ "Eureka (city) QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. ... National Oceans and Atmospheres Administration California Sea Grant Program. p. 79. Retrieved December 9, 2012.. ... "Northern exposure: Eureka is becoming well known for its Old Town art scene". Orange County Register. Archived from the ... "Greater Eureka Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on December 26, 2012. Retrieved December 9, 2012.. ...
... human skin is tough enough to withstand the drop of one atmosphere.[6][7] The most serious risk from vacuum exposure is hypoxia ... "Two MSC Employees Commended For Rescue in Chamber Emergency" (PDF), Space News Roundup, Public Affairs Office of the National ... Exposure to a vacuum causes the body to explodeEdit. See also: Effect of spaceflight on the human body ... The Depressurization Exposure Integral (DEI) is a quantitative model that is used by the FAA to enforce compliance with ...
Photosynthesis releases oxygen into the atmosphere, while respiration, decay, and combustion remove it from the atmosphere. In ... 2 partial pressure more than 60 kPa can eventually lead to permanent pulmonary fibrosis.[123] Exposure to a O. 2 partial ... Hyperbaric (high-pressure) medicine uses special oxygen chambers to increase the partial pressure of O. 2 around the patient ... 2 build-up in Earth's atmosphere: 1) no O. 2 produced; 2) O. 2 produced, but absorbed in oceans & seabed rock; 3) O. 2 starts ...
Emergency exposure - limits given for occupational and public exposure. *Existing exposure - reference levels for all persons ... Hand-held ion chamber survey meter in use for surface dose rate on one of three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) ... Cosmic radiation is not a common concern, as the Earth's atmosphere absorbs it and the magnetosphere acts as a shield, but it ... Planned exposure - limits given for occupational, medical and public exposure. The occupational exposure limit of effective ...
As the divers are decompressed, the breathing gas must be oxygenated to maintain a breathable atmosphere.[26] ... "Nonhematological mechanisms of improved sea-level performance after hypoxic exposure". Med Sci Sports Exerc. 39 (9): 1600-09. ... Accidental death has occurred in cases where concentrations of nitrogen in controlled atmospheres, or methane in mines, has not ... Chamber operator. *Diver's attendant. *Diving supervisor. *Diving systems technician. *Life support technician ...
In the light-independent (or "dark") reactions, the enzyme RuBisCO captures CO2 from the atmosphere and, in a process called ... In parallel, plant physiologists studied leaf gas exchanges using the new method of infrared gas analysis and a leaf chamber ... ferricyanide or benzoquinone after exposure to light. The Hill reaction[75] is as follows: 2 H2O + 2 A + (light, chloroplasts ... The main source of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere derives from oxygenic photosynthesis, and its first appearance is sometimes ...
Exposure to extreme low pressure or vacuum from spacesuit damage (see space exposure) ... in a low oxygen atmosphere, or in a vacuum; environments where sufficiently oxygenated air is present, but cannot be adequately ... Chamber operator. *Diver's attendant. *Diving supervisor. *Diving systems technician. *Life support technician ...
Dragonfly naiads use jet propulsion, forcibly expelling water out of their rectal chamber.[107] Some species like the water ... The respiratory system of insects constrains their size, however the high oxygen in the atmosphere allowed larger sizes.[100] ... Nakamaru, M; Iwasab, Y; Nakanishic, J (October 2003). "Extinction risk to bird populations caused by DDT exposure". Chemosphere ...
Getting too much sun exposure can be harmful, but in moderation, sun exposure is beneficial.[40] ... The atmosphere blocks about 77% of the Sun's UV, when the Sun is highest in the sky (at zenith), with absorption increasing at ... without the need for costly vacuum chambers. Significant examples include 193 nm photolithography equipment (for semiconductor ... Exposure to these can cause "welder's flash" or "arc eye" (photokeratitis) and can lead to cataracts, pterygium and pinguecula ...
"Plain packaging voor sigaretten" [Plain packaging for cigarettes and rolling tobacco]. Dutch Chamber of Commence (in Dutch). ... In April 2011, Minister Roxon released an exposure draft of plain packaging legislation with an expected start date of 1 July ... "Exposure Draft, Plain Packaging Bill" (PDF). Australian Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 June 2011. ... Modified atmosphere/modified humidity packaging. *Package pilferage. *Package testing. *Package theft. *Packaging engineering ...
... during cancer development from proton exposure.[46] Another study looks into determining "the effects of exposure to proton ... Atmospheres. 122 (2): 1365-1383. Bibcode:2017JGRD..122.1365K. doi:10.1002/2016JD025445. PMC 5349290. PMID 28357174.. ... This reaction would later be observed happening directly in a cloud chamber in 1925). ... Atmospheres. 23 (4): 1620-1635. Bibcode:2015JGRD..120.1620K. doi:10.1002/2014JD022229.. ...
This process involved placing a carcass into a sealed chamber, then adding a mixture of sodium hydroxide and water (which ... Chemical burns caused by sodium hydroxide solution photographed 44 hours after exposure. ... produced in the burning of coal and thus prevent their release into the atmosphere. For example, ... Michael Chambers. "ChemIDplus - 1310-73-2 - HEMHJVSKTPXQMS-UHFFFAOYSA-M - Sodium hydroxide [NF] - Similar structures search, ...
... mostly on mid-elevation slopes with little exposure to wind or sun[79] in the southern end of the range.[80] At higher ... during which nocturnal winds at low levels in the atmosphere move moisture overnight.[74] After the high pressure breaks down, ...
Use of a hyperbaric chamber.[edit]. Patients undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy must equalize their ears to avoid barotrauma ... in water increases the ambient pressure by an amount approximately equal to the pressure of the atmosphere at sea level. So, a ... along with the recent pressure exposure and breathing gas history of the patient. Air transport should be below 1,000 feet (300 ... or during uncontrolled decompression of a pressure vessel such as a diving chamber or pressurised aircraft, but can also be ...
... increases with increased exposure to population mixing during gestation or early in life. Although they determined that the ... deliberate discharges to the atmosphere of plutonium and irradiated uranium oxide particulates.[81] These frequent incidents, ... to have leaked in the THORP reprocessing plant from a cracked pipe into a huge stainless steel-lined concrete sump chamber ... volunteer workers at Sellafield had participated in secret Cold War experiments to assess the biological effect of exposure to ...
Los Alamos Chamber of Commerce. October 18, 2005. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2008.. ... The Asthma Society of Canada[80] states that the Christmas and holiday season increases exposure to irritants because people ... and a carnival atmosphere that overturned Roman social norms: gambling was permitted, and masters provided table service for ...
In several human experimental studies, using a well-validated exposure chamber setup, DE has been linked to acute vascular ... Substances emitted into the atmosphere by human activity include: *Carbon dioxide (CO. 2) - Because of its role as a greenhouse ... traffic related exposures may dominate total exposure despite short exposure times since high concentrations coincide with ... This can be calculated[32] as an inhalation exposure. This would account for daily exposure in various settings (e.g. different ...
Relation to controlled atmosphere killing[edit]. Controlled atmosphere killing (CAK) or controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS) is ... and these species are more uncomfortable in low-oxygen environments that result from inert gas exposure.[9] ... Gas chamber. *Capital punishment. *Animal slaughter. Notes[edit]. *^ European Industrial Gases Association (2009), Hazards of ... Controlled Atmosphere Killing: People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. *Nitrogen Induced Hypoxia as a Form of Capital ...
... spacesuit atmosphere system in a vacuum chamber, due to nitrogen-rich air leaking from the cabin into his space suit feed.[65] ... Importantly, those body motor disturbances after changing from different gravities only get worse the longer the exposure to ... Artificial atmosphereEdit. There are two basic choices for an artificial atmosphere: either an Earth-like mixture of oxygen in ... All three, Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee, were killed.[68] This led NASA to use a nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere before ...
A hand-pump pressurizes air, which forces liquid fuel from a reservoir into a gas chamber. Vapor from the chamber burns, ... upon exposure to the heat of the burner flame. Mantle lamps are considerably brighter than flat- or round-wick lamps, produce a ... back to the burner by redesigning the intake products so that only oxygen-rich fresh air is drawn from the atmosphere into the ...
"Atmosphere Exposure Chambers" by people in this website by year, and whether "Atmosphere Exposure Chambers" was a major or ... "Atmosphere Exposure Chambers" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Atmosphere Exposure Chambers*Atmosphere Exposure Chambers. *Atmosphere Exposure Chamber. *Chamber, Atmosphere Exposure ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Atmosphere Exposure Chambers" by people in Profiles. ...
Exposure-limits; Pressure-chambers; Physiology; Accident-potential ... NIOSH-Contract; Accident-analysis; Physiological-measurements; Metabolites; Tissue-disorders; Biological-effects; Atmosphere- ...
Groups of six animals were housed in four inhalation chambers and exposed to 1,475 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/cum) of ... NIOSH-Grant; Neurotoxic-effects; Neurotoxic-agents; Laboratory-animals; Controlled-atmospheres; Solvent-vapors; Exposure- ... methods; Industrial-poisons; Exposure-chambers; Histological-changes; Nervous-system-disorders; Tissue-reactions; Inhalants ... and 6 months of exposure. During the exposure period, none of the test animals displayed neurological impairment, or any other ...
... we have studied the effect of 6 h exposure to air, 200 parts per billion (ppb) sulphur … ... Atmosphere Exposure Chambers * Drug Combinations * Dust * Female * Humans * Male * Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate / drug effects ... the decrease after exposure to the combination was significant (60.5 [SE 8.1]%, p = 0.015). Exposure to a combination of ... Although the decreases in PD20FEV1 after exposure to each agent alone were not significant (41.2%, p = 0.125 after nitrogen ...
We have therefore exposed five healthy human subjects to 2.8 kPa CO2 in the inspired gas for about 70 h in a chamber with ... It has not been firmly established how respiration adapts to long-term CO2 exposure in man. ... Atmosphere Exposure Chambers * Carbon Dioxide / administration & dosage* * Carbon Dioxide / blood * Female * Humans ... At the end of exposure the PaCO2 was 0.5 kPa above the pre-exposure level. When the breathing gas was switched back to room air ...
Atmosphere; Indoor air pollution; Environmental control; Exposure chambers; Air flow; Air contaminants; Ventilation; Analytical ... The use of the turbulent eddy diffusion model and its variants in exposure assessment is limited due to the lack of knowledge ... These findings make the use of turbulent eddy diffusion models for exposure assessment in workplace/indoor environments more ... We constructed an experimental chamber with a spatial concentration gradient away from the contaminant source, and conducted 27 ...
Exposure-limits; Pressure-chambers; Physiology; Accident-potential ... NIOSH-Contract; Accident-analysis; Physiological-measurements; Metabolites; Tissue-disorders; Biological-effects; Atmosphere- ...
This test atmosphere then flows to the exposure chamber. The exposure chamber is large enough for the diffusive samplers to fit ... The test atmosphere passed into a glass mixing chamber (76-cm x 30-cm) from the vapor generator, and then into a glass exposure ... The test atmosphere then flows out of the exposure chamber into the exhaust. ... The cross-sectional area available for the air flow was the cross-sectional area of the exposure chamber reduced by the cross- ...
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION. - Exposure apparatus: Battelle nose-only exposure chambers. - System of ... GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION. - Exposure apparatus: Battelle nose-only exposure chambers. - System of ... Four animals were measured simultaneously for 15 min preceding exposure and for the first 30 min of exposure while in exposure/ ... Four animals were measured simultaneously for 15 min preceding exposure and for the first 30 min of exposure while in exposure/ ...
... final results of the inhalation biopersistence and histopathology examination following short-term exposure. - David M ... Atmosphere Exposure Chambers. *Body Weight. *Carcinogens (chemistry, pharmacokinetics, toxicity) *Half-Life. *Inhalation ... With the short exposure, this study was not designed specifically to evaluate pathological response; however, it is quite ... 2003). This article presents the full results through 1 yr after cessation of the 5-day exposure. This study was based upon the ...
Details on exposure:. TYPE OF INHALATION EXPOSURE: whole body GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION:. A constant ... Details on exposure:. TYPE OF INHALATION EXPOSURE: whole body GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION:. A constant ... exposure in the case of 4-hour exposure and 1st, 2nd and 3rd passage after exposure in the case of 24-hour exposure were used. ... The exposure chamber was 200 L. Control animals received fresh air only.. TEST ATMOSPHERE. - Brief description of analytical ...
Details on inhalation exposure:. GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION. - Exposure apparatus: The study was ... Duration of exposure:. 4 h. Remarks on duration:. Exposition started by locating the animals noses into the exposure chamber ... At the bottom of the exposure chamber, the air was sucked off at a lower flow rate than it was created by the dust generator in ... TEST ATMOSPHERE (if not tabulated). - MMAD: 3.656 µm (GSD: 3.08). No further information on the inhalation exposure was stated. ...
Details on exposure:. GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION. - Exposure apparatus: 1.4 m³ stainless steel and ... Details on exposure:. GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION. - Exposure apparatus: 1.4 m3 stainless steel and ... Temperature, humidity, pressure in air chamber: - Air flow rate: about 300 L/min. TEST ATMOSPHERE. - Brief description of ... Duration of treatment / exposure:. In the definitive study, groups of 24 pregnant rats were targeted for exposure to 0 (control ...
This book is the eighth volume in the series Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, and reviews AEGLs ... Chamber atmospheres were sampled four to six times during the 1-h exposures and 10 times during the 4-h exposures and were ... and only the head extending into the exposure chamber. Each of the four plethysmographs of the mouse exposure chamber was ... Groups of three or four male mice were exposed to acrolein in a 2.7-L head-only exposure chamber. The acrolein atmospheres were ...
The Use of Light Scattering and Ion Chamber Responses for the Detection of Fires in Diesel Contaminated Atmospheres ... This paper reports the results of a study performed to evaluate ergonomic exposures among operators of heavy construction ... It also provides recommendations for reducing ergonomic exposures such as vibration and postural stress. ...
North Carolina at Chapel Hills outdoor environmental photochemical reaction chamber was used to generate exposure atmospheres. ... The selected exposure times were 0, 2, 4 and 6 h.. Photolysis of Pcbs (oil transformer) by Uvc in presence of solvent and ... When exposure time is to short the photochemical reaction is not finished and the photoactive layer is resistant to alkaline ... can lead to shrinkage during exposure.. New photopolymers for terabyte holographic data storage ...
After the CuPc growth, C60 was deposited in the same OVPD chamber without exposure to atmosphere. As shown in FIG. 21. , the C ... The deposition chamber 1200 includes an inlet 1201 connected to a gas-delivery head 1203, and outlets 1202. The platform 1204 ... The chamber pressure is increased to cause the molecules to cluster while still in the gas stream. The surface temperature of ... The conditions for the growth of the planar CuPc were: Tsource=446 1 C., Tsubstrate=16 1 C., N2 flow rate=150 sccm, chamber ...
The OH exposure from a few minutes in the PAM chamber is similar to that from days to weeks in the atmosphere. The mass spectra ... Dependence of SOA oxidation on organic aerosol mass concentration and OH exposure: experimental PAM chamber studies E. Kang1,3, ... Dependence of SOA oxidation on organic aerosol mass concentration and OH exposure: experimental PAM chamber studies, Atmos. ... chamber, a small flow-through photo-oxidation chamber with extremely high OH and ozone levels. ...
From NASA Thesaurus, 1988) This also includes simulated EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY studies in atmosphere exposure chambers or ... The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or ... Often, a closed chamber is used, capable of approximating the vacuum and normal environments of space. ( ...
From NASA Thesaurus, 1988) This also includes simulated EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY studies in atmosphere exposure chambers or ... Often, a closed chamber is used, capable of approximating the vacuum and normal environments of space. ( ...
A method for dry etching and chamber cleaning high dielectric constant materials is disclosed herein. In one aspect of the ... Plasma treatment method for preventing defects in doped silicon oxide surfaces during exposure to atmosphere ... Plasma treatment method for preventing defects in doped silicon oxide surfaces during exposure to atmosphere ... Plasma treatment method for preventing defects in doped silicon oxide surfaces during exposure to atmosphere ...
Anoxic atmospheres were generated using airtight chambers and 100% nitrogen gas as previously described (Miller and Roth 2009 ... A) Percent survival of daf-2(e1370) and daf-2(e1370);daf-16(m26) mutant L4 animals following 24 h exposure to hyposmotic-anoxia ... Survival of control(RNAi), gsy-1(RNAi), and phosphorylase(RNAi) L4 animals following 18-hr exposure to hyposmotic anoxia (hypo- ... A) Percent survival of N2 animals after exposure to 24-hr anoxia while on media that was hyposmotic (hypo; 10 mOsm), isosmotic ...
Ozone exposure Exposure to 0.3ppm ozone will be conducted in an exposure chamber at the EPA Human Studies Facility on the UNC ... The exposure atmosphere will be at approximately 40 + 10% RH and approximately 22 + 2 oC. Ozone exposures will be conducted in ... Diesel exhaust exposure Exposure to diesel exhaust will be conducted in an exposure chamber at the EPA Human Studies Facility ... Sham Comparator: Clean air exposure Exposure to clean air will be conducted in an exposure chamber at the EPA Human Studies ...
The exposure chamber atmosphere was monitored for total suspended particulates (average, 90 mg/m3) and carbon monoxide (average ... CS exposure. CS exposure was performed using a total body exposure method (48). Mice were exposed to CS or ambient air for up ... EMAPII is an essential mediator of CS-induced emphysema in mice. (A and B) EMAPII expression after CS exposure. (A) Production ... We measured EMAPII protein expression in the DBA/2 mouse strain, which develops emphysema after chronic exposure to CS as early ...
Maximum V̇O2 during cold-exposure. We measured V̇O2max in an atmosphere of heliox (79% He, 21% O2), which is several-fold more ... On day 5, they were placed inside the wheel metabolic chamber (see below), and V̇O2 during wheel-running was recorded during ... Following this, V̇O2max was measured twice on a motorized treadmill and twice during cold-exposure in a heliox atmosphere (HeO2 ... forced exercise on a treadmill and cold-exposure in a He-O2 (heliox) atmosphere. The latter protocol does not involve ` ...
The exposure chamber atmosphere was monitored for total suspended particulates (average, 90 μg/m3) and carbon monoxide (average ... CS exposure generates systemic PAF-R agonists. Previously, Lehr et al. (30) demonstrated that CS exposure generates PAF-like ... As previously reported, CS exposure was performed using a total body exposure method (31). Briefly, mice were exposed for the ... in a Teague-10E exposure chamber (Teague Enterprises, Woodland, CA) to a mixture of 90% sidestream and 10% mainstream cigarette ...
... to monitor and document performance of the two reaction chambers and to characterize the exposure atmospheres. For exposure ... In the exposure laboratory, air was drawn through individual exposure chambers in parallel. Exposures were six hours in ... human exposure, inhalation, mobile sources, pulmonary, susceptibility, particulate exposure, assessment of exposure, ambient ... In field monitoring, analytical measurement of the exposure atmospheres was extensive, ...
hyperbaric chamber compressions at 2.0 atmospheres absolute (ATA). During each. session, subjects breathed 1 of 3 preassigned ... 100%) for 60 minutes, resulting in an oxygen exposure equivalent to breathing. surface air, 100% oxygen at 1.5 ATA, or 100% ...
The reaction chamber contains an unimpeded work volume of 16.75 inches (42.55 cm) by 13.5 inches (34.3 cm) by 17.5 inches ( ... Some polydimethylsiloxane materials can be cured, for example, by exposure to air at about 90 C for a period of time such as 16 ... The stents can be removed immediately after the plasma treatment or remain in the argon atmosphere for an additional period of ... In accordance with this procedure, the stents are placed in a chamber of a plasma surface treatment system such as a Plasma ...
  • The implementation of our vacuum chambers in combination with analytical techniques was specifically developed to make feasible the in situ physico-chemical characterization of samples. (mdpi.com)
  • Atmosphere characterization may include aerodynamic particle size distribution, gravimetric assessment, spatial and temporal homogeneity evaluation, and chemical analysis such as UPLC or LC-MS. Exposure atmospheres are routinely sampled using a variety of means, such as filters and impingers, while real-time aerosol monitors may provide a qualitative assessment of an aerosol atmosphere. (criver.com)
  • Using state of the art multiple exposure systems available at OSU (OASIS-1 and OASIS-2) and MI in conjunction the resources available at the ECC including the use of several novel and novel high-time resolution exposure characterization methods, GLACIER offers an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate relevant mechanisms responsible for the effects of multipollutant CAP on the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and inflammation. (epa.gov)
  • Analytics the gas phase and characterization of the exposure atmosphere. (youscribe.com)
  • We provide the tools that assist in morphological (surface) and compositional characterization of battery materials without any air exposure. (jeolusa.com)
  • The Communication contains results from the characterization of exposure atmospheres by Drs. Joe Mauderly and Jake McDonald at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute in advance of the start of animal toxicity testing in ACES Phase 3B. (healtheffects.org)
  • The authors conclude that hexane isomers virtually free of n-hexane are devoid of neurotoxic properties when tested at a total concentration of 1,750mg/cum, and recommend further study in experimental species to determine the possibility of human neuropathy caused by exposure to subthreshold concentrations of n-hexane. (cdc.gov)
  • The subjects were exposed to the gases in random order at weekly visits, then challenged with pre-determined concentrations of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen 10 min after each exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure to a combination of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in concentrations that could be encountered in heavy traffic enhances the airway response to inhaled allergen, possibly as a result of previous airway inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • The test requires sample collection from 16 different combinations of high and low analyte concentrations, short and long sampling times, high and low face velocities, high and low relative humidities, and parallel and perpendicular sampler orientations to air flow direction in a sampling chamber. (osha.gov)
  • Chamber concentrations were determined by comparing the chamber sample GC response with that obtained from standard samples prepared by quantitative dilution of DBE in acetone. (europa.eu)
  • Airborne concentrations below the AEGL-1 represent exposure levels that could produce mild and progressively increasing but transient and nondisabling odor, taste, and sensory irritation or certain asymptomatic, nonsensory effects. (nap.edu)
  • Inhalation exposure to O3 was conducted in whole-body exposure chambers, and KK mice were exposed to nominal ozone concentrations of 0 (filtered room air), or 0.5 ppm, for 8 h/d, 7 d/wk for 13 wk (n = 8/group). (epa.gov)
  • Relative to previous chamber designs, results indicated a reduction in candle soot generation, no significant airborne concentrations of metals, and airborne concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), below occupational limits. (usf.edu)
  • The current gas phase photochemical models need to invoke either unreasonably high K(sub)eddy coefficients or unreasonably high water-vapor concentrations in order to account for the photochemical stability of the atmosphere [1-4,6]. (usra.edu)
  • In the flow reactor, SOA precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2.0 × 10 8 to 2.2 × 10 10 molec cm −3 over exposure times of 100 s. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • In the environmental chambers, precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2 × 10 6 to 2 × 10 7 molec cm −3 over exposure times of several hours. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • This observation suggests that in the range of available OH exposure overlap for the flow reactor and chambers, SOA elemental composition as measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer is similar whether the precursor is exposed to low OH concentrations over long exposure times or high OH concentrations over short exposure times. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • The precursor gas is exposed to OH concentrations ranging from 2.11 × 10 8 to 1.91 × 10 9 molec cm −3 , with an estimated exposure time in the OFR of 137 s. (springer.com)
  • In the environmental chambers, the precursor was oxidized using OH concentrations between 2.10 × 10 6 and 2.12 × 10 7 molec cm −3 over exposure times of several hours. (springer.com)
  • Using exposure to increased concentrations of oxygen to induce lung injury, we have found that GM-CSF is protective against lethal lung injury both in normal mice ( 32 ) and in mice rendered more susceptible to lung injury by infection with Pneumocystis murina ( 4 ). (physiology.org)
  • It provides important background information on the emissions from one selected 2007-compliant engine and their concentrations in the animal exposure chambers. (healtheffects.org)
  • In sensing and signaling the presence of certain gases, because of the high sensitivity of sensors used to detect such small concentrations of gas, the presence of other gases in the atmosphere can result in false-positive signals. (google.es)
  • 6 Diffusive samplers, with sampling rates determined using test atmospheres prepared from paraformaldehyde, give analytical results similar to active samplers, when sampling atmospheres that do not contain the non-formaldehyde species. (osha.gov)
  • These studies were undertaken to evaluate pulmonary responses of humans sequentially exposed to acidic aerosols and ozone at levels that could reasonably be encountered in actual environmental exposures. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) are increasingly used to study the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. (springer.com)
  • We constructed an experimental chamber with a spatial concentration gradient away from the contaminant source, and conducted 27 3-hr long experiments using toluene and acetone under different air flow conditions (0.43 to 2.89 ACHs). (cdc.gov)
  • Before initiating the study with the animals, a pre-test was carried out with the exposure system in order to verify that under the experimental settings chosen, the limit concentration of 5 mg/L air could be achieved by gravimetric analysis. (europa.eu)
  • The DBE chamber concentration was calculated after measuring the peak area of the largest DBE component, dimethyl glutarate. (europa.eu)
  • The organic mass fractions of m/z 44 (CO 2 + ) and m/z 43 (mainly C 2 H 3 O + ), named f 44 and f 43 respectively, are used as indicators of the degree of organic aerosol (OA) oxidation that occurs as the OA mass concentration or the OH exposure are varied. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • For a fixed OH exposure, the degree of oxidation initially decreases rapidly and then more slowly as the OA mass concentration increases. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Alternatively, we use online gas chromatography or infrared analysis to determine the concentration of gas or vapor atmospheres within an inhalation chamber. (criver.com)
  • Day 4 (two to four weeks later), exposure to the same ozone concentration as on Day 4. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The OH concentration in the chamber experiments is close to that found in the atmosphere, but the integrated OH exposure in the flow reactor can simulate atmospheric exposure times of multiple days compared to chamber exposure times of only a day or so. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • The concentration of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere is steadily increasing, and many scientists believe that it is causing impacts in our environment. (anl.gov)
  • The enhancement in photosynthesis at elevated concentration of carbon dioxide level than the ambient level existing in the atmosphere is widely known. (springer.com)
  • We have therefore exposed five healthy human subjects to 2.8 kPa CO2 in the inspired gas for about 70 h in a chamber with controlled atmospheric conditions at ambient pressure PCO2 and pH were determined in arterial or arterialized venous blood drawn before, during and after the exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Samples of atmospheric DBE were taken from the rat breathing zone at approximately 60-minute intervals by drawing calibrated volumes of chamber atmosphere through fritted glass midget impingers containing acetone. (europa.eu)
  • These results, while sensitive to the determination of f 44 and f 43 , provide evidence that some characteristics of atmospheric OA oxidation can be generated in a PAM chamber. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are present in the ambient atmosphere and are generated from atmospheric gases, pollution sources, and combustion. (usf.edu)
  • hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) exposure to oxygen under pressure greater than normal atmospheric pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The increase in atmospheric pressure forces enough air into the patient so that the pressure within the body equals that in the hyperbaric chamber. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this presentation, I review some of the key issues about atmospheric composition, lithospheric composition, and atmosphere-surface interactions (e.g., chemical weathering) that remain unresolved, and mention possible measurements that may be used to address these questions. (usra.edu)
  • The isotopic composition of the different atmospheric gases is also an important issue for several reasons: (1) The D/H ratio and oxygen isotopic composition of water vapor, and the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 are important for assessing models of volatile cycling between the atmosphere, regolith, and polar caps. (usra.edu)
  • A new approach was developed utilizing a microflow liquid chromatogram (LC) coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) of quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS). A dynamic asphalt fume generation system was modified to provide consistent test atmospheres at simulated road asphalt paving conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • In most cases, for a specific SOA type the most-oxidized chamber SOA and the least-oxidized flow reactor SOA have similar mass spectra, oxygen-to-carbon and hydrogen-to-carbon ratios, and carbon oxidation states at integrated OH exposures between approximately 1 × 10 11 and 2 × 10 11 molec cm −3 s, or about 1-2 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Birds may also be killed by exposure to appropriate anoxic gas mixtures for durations that ensure that they die before they are bled. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The PSMs were diluted dynamically to provide calibration mixtures of dry and humidified ammonia atmospheres of known composition in the nmol mol −1 range and were employed as part of establishing a metrological traceability chain to improve the reliability and accuracy of ambient ammonia measurements. (picarro.com)
  • Exposure to air which has been scrubbed to remove air pollutants including ozone and particles. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Candles emit carbonaceous soot particles similar to UFPs present in the ambient atmosphere. (usf.edu)
  • This similarity in turn suggests that both in the flow reactor and in chambers, SOA chemical composition at low OH exposure is governed primarily by gas-phase OH oxidation of the precursors rather than heterogeneous oxidation of the condensed particles. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • The studies show that seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in flow reactors by a factor of 3 to 5 and may also account in part for higher SOA yields obtained in the chambers, where seed particles are routinely used. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • When the levels of these particles increase in the atmosphere and eventually penetrate deep into the lungs of human beings, one can experience several harmful health impacts such as breathing disorders, coughing, choking. (financialexpress.com)
  • Particulate Matter or 'PM' are basically minute particles present in the air and exposure to these, are extremely dangerous for human health. (financialexpress.com)
  • According to the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), most of the particles are created when harmful chemicals react in the atmosphere, however, others are emitted directly from a source, such as construction sites, unpaved roads, fields, smokestacks, fires, etc. (financialexpress.com)
  • The worst effect of these particles in the atmosphere happens on children and senior citizens. (financialexpress.com)
  • 100%) for 60 minutes, resulting in an oxygen exposure equivalent to breathing surface air, 100% oxygen at 1.5 ATA, or 100% oxygen at 2.0 ATA, respectively. (neuroskills.com)
  • 3. The process set forth in claim 1 wherein said gas phase reactive atmosphere is selected from the group consisting of a vapor mixture of iodine and oxygen, and a vapor mixture of iodine and an inert carrier gas. (google.com.au)
  • One group breathed air throughout its experimental period, and a second group breathed a normobaric atmosphere of 12% oxygen. (clinsci.org)
  • Rats and mice were exposed for periods of up to six months and two successive generations of mice were raised in a ground-level chamber system filled with 80% helium −20% oxygen, at 24°C. A duplicate chamber for controls contained a comparable nitrogen-oxygen mixture, and in both the other environmental parameters were well-controlled and nearly identical. (springer.com)
  • It must be concluded that prolonged exposure to helium-oxygen, relative to air, does not produce detectable changes in several key subcellular factors which might be altered by serious metabolic disturbances, and therefore the helium exposure is well tolerated. (springer.com)
  • In a recent series of studies performed by our group, we have shown that exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) leads to an increase in insulin sensitivity in male subjects with type-2 diabetes (T2DM) and in obese and overweight men without diabetes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This treatment is given to patients who, for various reasons, need more oxygen than they can take in by breathing in the normal atmosphere or using an oxygen mask. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A form of oxygen therapy in which the patient breathes oxygen in a pressurized chamber. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A hyperbaric chamber that supplies an enriched oxygen environment to a single person (or to a small child with a family member or nurse in attendance). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A hyberbaric chamber that supplies an enriched oxygen environment to several patients who have suffered severe carbon monoxide exposure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All the patients wear their own masks and have their own oxygen supply within the chamber. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Possibly, injury and activation of tumor endothelium by cytokines and reactive oxygen species induce exposure of anionic phospholipids, most likely phosphatidylserine. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 76 patients were allocated to HBO and exposed to 100% oxygen at 3 atmospheres (304 kPa) and then 2 atmospheres absolute (203 kPa) during the first chamber session and 100% oxygen at 2 atmospheres absolute for sessions 2 and 3. (acpjc.org)
  • Seventy-six patients were allocated to normobaric oxygen and exposed to air at 1 atmosphere absolute (101.3 kPa, or sea-level pressure) for all 3 chamber sessions. (acpjc.org)
  • In patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning, 3 hyperbaric oxygen treatments within 24 hours of exposure reduced cognitive sequelae at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. (acpjc.org)
  • If overlooked or killed by exposure to oxygen, anaerobic infections result in serious consequences such as amputation, organ failure, sepsis, meningitis, and death. (scribd.com)
  • Controlled atmosphere stunning works by starving the brain of oxygen, thereby resulting in death. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • MLE-12 cells (a murine type II cell line) and primary murine type II AEC were subjected to oxidative stress by exposure to 80% oxygen and by exposure to H 2 O 2 . (physiology.org)
  • Theme III focused upon mechanisms of cardiac vulnerability as a result of air pollution exposure. (epa.gov)
  • The complex nature of chemical interactions in flare, flash, and other production vapors have spawned many efforts to describe and control how these hydrocarbons interact with other materials in the atmosphere to create air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the national capital region goes breathless day after day, gasping in the toxic gas chamber it has turned into as a result of the hazardous air pollution, you might have been given an extra dose of panic with the increasing PM levels across all areas. (financialexpress.com)
  • Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere. (sickkids.ca)
  • second, many of the experimental techniques (spectroscopies, microscopies and diffraction techniques) used to measure sample properties need vacuum conditions to operate and furthermore, the ability to establish a vacuum also allows for the chamber to then be filled with the gases required to simulate a desired planetary atmosphere. (mdpi.com)
  • The study used an incomplete block design in which each subject was exposed to four of the six paired experimental atmospheres. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The study examined an exposure-response relationship using three levels of ozone ranging from below the current standard to one and one-half times the ambient air quality standard (0.08, 0.12, and 0.18 ppm* [parts per million]) with preexposure 24 hours earlier to H2SO4 (100 micrograms/m3) or sodium chloride (NaCl) (control) aerosol in a 45-m3 environmental chamber. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • UFP studies have demonstrated only weak associations between ambient UFP exposures and cardiopulmonary disease. (usf.edu)
  • However, ambient UFP exposures were used as a benchmark for candle soot exposures. (usf.edu)
  • The successful implementation of this correction will allow the extension of this rapid online spectroscopic technique to exposure chamber validation tests under controlled conditions and ambient monitoring in the field. (picarro.com)
  • Comparison of laboratory SOA data with ambient OOA indicates that laboratory SOA are more similar to SV-OOA and rarely become as oxidized as ambient LV-OOA, likely due to the higher loadings employed in the experiments and/or limited oxidant exposure in most chamber experiments. (caltech.edu)
  • Oxidant and acid aerosol exposure in healthy subjects and subjects with asthma. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's outdoor environmental photochemical reaction chamber was used to generate exposure atmospheres. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the area of environmental simulation, a test process exists with which industrial materials are tested for corrosion resistance in atmospheres containing salt - the salt mist test, also called salt spray test. (osram.com)
  • The insights gleaned from the acute studies planned in Projects 1 and 2 in conjunction with chronic studies in Project 3, have significant public health ramifications and may eventually lead to policy changes to avert environmental exposure to PM 2.5 . (epa.gov)
  • 1. Six groups of 20 male adult rats were maintained in an environmental chamber, each group for a period of 28 days. (clinsci.org)
  • The production of flash-gas and its release into the atmosphere, via venting and improper handling during production, is of concern to environmental efforts due to the presence of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP), Greenhouse Gases (GHG), and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) which have been suggested to have harmful long-term environmental impacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • We performed a systematic intercomparison study of the chemistry and yields of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from OH oxidation of a common set of gas-phase precursors in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) continuous flow reactor and several environmental chambers. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • This makes them much more susceptible to environmental CO. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established a maximum permissible exposure level of 50 parts per million (ppm) over eight hours. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Aerosol smog chamber experiments. (youscribe.com)
  • High altitude chamber experiments reliably show that experienced pilots are more likely to report no effects of hypoxia when they are obviously affected. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In these experiments, treatment with GM-CSF or overexpression of GM-CSF in the lung was associated with decreased apoptosis of AEC following exposure to hyperoxia. (physiology.org)
  • Dosing for rodents can be achieved using either whole body exposure chambers or nose-only exposure systems (modular, flow-through, or flow-past inhalation exposure systems), while our nonrodent dosing utilizes oropharyngeal or oronasal face masks or head-only exposure systems to deliver test atmospheres. (criver.com)
  • Comparison of Calidria chrysotile asbestos to pure tremolite: final results of the inhalation biopersistence and histopathology examination following short-term exposure. (curehunter.com)
  • final results of the inhalation biopersistence and histopathology examination following short-term exposure. (curehunter.com)
  • In this project, we hypothesize that chronic inhalation of CAP in conjunction with gaseous components such as ozone from distinct multipollutant atmospheres synergistically interacts with diet and genetic susceptibility to influence development of CMS. (epa.gov)
  • A process for dry sterilization of medical or dental devices and materials in which these materials are subjected to an electrical discharge in a gaseous atmosphere to produce an active low temperature plasma for surface steriliaztion and treatment of the devices and materials. (google.com)
  • Such a method is suitable for support of simulated occupational exposure for inhalation toxicity studies. (cdc.gov)
  • A dynamic asphalt fume generation system was modified to provide consistent test atmospheres at simulated asphalt road paving conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • The fume was conducted from the generator to an exposure chamber through a heated transfer line. (cdc.gov)
  • Total organic matter of the asphalt fume was quantified over the 5 exposure days. (cdc.gov)
  • and (4) identification of individual priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the asphalt fume by selected ion monitoring GC-MS, and further clarification of important PAH by coupling microflow LC to Q-TOF MS. Total extractable asphalt fume components were quantified over the 5 day exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The surface of the body of vitreous silica is exposed to a gas phase reactive atmosphere comprising atomic iodine at a predetermined. (google.com.au)
  • The surface of the body of vitreous silica is exposed to a gas phase reactive atmosphere comprising atomic iodine at a predetermined elevated temperature for a predetermined period of time to convert the surface layer of the vitreous silica to polycrystalline cristobalite and thus passivate and enhance the stability of the treated surface. (google.com.au)
  • It may be used to treat those suspected of severe carbon monoxide exposure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Looking into the hard X-ray nanoprobe synchrotron chamber while measuring a response of an individual cuprous oxide particle to the exposure of carbon dioxide, water and light. (anl.gov)
  • Recently, scientists have sought ways to recapture some of the carbon in the atmosphere and potentially turn it into usable fuel - which would be a holy grail for sustainable energy production. (anl.gov)
  • The availability of field chambers for growing trees, and long-term exposure studies of tree species to elevated carbon dioxide, has changed much of our views on carbon dioxide acting as a fertiliser. (springer.com)
  • Forest-Air-Carbon dioxide-Enrichment (FACE) sites monitored at several locations have shown lately, that the acclimation or down regulation as reported in chamber studies is not as wide-spread as originally thought. (springer.com)
  • 152 patients (mean age 36 y, 62% men) with documented or obvious exposure to carbon monoxide and any of 11 predetermined symptoms. (acpjc.org)
  • All patients had 3 hyperbaric chamber sessions at intervals of 6 to 12 hours starting within 24 hours after carbon monoxide exposure. (acpjc.org)
  • Method of particle size determination: An analysis of the particulate size distribution was carried out twice during the exposure period using a cascade impactor according to MAY (MAY, K.R. Aerosol impaction jets, J.Aerosol Sci. (europa.eu)
  • The oxidation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is studied with mass spectra analysis of SOA formed in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber, a small flow-through photo-oxidation chamber with extremely high OH and ozone levels. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Purpose: The purpose of this protocol is to compare the genetic and epigenetic effects between diesel exhaust and ozone exposure in healthy individuals and in mild/moderate asthmatics. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Procedures (methods): Subjects will be exposed to clean air, to 300 µg/m3 of diesel exhaust for 2 hours and to 0.3 ppm of ozone for 2 hours with intermittent exercise in a controlled environment chamber. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Airway responses include spirometry and lung cell changes following exposure to either clean air, ozone or diesel exhaust Lung cell changes include change in number and type of cells, changes in genetic (gene expression) and epigenetic responses (primarily changes in DNA methylation, microRNA expression and chromatin modification. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Exposure to 0.3ppm ozone will be conducted in an exposure chamber at the EPA Human Studies Facility on the UNC campus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Ozone exposures will be conducted in a (6 ft x 6 ft x 8 ft) stainless steel chamber with a continuous supply of exposure medium. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In Aim 2, we will investigate the effect of co-exposure of multipollutant CAP with ozone on the temporal development of insulin resistance and adipose/lung inflammation using the KKA/y model. (epa.gov)
  • We were interested in isolating the effects of ozone prior to conducting multi-pollutant exposures in combination with CAPS which we had proposed performing as part of Aim 3. (epa.gov)
  • The exposure protocols were designed to provide more quantitative information about the threshold levels of ozone that produce adverse biological effects and to provide exposure-response data on ozone. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To examine for delayed effects, pulmonary function tests were measured two and four hours after exposure on the ozone days. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Data were analyzed over the time course of exposure and by exposure level of ozone at each time point to reveal dose-response relationships more closely. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • No significant symptomatic or physiologic effects of exposure to either aerosol or ozone on lung function were found for the healthy group. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These vacuum chambers are able to simulate atmospheres and surface temperatures representative of the majority of planetary objects, and they are especially appropriate for studying the physical, chemical and biological changes induced in a particular sample by in situ irradiation or physical parameters in a controlled environment. (mdpi.com)
  • 5) The measurement and long-term monitoring at the martian surface of CO, O2, O3, and other products of photochemistry in the CO2-H2O system is also potentially important for determining the importance of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions in maintaining the stability of the martian atmosphere against photochemical destruction. (usra.edu)
  • Chen S, Brune WH, Lambe AT, Davidovits P, Onasch TB (2013) Modeling organic aerosol from the oxidation of α-pinene in a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber. (springer.com)
  • The components from all sites, when taken together, provide a holistic overview of Northern Hemisphere organic aerosol (OA) and its evolution in the atmosphere. (caltech.edu)
  • In addition, the histopathological response in the lung was evaluated following exposure. (curehunter.com)
  • 1985. Symptoms and lung function in low-exposure to TDI by polyurethane foam manufacturing. (cdc.gov)
  • 1987. Exposure, lung function, and symptoms in car painters exposed to hexamethylene diisocyanate and biuret modified hexamethylendiisocyanate. (cdc.gov)
  • Primary endpoints will include spirometry and lung cell changes post-exposure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The lung, plasma, and aorta of mice exposed to tobacco smoke or acrolein (for 5 h) accumulated more acrolein-adducted proteins than those tissues of mice exposed to air, indicating that exposure to tobacco smoke results in the systemic delivery of acrolein. (physiology.org)
  • Exposure of mice to hyperoxia induces alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury, acute lung injury and death. (physiology.org)
  • In Aim 1, simultaneous chronic exposure to multipollutant CAP from two locations in Columbus, OH representing near-roadside/traffic or remotely transported/aged emissions will be examined in combination with high fat chow (HFC). (epa.gov)
  • Breathing, or standing emissions, occur naturally as liquid sits in a vessel and undergoes normal evaporation into the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report provides the first systematic look at the health effects of exposures to emissions from a new-technology heavy-duty diesel engine. (healtheffects.org)
  • Two animals chosen randomly from each test group were submitted to detailed neuropathological examination following 2, 4, and 6 months of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • During the exposure period, none of the test animals displayed neurological impairment, or any other clinical disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • To test the hypothesis that sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide alone or in combination could have a contributory role, we have studied the effect of 6 h exposure to air, 200 parts per billion (ppb) sulphur dioxide, 400 ppb nitrogen dioxide, and the two gases together on the airway response to inhaled allergen in ten volunteers with mild atopic asthma. (nih.gov)
  • 3 This test is based on determination of diffusive sampling rates of test atmospheres containing five different aldehydes. (osha.gov)
  • The paraformaldehyde test atmospheres, including formaldehyde water solution, contain mostly formaldehyde, while the atmospheres produced from formaldehyde that has been stabilized with methyl alcohol contain formaldehyde and non-formaldehyde species. (osha.gov)
  • This difference in sampling rates causes lower loadings of formaldehyde derivative on the passive samplers when compared to the active samplers taken from the same test atmosphere. (osha.gov)
  • This study employed formaldehyde test atmospheres generated with formaldehyde solution prepared from paraformaldehyde to establish sampling rates for ChemDisk-Al. (osha.gov)
  • Test chamber exposure of humans to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). (cdc.gov)
  • The usual standards according to which the salt mist test is implemented are DIN 50021 SS (standard), DIN 53167, DIN EN 60068-2-52 (cylindrical salt mist), DIN EN ISO 9227, and DIN EN 60068-2-11. (osram.com)
  • The test object is stored in a special test chamber over a pre-specified test duration and is exposed to a misty atmosphere containing salt. (osram.com)
  • This simulates in condensed form the exposure of the test object to salt solutions (road traffic) during its service life. (osram.com)
  • Our salt spray test chambers enable reproducible, timely corrosion tests in accordance with relevant national and international standards such as DIN, ISO, EN, IEC, ASTM, DEF, MIL-STD and others. (osram.com)
  • In order to prove the resistance of technical products to harmful gases, our climate test chambers enable precise metering of noxious gases into an air-conditioned air volume. (osram.com)
  • The psychomotor test (timed arithmetic) was affected by the exposure condition (P less than 0.05) but not by the work rate. (rubicon-foundation.org)
  • Turbulent eddy diffusion models in exposure assessment - determination of the eddy diffusion coefficient. (cdc.gov)
  • altitude chamber (hypobaric) training" [internet]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Therefore, psychomotor performance was measured in exercising men during Hours 26 and 57 of exposure to 21, 17, and 13% O2 in a hypobaric chamber (each gas contained 0.9% CO2, balance N1). (rubicon-foundation.org)
  • Exposure apparatus: The study was carried out using a dynamic inhalation apparatus (RHEMA_LABORTECHNIK, 65719 Hofheim/Taunus, Germany) (air changes/h (≥ 12 times)) with a nose-only exposure of the animals according to KIMMERLE & TEPPER. (europa.eu)
  • The apparatus consists of a cylindrical exposure chamber (volume 40 L) which holds the animals in pyrex tubes at the edge of the chamber in a radial position. (europa.eu)
  • 2. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said chamber is fluid cooled. (google.com)
  • Home Apparatus & Equipment Research: Development of Fireground Exposure Simulator (FES) Prop for PPE Testing and. (fireengineering.com)
  • 1976. Accidental exposure to isocyauate fumes in a group of firemen. (cdc.gov)
  • Accidental releases are also potential sources of exposure in the military setting. (nap.edu)
  • Relating in vitro to in vivo exposures with physiologically-based tissue dosimetry and tissue response models. (cdc.gov)
  • We demonstrate that CS exposure induces the generation of a transient PAF-R agonistic activity in the blood of mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • CS exposure inhibits contact hypersensitivity in a PAF-R-dependent manner as PAF-R-deficient mice were resistant to these effects. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, CS exposure induced a significant increase in the expression of the regulatory T cell reporter gene in Foxp3 EGFP mice but not in Foxp3 EGFP mice on a PAF-R-deficient background. (jimmunol.org)
  • Once cured, the repair withstands the high pressure of the combustion chamber, all without failing or clogging the cooling system. (amazon.com)
  • Vehicle 10 is employed to carry fuel tank 11, insulated oxidizer tank 13 and combustion chamber 15, along with the necessary instrumentation, from earth into the upper atmosphere or into interplanetary space. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Fuel tank 11 is in fluid connection with combustion chamber 15 and oxidizer tank 13 is in fluid connection with combustion chamber 15 by way of respective conduits 17 and 19. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • The fuel and oxidizer then flow through conduits 17 and 19 and impinge upon each other through a centrally positioned manifold and suitable jets (not shown) in combustion chamber 15 where spontaneous ignition occurs. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • The reaction products are then expelled through the open ends of combustion chamber 15 as plasma which includes the desired barium neutral atoms and barium ions as individual species. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • 2007). However, previous reports did not examine the effect of sperm exposure to these four different GAGs on post-fertilization events, such as in vitro embryo developmental potential and embryo gene expression. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The repeated dose toxicity of monopropylene glycol by oral and inhalatory exposure routes is low. (europa.eu)
  • Exposure to isocyanates and organic solvents, and pulmonary-function changes in workers in a polyurethane molding process. (cdc.gov)
  • An exposure chamber, equipped with two interior fans to ensure good circulation, was used to generate an atmosphere containing isocyanates. (diva-portal.org)
  • In general, SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than measured in chambers for the range of equivalent OH exposures that can be measured in both the flow reactor and chambers. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • To protect operators against exposure to a tritiated atmosphere VISIONI must be placed in a secondary confinement. (ans.org)
  • NASA broadcast the landing live, showing the mission control team eagerly watching as the spacecraft entered the Martian atmosphere and began the nail-biting entry, descent and landing (EDL) process. (universetoday.com)
  • The normal burst of endogenous ATP detected during spore germination in B. pumilus and B. subtilis was reduced by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude following, respectively, 8- or 30-min exposures to simulated martian conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Other types of atmosphere-surface interactions are also believed to be important under martian surface conditions, but have not been firmly identified. (usra.edu)
  • 6. A method in accordance with claim 5 wherein said gas tight-confining chamber is fluid cooled. (google.com)
  • All three-hour exposures included several predetermined periods of exercise and pulmonary function measurements. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Studies range from acute to sub-chronic and chronic through to carcinogenic exposures. (criver.com)
  • However, the chronic effects of exposure to GAs during critical periods of brain development on the function of the major groups of ion channels that control excitability in TC networks are not well studied. (jneurosci.org)
  • Much of the research on firefighters' dermal exposure to contaminants has focused on the solid phase contamination, such as higher molecular weight PAHs [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ]. (fireengineering.com)
  • For exposure conditions without S9 mix RPMI-10 medium was used. (europa.eu)
  • Voluntary activity and metabolic rates were measured on days 5+6 of wheel access (mimicking conditions during selection), using wheels enclosed in metabolic chambers. (biologists.org)
  • With this objective in mind, we applied vacuum technology to the design of versatile vacuum chambers devoted to the simulation of planetary atmospheres' conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Chambers used in previous studies did not match normal room conditions. (usf.edu)
  • Application versatility is enhanced by a multi-chamber design - a first in this industry sector - that ensures the purest processing conditions by continuously maintaining the substrate under vacuum from deposition of catalysts to growth of nanomaterials. (nanotech-now.com)
  • End-to-end atmosphere-free processing ensures the highest purity conditions to minimise contamination and oxidation and ensure consistent and repeatable results. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Various factors and tumor-associated conditions known to be present in the tumor microenvironment were examined for their ability to cause exposure of anionic phospholipids in cultured endothelial cells, as judged by 9D2 and annexin V binding. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Applied recently introduced the Endura® Clover™ MRAM PVD platform , which is made up of nine unique wafer processing chambers that are integrated in pristine, high-vacuum conditions. (appliedmaterials.com)
  • AEGLs represent threshold exposure limits for the general public and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 minutes (min) to 8 hours (h). (nap.edu)
  • Three levels-AEGL-1, AEGL-2, and AEGL-3-are developed for each of five exposure periods (10 and 30 min and 1, 4, and 8 h) and are distinguished by varying degrees of severity of toxic effects. (nap.edu)
  • The other four groups were exposed to this hypoxic atmosphere for only a proportion of each 24 h cycle: 2, 4 and 12 h daily, and eight periods of 30 min daily. (clinsci.org)
  • Although exposure to the pro-oxidative stressor cigarette smoke (CS) is known to exert immunomodulatory effects, little is known regarding the role of PAF in these events. (jimmunol.org)
  • Tube formation by HUVECs was strongly inhibited by exposure to conditioned medium from oxidative stress-stimulated ARPE19 cells treated with 1 μM TA compared with cells not treated with TA. (arvojournals.org)
  • At the bottom of the exposure chamber, the air was sucked off at a lower flow rate than it was created by the dust generator in order to produce a homogenous distribution and a positive pressure in the exposure chamber (inflow 900 L/h, outflow 800 L/h). (europa.eu)
  • The dust from the exposure chamber was drawn through the cascade impactor for 5 minutes at a constant flow rate of 5 L/min. (europa.eu)
  • 20 microm), histopathological examination revealed no evidence of any inflammatory reaction either after the cessation of the last exposure or at any time during the subsequent 12-mo period. (curehunter.com)
  • The system has three chambers: a load/lock chamber and two reaction chambers, plus an automatic transport system for moving wafers/substrates. (nanotech-now.com)
  • The specification for this richly equipped platform came partly from requests by users of Surrey NanoSystems' first growth platform, the single reaction chamber NanoGrowth 1000n, and from researchers at Surrey NanoSystems and its research partner, the Advanced Technology Institute at the University of Surrey. (nanotech-now.com)
  • These findings make the use of turbulent eddy diffusion models for exposure assessment in workplace/indoor environments more practical. (cdc.gov)
  • Formaldehyde atmospheres in the workplace could result from formaldehyde stabilized with methyl alcohol, and would contain the non-formaldehyde species, causing diffusive sampler formaldehyde results that would be lower than active sampler results, if the samples were taken side-by-side. (osha.gov)