Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A widely used industrial solvent.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity to citric acid challenge during a simulated ascent to extreme altitude. (1/168)

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of cough and the citric acid cough threshold during hypobaric hypoxia under controlled environmental conditions. Subjects were studied during Operation Everest 3. Eight subjects ascended to a simulated altitude of 8,848 m over 31 days in a hypobaric chamber. Frequency of nocturnal cough was measured using voice-activated tape recorders, and cough threshold by inhalation of increasing concentrations of citric acid aerosol. Spirometry was performed before and after each test. Subjects recorded symptoms of acute mountain sickness and arterial oxygen saturation daily. Air temperature and humidity were controlled during the operation. Cough frequency increased with increasing altitude, from a median of 0 coughs (range 0-4) at sea level to 15 coughs (range 3-32) at a simulated altitude of 8,000 m. Cough threshold was unchanged on arrival at 5,000 m compared to sea level (geometric mean difference (GMD) 1.0, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.5-2.1, p=0.5), but fell on arrival at 8,000 m compared to sea level (GMD 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.3, p=0.043). There was no relationship between cough threshold and symptoms of acute mountain sickness, oxygen saturation or forced expiratory volume in one second. Temperature and humidity in the chamber were controlled between 18-24 degrees C and 30-60%, respectively. These results confirm an increase in cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity associated with hypobaric hypoxia, and refute the hypothesis that high altitude cough is due to the inhalation of cold, dry air. The small sample size makes further conclusions difficult, and the cause of altitude-related cough remains unclear.  (+info)

Acute mountain sickness is not related to cerebral blood flow: a decompression chamber study. (2/168)

To evaluate the pathogenetic role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes occurring before and during the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS), peak mean middle cerebral artery flow velocities () were assessed by transcranial Doppler sonography in 10 subjects at 490-m altitude, and during three 12-min periods immediately (SA1), 3 (SA2), and 6 (SA3) h after decompression to a simulated altitude of 4,559 m. AMS cerebral scores increased from 0. 16 +/- 0.14 at baseline to 0.44 +/- 0.31 at SA1, 1.11 +/- 0.88 at SA2 (P < 0.05), and 1.43 +/- 1.03 at SA3 (P < 0.01); correspondingly, three, seven, and eight subjects had AMS. Absolute and relative at simulated altitude, expressed as percentages of low-altitude values (%), did not correlate with AMS cerebral scores. Average % remained unchanged, because % increased in three and remained unchanged or decreased in seven subjects at SA2 and SA3. These results suggest that CBF is not important in the pathogenesis of AMS and shows substantial interindividual differences during the first hours at simulated altitude.  (+info)

Chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors in A/J strain mice with dietary myo-inositol and dexamethasone. (3/168)

Male A/J strain mice were fed AIN-76A diet supplemented with myo-inositol/dexamethasone (10 g and 0.5 mg/kg diet) or acetylsalicylic acid (300 mg/kg) and exposed for 5 months to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke at a concentration of 132 mg total suspended particulates/m3. After tobacco smoke exposure, they were allowed to recover for another 4 months in filtered air. In the animals fed AIN-75A diet alone or acetylsalicylic acid, the average number of tumors/lung was 2.1, whereas in the animals given the myo-inositol/dexamethasone diet, the average lung tumor multiplicity was 1.0 (P < 0.05). In animals exposed to filtered air, lung tumor multiplicities were 0.6 for animals fed AIN-76A or myo-inositol/dexamethasone and 1.2 for animals fed acetylsalicylic acid. It was concluded that the combination of myo-inositol and dexamethasone constitutes an effective chemopreventive regimen against tobacco smoke-induced lung tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Biotransformation and kinetics of excretion of methyl-tert-butyl ether in rats and humans. (4/168)

Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as an additive to gasoline to increase oxygen content and reduce tail pipe emission of pollutants. Therefore, widespread human exposure may occur. To contribute to the characterization of potential adverse effects of MTBE, its biotransformation was compared in humans and rats after inhalation exposure. Human volunteers (3 males and 3 females) and rats (5 each, males and females) were exposed to 4 (4.5 +/- 0.4) and 40 (38.7 +/- 3.2) ppm MTBE for 4 h in a dynamic exposure system. Urine samples from rats and humans were collected for 72 h in 6-h intervals, and blood samples were taken in regular intervals for 48 h. In urine, MTBE and the MTBE metabolites tertiary-butanol (t-butanol), 2-methyl-1,2-propane diol, and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate were quantified; MTBE and t-butanol were determined in blood samples. After the end of the exposure period, inhalation of 40 ppm MTBE resulted in blood concentrations of MTBE 5.9 +/- 1.8 microM in rats and 6.7 +/- 1.6 microM in humans. The MTBE blood concentrations after inhalation of 4 ppm MTBE were 2.3 +/- 1.0 in rats and 1.9 +/- 0.4 microM in humans. MTBE was rapidly cleared from blood with a half-life of 2.6 +/- 0.9 h in humans and 0.5 +/- 0.2 h in rats. The blood concentrations of t-butanol were 21.8 +/- 3.7 microM in humans and 36.7 +/- 10.8 microM in rats after 40 ppm MTBE, and 2.6 +/- 0.3 in humans and 2.9 +/- 0.5 in rats after 4 ppm MTBE. In humans, t-butanol was cleared from blood with a half-life of 5.3 +/- 2.1 h. In urine samples from controls and in samples collected from the volunteers and rats before the exposure, low concentrations of t-butanol, 2-methyl-1,2-propane diol and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate were present. In urine of both humans and rats exposed to MTBE, the concentrations of these compounds were significantly increased. 2-Hydroxyisobutyrate was recovered as a major excretory product in urine; t-butanol and 2-methyl-1,2-propane diol were minor metabolites. All metabolites of MTBE excreted with urine were rapidly eliminated in both species after the end of the MTBE exposure. Elimination half-lives for the different urinary metabolites of MTBE were between 7.8 and 17.0 h in humans and 2.9 to 5.0 h in rats. The obtained data indicate that MTBE biotransformation and excretion are similar in rats and humans, and MTBE and its metabolites are rapidly excreted in both species. Between 35 and 69% of the MTBE retained after the end of the exposure was recovered as metabolites in urine of both humans and rats.  (+info)

Absence of prenatal developmental toxicity from inhaled arsenic trioxide in rats. (5/168)

A review of the literature revealed no published inhalational developmental toxicity studies of arsenic performed according to modern regulatory guidelines and with exposure throughout gestation. In the present study, inorganic arsenic, as arsenic trioxide (As(+3), As2O3), was administered via whole-body inhalational exposure to groups of twenty-five Crl:CD(SD)BR female rats for six h per day every day, beginning fourteen days prior to mating and continuing throughout mating and gestation. Exposures were begun prior to mating in order to achieve a biological steady state of As(+3) in the dams prior to embryonal-fetal development. In a preliminary exposure range-finding study, half of the females that had been exposed to arsenic trioxide at 25 mg/m3 died or were euthanized in extremis. In the definitive study, target exposure levels were 0.3, 3.0, and 10.0 mg/m3. Maternal toxicity, which was determined by the occurrence of rales, a decrease in net body weight gain, and a decrease in food intake during pre-mating and gestational exposure, was observed only at the 10 mg/m3 exposure level. Intrauterine parameters (mean numbers of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions and viable fetuses, and mean fetal weights) were unaffected by treatment. No treatment-related malformations or developmental variations were noted at any exposure level. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for maternal toxicity was 3.0 mg/m3; the NOAEL for developmental toxicity was greater than or equal to 10 mg/m3, 760 times both the time-weighted average threshold limit value (TLV) and the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for humans. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that arsenic trioxide, when administered via whole-body inhalation to pregnant rats, is not a developmental toxicant.  (+info)

Effects of a thirteen-week inhalation exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether on fischer-344 rats and CD-1 mice. (6/168)

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that oxygenates be added to automotive fuels to reduce emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. One potential oxygenate is the aliphatic ether ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). Our objective was to provide data on the potential toxic effects of ETBE. Male and female Fisher 344 rats and CD-1 mice were exposed to 0 (control), 500, 1750, or 5000 ppm of ETBE for 6 h/day and 5 days/wk over a 13-week period. ETBE exposure had no effect on mortality and body weight with the exception of an increase in body weights of the female rats in the 5000-ppm group. No major changes in clinical pathology parameters were noted for either rats or mice exposed to ETBE for 6 (rats only) or 13 weeks. Liver weights increased with increasing ETBE-exposure concentration for both sexes of rats and mice. Increases in kidney, adrenal, and heart (females only) weights were noted in rats. Degenerative changes in testicular seminiferous tubules were observed in male rats exposed to 1750 and 5000 ppm but were not seen in mice. This testicular lesion has not been reported previously for aliphatic ethers. Increases in the incidence of regenerative foci, rates of renal cell proliferation, and alpha2u-globulin containing protein droplets were noted in the kidneys of all treated male rats. These lesions are associated with the male rat-specific syndrome of alpha2u-globulin nephropathy. Increases in the incidence of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy and rates of hepatocyte cell proliferation were seen in the livers of male and female mice in the 5000-ppm group, consistent with a mitogenic response to ETBE. These two target organs for ETBE toxicity, mouse liver and male rat kidney, have also been reported for methyl tertiary butyl ether and unleaded gasoline.  (+info)

Developmental toxicity evaluation of inhaled toluene diisocyanate vapor in CD rats. (7/168)

Mated female CD (Sprague-Dawley) rats, 25/group, were exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) vapor, for six h/day on gestational days (gd) 6 through 15, at 0.00, 0.02, 0.10, or 0.50 p.p.m.. Maternal clinical signs, body weights, and feed and water consumption were recorded throughout gestation. At termination (gd 21), maternal body, gravid uterine, and liver weights were recorded. Corpora lutea were counted, and implantation sites were identified: resorptions and dead and live fetuses. All live fetuses were examined for external alterations. One-half of the live fetuses/litter were examined for visceral (including craniofacial) alterations. The remaining intact fetuses/litter were stained with alizarin red S and examined for ossified skeletal alterations. Maternal toxicity at 0.50 ppm consisted of reduced body weights, body weight gains, feed consumption, and clinical signs of toxicity. Water consumption was unaffected. Gestational parameters exhibited no significant treatment-related changes, including pre- and postimplantation loss, sex ratio/litter, or fetal body weights/litter. Incidences of individual malformations, malformations by category (external, visceral, and skeletal), total malformations, individual external and visceral variations, variations by category, and total variations were unaffected. Of 111 skeletal variants observed, only 1, incidence of poorly ossified cervical centrum 5, was increased at 0.50 ppm, indicating possible minimal fetotoxicity, although it occurred in the absence of any other indications of developmental toxicity. Therefore, exposure to TDI vapor by inhalation, during major organogenesis in CD rats, resulted in maternal toxicity and minimal fetotoxicity at 0.50 ppm no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity was 0.10 ppm. No treatment-related embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was observed.  (+info)

Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of inhaled toluene diisocyanate vapor in CD rats. (8/168)

Twenty-eight 42-day-old pups/sex/group (F0) were exposed to toluene diisocyanate vapor (TDI; 80% 2,4-TDI, 20% 2,6-TDI) by inhalation at 0.0, 0.02, 0.08, or 0.3 ppm, 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 10 weeks, then mated within groups for 3 weeks, with exposure 7 days/week during mating, gestation, and lactation. F0 maternal animals were not exposed from gestational day (gd) 20 through postnatal day (pnd) 4; maternal exposures resumed on pnd 5. Twenty-eight weanlings/sex/group continued exposure for 12 weeks (starting on pnd 28) and were bred as described above. F0 and F1 parents and ten F1 and F2 weanlings/sex/group were necropsied, and adult reproductive organs, pituitary, liver, kidneys, and upper respiratory tract (target organs) were evaluated histologically in ten/sex/group. Adult toxicity was observed in both sexes and generations at 0.08 and 0.3 ppm, including occasional reductions in body weights and weight gain, clinical signs of toxicity at 0.08 and 0.3 ppm, and histologic changes in the nasal cavities at 0.02, 0.08, and 0.3 ppm (including rhinitis, a nonspecific response to an irritating vapor, at all concentrations). There was no reproductive toxicity, reproductive organ pathology, or effect on gestation or lactation at any exposure concentration. Postnatal toxicity and reduced body weights and weight gains during lactation occurred only in F2 litters at 0.08 and 0.3 ppm. Therefore, under the conditions of this study, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was not determined for adult toxicity; the NOAEL for reproductive toxicity was at least 0.3 ppm, and the NOAEL for postnatal toxicity was 0.02 ppm.  (+info)

An Atmosphere Exposure Chamber (AEC) is a controlled environment chamber that is designed to expose materials, products, or devices to specific atmospheric conditions for the purpose of testing their durability, performance, and safety. These chambers can simulate various environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, pressure, and contaminants, allowing researchers and manufacturers to evaluate how these factors may affect the properties and behavior of the materials being tested.

AECs are commonly used in a variety of industries, including automotive, aerospace, electronics, and medical devices, to ensure that products meet regulatory requirements and industry standards for performance and safety. For example, an AEC might be used to test the durability of a new aircraft material under extreme temperature and humidity conditions, or to evaluate the performance of a medical device in a contaminated environment.

The design and operation of AECs are subject to various regulations and standards, such as those established by organizations like the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). These standards ensure that AECs are designed and operated in a consistent and controlled manner, allowing for accurate and reliable test results.

Inhalation exposure is a term used in occupational and environmental health to describe the situation where an individual breathes in substances present in the air, which could be gases, vapors, fumes, mist, or particulate matter. These substances can originate from various sources, such as industrial processes, chemical reactions, or natural phenomena.

The extent of inhalation exposure is determined by several factors, including:

1. Concentration of the substance in the air
2. Duration of exposure
3. Frequency of exposure
4. The individual's breathing rate
5. The efficiency of the individual's respiratory protection, if any

Inhalation exposure can lead to adverse health effects, depending on the toxicity and concentration of the inhaled substances. Short-term or acute health effects may include irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, or lungs, while long-term or chronic exposure can result in more severe health issues, such as respiratory diseases, neurological disorders, or cancer.

It is essential to monitor and control inhalation exposures in occupational settings to protect workers' health and ensure compliance with regulatory standards. Various methods are employed for exposure assessment, including personal air sampling, area monitoring, and biological monitoring. Based on the results of these assessments, appropriate control measures can be implemented to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with inhalation exposure.

In medical terms, the term "atmosphere" is not typically used as a standalone definition or diagnosis. However, in some contexts, it may refer to the physical environment or surroundings in which medical care is provided. For example, some hospitals and healthcare facilities may have different atmospheres depending on their specialties, design, or overall ambiance.

Additionally, "atmosphere" may also be used more broadly to describe the social or emotional climate of a particular healthcare setting. For instance, a healthcare provider might describe a patient's home atmosphere as warm and welcoming, or a hospital ward's atmosphere as tense or chaotic.

It is important to note that "atmosphere" is not a medical term with a specific definition, so its meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Toluene is not a medical condition or disease, but it is a chemical compound that is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications. Medically, toluene can be relevant as a substance of abuse due to its intoxicating effects when inhaled or sniffed. It is a colorless liquid with a distinctive sweet aroma, and it is a common solvent found in many products such as paint thinners, adhesives, and rubber cement.

In the context of medical toxicology, toluene exposure can lead to various health issues, including neurological damage, cognitive impairment, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, and hearing and vision problems. Chronic exposure to toluene can also cause significant harm to the developing fetus during pregnancy, leading to developmental delays, behavioral problems, and physical abnormalities.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

The anterior chamber is the front portion of the eye, located between the cornea (the clear front "window" of the eye) and the iris (the colored part of the eye). It is filled with a clear fluid called aqueous humor that provides nutrients to the structures inside the eye and helps maintain its shape. The anterior chamber plays an important role in maintaining the overall health and function of the eye.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Water vapor is the hardest natural element to remove from vacuum chamber walls upon exposure to the atmosphere due to monolayer ... Most production equipment utilizing a cryopump have a means to isolate the cryopump from the vacuum chamber so regeneration ... a solid state to a gaseous state and thereby be released from the cryopump through a pressure relief valve into the atmosphere ...
The contribution of VOCs to the levels of SOA in the atmosphere have been modeled using simulation chamber experiments to gain ... In particular, exposure to the VOC benzene during crude oil production could pose potentially serious health risks to workers. ... Gases And The Atmosphere. "Chemical Reactions in the Atmosphere" (PDF). Hazardous Air Pollutants. (2017, March 17). Retrieved ... Thief hatches are also used in gauge tanks and in transport vehicles where they must be opened to the atmosphere to take ...
The hyperbaric atmosphere in the accommodation chambers and the bell are controlled to ensure that the risk of long term ... which is near the upper limit for long term exposure. Carbon dioxide is removed from the chamber gas by recycling it through ... The entire system is managed from a control room ("van"), where depth, chamber atmosphere and other system parameters are ... More than one living chamber can be linked to the transfer chamber through trunking so that diving teams can be stored at ...
Characterization of nanoparticles in inhalation exposure chambers for inhalation toxicity testing ISO/TS 10811 Mechanical ... Corrugated flexible metallic hose assemblies for the protection of electrical cables in explosive atmospheres ISO 10808:2010 ... Reverberation chamber ISO 11453:1996 Statistical interpretation of data - Tests and confidence intervals relating to ...
... diver pressure exposure used in decompression tables and the unit of calibration for pneumofathometers and hyperbaric chamber ... or two atmospheres absolute. For every additional 33 feet of depth, another atmosphere of pressure accumulates. Therefore at ... One atmosphere is approximately equal to 33 feet of sea water or 14.7 psi, which gives 4.9/11 or about 0.445 psi per foot. ... The pressure of seawater at a depth of 33 feet equals one atmosphere. The absolute pressure at 33 feet depth in sea water is ...
... the structure of the hive or the stores of honey and pollen it contains by sufficiently lengthy exposure to an atmosphere of ... Nectar stored in contaminated cells will contain spores and soon the brood chamber becomes filled with contaminated honey. As ... ethylene oxide gas, as in a closed chamber, as hospitals do to sterilize equipment that cannot withstand steam sterilization. ...
Due to the lack of any atmosphere of substance on the Moon, plants would need to be grown in sealed chambers, though ... As an alternative to excavating, a lava tube could be covered and insulated, thus solving the problem of radiation exposure. A ... Due to the lack of atmosphere, the location is also suitable for an array of optical telescopes, similar to the Very Large ... Mag-Lev systems are particularly attractive as there is no atmosphere on the surface to slow down the train, so the vehicles ...
... diver pressure exposure used in decompression tables and the unit of calibration for pneumofathometers and hyperbaric chamber ... The reference face can be open to atmosphere to measure gauge pressure, open to a second port to measure differential pressure ... have connections both to the internal part of the aneroid chamber and to an external enclosing chamber. These gauges use the ... These devices use the sealed chamber as a reference pressure and are driven by the external pressure. Other sensitive aircraft ...
C and 1 standard atmosphere of pressure. This unit of radiation exposure was named the roentgen in honour of Wilhelm Röntgen, ... of measuring the intensity of X-rays was to measure their ionising effect in air by means of an air-filled ion chamber. At the ... These are effects which are certain to happen in a short time.[citation needed] The time between exposure and vomiting may be ... "Radiation Exposure and Contamination - Injuries; Poisoning - Merck Manuals Professional Edition". Merck Manuals Professional ...
C and 1 standard atmosphere of pressure. This unit of radiation exposure was named the roentgen in honour of Wilhelm Röntgen, ... of measuring the intensity of X-rays was to measure their ionising effect in air by means of an air-filled ion chamber. At the ... A whole-body acute exposure to 5 grays or more of high-energy radiation usually leads to death within 14 days. LD1 is 2.5 Gy, ... Kerma, when applied to air, is equivalent to the legacy roentgen unit of radiation exposure, but there is a difference in the ...
It is used in chambers for gas hypersensitization, a process in which photographic film is heated in forming gas to drive out ... It is sometimes called a "dissociated ammonia atmosphere" due to the reaction which generates it: 2 NH3 → 3 H2 + N2 It can also ... requires long exposure times, and is thus particularly sensitive to contaminants in the film. Forming gas is also used to ... Forming gas is used as an atmosphere for processes that need the properties of hydrogen gas. Typical forming gas formulations ( ...
To observe this in a dry atmosphere, air would have needed to first be moistened by exposure to water. The nephelescope enabled ... The nephelescope has been described as an "early cloud-chamber". Espy, James Pollard (1841). The philosophy of storms. C.C. ... As it warms up, pressure inside the container once again increases above atmosphere. This increase in pressure can be used to ... The stopclock is then opened, allowing the pressure of the container to equilibriate the atmosphere, and then closed again. The ...
When Lodovico Altieri was named cardinal, Bedini gained exposure to the diplomatic atmosphere, and he was subsequently called ... His work led the Chamber of Deputies of Rio de Janeiro to improve the living conditions of the German immigrants. Giuseppe ...
If the pressure is rapidly diminished to normal after exposure to saturation in compressed air, the venous blood will give off ... In 1907 Haldane made a decompression chamber to help make deep-sea divers safer and produced the first decompression tables ... Schrötter, Heller and Mager framed rules for safe decompression and believed that the decompression rate of one atmosphere (atm ... Results showed that a certain minimum pressure is required to give symptoms on goats and that duration of exposure to high ...
The bubble chamber was then ready again for a new cycle of beam exposure. The conception and construction of giant bubble ... The liquids at typical operation temperatures around 27 K were placed under overpressure of about 5 standard atmospheres (510 ... Bubble chamber Gargamelle Wikimedia Commons has media related to Big European Bubble Chamber. "Introduction to the Workshop "30 ... The Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) is a large detector formerly used to study particle physics at CERN. The chamber body, a ...
This splits Titan's atmosphere into two separate resonating chambers. The source of natural ELF waves on Titan is unclear as ... low-level exposure is evaluated as average exposure to residential power-frequency magnetic field above 0.3~0.4 µT, and it is ... low-level exposure to ELF fields insufficient to justify lowering these quantitative exposure limits. In summary, when all of ... high-level exposure have been established and form the basis of two international exposure limit guidelines (ICNIRP, 1998; IEEE ...
... and standards for diving Saturation diving Saturation mode Physiology of deep exposure Compression At depth in a living chamber ... The ambient pressure underwater increases by 1 standard atmosphere (100 kPa) for every 10 metres (33 ft) of depth. The ... monitoring and therapeutic devices in chambers Risk assessment, incidents monitoring and safety plan in HBO chambers HBO Safety ... "Hyperbaric Chambers Are Turning Away Divers. Will There Be One Nearby When You Need It?". gue.com. Retrieved 7 October 2023. ...
Human and animal exposure to such gases can cause long term breathing and health issues. The rotation of toxic air does not ... This is the process of which waste is fed to a combustion chamber and combustion air begins to dry and facilitates ... As a result, carbon dioxide and other excess gases are released into the atmosphere. The second type of incineration is the ... Human exposure to such toxins can stunt human growth development and cause birth defects. The high volume of plastic use in the ...
The 15-second exposures are a compromise to allow spotting both faint and moving sources. Longer exposures would reduce the ... The coating chamber, which was used to coat the mirrors once they arrived, itself arrived at the summit in November 2018. The ... Unlike many telescopes, the Rubin Observatory makes no attempt to compensate for dispersion in the atmosphere. Such correction ... While not taking exposures in the traditional sense, it detects objects up to a magnitude of 21. The Zwicky Transient Facility ...
Determination of Shelf Life Many products degrade with exposure to the atmosphere: foods, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, etc. The ... This can be in a conditioned room or in a chamber enclosing the test. With some testing, the package is conditioned to a ... Exposures to expected and elevated temperatures and humidities are commonly used for shelf life testing. The ability of ... Exposure to elevated temperatures accelerates some degradation mechanisms. An Arrhenius equation is often used to correlate ...
Content may be judged based on how many views a post gets, creating an atmosphere that appeals to emotion, audience biases, or ... Social media adds an additional dimension, as user networks can become echo chambers possibly emphasised by the filter bubble ... "New MIT Sloan research measures exposure to misinformation from political elites on Twitter". AP NEWS. 29 November 2022. ... Mosleh, Mohsen; Rand, David G. (21 November 2022). "Measuring exposure to misinformation from political elites on Twitter". ...
Common atmospheres used include: inert, reducing or vacuum atmospheres all of which protect the part from oxidation. Some other ... Brazing may entail exposure to hazardous chemical fumes. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in the ... The process can be expensive because it must be performed inside a vacuum chamber vessel. Temperature uniformity is maintained ... The use of flux is also required for this method as there is no protective atmosphere, and it is best suited to small to medium ...
Hypobaric Chamber Facility or HCF (altitude chambers) Two Class D chambers (man-rated) rarefied air atmosphere, non-oxygen ... 23,656 simulated altitude exposures of human volunteers over 33 years of studies 13 Environmental Chambers Temperatures from - ... ft.) Small Study Chamber: internal volume of 1100 cu. ft. (floor area 108 sq. ft.) Environmentally controlled (altitude, ... DeGroot DW, Devine JA, Fulco CS (September 2003). "Incidence of adverse reactions from 23,000 exposures to simulated ...
Coupons are weighed before and after exposure. The surface deposits are assumed to be copper (I) sulfide, Cu2S, in the case of ... Coupons are typically hung in the test chamber located in proximity to the materials under test. Metal coupons should ideally ... to evaluate resistance to corrosion due to gases in the atmosphere. Mixed Flowing Gas (MFG) test is a laboratory test in which ... The purpose of this test is to simulate corrosion phenomenon due to atmospheric exposure. The electronic product is exposed to ...
Beginning in 1991 all astronauts were trained for G-exposure at USAFSAM. Multiple altitude chambers of various sizes including ... And much of the work in space food, radiation studies, space cabin atmospheres, and pressure suits were adopted by NASA during ... Training Altitude Chambers The USAFSAM operates two training altitude chambers to provide initial hypoxia training to all ... "Altitude chamber training begins at the new 711th Human Performance Wi". Air Force Medical Service. Retrieved 2016-03-01. ...
This holds with exposures up to a second or so, but in general does not hold over exposure times of minutes or hours. Several ... Amateurs were able to buy hypersensitizing equipment and gas from Lumicon or build their own hypering chambers. Details of the ... plates were usually exposed at the telescope in an atmosphere of nitrogen. In the AAS Photo Bulletin, Jack Marling describes ... Most photographic materials are designed for snapshot exposure of much less than one second. In longer exposures, such as those ...
Exposure to ionizing radiation can also cause cataracts, a problem with the eye. The atmosphere of Mars is much thinner than ... Three types of tests planned for the Z-2 include tests in a vacuum chamber, tests in NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (a ... But the Martian atmosphere contains only 0.13-0.14% oxygen, compared to 20.9% of Earth's atmosphere. Thus breathing the Martian ... however any radiation exposure carries risk so there is a focus on keeping exposure as low as possible. On the surface of Mars ...
Note: 1 atmosphere (atm) is 1.013 bars. Toxicity of Carbon Dioxide Gas Exposure, CO2 Poisoning Symptoms, Carbon Dioxide ... as hearing sensitivity is not significantly affected by the breathing gas or chamber atmosphere composition or pressure. ... Prolonged exposure to above-normal oxygen partial pressures, or shorter exposures to very high partial pressures, can cause ... The onset of seizure depends upon the partial pressure of oxygen in the breathing gas and exposure duration. However, exposure ...
The 1994 election took place in an atmosphere of political instability after the rise of the Zapatista Army of National ... Voter turnout ranged from 77.4% in the proportional representation section of the Chamber elections to 75.9% in the ... However, there was considerable criticism towards the inequity regarding campaign financing and media exposure, both of which ... whilst the PRI won 300 of the 500 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 95 of the 128 seats in the Senate. ...
The study of ozone concentration in the atmosphere started in the 1920s. The highest levels of ozone in the atmosphere are in ... Exposure of 0.1 to 1 μmol/mol produces headaches, burning eyes and irritation to the respiratory passages. Even low ... Redlands Chamber of Commerce Collection, City Archives, A.K. Smiley Public Library, Redlands, CA Henry Henshaw to William ... In the clear atmosphere, with only nitrogen and oxygen, ozone can react with the atomic oxygen to form two molecules of O2: O 3 ...
Exposure-methods; Industrial-poisons; Exposure-chambers; Histological-changes; Nervous-system-disorders; Tissue-reactions; ... NIOSH-Grant; Neurotoxic-effects; Neurotoxic-agents; Laboratory-animals; Controlled-atmospheres; Solvent-vapors; ... and 6 months of exposure. During the exposure period, none of the test animals displayed neurological impairment, or any other ... Groups of six animals were housed in four inhalation chambers and exposed to 1,475 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/cum) of ...
Details on exposure:. GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION. - Exposure apparatus: 6 m³ glass and stainless-steel ... Temperature and humidity in air chamber: continuously monitored. - Air flow rate: 1.2 m³/min. TEST ATMOSPHERE. - Brief ... System of generating particulates/aerosols: Morpholine was generated into each exposure chamber as a vapour by sweeping with ... Concentrations of Morpholine within each exposure chamber were analysed approximately every 30 min using a Wilks-Miran A ...
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION. - Exposure apparatus: stainless steel/glass exposure chamber. - Exposure ... Analytical verification of test atmosphere concentrations:. yes. Remarks:. GC. Duration of exposure:. 4 Concentrations:. ... Additional dilution air sweeps vapour into exposure chamber. - Method of particle size determination: conducted to ensure no ... Temperature, humidity, pressure in air chamber: 25 deg C, 9% humidity. TEST ATMOSPHERE. - Brief description of analytical ...
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION. - Exposure apparatus: three 1 cubic meter, H1000 exposure chambers. - ... GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION. - Exposure apparatus: three 1 cubic meter, H1000 exposure chambers. - ... GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION. - Exposure apparatus: three 1 cubic meter, H1000 exposure chambers. - ... GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION. - Exposure apparatus: three 1 cubic meter, H1000 exposure chambers. - ...
Details on inhalation exposure:. GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION. - Exposure apparatus: Inhalation chamber ... Each exposure chamber was analyzed for isopropanol twice each hour by flame ionization gas chromatography. Duration of ... Type of inhalation exposure:. whole body. Vehicle:. other: unchanged (no vehicle). Remarks on MMAD:. MMAD / GSD: Not reported. ... Temperature in air chamber: 22 +/- 4 degrees. - Air flow rate: 1000 l/min for first month and 900 l/min thereafter. - Air ...
The Use of Light Scattering and Ion Chamber Responses for the Detection of Fires in Diesel Contaminated Atmospheres ... This study examines the accuracy of area sampling for measuring the dust exposure of mining machine operators at coal mine ... This paper reports the results of a study performed to evaluate ergonomic exposures among operators of heavy construction ... Inaccuracy of Area Sampling for Measuring the Dust Exposure of Mining Machine Operators in Coal Mines ...
Water vapor is the hardest natural element to remove from vacuum chamber walls upon exposure to the atmosphere due to monolayer ... Most production equipment utilizing a cryopump have a means to isolate the cryopump from the vacuum chamber so regeneration ... a solid state to a gaseous state and thereby be released from the cryopump through a pressure relief valve into the atmosphere ...
... handled only in a vacuum or in purified nitrogen without exposure to Earths atmosphere. From Chamber A, 3.237 ± 0.002 g of ... Optical microscopic images of bulk samples from Chambers A and C. (a)~(c) are those from the Chamber A and (d)~(f) are those ... The infrared reflectance of the bulk samples from Chamber A is brighter than that of the samples from Chamber C in data ... They comprise five independent chambers: CC3-1 for opening the container in a vacuum, CC3-2 for opening Chamber A of the ...
It may also be used for measuring emissions from materials in small or full scale environmental chambers for ma ... be present at such elevated concentrations in home or workplace atmospheres as to prompt serious concerns over human exposure ... It may also be used for measuring emissions from materials in small or full scale environmental chambers or for human exposure ... It may also be used for measuring emissions from materials in small or full scale environmental chambers for material emission ...
Adult, Arteries, Atmosphere Exposure Chambers, Decompression Sickness/complications/etiology/therapy, Diving/adverse effects, ... previously unreported clinical syndrome characterized by severe Type II DCS subsequent to AGE following pressure-time exposures ...
A microwave band large anechoic chamber; a DNA microarray fluorescence detection apparatus. Also there is a shared clean room ... a high temperature high pressure oxygen atmosphere furnace; microwave · millimeter wave band return loss measurement ... that is equipped with submicron level microfabrication apparatuses such as electron beam exposure apparatus, mask aligner, ion ...
Concentrations of ETU in the exposure atmospheres were calculated to be 0, 0.02, 0.33 or 1.8 mg/m3, respectively. After ... Sprague-Dawley CD rats/sex exposed in nose-only chambers to metiram (94% purity) 6 hours/day, 5 days/week at concentrations of ... with 2% ETU as a dust aerosol after 4-hour exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats (Translation of original report dated September 15, ... Metiram was not teratogenic as determined by gross, skeletal and visceral examination of fetuses, following in utero exposure ...
Radon and miniaturized ionization chambers. Radon is reported to be the second biggest cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. As ... Cellars and basements with large soil contact areas are particularly high-risk locations for radon exposure. ... natural uranium in soil decays radon is produced and released into the atmosphere. Radon hot spots are thus associated with ...
These specialized chambers permit the continuous flow of material through a high-density ultrasonic field. Volumes as high as ... They are typically used in difficult applications or flow-through applications where exposure time is very limited. A. ... Hazardous materials may be safely processed with a sealed atmosphere horn. This device isolates the process sample in a sealed ... chamber during the entire cycle. It is available with external cooling and is also used in cases where there is need for metric ...
Unveiled is a pristine room full of wall frescos which upon exposure to the exterior atmosphere degrades and fades never to be ... When the crew discover a lost chamber they are forced to stop digging to investigate. ...
The colorfastness of several traditional Japanese colorants upon exposure to atmospheric ozone was tested in a chamber exposure ... were exposed to an atmosphere containing 0•40 parts per million ozone at 220C and 50% RH, in the absence of light, for 12 weeks ... Of the colorants applied to paper, orpiment was the only inorganic pigment that showed severe color loss after ozone exposure. ... Several of the dyed silk cloths also exhibited some color change in this experiment, suggesting that prolonged exposure to ...
... work function and magnetism can be made over a range of temperatures without exposure to atmosphere following growth. ... The second chamber of the system houses equipment for surface analysis including electron spectroscopies (X-ray photoemission, ... The third chamber adds an Omicron variable temperature scanning tunneling/atomic force microscope (STM/AFM) for atomically ... The first chamber combines pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with differentially pumped reflection high-energy electron diffraction ...
... which released lethal gas when heated up via exposure to the atmosphere. Originally used in disinfection operations against ... Those who start to get better will be cured inside the Ka-Be: those who get worse will leave the Ka-Be for the gas chambers" ( ... The latter would then be murdered, usually (though not always) in the gas chambers.. Sonderkommando - "special commando", a ... In death camps, such as Auschwitz, new arrivals slated for instant death in the gas chambers were not given registration ...
Chamber Two identical waveguide cavities were placed in a tissue culture incubator maintained at 37°C with a humidified ... atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air. They were randomly assigned for RF or sham exposure. Good exposure and environmental control was ... The complete detail of the exposure apparatus, the signal profile, the exposure geometry and dosimetry have been described in [ ... 2006): Microwave exposure of neuronal cells in vitro: Study of apoptosis * Gurisik E et al. (2006): An in vitro study of the ...
Multiplace chambers can usually be pressurized to the equivalent of about six atmospheres of pressure. ... Exposure to CO causes an even farther leftward shift, in both adult and fetal hemoglobin, and decreased oxygen release from ... Oxygen administration is easy in a monoplace chamber because the chamber is pressurized with oxygen. Multiplace chambers can ... Multiplace hyperbaric chamber photos courtesy of OxyHeal Health Group, Inc.. Monoplace hyperbaric chamber photos courtesy of ...
R v Springlynn Ltd: Allegation of failure to control worker exposure to lead and arrange for periodically approved worker ... ACoP under Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 and working in explosive environments. ... HSE v R & G: Farm tenants who died from carbon monoxide gas exposure. ...
Accidental Exposures. In a case report of two men who lost consciousness in a wellhead chamber as a result of exposure to a " ... Because the exposure guidance must be protective in the low-oxygen atmospheres of submarines, the minimal LOAEL of 25,000 ppm ... CO2 exposures as low as 7,000 ppm can lower blood pH by up to 0.05 units, but even at high exposures, renal compensation seems ... Respiratory and acid-base balance during prolonged exposure to a 3% CO2 atmosphere [in German]. Pfluegers Arch. Gesamte. ...
The exposure chamber of the X-ray machine supports a 5% CO2 atmosphere at 37°C, and control cells were placed into a similar ... 2DG exposure was shown to induce disruptions in thiol metabolism that were partially reversed by exposure to NAC. Finally, the ... HeLa cells were treated with 30 mm NAC for 1 h before and during exposure to 4, 6, and 8 mm 2DG for 4 and 8 h (Fig. 2, A and B ... Cell survival after exposure of 208F and FBJ/R cells to 6 or 10 mm 2DG for 4, 8, 16, or 24 h was accomplished (Fig. 6). The ...
Two cavities for MW and sham exposure were placed in a thermostatic chamber at 38°C (or 40°C?) to prevent condensation on their ... The incubator-like atmosphere inside the cavity with 95% air and 5% CO2 and ,95% humidity was maintained at 37°C. ... Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted. Additional info A raised temperature control group was incubated at 39°C in a ... Chamber Four loop antennas on the bottom of the cavity excited travelling waves in TE01 mode, and a metal lid on the top ...
Chambers Associate provide key details on which practice area to work in, locations and going in-house. ... The firm places immense value on mentorship. My colleagues are kind and there is a family atmosphere." ... "Great hands-on training opportunities for associates, including trial experience and exposure for associates. The litigators ... Proskauer is recognized as top tier in the Chambers USA guide for areas such as labor & employment, healthcare, commercial ...
... furnaces with an economical design provide an inexpensive manual method of heating and quenching small parts without exposure ... quenching small parts without exposure to air. The workload is heated in the furnace chamber and pulled into the vestibule ... All models will operate with inert atmosphere. Flammable atmosphere may be used with the addition of Atmosphere Safety System ... Series 7000 IQ - Integral Quench Controlled Atmosphere Furnaces. * Integral Quench Furnaces are ideal for heat treatment of ...
... the Chausson chamber Concerto; and Ive been persuaded that Hermanns scary Psycho Suite is worth concert exposure. ! ... To get the atmosphere, try some of the many You-Tube postings, such as a rare Schnittke piece for 3-pianists which rouses the ... I have enjoyed 3 of the 6 discs, those which feature some less familiar music from the chamber music canon, and have found each ... I have been engrossed by high-romantic chamber music such as the Faures 2nd piano quartet and Dvoraks biggest; ...
  • Rectangular hyperbaric chamber. (medscape.com)
  • 9] Talaśka Z., Metoda ujednoradniania składu atmosfery oddechowej w komorze hiperbarycznej, PhD thesis, AMW, Gdynia 1995 [Methodology of homogenising the content of breathing atmosphere in the hyperbaric chamber - available in Polish]. (sciendo.com)
  • Some hospitals have a hyperbaric chamber. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You might feel pressure in your ears while you are in the hyperbaric chamber. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The authors conclude that hexane isomers virtually free of n-hexane are devoid of neurotoxic properties when tested at a total concentration of 1,750mg/cum, and recommend further study in experimental species to determine the possibility of human neuropathy caused by exposure to subthreshold concentrations of n-hexane. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite the interlaboratory variability in methodological procedures used for the sensitization as well as elicitation of response and the wide range of concentrations of TMA employed for challenge exposures (6-57 mg/m3 air) , TMA had been unequivocally identified as a benchmark respiratory sensitizer by measurements of the respiratory rate during challenge. (cdc.gov)
  • The decrease in sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase activity was maximal for 30 min of exposure and reached 50, 42, and 56% for halothane concentrations of 1, 2, and 4%, respectively, and did not change for longer exposure times. (asahq.org)
  • A mass balance model is used to examine the impact of two ventilation (1 /h and 2 /h) and recirculation (7 /h and 14 /h) rates on concentrations, exposure to and intake of ozone (of outdoor origin) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) derived from the ozone initiated chemistry in indoor environment. (aivc.org)
  • The third chamber adds an Omicron variable temperature scanning tunneling/atomic force microscope (STM/AFM) for atomically resolved images of surfaces. (ornl.gov)
  • Good exposure and environmental control was achieved using field sensors , air temperature sensors , and an optimised airflow system. (emf-portal.org)
  • Typically, it comprises a sealed testing chamber, a salt solution reservoir, a temperature control system, and a misting mechanism. (davenportcayman.com)
  • The chamber is meticulously sealed to prevent external interference, while the temperature is precisely regulated to ensure accurate testing conditions. (davenportcayman.com)
  • It typically consists of a sealed testing chamber, a reservoir for salt solution, a precise temperature control system, and a mechanism for generating salt mist. (winevacationer.shop)
  • These chambers consist of a testing compartment, a salt solution reservoir, a temperature control system, and a mechanism for generating salt mist. (diflucanfluconazole365.com)
  • With control over the temperature, humidity and gas atmosphere, the chamber allows deterioration under various conditions to be simulated. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • We have a number of chambers for exposure of materials to controlled temperature and humidity. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • The purpose of the project is to study Backahill's properties within a defined geographical area and evaluate the properties' exposure to climate threats in terms of temperature, wind, water (rising sea level, high flows, precipitation and torrential rain) and land (for example if there is a risk of landslides, landslides or erosion in the area). (lu.se)
  • Relating in vitro to in vivo exposures with physiologically-based tissue dosimetry and tissue response models. (cdc.gov)
  • The complete detail of the exposure apparatus, the signal profile, the exposure geometry and dosimetry have been described in [Schuderer et al. (emf-portal.org)
  • Understanding the Salt Spray Chamber: Also known as a salt fog or salt mist chamber, the salt spray chamber is a specialized testing apparatus designed to subject materials to a corrosive salt spray. (davenportcayman.com)
  • One such technique involves the use of a salt spray chamber, a specialized apparatus that creates a controlled environment to Salt Spray Chamber simulate harsh conditions. (winevacationer.shop)
  • They were randomly assigned for RF or sham exposure . (emf-portal.org)
  • A sham exposure was conducted. (emf-portal.org)
  • 95% humidity was maintained at 37°C. Two cavities for MW and sham exposure were placed in a thermostatic chamber at 38°C (or 40°C? (emf-portal.org)
  • Among these methods, the salt spray chamber emerges as a critical tool, providing a controlled environment Salt Spray Chamber to simulate harsh conditions. (davenportcayman.com)
  • 5] Olejnik A., Wentylacja komory dekompresyjnej podczas powietrznych ekspozycji hiperbarycznych, PTMiTH Gdynia 2007 [Decompression chamber ventilation during hyperbaric air exposures - available in Polish]. (sciendo.com)
  • 6] Olejnik A., Metodyka wentylacji atmosfery komory dekompresyjnej podczas powietrznych ekspozycji hiperbarycznych, PhD thesis, AMW, Gdynia 2004 [Methodology of ventilating the atmosphere in the decompression chamber during air hyperbaric exposures - available in Polish]. (sciendo.com)
  • In TUP diving the diver is surfaced in a closed bell and transferred isobarically to a pressure chamber for final decompression to surface pressure. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this article, we will explore the intricate workings of the salt spray chamber and delve into its significance in corrosion testing. (davenportcayman.com)
  • Significance in Corrosion Testing: The primary objective of employing a salt spray chamber is to evaluate a material's resistance to corrosion and determine its suitability for various applications. (davenportcayman.com)
  • The controlled environment within the chamber enables accelerated testing, empowering researchers and manufacturers to efficiently assess corrosion resistance within a relatively short timeframe. (davenportcayman.com)
  • Time Efficiency: Salt spray chamber testing expedites the corrosion process, delivering results much faster compared to natural exposure testing. (davenportcayman.com)
  • Surface Effects: Salt spray chambers primarily evaluate the surface corrosion of materials, potentially overlooking corrosion behavior within complex geometries, crevices, or cracks. (davenportcayman.com)
  • Supplementary Testing: Salt spray chamber testing is often complemented by other corrosion testing methods, such as cyclic corrosion testing, electrochemical techniques, or outdoor exposure testing, to ensure a comprehensive evaluation. (davenportcayman.com)
  • Conclusion: Salt spray chambers play a vital role in assessing the corrosion resistance of materials and coatings. (davenportcayman.com)
  • By simulating aggressive environmental conditions, these chambers provide valuable data that aids in the development of corrosion-resistant materials, effective coating formulations, and robust quality control procedures. (davenportcayman.com)
  • Time Efficiency: Salt spray chamber testing accelerates the corrosion process, delivering results much faster than natural exposure testing. (winevacationer.shop)
  • In this article, we will explore the intricate Salt Spray Chamber workings of the salt spray chamber and uncover its transformative impact on corrosion testing techniques. (myshowentry.com)
  • Conclusion: The salt spray chamber revolutionizes corrosion testing techniques by providing a controlled environment to assess the corrosion resistance of materials and coatings. (myshowentry.com)
  • Among the various testing methods available, salt spray chambers have emerged as a powerful tool for evaluating the corrosion Salt Spray Chamber resistance of materials. (basheasy.com)
  • In this article, we will delve into salt spray chambers, exploring their operational mechanisms, benefits, and their pivotal role in advancing corrosion testing for enhanced durability. (basheasy.com)
  • Significance in Corrosion Testing: Salt spray chambers play a pivotal role in evaluating the corrosion resistance of materials, enabling researchers and manufacturers to develop corrosion-resistant products and materials. (basheasy.com)
  • Accelerated Corrosion Simulation: Salt spray chambers facilitate accelerated corrosion testing, enabling researchers to assess material performance in a shorter time frame. (basheasy.com)
  • Real-World Validation: Salt spray chambers simulate specific corrosive conditions but may not fully replicate the diverse range of corrosion encountered in real-world environments. (basheasy.com)
  • Supplementary tests, such as cyclic corrosion testing or outdoor exposure testing, provide a more holistic understanding of material performance, validating laboratory findings. (basheasy.com)
  • Comprehensive Evaluation: Salt spray chamber testing primarily assesses surface corrosion, which may overlook corrosion behavior in intricate geometries, crevices, or cracks. (basheasy.com)
  • Conclusion: Salt spray chambers have revolutionized corrosion testing, offering a controlled and accelerated environment for evaluating corrosion resistance. (diflucanfluconazole365.com)
  • The lab contains two, 1000L corrosion chambers, fitted with salt-spray and immersion capabilities, plus offering controlled exposure to corrosive gases. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • Can be used to evaluate the loved one resistance to corrosion of item samples that are most likely to run into a mixed SO2/salt spray/acid rain atmosphere during their normal life span. (nikeair-huarache.us)
  • Groups of six animals were housed in four inhalation chambers and exposed to 1,475 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/cum) of purified methyl -ethyl- ketone (78933) (MEK) vapors, a 1,750mg/cum mixture of hexane isomers largely free of normal hexane, 400mg/cum of methyl normal butyl- ketone (591786) (MnBk), or to hydrocarbon free air. (cdc.gov)
  • Throughout the testing period, the materials remain continuously exposed to the corrosive salt particles suspended in the chamber's atmosphere. (davenportcayman.com)
  • The controlled environment and consistent exposure to corrosive salt particles expedite the identification of potential weaknesses, contributing to the development of more robust materials. (basheasy.com)
  • Unveiled is a pristine room full of wall frescos which upon exposure to the exterior atmosphere degrades and fades never to be viewed in his former condition again. (dailyfilmdose.com)
  • The colorfastness of several traditional Japanese colorants upon exposure to atmospheric ozone was tested in a chamber exposure experiment. (caltech.edu)
  • Field-grown soybean also increased total peroxidase activity upon exposure to ozone compared to ozone-free environments. (usda.gov)
  • This paper reports the results of a study performed to evaluate ergonomic exposures among operators of heavy construction equipment. (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, the new monitor continuously displays near- real-time dust exposure data during the shift. (cdc.gov)
  • This study examines the accuracy of area sampling for measuring the dust exposure of mining machine operators at coal mine working faces. (cdc.gov)
  • The dose interval factors were 1.21 and 1.47,) No further significant information on details on oral exposure was stated. (europa.eu)
  • A recent review suggested that the measure K = t² x pO2 [4.57] (t is exposure time in h, pO in atm) should replace unit pulmonary toxic dose (UPTD) as an exposure index for pulmonary oxygen toxicity (POT) in surface-oriented diving. (bvsalud.org)
  • As such, our laboratory uses closed-system chambers during egg retrieval and ICSI to minimise exposure to ambient atmosphere. (alphaspecialists.com.sg)
  • The bottom part of the cooling chamber accommodates a hardening vat, allowing the hardening process to be performed without any exposure to the ambient atmosphere. (antalkft.hu)
  • The size-frequency distributions for particles larger than 1 mm hand-picked from the bulk samples of chambers A and C were reconstructed from individual particle measurements (Fig. 1 ). (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, it appears that particles in the range of approximately 2-6 µm evoke more consistent respiratory response upon challenge exposure than particles in the 1-2 µm range. (cdc.gov)
  • A salt solution, commonly sodium chloride (NaCl), undergoes atomization, transforming into a fine mist of salt particles that are then sprayed into the testing chamber. (davenportcayman.com)
  • These specialized chambers permit the continuous flow of material through a high-density ultrasonic field. (cleanosonic.com)
  • The first chamber combines pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with differentially pumped reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), for highly controlled, layer-by-layer growth of oxide films at elevated temperatures in an oxygen atmosphere. (ornl.gov)
  • Exposure times to oxygen at different depths of water (and, hence, different levels of pressure) were quantified and tested based on time to convulsions. (medscape.com)
  • Patients in a multiplace chamber breathe 100% oxygen via a mask or close-fitting plastic hood. (medscape.com)
  • Topical oxygen, or Topox, is administered through a small chamber that is placed over an extremity and pressurized with oxygen. (medscape.com)
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The air pressure inside a hyperbaric oxygen chamber is about two and a half times higher than the normal pressure in the atmosphere. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Of the colorants applied to paper, orpiment was the only inorganic pigment that showed severe color loss after ozone exposure. (caltech.edu)
  • Several of the dyed silk cloths also exhibited some color change in this experiment, suggesting that prolonged exposure to atmospheric ozone could pose a risk to these materials as well. (caltech.edu)
  • Utilizing SoyFACE (SOYbean Free Atmosphere gas Concentration Enrichment)to elevate [O3] (1.2x ambient) provided a unique opportunity to analyze the ozone-impact in the field. (usda.gov)
  • 1987. Exposure, lung function, and symptoms in car painters exposed to hexamethylene diisocyanate and biuret modified hexamethylendiisocyanate. (cdc.gov)
  • The Task Group reviewed and revised the second draft of the criteria document and made an evaluation of the health risks from exposure to carbon monoxide. (inchem.org)
  • We assume that some of the samples in Chamber C represent subsurface materials excavated by the impact experiments, and that these samples have not experienced long-term exposure to space. (nature.com)
  • The Centre will also include a field exposure site with full meteorological monitoring for the long-term exposure of materials. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • Peracetic acid is a disinfection agent used in medical and food processing facilities, and occupational exposures have been documented. (cdc.gov)
  • To facilitate characterization of daily occupational exposures, the current work describes the development of a personal sampling technique to quantify the peracetic acid concentration in air samples. (cdc.gov)
  • The occupational exposure to diesel exhaust from vehicles in a Swedish modern underground mine was quantified and evaluated in relation to the vehicles' level of emission reduction technology. (lu.se)
  • The average occupational exposure concentration of EC was 7 μg m-3 in the underground mine. (lu.se)
  • This is much lower than the future EU occupational exposure limit (OEL) for diesel exhaust (50 μg EC m-3, from 2026underground). (lu.se)
  • Due to the many adverse effects linked to aerosol air pollution, measures need to be taken to reduce the particle exposures in environmental and occupational settings. (lu.se)
  • The future occupational exposure limit of 50 μg ECm-3 is still much higher than proposed health-based limits. (lu.se)
  • It may also be used for measuring emissions from materials in small or full scale environmental chambers for material emission testing or human exposure assessment. (astm.org)
  • The short-term health effects of HVO exhaust from modern non-road vehicles (2019), with or without the PM fraction, were investigated in a controlled human exposure chamber study. (lu.se)
  • The duration of exposure varies based on specific requirements or standardized testing protocols. (davenportcayman.com)
  • The duration of exposure varies depending on specific requirements and industry standards. (basheasy.com)
  • Our basic pricing concept is based on a "per sample" cost, irrespective of duration of exposure needed as well as physical dimensions of the example (as long as it suits the cupboard). (nikeair-huarache.us)
  • Cell survival decreased to about 30% after exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field for 24h at an average SAR of 100 W/kg. (emf-portal.org)
  • In this study, we evaluated whether the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs198585630 of 5-HT 1A receptor is associated with cognitive alterations in rats after microwave exposure with a frequency of 2.856 GHz and an average power density of 30 mW/cm 2 . (frontiersin.org)
  • A total of 5.424 ± 0.217 g was collected from Ryugu (Extended Data Fig. 2 ), and has been kept as physically and chemically pristine as possible, handled only in a vacuum or in purified nitrogen without exposure to Earth's atmosphere. (nature.com)
  • Two identical waveguide cavities were placed in a tissue culture incubator maintained at 37°C with a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO 2 in air. (emf-portal.org)
  • It is possible to use a dual cooling chamber design that enables the next charge to be loaded into the oven, while the previous one is still being cooled, which increases oven capacity. (antalkft.hu)
  • For example, the Thermatron 600 () enables exposure of specimens to accelerated freeze-thaw testing. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • This mist is then sprayed into the testing chamber, which is hermetically sealed to prevent external interference. (winevacationer.shop)
  • Exposure to low level GSM 935 MHZ radiofrequency fields does not induce apoptosis in proliferating or differentiated murine neuroblastoma cells med. (emf-portal.org)
  • Integral Quench Furnaces are ideal for heat treatment of small parts under protective atmosphere for operation to 2050°F. The economical design of these units provides an inexpensive manual method of heating & quenching small parts without exposure to air. (luciferfurnaces.com)
  • The IQ Models operate under a positive flow of protective atmosphere to minimize scale and oxidation on most tool steels. (luciferfurnaces.com)
  • The external door is then closed and the cooling chamber is filled with a protective atmosphere. (antalkft.hu)
  • The cooling chamber can also be fitted with a circulation fan to cool the carburised parts without hardening while under a protective atmosphere. (antalkft.hu)
  • From Chamber A, 3.237 ± 0.002 g of samples was recovered, collected during the first touch-down sampling (TD1) at the equatorial ridge region of Ryugu 10 . (nature.com)
  • Peracetic acid atmospheres were generated in 100 L Teflon chambers, and samples were collected on 350 mg XAD-7 solid sorbent tubes for 4 h at a flow rate of 250 mL/min using a personal sampling pump. (cdc.gov)
  • Meanwhile, other chambers allow us to expose samples at temperatures from -30 to almost 200 o C, simulating a range of aggressive environments. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • At these moderately toxic exposure levels in a 90-day toxicity setting in rats, the read-across substance, DIPE, demonstrated a No Observed Adverse Effect Concentration (NOAEC) via the inhalation route of exposure of 3300 ppm (equivalent to 13800 mg/m 3 ). (europa.eu)
  • CO 2 is heavier than air, and that contributes to the development of toxic exposure situations in enclosed spaces. (nationalacademies.org)
  • The unit pulmonary toxic dose (UPTD) has been established as the most common exposure index for POT in diving. (bvsalud.org)
  • Reproducibility: The controlled nature of salt spray chambers ensures consistent testing conditions, enabling accurate comparisons between different materials or coatings. (davenportcayman.com)
  • The purpose of containment is to reduce or eliminate the risk of exposure to laboratory workers, other persons and the outside environment to potentially hazardous agents. (cityoffrederick.com)
  • Multiplace chambers can usually be pressurized to the equivalent of about six atmospheres of pressure. (medscape.com)
  • By creating a controlled environment that simulates corrosive conditions, these chambers provide valuable insights into material behavior, identify potential vulnerabilities, and inform the development of more durable solutions. (basheasy.com)
  • Considerations and Supplementary Testing: While salt spray chamber testing offers valuable insights, it is important to consider its limitations and supplement it with additional testing methods for a comprehensive evaluation. (basheasy.com)
  • Measured data from several experimental studies conducted by the authors in a 236m3 field environmental chamber (FEC) configured to simulate an office are used for the mass balance model evaluations. (aivc.org)
  • The Centre is also home to large-scale environmental chambers. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • The furnaces are complete with an alloy muffle which separates the atmosphere and workload from refractory and elements, and an inner door which separates the furnace chamber from the vestibule section. (luciferfurnaces.com)
  • Understanding the Salt Spray Chamber: Also known as a salt fog or salt mist chamber, the salt spray chamber is designed to subject materials to a corrosive salt spray, replicating the effects observed in marine or high-humidity environments. (winevacationer.shop)
  • Understanding Salt Spray Chambers: Salt spray chambers, also known as salt fog chambers or salt mist chambers, are specialized apparatuses designed to subject materials to a controlled corrosive environment. (basheasy.com)
  • The subcommittee's recommendations for CO 2 exposure levels are provided at the conclusion of this chapter along with a discussion of the adequacy of the data for defining those levels and the research needed to fill the remaining data gaps. (nationalacademies.org)
  • 100% Smoke-free environ- secondhand smoke exposure economical y viable alternatives to ments, not smoking rooms - The - The guidelines emphasise that tobacco. (who.int)
  • Measurement of personal exposure to coal mine dust has more than 1,000 annual deaths attributed to complications from remained essentially unchanged for the last 35 years under the CWP in U.S. coal mines [NIOSH 1999]. (cdc.gov)

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