Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Hyperbaric Oxygenation: The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Jupiter: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Astronomical Phenomena: Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)HydrocarbonsSmog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.AcetyleneOzone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Serratia liquefaciens: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SERRATIA found in plants and the DIGESTIVE TRACT of rodents. It is the most prevalent Serratia species in the natural environment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Urticaceae: The nettles plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Many have stinging hairs on stems and leaves. Flowers are small and greenish in leaf axils. The fruit is dry and one-seeded.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Minor Planets: Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.Neptune: The eighth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its two natural satellites are Nereid and Triton.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)FiresClimatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Sarcina: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Carnobacterium: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family CARNOBACTERIACEAE. They are tolerant to freezing/thawing and high pressure and able to grow at low temperatures.Food Storage: Keeping food for later consumption.Incubators: Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Campylobacter fetus: A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.PhotochemistryPolycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Electronic Waste: Discarded electronic devices containing valuable and sometimes hazardous materials such as LEAD, NICKEL, CADMIUM, and MERCURY. (from http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials/ecycling/faq.htm#impact accessed 4/25/2010)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Gram-Positive Rods: A large group of rod-shaped bacteria that retains the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Streptococcus mitis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Rumex: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Chemical Terrorism: The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Decompression: Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Lichens: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Chemical Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Metmyoglobin: Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.

Passive exchanges during water vapour absorption in mealworms (Tenebrio molitor): a new approach to studying the phenomenon. (1/768)

The weights of single mealworms were continuously recorded at 20 degrees C during exposure to periods of constant humidity and to abrupt changes in atmospheric vapour pressure. Two exchange stages were recognized in each animal. Weight changes were either limited to slow losses, suggesting transpiration through the external cuticle, or showed more rapid humidity-dependent gains as well as losses. Rapid exchanges indicated that water was gained or lost through permeable barriers, from a fluid compartmet of significantly lower vapour pressure than the haemolymph, equivalent to about 90% R.H. Weight gains and losses during humidity changes provided evidence of a significant, passively exchanging fluid compartment located between the exchange surface and absorbing mechanism. Weight changes in faecal pellets following their elimination provide further support for a rectal site of atmospheric absorption.  (+info)

Volatile anaesthetics and the atmosphere: atmospheric lifetimes and atmospheric effects of halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane. (2/768)

The atmospheric lifetimes of the halogenated anaesthetics halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane with respect to reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH.) and UV photolysis have been determined from observations of OH. reaction kinetics and UV absorption spectra. Rate coefficients for the reaction with OH radicals for all halogenated anaesthetics investigated ranged from 0.44 to 2.7 x 10(-14) cm3 molec-1 s-1. Halothane, enflurane and isoflurane showed distinct UV absorption in the range 200-350 nm. In contrast, no absorption in this wavelength range was detected for desflurane or sevoflurane. The total atmospheric lifetimes, as derived from both OH. reactivity and photolysis, were 4.0-21.4 yr. It has been calculated that up to 20% of anaesthetics enter the stratosphere. As a result of chlorine and bromine content, the ozone depletion potential (ODP) relative to chlorofluorocarbon CFC-11 varies between 0 and 1.56, leading to a contribution to the total ozone depletion in the stratosphere of approximately 1% for halothane and 0.02% for enflurane and isoflurane. Estimates of the greenhouse warming potential (GWP) relative to CFC-12 yield values of 0.02-0.14, resulting in a relative contribution to global warming of all volatile anaesthetics of approximately 0.03%. The stratospheric impact of halothane, isoflurane and enflurane and their influence on ozone depletion is of increasing importance because of decreasing chlorofluorocarbons globally. However, the influence of volatile anaesthetics on greenhouse warming is small.  (+info)

Effects of in vitro atmospheric ammonia exposure on recovery rate and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of bovine neutrophils and bronchoalveolar macrophages. (3/768)

The effects of atmospheric ammonia, a major pollutant in animal confinement facilities, on bovine neutrophils and bronchoalveolar macrophages were evaluated in vitro. Ammonia exposure at concentrations 50, 100 and 200 ppm for one hour impaired recovery rates of neutrophils dose-dependently but enhanced their chemiluminescence activity per cell at lower concentrations (50 and 100 ppm). Macrophages were resistant to the exposure. Their recovery rates and chemiluminescence remained unaffected even at 200 ppm exposure. The present results suggest that ammonia exposure is unfavorable for bovine neutrophils in vitro, and probably in vivo also, in light of causing cell damage and triggering wider inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Galileo imaging of atmospheric emissions from Io. (4/768)

The Galileo spacecraft has detected diffuse optical emissions from Io in high-resolution images acquired while the satellite was eclipsed by Jupiter. Three distinct components make up Io's visible emissions. Bright blue glows of more than 300 kilorayleighs emanate from volcanic plumes, probably due to electron impact on molecular sulfur dioxide. Weaker red emissions, possibly due to atomic oxygen, are seen along the limbs, brighter on the pole closest to the plasma torus. A faint green glow appears concentrated on the night side of Io, possibly produced by atomic sodium. Io's disk-averaged emission diminishes with time after entering eclipse, whereas the localized blue glows brighten instead.  (+info)

Archean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaryotes. (5/768)

Molecular fossils of biological lipids are preserved in 2700-million-year-old shales from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Sequential extraction of adjacent samples shows that these hydrocarbon biomarkers are indigenous and syngenetic to the Archean shales, greatly extending the known geological range of such molecules. The presence of abundant 2alpha-methylhopanes, which are characteristic of cyanobacteria, indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved well before the atmosphere became oxidizing. The presence of steranes, particularly cholestane and its 28- to 30-carbon analogs, provides persuasive evidence for the existence of eukaryotes 500 million to 1 billion years before the extant fossil record indicates that the lineage arose.  (+info)

Increased summertime UV radiation in New Zealand in response to ozone loss. (6/768)

Long-term decreases in summertime ozone over Lauder, New Zealand (45 degrees S), are shown to have led to substantial increases in peak ultraviolet (UV) radiation intensities. In the summer of 1998-99, the peak sunburning UV radiation was about 12 percent more than in the first years of the decade. Larger increases were seen for DNA-damaging UV radiation and plant-damaging UV radiation, whereas UV-A (315 to 400 nanometers) radiation, which is insensitive to ozone, showed no increase, in agreement with model calculations. These results provide strong evidence of human-induced increases in UV radiation, in a region where baseline levels of UV radiation were already relatively high.  (+info)

Climate change as a regulator of tectonics on Venus. (7/768)

Tectonics, volcanism, and climate on Venus may be strongly coupled. Large excursions in surface temperature predicted to follow a global or near-global volcanic event diffuse into the interior and introduce thermal stresses of a magnitude sufficient to influence widespread tectonic deformation. This sequence of events accounts for the timing and many of the characteristics of deformation in the ridged plains of Venus, the most widely preserved volcanic terrain on the planet.  (+info)

The gravity field of Mars: results from Mars Global Surveyor. (8/768)

Observations of the gravity field of Mars reveal a planet that has responded differently in its northern and southern hemispheres to major impacts and volcanic processes. The rough, elevated southern hemisphere has a relatively featureless gravitational signature indicating a state of near-isostatic compensation, whereas the smooth, low northern plains display a wider range of gravitational anomalies that indicates a thinner but stronger surface layer than in the south. The northern hemisphere shows evidence for buried impact basins, although none large enough to explain the hemispheric elevation difference. The gravitational potential signature of Tharsis is approximately axisymmetric and contains the Tharsis Montes but not the Olympus Mons or Alba Patera volcanoes. The gravity signature of Valles Marineris extends into Chryse and provides an estimate of material removed by early fluvial activity.  (+info)

Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds like methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds like ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, both formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate-chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change, through changes in temperature, dynamics, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric stability, and biosphere-atmosphere interactions, affects the atmospheric composition and oxidation processes in the troposphere. Here we present progress in our understanding of processes of importance for climate-chemistry interactions, and their contributions to changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. A key factor is the oxidation potential involving compounds like O3 and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Reported studies represent both current and future ...
Upper troposphere cloud top heights (CTHs), restricted to cloud top pressures (CTPs) , 500 hPa, inferred using four satellite retrieval methods applied to Twelfth Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES‐12) data are evaluated using measurements during the July-August 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4). The four methods are the single‐layer CO2‐absorption technique (SCO2AT), a modified CO2‐absorption technique (MCO2AT) developed for improving both single‐layered and multilayered cloud retrievals, a standard version of the Visible Infrared Solar‐infrared Split‐window Technique (old VISST), and a new version of VISST (new VISST) recently developed to improve cloud property retrievals. They are evaluated by comparing with ER‐2 aircraft‐based Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) data taken during 9 days having extensive upper troposphere cirrus, anvil, and convective clouds. Compared to the 89% coverage by upper tropospheric clouds detected ...
First, we simply cannot mix the air in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere at the earths surface. The troposphere contains 75% of all the air found in our atmosphere and 99% of the water vapor. The air in the troposphere is in constant motion, with both horizontal and vertical air currents. The combination of vigorous air movement and water vapor creates weather. The troposphere is capped by a thin layer known as the tropopause, which is a region of stable temperature that helps to confine most weather phenomena and "bad" ozone to the troposphere. The stratosphere is the second layer in the atmosphere from the earths surface. The lower part of the stratosphere contains the ozone layer. The ozone layer prevents harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earths surface by absorbing the rays, causing the ozone layer and the air above it to warm. The warm air tends to remain in the upper stratosphere, and cool air remains lower. The layering ...
We report airborne measurements of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) during the first and second deployments of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom). The budget of CH3CHO is examined using the Community Atmospheric Model with chemistry (CAM‐chem), with a newly developed online air‐sea exchange module. The upper limit of the global ocean net emission of CH3CHO is estimated to be 34 Tg/a (42 Tg/a if considering bubble‐mediated transfer), and the ocean impacts on tropospheric CH3CHO are mostly confined to the marine boundary layer. Our analysis suggests that there is an unaccounted CH3CHO source in the remote troposphere and that organic aerosols can only provide a fraction of this missing source. We propose that peroxyacetic acid is an ideal indicator of the rapid CH3CHO production in the remote troposphere. The higher‐than‐expected CH3CHO measurements represent a missing sink of hydroxyl radicals (and halogen radical) in current chemistry‐climate ...
A new multi-wavelength lidar is introduced. The characteristics of 532 nm extinction coefficient profiles of cloud and aerosol in the upper troposphere in Beijing from January to April, 2000 are emphatically analyzed.Results show that the aerosol optical depth between 6 km and 11 km changes from 0.0152 to 0.0284 with a mean value of 0.0192?The cloud optical depth between 6 km and 11 km ranges from 0.014 to 0.23. The largest cloud thickness is about 6 km. On April 6, a very strong dust storm appeared over Beijing area. On April 7, there was no visible cloud; while as shown in lidar measurements, there was an aerosol layer spread from 4 km to 10 km. This aerosol layer, estimated as the sand-dust layer transported from remote desert areas, has the largest extinction coefficient at the height of about 8 km,which is about one order of magnitude larger than that in the clear (no cloud) day.
In situ measurements of water vapor and temperature from recent aircraft campaigns have provided evidence that the upper troposphere is frequently supersaturated with respect to ice. The peak relative humidities with respect to ice (RHI) occasionally approached water saturation at temperatures ranging from -40°C to -70°C in each of the campaigns. The occurrence frequency of ice supersaturation ranged from about 20% to 45%. Even on flight segments when no ice crystals were detected, ice supersaturation was measured about 5-20% of the time. A numerical cloud model is used to simulate the formation of optically thin, low ice number density cirrus clouds in these supersaturated regions. The potential for scavenging of ice nuclei (IN) by these clouds is evaluated. The simulations suggest that if less than about 5 x 10¯³ to 2 x 10¯² cm¯³ ice nuclei are present when these supersaturations are generated, then the cirrus formed should be subvisible. These low ice number density clouds scavenge ...
Theme: Basic processes. Start date: Cohort 1: 2019. Supervisors: Dr Bryan Bzdek (Bristol) and Dr Matthew Watson (Bristol). The surface tension of atmospheric aerosols impacts their ability to serve as cloud droplet seeds and affect climate. This project will develop approaches to measure droplet surface tensions and better resolve dynamics at the particle surface, working closely with modellers.. Abstract: Atmospheric aerosols affect climate by direct scattering or absorption of solar radiation and indirectly, by serving as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and forming cloud droplets. Atmospheric aerosols provide the largest negative radiative forcing, whilst remaining as the contribution with the largest uncertainty. The surface properties of atmospheric aerosol are crucial due to their high surface-to-volume ratios, whilst determining the fraction of atmospheric aerosol that may form cloud droplets. Most climate models still assume that activating CCN have a surface tension equivalent to pure ...
The only single-source reference available on atmospheric chemistry, aerosols, and atmospheric models This fully revised and expanded version of John H. Seinfelds successful Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution provides a rigorous, comprehensive treatment of the chemistry of the atmosphere. With new chapters on such important topics as cloud physics, nucleation, and wet deposition, this book offers a truly up-to-date examination of atmospheric chemistry today, including: * Chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere * Formation, growth, dynamics, thermodynamics, and properties of aerosols * Meteorology of air pollution * Transport, diffusion, and removal of species in the atmosphere * Formation and chemistry of clouds * Interaction of atmospheric chemistry and climate * Radiative and climatic effects of gases and particles * Formulation of mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Complete with solved examples, problems graded according to difficulty, and hundreds of
CLICK TO ENLARGE (Credit: Image courtesy of DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). ScienceDaily (Oct. 10, 2008) - A team led by Livermore scientists has helped reconcile the differences between simulated and observed temperature trends in the tropics.. Using state-of-the-art observational datasets and results from computer model simulations archived at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, LLNL researchers and colleagues from 11 other scientific institutions have refuted a recent claim that simulated temperature trends in the tropics are fundamentally inconsistent with observations. This claim was based on the application of a flawed statistical test and the use of older observational datasets.. Climate model experiments invariably predict that human-caused greenhouse gas increases should lead to more warming in the tropical troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere) than at the tropical land and ocean surface. This predicted "amplification" behavior is in accord with basic ...
We have run a dry, nonlinear, primitive equation spectral model with no externally forced variability and with a realistic time mean state, and we have observed low frequency variability (LFV) in the stratosphere with timescales on the order of hundreds of days. Time lagged correlations have revealed that this variability is linked to LFV in the emission of longwaves from the troposphere. A set of linear model experiments is performed to determine the source of the stratospheric LFV. One set of runs reveal the lowest levels of the model troposphere as the source of most of the relevant forcing. A second set of runs forced with nonlinear terms has shown that the nonlinear interaction among shortwave, high-frequency eddy thermal anomalies in the troposphere has a "beating" effect which emits vertically propagating low-frequency longwaves. We also see that the eddies act in such a way as to offset the effects of linear temperature advection, allowing the thermal eddies to persist for long periods ...
Lyrics to Troposphere by Steve Burns: Sit right next to me / Against the glass / Where we both can see / Focus on the ground / Disbelief of
Setyan, A., Zhang, Q., Merkel, M., Knighton, W., Sun, Y., Song, C., ... Ramachandran, S. (2012). Characterization of submicron particles influenced by mixed biogenic and anthropogenic emissions using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: results from CARES. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 8131 - 8156 ...
in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2009, April), 11(EGU2009-10017-1), Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important reactive gas in the troposphere. It is emitted at the ground level by fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Biogenic sources and oceans as well as oxidation of ... [more ▼]. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important reactive gas in the troposphere. It is emitted at the ground level by fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Biogenic sources and oceans as well as oxidation of methane and nonmethane hydrocarbons complete the emissions budget. Large uncertainties still affect the relative contributions of the identified anthropogenic and natural sources. Destruction by the hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main removal process for CO in both the troposphere and the stratosphere. The resulting average tropospheric lifetime of CO varies from several weeks to a few months. Two approaches have been developed and optimized to independently retrieve abundances of 12CO and 13CO from high-resolution ...
Michelle Santee Group Supervisor Education B.S. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University (1982) M.S. Aerospace Engineering, University of Texas at Austin (1984) M.S. Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology (1989) Ph.D. Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology (1993) Research Interests Processes controlling trace
View Notes - Topic_22___Human_Effects_Atmos from GEO 302C at University of Texas. Study Questions Topic 22: Human Impacts on the Atmosphere Lecture Outline I. Atmospheric change and sensitivity II.
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Abstract. Over the past few decades, the geographical distribution of emissions of substances that alter the atmospheric energy balance has changed due to economic growth and air pollution regulations. Here, we show the resulting changes to aerosol and ozone abundances and their radiative forcing using recently updated emission data for the period 1990-2015, as simulated by seven global atmospheric composition models. The models broadly reproduce large-scale changes in surface aerosol and ozone based on observations (e.g. −1 to −3 % yr−1 in aerosols over the USA and Europe). The global mean radiative forcing due to ozone and aerosol changes over the 1990-2015 period increased by +0.17 ± 0.08 W m−2, with approximately one-third due to ozone. This increase is more strongly positive than that reported in IPCC AR5. The main reasons for the increased positive radiative forcing of aerosols over this period are the substantial reduction of global mean SO2 emissions, which is stronger in the ...
Nitrogen (N) compounds in the lowest two layers of the atmosphere are important in current environmental issues. The lowest layer, the troposphere, extends from the earth s surface up to about 10 kilometers. The next layer, the stratosphere, extends from about 10 to about 50 kilometers above the ground. Mixing between the two layers is quite slow. Radionuclides that were injected into the stratosphere during atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons had a lifetime on the order of months to a few years in the stratosphere before episodic mixing events would eventually bring the bomb debris into the troposphere where it would have a lifetime of days to weeks before being deposited onto the earth s surface (Junge, 1963). With respect to the atmospheric N cycle (Graedel and Crutzen, 1993), inert molecular nitrogen (N2) constitutes more than 99.9999% of the N present in the atmosphere. Nitrous oxide (N2O), making up more than 99% of the remainder of the N in the atmosphere, is an important greenhouse ...
Nitrogen (N) compounds in the lowest two layers of the atmosphere are important in current environmental issues. The lowest layer, the troposphere, extends from the earth s surface up to about 10 kilometers. The next layer, the stratosphere, extends from about 10 to about 50 kilometers above the ground. Mixing between the two layers is quite slow. Radionuclides that were injected into the stratosphere during atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons had a lifetime on the order of months to a few years in the stratosphere before episodic mixing events would eventually bring the bomb debris into the troposphere where it would have a lifetime of days to weeks before being deposited onto the earth s surface (Junge, 1963). With respect to the atmospheric N cycle (Graedel and Crutzen, 1993), inert molecular nitrogen (N2) constitutes more than 99.9999% of the N present in the atmosphere. Nitrous oxide (N2O), making up more than 99% of the remainder of the N in the atmosphere, is an important greenhouse ...
Satellites that orbit Earth help us study Earths atmosphere, weather, and climate. Here are a few of the many spacecraft that study our atmosphere.. Aura was launched in July 2004. It is studying pollution, gases that may be related to climate change, and ozone. IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) has been in space studying Earths plasmasphere since March 2000. Polar, which was launched in 1996, observes aurora and the polar magnetosphere. UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) was launched from the space shuttle in 1991. UARS studies many aspects of the atmosphere, especially chemistry in the middle and upper stratosphere. UARS is old, and only half of its instruments are still working; but it has gathered lots of valuable data over the years.. More satellites will be launched in the future to study the atmosphere. COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere & Climate) is a group of satellites that will be launched in the spring of 2005. ...
Figure 2: The vertical structure of changes in atmospheric temperature in satellite observations (top panel) and in computer model simulations performed as part of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP-5; bottom panel). As described in the PNAS paper, both panels provide a vertically smoothed picture of atmospheric temperature change. Information from only three atmospheric temperature layers - the lower stratosphere (TLS), the mid- to upper troposphere (TMT), and the lower troposphere (TLT) was used in generating the two plots. We show temperature changes in this "vertically smoothed" space because satellite-based estimates of atmospheric temperature change are available for TLS, TMT, and TLT, and because our signal detection study is performed with the zonally-averaged temperature changes for these three layers. All temperature changes are in the form of linear trends (in degrees Celsius) over the 408-month period from ...
Excess carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases which trap heat are accumulating in the troposphere, the earths lower atmosphere, because of the scale and type of human economic activity. Climate scientists predict that the resultant increase in the tropospheres "radiative forcing" will warm the earths surface.1 2 3 Indeed, in its recent second assessment report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-a multidisciplinary scientific body established by the United Nations in 1988 to advise governments-concluded that on balance an anthropogenic influence upon the global climate was now "discernible." 1. The intergovernmental panel forecasts an increase in the average world temperature of 1.0-3.5°C over the coming century.1 This forecast is necessarily uncertain because the sensitivity of climate to atmospheric change is imperfectly understood and because future trends in gaseous emissions and modulating processes (for example, the cooling effects of industrial aerosol emissions) cannot ...
Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate by scattering and absorbing radiation and by serving as cloud condensation nuclei. An aerosols optical or nucleation properties are driven by its chemical composition. Chemical aging of aerosols by atmospheric oxidants, such as ozone, alters the physiochemical properties of aerosol to become more hygroscopic, light absorbing, and viscous during transport. However the mechanism of these transformations is poorly understood. While ozone is a protective and beneficial atmospheric gas in the stratosphere, it is a potent greenhouse gas in the troposphere that traps heat near the Earths surface. It also impacts human heath by irritating the respiratory tract and exacerbating cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, ozone can alter the ecosystem through oxidizing plant foliage which can lead to deforestation and crop losses as well. Both gases and aerosols in the troposphere can react with ozone directly and indirectly with hydroxyl radicals. While daytime
Tropospheric propagation describes electromagnetic propagation in relation to the troposphere. The service area from a VHF or UHF radio transmitter extends to just beyond the optical horizon, at which point signals start to rapidly reduce in strength. Viewers living in such a "deep fringe" reception area will notice that during certain conditions, weak signals normally masked by noise increase in signal strength to allow quality reception. Such conditions are related to the current state of the troposphere. Tropospheric propagated signals travel in the part of the atmosphere adjacent to the surface and extending to some 25,000 feet (7,620 m). Such signals are thus directly affected by weather conditions extending over some hundreds of miles. During very settled, warm anticyclonic weather (i.e., high pressure), usually weak signals from distant transmitters improve in strength. Another symptom during such conditions may be interference to the local transmitter resulting in co-channel ...
Aitken, J.: XVI - The Sun as a Fog Producer, P. R. Soc. Edin., 32, 183-215, https://doi.org/10.1017/s0370164600012864, 1912. Cai, R. and Jiang, J.: A new balance formula to estimate new particle formation rate: reevaluating the effect of coagulation scavenging, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12659-12675, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-12659-2017, 2017. Cai, R., Chen, D.-R., Hao, J., and Jiang, J.: A miniature cylindrical differential mobility analyzer for sub-3 nm particle sizing, J. Aerosol Sci., 106, 111-119, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2017.01.004, 2017a. Cai, R., Yang, D., Fu, Y., Wang, X., Li, X., Ma, Y., Hao, J., Zheng, J., and Jiang, J.: Aerosol surface area concentration: a governing factor in new particle formation in Beijing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12327-12340, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-12327-2017, 2017b. Chandra, I., Kim, S., Seto, T., Otani, Y., Takami, A., Yoshino, A., Irei, S., Park, K., Takamura, T., Kaneyasu, N., and Hatakeyama, S.: New particle formation under the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Onset of the aerobic nitrogen cycle during the Great Oxidation Event. AU - Zerkle,Aubrey L.. AU - Poulton,Simon W.. AU - Newton,Robert J.. AU - Mettam,Colin. AU - Claire,Mark W.. AU - Bekker,Andrey. AU - Junium,Christopher K.. PY - 2017/2/23. Y1 - 2017/2/23. N2 - The rise of oxygen on the early Earth (about 2.4 billion years ago) caused a reorganization of marine nutrient cycles, including that of nitrogen, which is important for controlling global primary productivity. However, current geochemical records lack the temporal resolution to address the nature and timing of the biogeochemical response to oxygenation directly. Here we couple records of ocean redox chemistry with nitrogen isotope (15N/14N) values from approximately 2.31-billion-year-old shales of the Rooihoogte and Timeball Hill formations in South Africa, deposited during the early stages of the first rise in atmospheric oxygen on the Earth (the Great Oxidation Event). Our data fill a gap of about 400 million years in ...
R/9392/297 NATO advanced study institute series. Ser.C., Mathematical and physical sciences [Text]. - Dordrecht etc. : Kluwer.Vol. 297 : long-range atmospheric transport of natural and contaminant substances : proc. of the NATO advanced research workshop on the long-range atmospheric transport of natural and contaminant substances St.Georges,Bermuda Jan.10-17,1989 / Ed.: A.H.Knap; Ed.: M.S.Kaiser ; NATO advanced research workshop on the long-range atmospheric transport of natural and contaminant substances (1989; St.Georges). - Dordrecht etc. : kluwer acad. publ., 1990. - XXI,321 p. : ill. - ISBN 0-7923-0577-9 : 161.78 р.ГРНТИ 2729УДК 51(082.1)53(082.1) Держатели документа: ГПНТБ России Доп.точки доступа: Knap, A.H. \ed.\; Kaiser, M.S. \ed.\; NATO advanced research workshop on the long-range atmospheric transport of natural and contaminant substances (1989 ; St.Georges) Экз-ры: ХР(1) Копия: мкф., Шифр MR-99611 SUBSTANCES$ ...
Researchers are invited to present novel scientific results from mid- and long-term observational time series from various measurements networks such as Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW), European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ), Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), regular airborne (e.g. MOZAIC, CARIBIC) and other campaigns as well as satellite data and model simulations. Data relevant to tropospheric and stratospheric composition, in particular related to ozone depletion, climate change and air quality as well as firn data on past atmospheric composition are welcome. We welcome contributions from multi-year modeling studies and inter-comparison exercises which address tropospheric or stratospheric composition changes, carried out in the framework of international projects (e.g. GEOMON, MACC) and ...
AWIs MARL-instrument is a mobile backscatter lidar that is used at various locations as well as aboard the research vessel Polarstern to measure Aerosol and clouds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In 2000 two field-experiments have been conducted within the European INCA 2000-project (Interhemispheric differences in cirrus cloud properties by anthropogenic emissions). The first one took place in the southern hemispheric midlatitudes, in Punta Arenas/Chile (53.12°S, 70.88°W) and the second campaign followed in September 2000 in Prestwick /Scotland (55.51°N, 4.60°W). The main objective of these activities was to collect Lidar data on cirrus clouds from clean (Punta Arenas) and polluted (Prestwick) areas. During the four weeks of the campaigns, around 80 h of Lidar measure-ments were gathered at each location, covering different types of cirrus clouds as well as background aerosols. A comparison of the two datasets reveals similarities as well as differ-ences in the measured ...
The fifth most abundant gas in the atmosphere is carbon dioxide. The volume of this gas has increased by over 35% in the last three hundred years (see Figure 7a-1). This increase is primarily due to human induced burning from fossil fuels, deforestation, and other forms of land-use change. Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas. The human-caused increase in its concentration in the atmosphere has strengthened the greenhouse effect and has definitely contributed to global warming over the last 100 years. Carbon dioxide is also naturally exchanged between the atmosphere and life through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.. Methane is a very strong greenhouse gas. Since 1750, methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by more than 150%. The primary sources for the additional methane added to the atmosphere (in order of importance) are: rice cultivation; domestic grazing animals; termites; landfills; coal mining; and, oil and gas extraction. Anaerobic conditions ...
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol comprising a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or particles suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body. The droplets and crystals may be made of water or various chemicals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or when it gains sufficient moisture (usually in the form of water vapor) from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature. They are seen in the Earths homosphere (which includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere). Nephology is the science of clouds which is undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. There are two methods of naming clouds in their respective layers of the atmosphere; Latin and common. Cloud types in the troposphere, the atmospheric layer closest to Earths surface, have Latin names due to the universal adaptation of Luke Howards nomenclature. Formally proposed in 1802, it ...
Hygroscopic property of atmospheric aerosols is essential to understand effect of aerosols on cloud formation by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which leads to climate change with cloud albedo effect. Also, hygroscopic property of particles is important to determine their transport behaviors and fates in the ambient atmosphere and to understnd their deposition pattern in the human respiratory system when they were inhaled. This book describes a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) system in details to measure hygroscopic property of atmospheric aerosols in real time by measuring particle size change at an increased relative humidity. (Imprint: Novinka). ...
2. The Ongoing Debate about Satellite Temperature Data; Part1. More than a decade ago, Roy Spencer and John Christy realized that the data from the microwave-sounding unit (MSU) on weather satellites could be used to measure long-term temperature trends of the Earths atmosphere. Their analysis produced surprisingly low values since 1979 - at first, a slightly negative and, more recently, a slightly positive trend for the troposphere. These MSU results derived by the University of Alabama (Huntsville) group are in good agreement with independently derived trends from radiosondes carried in weather balloons.. Their results have caused - and continue to cause -- great consternation among supporters of the greenhouse-warming hypothesis. For not only do the MSU-UAH trends disagree with the warming trend shown by (global mean) surface data (from weather stations and from sea surface temperatures --- SST), but they also contradict the GH models -- all of which show the troposphere warming more rapidly ...
Chemical components of organic aerosol (OA) selectively absorb light at short wavelengths. In this study, the prevalence, sources, and optical importance of this socalled brown carbon (BrC) aerosol component are investigated throughout the North American continental tropospheric column during a summer of extensive biomass burning. Spectrophotometric absorption measurements on extracts of bulk aerosol samples collected from an aircraft over the central USA were analyzed to directly quantify BrC abundance. BrC was found to be prevalent throughout the 1 to 12 km altitude measurement range, with dramatic enhancements in biomass-burning plumes. BrC to black carbon (BC) ratios, under background tropospheric conditions, increased with altitude, consistent with a corresponding increase in the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) determined from a three-wavelength particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP). The sum of inferred BC absorption and measured BrC absorption at 365 nm was within 3 % of the ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Global change and photosynthesis. AU - Bernacchi, C. J.. AU - Calfapietra, C.. AU - Centritto, M.. AU - Valladares, F.. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The phrase global change is generally associated with alterations of climate (temperatures, fluctuations in precipitation, etc.) that stem from changes in atmospheric composition. In reality, global change also encompasses more than changes in climate or atmospheric composition; any global-scale change that influences biota directly or indirectly can be considered global change. Global change has influenced the biosphere throughout geological time, with changes occurring over periods that allow for either species to evolve to these changes when they occur over long periods, to adapt or acclimate to the changes or to perish when neither of the previous two responses is effective. Although we are currently in the midst of abrupt global change, it certainly is not the first time that rapid global change has occurred. What ...
Organonitrates (ON) are important products of gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds in the troposphere; some models predict, and laboratory studies show, the formation of large, multifunctional ON with vapor pressures low enough to partition to the particle phase. Organosulfates (OS) have also been recently detected in secondary organic aerosol. Despite their potential importance, ON and OS remain a nearly unexplored aspect of atmospheric chemistry because few studies have quantified particulate ON or OS in ambient air. We report the response of a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to aerosol ON and OS standards and mixtures. We quantify the potentially substantial underestimation of organic aerosol O/C, commonly used as a metric for aging, and N/C. Most of the ON-nitrogen appears as NO(x)+ ions in the AMS, which are typically dominated by inorganic nitrate. Minor organonitrogen ions are observed although their identity and intensity vary between standards. We
Abstract. The isotopic composition of carbon (Δ14C and δ13C) in atmospheric CO2 and in oceanic and terrestrial carbon reservoirs is influenced by anthropogenic emissions and by natural carbon exchanges, which can respond to and drive changes in climate. Simulations of 14C and 13C in the ocean and terrestrial components of Earth system models (ESMs) present opportunities for model evaluation and for investigation of carbon cycling, including anthropogenic CO2 emissions and uptake. The use of carbon isotopes in novel evaluation of the ESMs component ocean and terrestrial biosphere models and in new analyses of historical changes may improve predictions of future changes in the carbon cycle and climate system. We compile existing data to produce records of Δ14C and δ13C in atmospheric CO2 for the historical period 1850-2015. The primary motivation for this compilation is to provide the atmospheric boundary condition for historical simulations in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 ...
Loss of the integrity of the permafrost is particularly threatening in the Arctic, where the sea ice looks set to disappear within years, resulting in huge albedo changes in summer. Decrease of surface reflectivity results in increases in absorption of energy from sunlight and decreases in shortwave radiation in the atmosphere. The latter results in lower photo-dissociation rates of tropospheric gases. Photo-dissociation of the ozone molecule is the major process that leads to the production of OH (hydroxyl radical), the main oxidizing (i.e., cleansing) gas species in the troposphere. A 2009 NASA study projects this to lead to a decrease in OH concentrations and a weakening of the oxidizing capacity of the Arctic troposphere, further increasing the vulnerability of the Arctic to warming in case of additional methane releases ...
A 2 million Euro research initiative funded by the European Research Council (ERC) over the next five years will see scientists endeavor to reproduce the chemical exchanges between the ocean, sea ice, snow and the atmosphere in polar regions. The University of East Anglia is launching a project to predict how the Arctic will cope with global warming by constructing a sea ice chamber and using state-of-the-art computer models. The Arctic Ocean is a vast expanse of sea ice. Most of it is covered with snow for about half of the year, but climate change has caused temperatures to rise more than anywhere else in the world over the last few decades, explains UEAs Roland von Glasow. We will focus on the links between melting sea ice and snow, and the changing chemistry of the troposphere. This is important because the troposphere is home to concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosol particles which play key roles for our climate, he adds.. ...
The Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch (Code SGG) conducts scientific research on important environmental issues in stratospheric chemistry and ozone depletion, strastospheric-troposphere exchange, pertubations in the chemical composition of the troposphere, and climatic changes from clouds, aerosols, and greenhouse gases. The SGG effort includes: a) development and deployment of sensitive, state-of-art instruments on airborne platforms (including aircraft, balloons, and uninhabited aerial vehicules, UAVs), b) modeling of chemistry, dynamics, and radiative transfer processes to understand and elucidate controlling mechanisms, c) science team support of spacecraft measurements of earth atmospheric processes, and d) advocacy, planning and execution of selected field projects for the Office of Earth Science. SGG is organized into four groups: 1) Chemistry, 2) Dynamics, 3) Sunphotometer-Satellite, and 4) Project Management ...
These two volumes contain the post-proceedings of Symposium 98 - the first meeting of the new EUREKA environmental project EUROTRAC-2, held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. The papers presented are by leading scientists and researchers and contain significant contributions to the preservation of the environment on an international scale. The 355 contributions included are divided as follows: VOLUME 1: Chemical Mechanisms; Photo-Oxidants - Distributions and Trends; Aerosols and Clouds; Applications of Science to Policy Development in Europe, the EU and in North America.
sold download Transport and Chemical Transformation and taxonomic s gene anything in a unrealized shred popularity forest. viewThe Microbial Ecology 45: 69-77. Journal and war of the benthic mark communities of four Lake Erie genera According Lange-Bertalot region instances.
Principal Investigator:KAWAMURA Kimitaka, Project Period (FY):1998 - 2000, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas (A)
You both repeated the question and still got the same wrong answer. I hope that a car may find itself atop your chest with studded wheels. - ProProfs Discuss
Stimulation of forest productivity by elevated concentrations of CO2 is expected to partially offset continued increases in anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, multiple factors can impair the capacity of forests to act as carbon sinks ; prominent among these are tropospheric O3 and nutrient limitations1,2. Herbivorous insects also influence carbon and nutrient dynamics in forest ecosystems, yet are often ignored in ecosystem models of forest productivity.. Voir en ligne : http://bit.ly/1wXVa4B ...
Atmospheric chemistry encompasses the interaction of gases and aerosol particles with each other and with the environment. The sum of these interactions determines, in large part, the composition of Earths atmosphere, which changes over time. Furthermore, aerosol particles govern cloud formation with subsequent important implications for the radiative budget of the atmosphere, water vapor distribution, and the hydrological cycle.. Our faculty study i) the origin of certain trace gases, with special emphasis on the large scale (hemispheric, or global) contribution from human activities, ii) the potential of natural and anthropogenic aerosol particles to form ice clouds and how this can be parameterized; iii) the interaction of aerosol particles with atmospheric trace gas species to assess the impact of multiphase chemical kinetics on air quality and climate; iv) the global rate of removal of several reactive species and how this is affected by human or natural changes over time; v) the role of ...
FAQ 7.1, Figure 1. Breakdown of contributions to the changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, based on information detailed in Chapters 4 and 7. In (a) through (d), human-caused sources are shown in orange, while natural sources and sinks are shown in teal. In (e), human-caused tropospheric ozone amounts are in orange while natural ozone amounts are in green. (a) Sources and sinks of CO2 (GtC). Each year CO2 is released to the atmosphere from human activities including fossil fuel combustion and land use change. Only 57 to 60% of the CO2 emitted from human activity remains in the atmosphere. Some is dissolved into the oceans and some is incorporated into plants as they grow. Land-related fluxes are for the 1990s; fossil fuel and cement fluxes and net ocean uptake are for the period 2000 to 2005. All values and uncertainty ranges are from Table 7.1. (b) Global emissions of CFCs and other halogen-containing compounds for 1990 (light orange) and 2002 (dark orange). These chemicals are ...
A lidar for measuring fluorescence from atmospheric aerosols was constructed with a third harmonic Nd:YAG laser, a 1-m diameter telescope, and a 32-channel time-resolved photon-counting spectrometer system. Fluorescence spectrum and vertical distribution of fluorescent aerosols in the lower atmosphere were observed during the nighttime with excitation at 355 nm. Relatively strong broad fluorescence was observed from Asian dust and air-pollution aerosols transported from urban and industrial areas. Rough estimates of the fluorescence efficiency were given for these aerosols. The intensity of the total fluorescence over the spectral range from 420 to 510 nm was comparable to that of nitrogen vibrational Raman scattering. That indicates the possibility of making a compact Raman-Mie-fluorescence lidar for aerosol monitoring.. ©2012 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
The fine particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei in pristine Amazonian rainforest air consist mostly of secondary organic aerosol. Their origin is enigmatic, however, because new particle formation in the atmosphere is not observed. Here, we show that the growth of organic aerosol particles can be initiated by potassium-salt-rich particles emitted by biota in the rainforest. These particles act as seeds for the condensation of low- or semi-volatile organic compounds from the atmospheric gas phase or multiphase oxidation of isoprene and terpenes. Our findings suggest that the primary emission of biogenic salt particles directly influences the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei and affects the microphysics of cloud formation and precipitation over the rainforest.. ...
The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) on board the Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) requires accurate atmospheric correction for the purpose of qualified ocean remote sensing. Since its eight bands are affected by atmospheric constituents such as gases, molecules and atmospheric aerosols, understanding of aerosolradiation interactions is needed. Aerosol optical properties based on sun-photometer measurements are used to analysis aerosol optical thickness (AOT) under various aerosol type and loadings. It is found that the choice of aerosol type makes little different in AOT retrieval for AOT,0.2. These results will be useful for aerosol retrieval of COMS/GOCI data processing ...
We have designed and constructed a new Compact Cloud and Aerosol Lidar (ComCAL) for the deployment in field campaigns including participation in ship cruises with our research vessel Polarstern. The backscattered light of a Nd:YAG Laser at 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm is collected by a telescope in a Newtonian configuration and 40 cm aperture.At 532 nm and 355 nm the polarisation is selected by a rotating Glan-Taylor prism which is synchronized with the laser. This configuration allows the measurement of the depolarization without the need for calibration. Biomass burning aerosol has recently been shown to fluoresce when irradiated by a UV laser beam. A 32-channel spectrometermeasures Raman scattering and aerosol fluorescence simultaneously. The measurement of wavelength dependent backscatter, extinction, depolarization,and fluorescence allows a detailed study of atmospheric aerosol. The systems determines aerosol optical properties and their vertical distribution in the range from 700 m up to 20 ...
The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to the improvement of the present knowledge concerning the transient components of the global carbon cycle, superimposed to the periodic seasonal oscillation and to the yearly trend. This purpose has been achieved through the comparison among the calculated concentration fields of atmospheric CO2 and its comparison with the sea-surface temperature patterns, forestation maps, forest fires, and the anthropogenic emissions extracted from Edgar V.2.0 database. In order to identify with high spatial resolution the most relevant areas of CO2 sources and sinks, we have applied a methodology based on a statistical analysis of simulated back-trajectories related to atmospheric concentration values measured at some receptor sites where the back-trajectories originate.In particular, we have used a 2-year time series (1996 and 1997) of CO2 concentration data observed in three receptor sites located in high mountain areas, in order to reduce significantly the ...
Biogenic sources contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere, but few measurements exist to constrain climate model simulations of their importance. The chemical composition of individual atmospheric aerosol particles showed two types of sulfate-containing particles in clean marine air masses in addition to mass-based Estimated Salt particles. Both types of sulfate particles lack combustion tracers and correlate, for some conditions, to atmospheric or seawater dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations, which means their source was largely biogenic. The first type is identified as New Sulfate because their large sulfate mass fraction (63% sulfate) and association with entrainment conditions means they could have formed by nucleation in the free troposphere. The second type is Added Sulfate particles (38% sulfate), because they are preexisting particles onto which additional sulfate condensed. New Sulfate particles accounted for 31% (7 cm(-3)) and 33% (36 cm(-3)) CCN ...
Atmospheric aerosols, comprising organic compounds and inorganic salts, play a key role in air quality and climate. Mounting evidence exists that these particles frequently exhibit phase separation into predominantly organic and aqueous electrolyte-rich phases. As well, the presence of amorphous semi-solid o
Detail záznamu - Atmospheric Aerosols in Suburb of Prague: The Dynamics of Particle Size Distributions - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Cenozoic climates have varied across a variety of time-scales, including slow, unidirectional change over tens of millions of years, as well as severe, geologically abrupt shifts in Earthsclimatic state. Establishing the history of atmospheric carbon dioxide is critical in prioritizing the factors responsible for past climatic events, and integral in positioning future climate change within a geological context. One approach in this pursuit uses the stable carbon isotopic composition of marine organic molecules known as alkenones. The following report represents a summary of the factors affecting alkenone carbon isotopic compositions, the underlying assumptions and accuracy of short- and long-term CO2 records established from these sedimentary molecules, and their implications for the controls on the evolution of Cenozoic climates.. ...
Isoprene is no minor player in atmospheric chemistry, Wennberg notes. "There is much more isoprene emitted to the atmosphere than all of the gases-gasoline, industrial chemicals-emitted by human activities, with the important exceptions of methane and carbon dioxide," he says. "And isoprene only comes from plants. They make hundreds of millions of tons of this chemical . . . for reasons that we still do not fully understand.". "Much of the emission of isoprene occurs where anthropogenic emissions are limited," adds Caltech graduate student Fabien Paulot, the papers first author. "The chemistry is very poorly understood.". Once released into the atmosphere, isoprene gets "oxidized or chewed on" by free-radical oxidants such as OH, explains Wennberg. It is this chemistry that is the focus of this new study. In particular, the research was initiated to understand how the oxidation of isoprene can lead to formation of atmospheric particulate matter, so-called secondary organic aerosol. "A small ...
Methods are presented for the targeted extraction of surfactants present in atmospheric aerosols and the determination of their...
Figure 1 Schematic representation of the calcium cycle. Calcium is liberated in continents by the weathering of calcium-containing minerals, common constituents of most rocks. Calcium pools in terrestrial ecosystems include reservoirs in soils and soil minerals, organisms, and decomposing organic matter. Riverine and groundwater inputs transfer calcium in its ionic form from continents to the oceans. Hydrothermal vents also serve as calcium inputs in the oceans. In marine ecosystems, calcium ions are abundant in seawater. Marine organisms use calcium to make shells and hard parts. Calcium is removed from the oceans primarily by the sedimentation of these calcified organisms. Atmospheric deposition, both wet and dry, contributes calcium throughout both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Anthropogenic effects including acid deposition, changes in land use (e.g., desertification), harvesting, and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations influence this natural calcium cycle.. The ...
Greenhouse gas (GHG) additions to Earths atmosphere initially reduce global outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), thereby warming the planet. In select environments with temperature inversions, however, increased GHG concentrations can actually increase local OLR. Negative top-of-atmosphere and effective radiative forcing (ERF) from this situation give the impression that local surface temperatures could cool in response to GHG increases. Here we consider an extreme scenario in which GHG concentrations are increased only within the warmest layers of winter near-surface inversions of the Arctic and Antarctic. We find, using a fully coupled Earth system model, that the underlying surface warms despite the GHG addition exerting negative ERF and cooling the troposphere in the vicinity of the GHG increase. This unique radiative forcing and thermal response is facilitated by the high stability of the polar winter atmosphere, which inhibits thermal mixing and amplifies the impact of surface radiative ...
MOFFETT FIELD, Calif. - NASA-funded astrobiologists have found evidence of oxygen present in Earths atmosphere earlier than previously known, pushing back the timeline for the rise of oxygen in the atmosphere. Two teams of researchers report that traces of oxygen appeared in Earths atmosphere from 50 to 100 million years before what is known as the Great Oxidation Event. This event happened between 2.3 and 2.4 billion years ago, when many scientists think atmospheric oxygen increased significantly from the existing very low levels ...
But I think all he needs to do is look back at their own datasets over the past 54 years (datasets the IPCC supposedly rely upon for their Assessment Reports) of land/sea temperature changes and atmospheric CO2 changes, and he should be able to see what I am seeing--which phenomenon occurs first--changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide seem to follow temperature changes (not the other way around). Even adding in the newest (adjusted) HadCRUT4 dataset still doesnt help them ...
The Microwave Sounder Unit (MSU) aboard NOAAs TIROS-N series of polar orbiting satellites has measured temperatures in the stratosphere and troposphere since 1979. Lower-stratospheric temperatures are measured from MSU channel 4, which has a peak in its weighting function from 70-100 millibars (approximately 9-12 km above the earth). These data are adjusted for time-dependent biases by NASA and the Global Hydrology and Climate Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville before time series of stratospheric temperatures are produced at the National Climatic Data Center. Monthly temperature time series of lower stratospheric temperatures are available for the Arctic (90N-60N), Antarctic (60S-90S) and the middle latitudes and tropics (60N-60S). ...
Flight turbulence could increase significantly under climate change, a study warns, potentially upping the risk of injury - or at least flight anxiety - for future airline passengers. Furthermore, fuel and maintenance costs for carriers could rise.An increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations could cause changes in the jet stream over the North Atlantic flight corridor, leading to a spike in air turbulence, suggests the research conducted by atmospheric scientist Paul Williams of the University
Aerosol particles strongly influence global climate by modifying the properties of clouds. An accurate assessment of the aerosol impact on climate requires knowledge of the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), a subset of aerosol particles that can activate and form cloud droplets in the atmosphere. Atmospheric particles typically consist of a myriad of organic species, which frequently dominate the particle composition. As a result, CCN concentration is often a strong function of the hygroscopicity of organics in the particles. Earlier studies showed organic hygroscopicity increases nearly linearly with oxidation level. Such an increase in hygroscopicity is conventionally attributed to higher water solubility for more oxidized organics. By systematically varying the water content of activating droplets, we show that for the majority of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), essentially all organics are dissolved at the point of droplet activation. Therefore, for droplet activation, the ...
Buy Abstract Atmosphere by StereoAnimals on AudioJungle. Abstract Atmosphere - beautiful abstract electronic and atmospheric composition for your experimental video project. ...
... definition, transmission of radio frequency signals that have been scattered from irregularities in the troposphere to locations hundreds of kilometers distant. See more.
The research conducted under this agreement sought to use available satellite data sets to document a variety of climate feedback processes by understanding the mechanisms of current climate variability (seasonal, interannual, temperature dependence). Comparisons with feedback processes operating in the GCM were performed to determine which aspects of the variability serve as the most reliable proxies for decadal climate change. This report focuses on three general areas of progress: upper troposphere water vapor, low cloud optical thickness, and tropical cumulus anvil clouds.
Response of photosynthesis and water relations of rice (Oryzasativa) to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide in the sub-humid zone of Sri ...
Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Links, Authorship, and Address, ABSTRACT, SUMMARY, ATMOSPHE A SURFAC TEMPERATURES, ATMOSPHE CARB DIOXIDE, CLIMA CHANGE, GLOBA WARMI HYPOTHESIS, WO TEMPERAT CON , FERTILIZATI
The Mesoarchean (/ˌmiːzoʊɑːrˈkiːən/, also spelled Mesoarchaean) is a geologic era within the Archean Eon, spanning 3,200 to 2,800 million years ago. The era is defined chronometrically and is not referenced to a specific level in a rock section on Earth. Fossils from Australia show that stromatolites have lived on Earth since the Mesoarchean. The Pongola glaciation occurred around 2,900 million years ago.[1] The first supercontinent Vaalbara broke up during this era about 2,800 million years ago. The earliest reefs date from this era, and were probably formed by stromatolites.[2][3] The surface temperature during the Mesoarchean was likely not much higher than modern-day temperatures.[4] Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was only a few times higher than its pre-industrial value[5], and the Suns luminosity was only 70% of its current value, cancelling out the influence of a greater degree of greenhouse effect that may be operating. ...
Monitoring crop phenology is required for understanding intra- and interannual variations of agroecosystems, as well as for improving yield prediction models. The objective of this paper is to remotely evaluate the phenological development of maize (Zea mays L.) in terms of both biomass accumulation and reproductive organ appearance. Maize phenology was monitored by means of the recently developed visible atmospherically resistant indices, derived from spectral reflectance data. Visible atmospherically resistant indices provided significant information for crop phenology monitoring as they allowed us to detect: (i) changes due to biomass accumulation, (ii) changes induced by the appearance and development of reproductive organs, and (iii) the onset of senescence, earlier than widely used vegetation indices. Visible atmospherically resistant indices allowed the identification of the timing of phenological transitions that are related to the maize physiological development. They also allowed
An international study involving Monash University mathematician Dr Malcolm Clark has been used to demonstrate the impact of global warming and to predict the effect further warming will have on plant life.. The study, published in the International Journal of Climatology, predicts a difference in flowering times of certain plants in certain climates by as much as 50 days by the year 2080.. The study, by Dr Malcolm Clark, an Adjunct Research Fellow at Monash Universitys School of Mathematical Sciences and Professor Roy Thompson, a geophysicist at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, investigated the possibilities of flowering spring plants blooming in the depths of winter as the plants respond to the effects of global warming.. The study is based on the facts that plants control the timing of flowering by adapting to the local weather and climate and that throughout the past century global warming, driven by ever rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, has resulted in local ...
The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earths gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation). |br|The common name given to the atmospheric gases used in breathing and photosynthesis is air. By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1%. Although air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, air suitable for the survival of terrestrial plants and terrestrial animals currently is only known to be found in Earths troposphere and artificial atmospheres. [Atmosphere of Earth. Wikipedia] |br|This pie chart sample was redesigned from the Wikimedia Commons file: Air composition pie chart
Abstract. A new IASI methane product developed at the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) is presented. The retrievals are performed with the ASIMUT-ALVL software based on the optimal estimation method (OEM). This paper gives an overview of the forward model and retrieval concept. The usefulness of reconstructed principal component compressed (PCC) radiances is highlighted. The information content study carried out in this paper shows that most IASI pixels contain between 0.9 and 1.6 independent pieces of information about the vertical distribution of CH4, with a good sensitivity in the mid- to upper troposphere. A detailed error analysis was performed. The total uncertainty is estimated to be 3.73 % for a CH4 partial column between 4 and 17 km. An extended validation with ground-based CH4 observations at 10 locations was carried out. IASI CH4 partial columns are found to correlate well with the ground-based data for 6 out of the 10 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) stations ...
Publishers Accepted Manuscript: Incorporation of new particle formation and early growth treatments into WRF/Chem: Model improvement, evaluation, and impacts of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia ...
Lets see what the global-warming deniers can make of THIS:The level of the most important heat-trapping gas in the atmosphere, carbon dioxide, has passed a long-feared milestone, scientists reported Friday, reaching a concentration not seen on the earth for millions of years.Scientific instruments showed that the gas had reached an average daily level above 400 parts per million just an odometer moment in one sense, but also a sobering reminder that decades of efforts to bring human-produced emissions under control are faltering.The best available evidence suggests the amount of the gas in the air has ... Read more
The above comment ignores the minor issue that that every scientific assertion in the IPCC reports is incorrect. There are dozens of observations and analysis results that support the assertion that almost all of the warming in the last 150 years was due to solar cycle changes (for example there are periods of millions of years in the paleo record when atmospheric CO2 is high and the planet is cold and vice versa) and the majority of the CO2 rise is due to natural changes not due to anthropogenic emission. The CO2 increase in the atmosphere is without question the best thing that has happened to the biosphere, in the last 3 million years. Commercial greenhouses inject CO2 into their greenhouse to increase yield and to reduce growing times. The optimum level of atmospheric CO2 is around 1200 ppm.. Picking one of the key cult of CAGW urban legends is how much warming of the earths surface is due to greenhouse gases. There is a reason why the cult of CAGW compares the earths surface temperature ...
What is the long term sensitivity to increasing CO2? What, indeed, does long term sensitivity even mean? Jim Hansen and some colleagues (not including me) have a preprint available that claims that it is around 6ºC based on paleo-climate evidence. Since that is significantly larger than the standard climate sensitivity weve often talked about, its worth looking at in more detail.. We need to start with some definitions. Sensitivity is defined as the global mean surface temperature anomaly response to a doubling of CO2 with other boundary conditions staying the same. However, depending on what the boundary conditions include, you can get very different numbers. The standard definition (sometimes called the Charney sensitivity), assumes the land surface, ice sheets and atmospheric composition (chemistry and aerosols) stay the same. Hansens long term sensitivity (which might be better described as the Earth System sensitivity) allows all of these to vary and feed back on the temperature ...
What is the long term sensitivity to increasing CO2? What, indeed, does long term sensitivity even mean? Jim Hansen and some colleagues (not including me) have a preprint available that claims that it is around 6ºC based on paleo-climate evidence. Since that is significantly larger than the standard climate sensitivity weve often talked about, its worth looking at in more detail.. We need to start with some definitions. Sensitivity is defined as the global mean surface temperature anomaly response to a doubling of CO2 with other boundary conditions staying the same. However, depending on what the boundary conditions include, you can get very different numbers. The standard definition (sometimes called the Charney sensitivity), assumes the land surface, ice sheets and atmospheric composition (chemistry and aerosols) stay the same. Hansens long term sensitivity (which might be better described as the Earth System sensitivity) allows all of these to vary and feed back on the temperature ...
Carbon dioxide from fossil fuels and deforestation carries a distinctive isotopic signature, which marks the movement of man-made CO2 through the atmosphere and carbon reservoirs (soils, biomass, and oceans). This movement of carbon, as seen in both carbon isotope data and bulk CO2 data, reveals complexity in the carbon cycle. Discrepancies between the datasets imply the active exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and carbon reservoirs. More than 85% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, as tagged by carbon isotopes, do not remain in the atmosphere, but are absorbed by carbon reservoirs. However, some of the anthropogenic carbon in the atmosphere is exchanged for natural carbon from carbon reservoirs, so that atmospheric CO2 concentration is maintained at a level equivalent to about 44% of cumulative annual CO2 emissions over the long term. The size of carbon reservoirs is estimated at more than 7 times the volume of carbon present in the atmosphere, based on a dilution calculation of ...
Submicron particles collected on Teflon filters aboard the R/V Ronald Brown during the Texas Air Quality Study and Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS/GoMACCS) 2006 in and around the port of Houston, Texas, were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence for organic functional groups and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM) concentrations (1-25 mu g m(-3)) for ambient particle samples measured by FTIR showed good agreement with measurements made with an aerosol mass spectrometer. The fractions of organic mass identified as alkane and carboxylic acid groups were 47% and 32%, respectively. Three different types of air masses were identified on the basis of the air mass origin and the radon concentration, with significantly higher carboxylic acid group mass fractions in air masses from the north (35%) than the south (29%) or Gulf of Mexico (26%). Positive matrix factorization analysis attributed carboxylic acid fractions of 30-35% to ...
Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles represent one of the most abundant surfaces available for heterogeneous reactions to occur upon and thus profoundly alter the composition of the troposphere. In an effort to better understand tropospheric heterogeneous reaction processes, fundamental laboratory studies must be able to accurately reproduce the chemical complexity of SSA. Here we describe a new approach that uses microbial processes to control the composition of seawater and SSA particle composition. By inducing a phytoplankton bloom, we are able to create dynamic ecosystem interactions between marine microorganisms, which serve to alter the organic mixtures present in seawater. Using this controlled approach, changes in seawater composition become reflected in the chemical composition of SSA particles 4 to 10 d after the peak in chlorophyll-a. This approach for producing and varying the chemical complexity of a dominant tropospheric aerosol provides the foundation for further investigations of ...
The numerical description of the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere relies on the use of particle yields, which are often determined in chamber experiments. What is sometimes not appreciated is that such yields (i) can be defined in different ways and (ii) depend on atmospheric condition Modeling in Environmental Chemistry
Amann, M., Klimont, Z., and Wagner, F.: Regional and Global Emissions of Air Pollutants: Recent Trends and Future Scenarios, Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., 38, 31-55, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-052912-173303, 2013. Arneth, A., Harrison, S. P., Zaehle, S., Tsigaridis, K., Menon, S., Bartlein, P. J., Feichter, J., Korhola, A., Kulmala, M., ODonnell, D., Schurgers, G., Sorvari, S., and Vesala, T.: Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system, Nat. Geosci., 3, 525-532, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo905, 2010. Berrisford, P., Kallberg, P., Kobayashi, S., Dee, D., Uppala, S., Simmons, A. J., and Sato, H.: The ERA-Interim archive version 2.0, ERA Rep. Series, Shinfield Park, Reading, 2011. Bessagnet, B., Menut, L., Curci, G., Hodzic, A., Guillaume, B., Liousse, C., Moukhtar, S., Pun, B., Seigneur, C., and Schulz, M.: Regional modeling of carbonaceous aerosols over Europe-focus on secondary organic aerosols, J. Atmos. Chem., 61, 175-202, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10874-009-9129-2, ...
Points 1 & 2 are just what I said above, as for the meaning of the "fingerprints", just read the following excerpt from the IPCC TAR §12.2.3:. "Different models may give quite different patterns of response for the same forcing, but an individual model may give a surprisingly similar response for different forcings. The first point means that attribution studies may give different results when using signals generated from different models. The second point means that it may be more difficult to distinguish between the response to different factors than one might expect, given the differences in radiative forcing.". Namely, it is hard to fingerprint when different numerical simulations give different responses... Just seeing for example that the troposphere warms up more than the stratosphere, doesnt mean much.. This is also why global warming alarmists try to do their best to quench anything related to the the solar variability → cosmic ray flux → atmospheric ionization → low altitude ...
Points 1 & 2 are just what I said above, as for the meaning of the "fingerprints", just read the following excerpt from the IPCC TAR §12.2.3:. "Different models may give quite different patterns of response for the same forcing, but an individual model may give a surprisingly similar response for different forcings. The first point means that attribution studies may give different results when using signals generated from different models. The second point means that it may be more difficult to distinguish between the response to different factors than one might expect, given the differences in radiative forcing.". Namely, it is hard to fingerprint when different numerical simulations give different responses... Just seeing for example that the troposphere warms up more than the stratosphere, doesnt mean much.. This is also why global warming alarmists try to do their best to quench anything related to the the solar variability → cosmic ray flux → atmospheric ionization → low altitude ...
I dont think we can really exclude this new theory, to be honest. I am of the view that the EU needs a new theory of planetary formation because I cannot see how something such as Jupiter (for example) could give birth to planetary objects via sudden discharging. The atmospheric composition is virtually all made up of helium and hydrogen with trace gases making up a tiny percentage. The upper portion of the atmosphere is likely to be where the greatest degree of ionization lies and if such bodies ever did nova then the ejections would be of the conductive plasma and hence very light elements. This would form a sort of mini nebula made of cooling glowing gas. Recombination of the plasma into water and oxygen may well take place, and there may be some trace dust included. But no significant heavy elements. Even if the nova was powerful enough to conduct through the outer plasma into the center of the gas giant the solid material would disintegrate due to the very rapid drop in pressure with ...
an atmospheric circulation pattern in which the atmospheric pressure over the polar regions varies in opposition with that over middle latitudes (about 45 degrees N) on time scales ranging from weeks to decades; the oscillation extends through the depth of the troposphere, and from January to March, it extends upward into the stratosphere where it modulates in the strength of the westerly vortex that encircles the arctic polar cap region; the north atlantic oscillation and arctic oscillation are different ways of describing the same phenomenon ...
an atmospheric circulation pattern in which the atmospheric pressure over the polar regions varies in opposition with that over middle latitudes (about 45 degrees N) on time scales ranging from weeks to decades; the oscillation extends through the depth of the troposphere, and from January to March, it extends upward into the stratosphere where it modulates in the strength of the westerly vortex that encircles the arctic polar cap region; the north atlantic oscillation and arctic oscillation are different ways of describing the same phenomenon ...
Similarly, it would be politically important to study the tropospheric temperature trend in more detail for its importance in the American climate "debate". It has nearly no scientific value because the tropospheric temperature series is so short and buggy. Each update there are huge changes in the trend estimates and the two available series show large differences, although they both try to take into account the currently known problems of the raw data. There is also no societal need for this dataset; no one lives in the tropical troposphere. Consequently only a few people at the University of Alabama in Huntsville and at Remote Sensing system work on these datasets once in a while. Occasionally there is some help in finding the problems with this data from external scientists ...
James Poterba is President of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He is also the Mitsui Professor of Economics at M.I.T ...
The working group is closing data entry on 31 December 2017 for what will be SISAL_v1, a database to be published next year. Contact the SISAL regional coordinators for information on how to add your data.*. Speleothems are secondary cave deposits formed mostly from calcium carbonates (CaCO3). These climate archives are well distributed worldwide and thus they are not only valuable archives for regional climate but also for continental and inter-continental comparisons. Also, due to the high precision of Uranium-series dating, speleothems provide an opportunity to trace leads and lags of global events. The different types of measurements made on speleothems, including the stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon (δ18O, δ13C) and various trace elements, can be used to reconstruct past changes in the hydrological cycle as well as changes in atmospheric composition.. Speleothems provide a unique opportunity for reconstructing climate drivers and change on various spatial and temporal scales during ...
The concept of a pressure gradient is a local characterisation of the air (more generally of the fluid under investigation). The pressure gradient is defined only at those spatial scales at which pressure (more generally fluid dynamics) itself is defined. Within planetary atmospheres (including the Earths), the pressure gradient is a vector pointing roughly downwards, because the pressure changes most rapidly vertically, increasing downwards (see vertical pressure variation). The value of the strength (or norm) of the pressure gradient in the troposphere is typically of the order of 9 Pa/m (or 90 hPa/km). The pressure gradient often has a small but critical horizontal component, which is largely responsible for wind circulation in the atmosphere. The horizontal pressure gradient is a two-dimensional vector resulting from the projection of the pressure gradient onto a local horizontal plane. Near the Earths surface, this horizontal pressure gradient force is directed from higher toward lower ...
Ventilation and atmospheric conditions (See also ? 1918.2, definitions of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance or atmosphere and Ro-Ro operations). - 1918.94
During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE), a plume of organic aerosol was produced by a smoke generator and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, the plume particles had very low hygroscopic growth factors (GFs): between 1.05 and 1.09 for 30 nm and between 1.02 and 1.1 for 150 nm dry size at a relative humidity (RH) of 92%, contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6. New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm^−3), which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07 and 0.88%. Ratios of oxygen to carbon (O : C) and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) increased with plume age: from , 0.001 to 0.2, and from 2.42 to 4.96 μg m^−3, respectively, while organic ...
The National Centre for Atmospheric Science carries out research programmes on: The science of climate change, including modelling and predictions, Atmospheric composition, including air quality, Weather, including hazardous weather and Technologies for observing and modelling the atmosphere. Additionally, we provide scientific facilities for researchers right across the UK to enable excellent atmospheric science on a national scale. These include a world-leading research aircraft, a ground-based instrumentation pool, access to computer models and facilities for storing and accessing data. In a nutshell, we provide the UK academic community and the Natural Environment Research Council with national capability in atmospheric science.
We have observed this behavior ever since John Christy and I started the satellite-based global temperature monitoring business over 20 years ago.. These temperature swings are mostly the result of variations in rainfall activity. Precipitation systems, which are constantly occurring around the world, release the latent heat of condensation of water vapor which was absorbed during the process of evaporation from the Earths surface. While this process is continuously occurring, there are periods when such activity is somewhat more intense or widespread. These events, called Intra-Seasonal Oscillations (ISOs) are most evident over the tropical Pacific Ocean. During the convectively active phase of the ISO, there are increased surface winds of up to 1 to 2 knots averaged over the tropical oceans, which causes faster surface evaporation, more water vapor in the troposphere, and more convective rainfall activity. This above-average release of latent heat exceeds the rate at which the atmosphere ...
The National Centre for Atmospheric Science carries out research programmes on: The science of climate change, including modelling and predictions, Atmospheric composition, including air quality, Weather, including hazardous weather and Technologies for observing and modelling the atmosphere. Additionally, we provide scientific facilities for researchers right across the UK to enable excellent atmospheric science on a national scale. These include a world-leading research aircraft, a ground-based instrumentation pool, access to computer models and facilities for storing and accessing data. In a nutshell, we provide the UK academic community and the Natural Environment Research Council with national capability in atmospheric science.
The ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.7 and the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM5) in simulating profiles of aerosol properties is quantified using extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements from the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted during July of 2012. TCAP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energys Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and was designed to obtain observations within two atmospheric columns; one fixed over Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and the other several hundred kilometers over the ocean. The performance is quantified using most of the available aircraft and surface measurements during July, and 2 days are examined in more detail to identify the processes responsible for the observed aerosol layers. The higher-resolution WRF-Chem model produced more aerosol mass in the free troposphere than the coarser-resolution CAM5 model so that the fraction of aerosol optical thickness above the ...
Research into stellar atmospheres and structure[edit]. In the 1920s much of Milne's research was concerned with stars, ... In doing this they applied the work of Meghnad Saha about the ionization of gases to stellar atmospheres.[9] ... He considered a grey atmosphere, a simplifying approximation in which the strength of the absorption of light by the hot ... This produced predictions of how temperature varies through the atmosphere, including the mathematical expression now known as ...
Atmosphere and magnetosphere[edit]. Main articles: ozone layer, shortwave radio, skywave, and ionosphere ... For instance, dark bands in the light emitted by a distant star are due to the atoms in the star's atmosphere. A similar ... Finally, at radio wavelengths longer than 10 meters or so (about 30 MHz), the air in the lower atmosphere remains transparent ... However, at energies too low to excite water vapor, the atmosphere becomes transparent again, allowing free transmission of ...
Relation to controlled atmosphere killing[edit]. Controlled atmosphere killing (CAK) or controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS) is ... Controlled Atmosphere Killing: People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. *Nitrogen Induced Hypoxia as a Form of Capital ... Normal Earth atmosphere is about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% argon, carbon dioxide, and other gases. After just two or ... For this reason, the use of inert gas (hypoxic) atmospheres (without CO2) for euthanasia, is also species-specific.[9][19] ...
Atmosphere[edit]. Between 4-6°C above pre-industrial levels, warming oceans may result in a large amount of methane from ... The rate of global warming is influenced by the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, which has so far led ... and the gas is poisonous for both plants and animals if released into the atmosphere. Sulphur dioxide produced in this scenario ... and an altered composition of the Earth's atmosphere.[1] ... underwater stores being released into the atmosphere. Methane ...
Common atmospheres used include: inert, reducing or vacuum atmospheres all of which protect the part from oxidation. Some other ... GH Induction Atmospheres *^ Joseph R. Davis, ASM International. Handbook Committee (2001). Copper and copper alloys. ASM ... The commonly used atmospheres are[7][8] *Air: Simple and economical. Many materials susceptible to oxidation and buildup of ... Atmosphere[edit]. As brazing work requires high temperatures, oxidation of the metal surface occurs in an oxygen-containing ...
... has a tenuous atmosphere consisting of nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4), and carbon monoxide (CO), which are in equilibrium ... Determinations of Pluto's size had been complicated by its atmosphere,[119] and hydrocarbon haze.[117] In March 2014, Lellouch ... 2006). "Charon's size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation". Nature. 439 (7072): 52-54. Bibcode: ... "Pluto has carbon monoxide in its atmosphere". Physorg.com. April 19, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2011.. ...
Most meteoroids that strike the earth vaporize in the atmosphere. Without a thick protective atmosphere meteoroid strikes would ... Atmosphere[edit]. Air pressure, with normal partial pressures of oxygen(21%), carbon dioxide and nitrogen(78%), is a basic ... and with atmosphere retention walls 200 km in height. The habitat would be large enough that it could be "roofless", open to ...
Atmosphere[edit]. Space life support systems maintain atmospheres composed, at a minimum, of oxygen, water vapor and carbon ... Future lunar missions may utilise water sourced from polar ices; Mars missions may utilise water from the atmosphere or ice ... For this reason, most modern crewed spacecraft use conventional air (nitrogen/oxygen) atmospheres and use pure oxygen only in ... American Mercury, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft contained 100% oxygen atmospheres, suitable for short duration missions, to ...
Unlike the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, Europa's is not of biological origin. The surface-bounded atmosphere forms through ... and the balance of these two processes forms an atmosphere.[104] Molecular oxygen is the densest component of the atmosphere ... Atmosphere[edit]. Observations with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope, first described in ... McGrath (2009). "Atmosphere of Europa". In Pappalardo, Robert T.; McKinnon, William B.; Khurana, Krishan K. Europa. University ...
Atmosphere[edit]. At a March 2009 meeting of the Copenhagen Climate Council, 2,500 climate experts from 80 countries issued a ... Other human impacts on the atmosphere include the air pollution in cities, the pollutants including toxic chemicals like ... Anthropogenic particulates such as sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere reduce the direct irradiance and reflectance (albedo) of ... The remaining freshwater is found in glaciers, lakes, rivers, wetlands, the soil, aquifers and atmosphere. Due to the water ...
That gives the mass of the atmosphere (they did that in the 18th century: it's not a recent realization.) The atmosphere is ... like a worked out conversion or at least the mass of the atmosphere as 5.1e18kg from Earth's atmosphere. I realize the dynamics ... Earth's atmosphere has a lot of that and comes up with the 5.1480e18 kg of gas at about 28.97 molecular weight vs 44 for Carbon ... Mars has an atmosphere of 95% Carbon Dioxide. Why is Mars so cold? -Preceding unsigned comment added by Whariwharangi (talk • ...
Model atmosphere[edit]. A numerical model of a star's atmosphere will calculate pressures and temperatures at different depths ... Water has been found on the Sun, and there is evidence of H2 in white dwarf stellar atmospheres.[2][3] ... Xu, S.; Jura, M.; Koester, D.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B. (2013). "DISCOVERY OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN WHITE DWARF ATMOSPHERES". ... Masseron, T. (December 2015), "Molecules in stellar atmospheres", in Martins, F.; Boissier, S.; Buat, V.; Cambrésy, L.; Petit, ...
Atmosphere, climate, and weather[edit]. Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, ... Main articles: Atmosphere of Earth, Climate, and Weather. The Earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. ... There is no discrete boundary between the Earth's atmosphere and space, as the atmosphere gradually attenuates with increasing ... "Calculations favor reducing atmosphere for early Earth". Science Daily. September 11, 2005. Retrieved January 6, 2007.. ...
Although nitrogen makes up most of the atmosphere, it is in a form that is unavailable to plants. Nitrogen is the most ... Legumes, for example, fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and generally do not require nitrogen fertilizer. ...
Removal from the atmosphere[edit]. Natural processes[edit]. Greenhouse gases can be removed from the atmosphere by various ... Gases in Earth's atmosphere[edit]. Main articles: Greenhouse effect and Atmosphere of Earth ... 2 emitted is removed from the atmosphere within a century, some fraction (about 20%) of emitted CO. 2 remains in the atmosphere ... Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere if half of global-warming emissions[42][43] are not absorbed.. (NASA simulation; 9 ...
Photosynthesis releases oxygen into the atmosphere, while respiration, decay, and combustion remove it from the atmosphere. In ... 2 build-up in Earth's atmosphere: 1) no O. 2 produced; 2) O. 2 produced, but absorbed in oceans & seabed rock; 3) O. 2 starts ... Guy P. Brasseur; Susan Solomon (January 15, 2006). Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere: Chemistry and Physics of the Stratosphere ... Oxygen is present in the atmosphere in trace quantities in the form of carbon dioxide (CO. 2). The Earth's crustal rock is ...
Contamination of stellar atmospheres[edit]. Spectral analysis of white dwarfs' atmospheres often finds contamination of heavier ... A planetary atmosphere (and planet for that matter) could also be detected by measuring the polarisation of the starlight as it ... When the planet transits the star, light from the star passes through the upper atmosphere of the planet. By studying the high- ... The phase function of the giant planet is also a function of its thermal properties and atmosphere, if any. Therefore, the ...
Simple formulas that include the effect of the atmosphere give the range as: h. o. r. i. z. o. n. m. i. l. e. s. ≈. 1.23. ⋅. h ... Earth bulge and atmosphere effect[edit]. Earth bulge is a term used in telecommunications. It refers to the circular segment of ... The usual effect of the declining pressure of the atmosphere with height is to bend radio waves down towards the surface of the ... The above analysis does not consider the effect of atmosphere on the propagation path of RF signals. In fact, RF signals don't ...
Irradiation at the top of the atmosphere[edit]. Spherical triangle for application of the spherical law of cosines for the ... When 1361 W/m2 is arriving above the atmosphere (when the sun is at the zenith in a cloudless sky), direct sun is about 1050 W/ ... Average annual solar radiation arriving at the top of the Earth's atmosphere is roughly 1361 W/m2.[25] The Sun's rays are ... 3 Irradiation at the top of the atmosphere *3.1 Variation *3.1.1 Total irradiance ...
Atmospheres[edit]. The bands seen in the atmosphere of Jupiter are due to counter-circulating streams of material called zones ... The observable atmospheres of all these planets (at less than unit optical depth) are quite thin compared to their radii, only ... A giant planet is a massive planet and has a thick atmosphere of hydrogen and helium. They may have a dense molten core of ... Lunine, Jonathan I. (September 1993). "The Atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 31 ...
Artificial atmosphere[edit]. There are two basic choices for an artificial atmosphere: either an Earth-like mixture of oxygen ... All three, Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee, were killed.[72] This led NASA to use a nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere before ... A pure oxygen atmosphere carries risk of fire. The original design of the Apollo spacecraft used pure oxygen at greater than ... In 1981, three pad workers were killed by a nitrogen-rich atmosphere in the aft engine compartment of the Space Shuttle ...
Atmosphere[edit]. Auroral glows in Io's upper atmosphere. Different colors represent emission from different components of the ... Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which Io crosses, couple Io's atmosphere and neutral cloud to Jupiter's polar upper atmosphere ... but the atmosphere pressure of Io's nightside atmosphere is two to four orders of magnitude less than at its peak just past ... A sublimation-driven atmosphere is also consistent with observations that Io's atmosphere is densest over the anti-Jupiter ...
Atmosphere. Culture. GSV. Empiricist. System. A big ship, even by the standards of System-class vessels, which are the largest ...
Circus Atmosphere; John Ringling's castle on the cliffs, (201) magazine, January 2015. Accessed January 11, 2015. ...
Unique atmosphere.. *Candi Gampingan. Ruins 1.5m underground of a temple and stairs. Reliefs of animals at the foot of the ...
Most of the argon in the Earths atmosphere was produced by electron capture of long-lived 40. K (40. K + e− → 40. Ar + ν) ... In the Earths atmosphere, 39. Ar is made by cosmic ray activity, primarily by neutron capture of 40. Ar followed by two- ... The atmospheres of Mars, Mercury and Titan (the largest moon of Saturn) contain argon, predominantly as 40. Ar, and its content ... It is in group 18 of the periodic table and is a noble gas.[5] Argon is the third-most abundant gas in the Earths atmosphere, ...
THE SENATE Environment and Public Works Committee began its markup of a massive climate change bill on Tuesday -- without its Republican members. The Republicans have some reasonable concerns about the legislation. But their boycott isnt helpful.
DK Space Encyclopedia: Atmosphere of Venus p 58. *^ a b c d e f g h i j Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, ... The atmosphere has a mass of 4.8×1020 kg, about 93 times the mass of the Earths total atmosphere.[citation needed] The density ... 1997). Geochemistry of Surface-Atmosphere Interactions on Venus (Venus II: Geology, Geophysics, Atmosphere, and Solar Wind ... Atmosphere of Venus. Cloud structure in Venuss atmosphere in 1979, revealed by ultraviolet observations from Pioneer Venus ...
Change of Atmosphere (COA) is a catalyst organization created to educate, engage, and empower our society with sustainability. ... Each day every one of us is literally changing the atmosphere of our society... and each day we have a choice with regards to ... Change of Atmosphere (COA) is a catalyst organization created to educate, engage, and empower our society with sustainability. ...
PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE - Report of the Secretary-General (PDF). E/CN.17/2001/PC/12. Prepared by the World Meteorological ...
... has an atmosphere of oxygen and carbon dioxide-but dont hold your breath for human colonization. ... Saturn Moon Has Oxygen Atmosphere. Saturns second largest moon, Rhea, has an atmosphere of oxygen and carbon dioxide-but dont ... An oxygen atmosphere has been found on Saturns second largest moon, Rhea, astronomers announced Thursday-but dont hold your ... Rheas oxygen atmosphere is believed to be maintained by the ongoing chemical breakdown of water ice on the moons surface, ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
Breakers and the atmosphere. Article by Karen B. Roberts Photos by Luc Mieussens and Steven Billups November 07, 2016 ... Veron: Small spray droplets created from breaking waves in the ocean can be transported very high and far in the atmosphere. ... But even during this short lifetime, these large drops can exchange heat, locally, with the atmosphere. ... professor in the School of Marine Science and Policy who studies how the ocean and the atmosphere are connected, about how ...
Andy turned what could have otherwise been a ho-hum shot at the beach into a photo loaded with atmosphere. The muted gray ... the more I enjoyed simply soaking in the towns unique atmosphere. Make sure to leave some time to simply explore without ...
Create a Positive Work Atmosphere. To reduce psychological stress that can lead to poor sleep, create a work environment with ...
Comfortable Atmosphere. Two story with wood floors; outdoor & indoor second floor balconies; patio doors in all rooms; great ... Light and Airy, Comfortable Atmosphere. Two story with wood floors; outdoor & indoor second floor balconies; patio doors in all ... Light and Airy, Comfortable Atmosphere. Two story with wood floors; outdoor & indoor second floor balconies; patio doors in all ... Light and Airy, Comfortable Atmosphere. Two story with wood floors; outdoor & indoor second floor balconies; patio doors in all ...
Evolution of the atmosphere, the development of Earths atmosphere across geologic time. The process by which the current ... atmosphere arose from earlier conditions is complex; however, evidence related to the evolution of Earths atmosphere, though ... Evolution of the atmosphere, the development of Earths atmosphere across geologic time. The process by which the current ... atmosphere. Atmosphere. , the gas and aerosol envelope that extends from the ocean, land, and ice-covered surface of a planet ...
Mars did indeed lose much of its original atmosphere long ago when huge amounts of gas escaped into space, new analyses from ... Most of Mars Atmosphere Is Lost in Space. By Mike Wall, Space.com Senior Writer , April 8, 2013 04:21pm ET. ... The new measurement is consistent with the idea that gas escaped from the top of the Martian atmosphere in the distant past, ... The planet Mars lost most of its original atmosphere long ago when huge amounts of gas escaped into space, leaving only a wispy ...
... atmosphere is too thin to support life as we know it. And its very dusty. The red planet has the largest dust storms in the ... What is Mars atmosphere made of?. The atmosphere of Mars is about 100 times thinner than Earths, and it is 95 percent carbon ... dust moving around in the atmosphere, and water vapor moving between the surface and the atmosphere. (Most of the water comes ... The atmosphere today is also too thin to easily support life as we know it, although life may have existed in the ancient past ...
Aerosols in the Atmosphere. New data could help scientists better understand how these peripatetic particles influence the ... Although the particles might have a regional effect on visibility, they would be rained out of the atmosphere before they had ... But later studies suggested that aerosols could also warm the atmosphere through their effects on cloud cover and the behavior ... Indeed, although climatologists and other scientists have long focused on gases in the atmosphere, they have not closely ...
STEREO View Of Solar Atmosphere. [ Read the Article: STEREO Observations Indicate That Suns Corona Is Larger Than Expected ] ... Using STEREO, scientists have found that this atmosphere, called the corona, is even larger than thought, extending out some 5 ... the suns atmosphere, toward the solar surface. ...
The Solar Eclipse Caused a Bow Wave in Earths Atmosphere. Its long been predicted that a solar eclipse would cause a bow wave ... While the Martian atmosphere is less than 1% that of Earths - with an average surface pressure of 0.636 kPa compared to ... "CFCs have lifetimes from 50 to 100 years, so they linger in the atmosphere for a very long time. As far as the ozone hole being ... It can also react with other gases in the atmosphere to form aerosol particles that can create thick hazes and even lead to ...
Buy Atmosphere by PaulBorsan on ThemeForest. Are you a photographer or a writer? or maybe a blogger who wants their visitors to ... Are you a photographer or a writer? or maybe a blogger who wants their visitors to focus on the content? If so, Atmosphere is ...
At one time the entire atmosphere was anaerobic I think...The dominance of oxygen produce species caused one of the greatest ... so in an atmosphere of very low oxygen (for example, in silt, peat bogs and outer space) these processes are slowed or even ...
The early Earths atmosphere was mostly Co2 with virtuall no oxygen. A lot of the early carbon dioxide was absorbed into the ...
Lyrics to Inside Outsider by Atmosphere: Inside out and upside down / Who qualifies to try to judge me now / Love is what grows ...
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A Guide to Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number: 2019-174. ... A Guide to Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators pdf icon[PDF - 638 KB]. Suggested Citation. NIOSH [2019]. A Guide to Atmosphere- ... oxygen-deficient atmospheres. There are three types of atmosphere-supplying respirators: supplied-air respirators (SARs), self- ... Atmosphere-supplying respirators provide clean breathing air from a source independent of the work area. These respirators will ...
  • Despite the harsh conditions on the surface, the atmospheric pressure and temperature at about 50 km to 65 km above the surface of the planet is nearly the same as that of the Earth, making its upper atmosphere the most Earth-like area in the Solar System , even more so than the surface of Mars . (wikipedia.org)
  • For modern atmospheric chemistry and physics, see atmosphere . (britannica.com)
  • Information regarding these particular processes, however, is incomplete even for the present atmosphere, and there is almost no direct evidence regarding atmospheric constituents and their rates of supply and consumption in the past. (britannica.com)
  • In addition to weather, NOAA also monitors and forecasts other atmospheric processes that effect our planet such as ozone levels, changing climate conditions, and variables outside Earth's atmosphere such as solar winds. (noaa.gov)
  • Choosing MSc Atmosphere, Oceans and Climate means you will join our world-class Department of Meteorology - the University of Reading is ranked 2nd in the world for research in Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (Center for World University Rankings by Subject, 2017). (reading.ac.uk)
  • Martin Pätzold, Universität zu Köln, Germany, and colleagues have determined the fine structure in temperatures at Venus's upper cloud-deck, detected distinct day-to-night temperature differences in the southern middle atmosphere, and tracked day-to-day changes in Venus's ionosphere (the upper atmospheric layer). (esa.int)
  • To gain insight into the atmospheric composition of the planet, located about 40 light-years from Earth in the constellation Ophiuchus, the team used a blue transmission filter to search for Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere. (redorbit.com)
  • Despite these relatively short timescales, important chemical changes can still take place in the urban atmosphere but are currently poorly captured by numerical models due to weak understanding of either the chemistry or atmospheric dynamics, or a lack of adequate spatial resolution. (rsc.org)
  • The urban atmosphere is hugely complex in chemical terms, but many of the constituents play little role in atmospheric chemistry on urban timescales. (rsc.org)
  • Paper present current research results on the corrosion of metals in the atmosphere, show current thinking on mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion, and document how changes in the atmosphere have affected the corrosion of metals. (astm.org)
  • Early Mars had an atmosphere thick enough to hold water and moist clouds, said chief investigator Bruce Jakosky of the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in Boulder. (dailyherald.com)
  • The results open up a new suite of research questions, including atmospheric pathways for the dispersal of pathogens, the role of small islands as stepping stones for the cross-basin transport of land microbes across vast distances, and the role these organisms play in condensing particles, including rain drops, in the atmosphere," says Duarte. (innovations-report.com)
  • Atmospheric pressure at a particular location is the force per unit area perpendicular to a surface determined by the weight of the vertical column of atmosphere above that location. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, atmospheres are not uniform in temperature, so estimation of the atmospheric pressure at any particular altitude is more complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparisons of these atmospheres to one another and to Earth's atmosphere broaden our basic understanding of atmospheric processes such as the greenhouse effect, aerosol and cloud physics, and atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between the Viking and Mars Global Surveyor missions, Mars saw "Much colder (10-20 K) global atmospheric temperatures were observed during the 1997 versus 1977 perihelion periods" and "that the global aphelion atmosphere of Mars is colder, less dusty, and cloudier than indicated by the established Viking climatology," with "generally colder atmospheric temperatures and lower dust loading in recent decades on Mars than during the Viking Mission. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reducing atmosphere is an atmospheric condition in which oxidation is prevented by removal of oxygen and other oxidizing gases or vapours, and which may contain actively reducing gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and gases such as hydrogen sulfide that would be oxidized by any present oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of a significant atmosphere was first suspected by Spanish astronomer Josep Comas i Solà, who observed distinct limb darkening on Titan in 1903, and confirmed by Gerard P. Kuiper in 1944 using a spectroscopic technique that yielded an estimate of an atmospheric partial pressure of methane of the order of 100 millibars (10 kPa). (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface pressure of the atmosphere of Pluto, measured by New Horizons in 2015, is about 1 Pa (10 μbar), roughly 100,000 times less than Earth's atmospheric pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results provided support for a "vigorous" loss of atmosphere early in the history of Mars and were consistent with an atmospheric signature found in bits of atmosphere captured in some Martian meteorites found on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upper atmosphere, or thermosphere: A region with very high temperatures, caused by heating from the Sun. Atmospheric gases start to separate from each other at these altitudes, rather than forming the even mix found in the lower atmospheric layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Jacchia Reference Atmosphere is an atmospheric model that define values for atmospheric temperature, density, pressure and other properties at altitudes from 90 to 2500 km. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atmospheric models NRLMSISE-00 International Standard Atmosphere US Standard Atmosphere NASA GSFC ModelWeb Jacchia page L. G. Jacchia, Static Diffusion Models of the Upper Atmosphere with Empirical Temperature Profiles, Smithson. (wikipedia.org)
  • This proved to be a great overestimate, similar to the predictions of the atmospheric density of Mars, but like on Mars, a denser early atmosphere is postulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, and air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth's troposphere and in artificial atmospheres. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of Earth's atmosphere and its processes is called atmospheric science (aerology). (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of water vapor (a greenhouse gas) varies significantly from around 10 ppm by volume in the coldest portions of the atmosphere to as much as 5% by volume in hot, humid air masses, and concentrations of other atmospheric gases are typically quoted in terms of dry air (without water vapor). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, Earth's atmosphere can be divided (called atmospheric stratification) into five main layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is an atmospheric model of how the pressure, temperature, density, and viscosity of the Earth's atmosphere change over a wide range of altitudes or elevations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GAW consists of a worldwide system of observing stations and supporting facilities providing data for atmospheric assessments, and also serving as an early warning system for chemical or physical changes in the Earth's atmosphere which could be cause for environmental concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Global Atmosphere Watch currently has six World Data Centres, each administered by its host nation, and each responsible for gathering and storing atmospheric data from measurement stations worldwide, and making it freely available to scientists in a number of different forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. Standard Atmosphere is an atmospheric model of how the pressure, temperature, density, and viscosity of the Earth's atmosphere change over a wide range of altitudes or elevations. (wikipedia.org)
  • COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere: 1986 (0 km to 120 km) (NASA) The COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere CIRA-86 (British Atmospheric Data Centre) K.Labitzke, J.J.Barnett, B.Edwards,Middle Atmosphere Programme, MAP Handbook16, Urbana,1985 (source). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) is part of the Copernicus Programme and provides continuous data and information on atmospheric composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • This service has around 10 years of developments, and its current precursor project, MACC-III (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation), is delivering the pre-operational Copernicus Atmosphere Service. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (2010-05-03). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) is a scientific research institution at Colorado State University (CSU) that operates under a cooperative agreement with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) and the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dr. Neil Trivett Global Atmosphere Watch Observatory is an atmospheric baseline station operated by Environment and Climate Change Canada located at Alert, Nunavut, on the north-eastern tip of Ellesmere Island, about 800 km south of the geographic north pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • The observatory is the northernmost of 31 Global Stations in an international network coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) under its Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) program to study the long-term effects of pollution on the atmospheric environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO) has existed since 1977 for the purpose of fostering research collaboration between National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) and the University of Washington (UW). (wikipedia.org)
  • This atmospheric feature is not only associated with Earth: it occurs on any other planet or moon that has an atmosphere as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the detailed press release from UC Berkeley explains, the amateurs' storm could be part of a tall vortex anchored deep in the planet's atmosphere, similar to the Great Red Spot and other features on Jupiter. (skyandtelescope.com)
  • The presence of hydroxyl - which was picked up by the spacecraft's Visible and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer - isn't exactly a huge surprise, but ESA scientists say it should help them refine the theoretical models they use to describe what's going on in the planet's atmosphere. (popsci.com)
  • There is growing appreciation that outer space has become a trash bin, with the Earth encircled by dead or dying spacecraft, along with menacing bits of orbital clutter - some of which burns up in the planet's atmosphere. (foxnews.com)
  • Water Found in Extrasolar Planet's Atmosphere. (neatorama.com)
  • The term stellar atmosphere describes the outer region of a star and typically includes the portion above the opaque photosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Grey atmosphere (or gray) is a useful set of approximations made for radiative transfer applications in studies of stellar atmospheres based on the simplification that the absorption coefficient α ν {\displaystyle \alpha _{\nu }} of matter within the atmosphere is constant for all frequencies of incident radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this may be true for lower depths within the stellar atmosphere, near the surface it almost certainly isn't. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stellar atmosphere is the outer region of the volume of a star, lying above the stellar core, radiation zone and convection zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outermost part of the stellar atmosphere is the corona, a tenuous plasma which has a temperature above one million Kelvin. (wikipedia.org)
  • UDaily talked with the University of Delaware's Fabrice Veron , professor in the School of Marine Science and Policy who studies how the ocean and the atmosphere are connected, about how ocean spray influences global climate. (udel.edu)
  • Although the particles might have a regional effect on visibility, they would be rained out of the atmosphere before they had time to really affect climate. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Studies show that the magnitude of anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing over the industrial period calculated by climate models is strongly affected by the abundance and properties of aerosols in the pre-industrial atmosphere. (springer.com)
  • The abundance, properties, and distribution of aerosols in the pre-industrial (PI) atmosphere are important for climate for two reasons. (springer.com)
  • Here's an article about how magnetic tornadoes might regenerate Mercury's atmosphere , and here's an article about the climate of Mercury . (universetoday.com)
  • In the Arctic, as the climate warms, most of the additional heat remains trapped in a shallow layer of the atmosphere close to the ground, not deeper than 1 or 2 kilometers [0.6 to 1.2 miles],' said Felix Pithan, a climate scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Germany and lead author of the new study. (livescience.com)
  • But its ability to keep our planet warm is what makes the atmosphere so important to climate change. (exploratorium.edu)
  • The upper atmosphere controls the size and shape of holes in the ozone layer, and can help us work out how the climate is changing. (newscientist.com)
  • SOLAS has a goal to achieve quantitative understanding of the key biogeochemical-physical interactions and feedbacks between the ocean and atmosphere, and of how this coupled system affects and is affected by climate and environmental change. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere program (TOGA) was a ten-year study (1985-1994) of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) aimed specifically at the prediction of climate phenomena on time scales of months to years. (wikipedia.org)
  • This in mind, the World Climate Research Programme began to plan a decade long research initiative intended to understand ocean-atmosphere interaction in the tropical ocean basins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Studies (VOCALS) is an international field experiment started in 2006 designed by World Climate Research Programme's core project CLIVAR to better understand physical and chemical processes central to the climate system of the Southeast Pacific region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The leading theory is that Mars' light gravity, coupled with its lack of global magnetic field, left the atmosphere vulnerable to pressure from the solar wind, the constant stream of particles coming from the sun. (space.com)
  • Astronomers think this current atmosphere is constantly being replenished by a variety of sources: particles of the Sun's solar wind, volcanic outgassing, radioactive decay of elements on Mercury's surface and the dust and debris kicked up by micrometeorites constantly buffeting its surface. (universetoday.com)
  • This region of Venus's atmosphere contains light hazes of various aerosol particles, composed chiefly of sulphuric acid and water. (esa.int)
  • Cassini's ion and neutral mass spectrometer detects charged and neutral particles in the atmosphere. (universetoday.com)
  • The Moon may have a tenuous atmosphere of moving particles constantly leaping up from and falling back to the Moon's surface, giving rise to a "dust atmosphere" that looks static but is composed of dust particles in constant motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the nature and variations of the minor components reveal extensive interactions between the atmosphere, terrestrial environment , and biota. (britannica.com)
  • These changes are due to natural interactions between the ocean and atmosphere. (noaa.gov)
  • The local weather that impacts our daily lives results from large global patterns in the atmosphere caused by the interactions of solar radiation, Earth's large ocean, diverse landscapes, and motion in space. (noaa.gov)
  • The atmosphere-space interactions monitor (ASIM) for the international space station" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interaction soil-biosphere-atmosphere (ISBA) is a land-surface parameterisation model scheme describing soil-vegetation-atmosphere interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are other heat-trapping gases* in the atmosphere, but CO 2 is the most important one. (exploratorium.edu)
  • It did this by inferring the amount of gases in the atmosphere by measuring the unique infrared signature of each gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper layer of troposphere exhibits a phenomenon of super-rotation, in which the atmosphere circles the planet in just four Earth days, much faster than the planet's sidereal day of 243 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper atmosphere is heated by the solar wind and the temperatures are much higher than at the surface. (universetoday.com)
  • Every day, 90 metric tons of matter leaks from Earth's upper atmosphere into space. (inhabitat.com)
  • Above this, the region between 60 to 100 km is known as the mesosphere, and is a transition region between the lower winds, which whip the cloud tops around the planet in four days, and the circulation of the upper atmosphere, which is driven by the influx of solar radiation. (esa.int)
  • Having absorbed solar radiation, the hot upper atmosphere rises still further, circulating to the night side of the planet where it cools and sinks back to the level of the cloud tops. (esa.int)
  • However, it is surprising to find the plethora of complex hydrocarbon molecules in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. (universetoday.com)
  • Artificial meteors launched from satellites could one day help us study Earth's upper atmosphere. (newscientist.com)
  • Despite extending just 100 to 1000 kilometres above sea level, we still don't know a lot about the upper atmosphere. (newscientist.com)
  • It's also unclear how well the upper atmosphere protects us from meteor strikes and space debris. (newscientist.com)
  • To make more precise predictions we need to understand the upper atmosphere better, says Masaki Watanabe of Tokyo Metropolitan University. (newscientist.com)
  • This means that such parameters are function of physical depth z {\displaystyle z} , where the direction of positive z {\displaystyle z} points towards the upper layers of the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • As greenhouse gases warm a lower atmosphere, they cool the upper atmosphere, leading to compact thermospheres. (wikipedia.org)
  • An upper limit in the low 40s (K) can be set from vapor pressure equilibrium with nitrogen gas in Triton's atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper atmosphere continuously leaks into the space due to the weak gravity of Triton. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Upper Atmosphere Research Panel, also known as the V-2 Panel, was formed in 1946 to oversee experiments conducted using V-2 rockets brought to the United States after World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experiments studied the upper atmosphere, solar radiation and X-ray astronomy, as well as the technology of the V-2 rocket. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orbit determinations and flight planning of the very first satellites proved to be more complicated than expected due to a lack of knowledge on the upper atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Committee on Space Research therefore set up a long lasting special project to elaborate a reference model of the most important parameters of the upper atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • It will place cameras and x-ray- and γ-detectors on the International Space Station, where it will observe the upper atmosphere, looking for sprites, jets and elves and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes in connection with thunderstorms. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hoped that measurements of these phenomena from space will contribute to our understanding of the upper atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to achieve the TOGA goals, a strategy of large-scale, long-term monitoring of the upper ocean and the atmosphere, intensive and very specific process-oriented studies, and modeling were planned and enacted through a series of national, multinational and international efforts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) is an executive and bureaucratic space agency of the Government of Pakistan, responsible for the nation's public and civil space programme and for aeronautics and aerospace research. (wikipedia.org)
  • this led to the establishment of the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (denoted as SUPARCO) on 16 September 1961, with Abdus Salam being its first administrator and director. (wikipedia.org)
  • More likely, though, Gelise 1214 b's atmosphere is water-rich, based on the data combined with that from other wavelengths. (redorbit.com)
  • Different wavelengths of light allow us to sense different parts of the atmosphere and different molecules because the different photon energies require different numbers and types of molecules to absorb them. (planetary.org)
  • As it re-entered the atmosphere, SHEFEX withstood temperatures exceeding 2500 degrees Celsius and sent measurement data from more than 300 sensors to a ground station. (dlr.de)
  • The far-infrared spectroscopic observation beginning from 1967 consistently showed the atmosphere of Uranus was in approximate thermal balance with incoming solar radiation (in other words, it radiated as much heat as it received from the Sun), and no internal heat source was required to explain observed temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system provides assistance for the adaptive optics instruments on the VLT and so allows astronomers to obtain images free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere, regardless of the brightness and the location on the sky of the observed target. (innovations-report.com)
  • Tracking them has allowed astronomers to re-measure wind speeds on Uranus, known before only from the Voyager 2 observations, and to study the dynamics of the Uranian atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • We review what is known about the microphysical, chemical, and radiative properties of aerosols in the pre-industrial atmosphere and the processes that control them. (springer.com)
  • With such a lack of observational constraint on models, it is important for simulations to be based on reliable information about aerosol and precursor gas emissions, as well as a comprehensive understanding of aerosol chemical and physical processes in the natural atmosphere. (springer.com)
  • To understand why, you must first understand the processes that operate in the atmosphere. (quia.com)
  • The modelling of radiation processes are essential to our understanding of the energy cycles between the land surface and the atmosphere. (esa.int)
  • In the regional and global atmosphere, processes with timescales of days can play an important role, whereas in the urban atmosphere, typical timescales are hours at most, and in some situations such as street canyons, typical residence times are of the order of minutes. (rsc.org)
  • The latter is a key point as the global atmosphere is frequently rather well mixed in the vertical (at least within the boundary layer and within the free troposphere) whereas the urban atmosphere has very strong gradients of concentration because of a predominance of ground-level pollutant emissions, and for this reason, mixing processes may be as big a determinant of concentration as chemical reactivity. (rsc.org)
  • What have urban studies taught us about the special nature of urban atmosphere processes? (rsc.org)
  • SPAC integrates these components and is defined as a: ...concept recognising that the field with all its components (soil, plant, animals and the ambient atmosphere taken together) constitutes a physically integrated, dynamic system in which the various flow processes involving energy and matter occur simultaneously and independently like links in the chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The asymmetrization of ionic atmosphere does not occur in the case of Debye Falkenhagen effect due to high frequency dependence of conductivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simple Pressure Vessels Directive: Directive 2009/105/EC relating to simple pressure vessels The text of the new ATEX 2014/34/EU in available on the following web site : ATEX new directive from EUR-LEX Regarding ATEX 99/92/EC directive, the requirement is that Employers must classify areas where hazardous explosive atmospheres may occur into zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hazy moon's dim glow - measuring only around a millionth of a watt - comes from not only the top of its atmosphere (which was expected) but also from much deeper within, at altitudes of 300 km (190 miles). (universetoday.com)
  • More energetic cosmic rays may be to blame, penetrating deeper into the moon's atmosphere, or there could be unexpected chemical reactions or phenomena at work - a little Titanic lightning, perhaps? (universetoday.com)
  • Some crude calculations in the early 1990s (based mainly on sulfates, because the only sufficient data available came from studies of acid rain) showed that aerosols could cool the atmosphere by back-scattering incoming solar radiation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Rather than the more commonly known weather within our atmosphere (rain, snow, heat, wind, etc.), space weather comes in the form of radio blackouts, solar radiation storms, and geomagnetic storms caused by disturbances from the Sun. (noaa.gov)