The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The motion of air currents.
The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SERRATIA found in plants and the DIGESTIVE TRACT of rodents. It is the most prevalent Serratia species in the natural environment.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The nettles plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Many have stinging hairs on stems and leaves. Flowers are small and greenish in leaf axils. The fruit is dry and one-seeded.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.
Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.
The eighth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its two natural satellites are Nereid and Triton.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Relating to the size of solids.
The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The mechanical process of cooling.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family CARNOBACTERIACEAE. They are tolerant to freezing/thawing and high pressure and able to grow at low temperatures.
Keeping food for later consumption.
Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.
Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.
Discarded electronic devices containing valuable and sometimes hazardous materials such as LEAD, NICKEL, CADMIUM, and MERCURY. (from accessed 4/25/2010)
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A large group of rod-shaped bacteria that retains the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.

Passive exchanges during water vapour absorption in mealworms (Tenebrio molitor): a new approach to studying the phenomenon. (1/768)

The weights of single mealworms were continuously recorded at 20 degrees C during exposure to periods of constant humidity and to abrupt changes in atmospheric vapour pressure. Two exchange stages were recognized in each animal. Weight changes were either limited to slow losses, suggesting transpiration through the external cuticle, or showed more rapid humidity-dependent gains as well as losses. Rapid exchanges indicated that water was gained or lost through permeable barriers, from a fluid compartmet of significantly lower vapour pressure than the haemolymph, equivalent to about 90% R.H. Weight gains and losses during humidity changes provided evidence of a significant, passively exchanging fluid compartment located between the exchange surface and absorbing mechanism. Weight changes in faecal pellets following their elimination provide further support for a rectal site of atmospheric absorption.  (+info)

Volatile anaesthetics and the atmosphere: atmospheric lifetimes and atmospheric effects of halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane. (2/768)

The atmospheric lifetimes of the halogenated anaesthetics halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane with respect to reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH.) and UV photolysis have been determined from observations of OH. reaction kinetics and UV absorption spectra. Rate coefficients for the reaction with OH radicals for all halogenated anaesthetics investigated ranged from 0.44 to 2.7 x 10(-14) cm3 molec-1 s-1. Halothane, enflurane and isoflurane showed distinct UV absorption in the range 200-350 nm. In contrast, no absorption in this wavelength range was detected for desflurane or sevoflurane. The total atmospheric lifetimes, as derived from both OH. reactivity and photolysis, were 4.0-21.4 yr. It has been calculated that up to 20% of anaesthetics enter the stratosphere. As a result of chlorine and bromine content, the ozone depletion potential (ODP) relative to chlorofluorocarbon CFC-11 varies between 0 and 1.56, leading to a contribution to the total ozone depletion in the stratosphere of approximately 1% for halothane and 0.02% for enflurane and isoflurane. Estimates of the greenhouse warming potential (GWP) relative to CFC-12 yield values of 0.02-0.14, resulting in a relative contribution to global warming of all volatile anaesthetics of approximately 0.03%. The stratospheric impact of halothane, isoflurane and enflurane and their influence on ozone depletion is of increasing importance because of decreasing chlorofluorocarbons globally. However, the influence of volatile anaesthetics on greenhouse warming is small.  (+info)

Effects of in vitro atmospheric ammonia exposure on recovery rate and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of bovine neutrophils and bronchoalveolar macrophages. (3/768)

The effects of atmospheric ammonia, a major pollutant in animal confinement facilities, on bovine neutrophils and bronchoalveolar macrophages were evaluated in vitro. Ammonia exposure at concentrations 50, 100 and 200 ppm for one hour impaired recovery rates of neutrophils dose-dependently but enhanced their chemiluminescence activity per cell at lower concentrations (50 and 100 ppm). Macrophages were resistant to the exposure. Their recovery rates and chemiluminescence remained unaffected even at 200 ppm exposure. The present results suggest that ammonia exposure is unfavorable for bovine neutrophils in vitro, and probably in vivo also, in light of causing cell damage and triggering wider inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Galileo imaging of atmospheric emissions from Io. (4/768)

The Galileo spacecraft has detected diffuse optical emissions from Io in high-resolution images acquired while the satellite was eclipsed by Jupiter. Three distinct components make up Io's visible emissions. Bright blue glows of more than 300 kilorayleighs emanate from volcanic plumes, probably due to electron impact on molecular sulfur dioxide. Weaker red emissions, possibly due to atomic oxygen, are seen along the limbs, brighter on the pole closest to the plasma torus. A faint green glow appears concentrated on the night side of Io, possibly produced by atomic sodium. Io's disk-averaged emission diminishes with time after entering eclipse, whereas the localized blue glows brighten instead.  (+info)

Archean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaryotes. (5/768)

Molecular fossils of biological lipids are preserved in 2700-million-year-old shales from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Sequential extraction of adjacent samples shows that these hydrocarbon biomarkers are indigenous and syngenetic to the Archean shales, greatly extending the known geological range of such molecules. The presence of abundant 2alpha-methylhopanes, which are characteristic of cyanobacteria, indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved well before the atmosphere became oxidizing. The presence of steranes, particularly cholestane and its 28- to 30-carbon analogs, provides persuasive evidence for the existence of eukaryotes 500 million to 1 billion years before the extant fossil record indicates that the lineage arose.  (+info)

Increased summertime UV radiation in New Zealand in response to ozone loss. (6/768)

Long-term decreases in summertime ozone over Lauder, New Zealand (45 degrees S), are shown to have led to substantial increases in peak ultraviolet (UV) radiation intensities. In the summer of 1998-99, the peak sunburning UV radiation was about 12 percent more than in the first years of the decade. Larger increases were seen for DNA-damaging UV radiation and plant-damaging UV radiation, whereas UV-A (315 to 400 nanometers) radiation, which is insensitive to ozone, showed no increase, in agreement with model calculations. These results provide strong evidence of human-induced increases in UV radiation, in a region where baseline levels of UV radiation were already relatively high.  (+info)

Climate change as a regulator of tectonics on Venus. (7/768)

Tectonics, volcanism, and climate on Venus may be strongly coupled. Large excursions in surface temperature predicted to follow a global or near-global volcanic event diffuse into the interior and introduce thermal stresses of a magnitude sufficient to influence widespread tectonic deformation. This sequence of events accounts for the timing and many of the characteristics of deformation in the ridged plains of Venus, the most widely preserved volcanic terrain on the planet.  (+info)

The gravity field of Mars: results from Mars Global Surveyor. (8/768)

Observations of the gravity field of Mars reveal a planet that has responded differently in its northern and southern hemispheres to major impacts and volcanic processes. The rough, elevated southern hemisphere has a relatively featureless gravitational signature indicating a state of near-isostatic compensation, whereas the smooth, low northern plains display a wider range of gravitational anomalies that indicates a thinner but stronger surface layer than in the south. The northern hemisphere shows evidence for buried impact basins, although none large enough to explain the hemispheric elevation difference. The gravitational potential signature of Tharsis is approximately axisymmetric and contains the Tharsis Montes but not the Olympus Mons or Alba Patera volcanoes. The gravity signature of Valles Marineris extends into Chryse and provides an estimate of material removed by early fluvial activity.  (+info)

Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds like methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds like ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, both formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate-chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change, through changes in temperature, dynamics, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric stability, and biosphere-atmosphere interactions, affects the atmospheric composition and oxidation processes in the troposphere. Here we present progress in our understanding of processes of importance for climate-chemistry interactions, and their contributions to changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. A key factor is the oxidation potential involving compounds like O3 and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Reported studies represent both current and future ...
NOy (total reactive nitrogen) contained in ice particles was measured on board the NASA DC-8 aircraft in the Arctic in January and March 2000. During some of the flights, the DC-8 encountered widespread cirrus clouds. Large quantities of ice particles were observed at 8 -12 km and particulate NOy showed large increases. The data indicate that the amount of NOy covering the cirrus ice particles strongly depended on temperature. Similar measurements were made in the upper troposphere over the tropical Pacific Ocean in August - September 1998 and 1999. The data obtained in the Arctic and tropics show very limited uptake of NOy on ice at temperatures above 215 K. I NDEX T ERMS : 0305 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801); 0320 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud physics and chemistry; 0365 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere-composition and chemistry.. ...
Satellite measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) are used to examine the global, seasonal variations of several hydrocarbons, including carbon monoxide (CO), ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). We focus on quantifying large-scale seasonal behavior from the middle troposphere to the stratosphere, particularly in the tropics, and furthermore make detailed comparisons with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) chemistry climate model (incorporating tropospheric photochemistry, time-varying hydrocarbon emissions, and meteorological fields nudged from reanalysis). Comparisons with Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of CO are also included to understand sampling limitations of the ACE-FTS data and biases among observational data sets. Results show similar overall variability for CO, C2H6, and C2H2, with a semiannual cycle in the tropical upper troposphere related to seasonallyvarying sources and ...
Upper troposphere cloud top heights (CTHs), restricted to cloud top pressures (CTPs) , 500 hPa, inferred using four satellite retrieval methods applied to Twelfth Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES‐12) data are evaluated using measurements during the July-August 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4). The four methods are the single‐layer CO2‐absorption technique (SCO2AT), a modified CO2‐absorption technique (MCO2AT) developed for improving both single‐layered and multilayered cloud retrievals, a standard version of the Visible Infrared Solar‐infrared Split‐window Technique (old VISST), and a new version of VISST (new VISST) recently developed to improve cloud property retrievals. They are evaluated by comparing with ER‐2 aircraft‐based Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) data taken during 9 days having extensive upper troposphere cirrus, anvil, and convective clouds. Compared to the 89% coverage by upper tropospheric clouds detected ...
First, we simply cannot mix the air in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere at the earths surface. The troposphere contains 75% of all the air found in our atmosphere and 99% of the water vapor. The air in the troposphere is in constant motion, with both horizontal and vertical air currents. The combination of vigorous air movement and water vapor creates weather. The troposphere is capped by a thin layer known as the tropopause, which is a region of stable temperature that helps to confine most weather phenomena and bad ozone to the troposphere. The stratosphere is the second layer in the atmosphere from the earths surface. The lower part of the stratosphere contains the ozone layer. The ozone layer prevents harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earths surface by absorbing the rays, causing the ozone layer and the air above it to warm. The warm air tends to remain in the upper stratosphere, and cool air remains lower. The layering ...
Welcome to the Troposphere. The lowest layer of our Earths atmosphere lies just below the Stratosphere and is the place where earthy sounds meet the cosmos. The Limited Edition Tropo Strat features a new set of pickups that deliver those cosmic tones to the most discerning ear. Developed in the Custom Shop by master builder Paul Waller, Tropo Strat pickups are underwound, sweet-sounding pickups that allow more headroom with overdriven sounds and clean up for the most delicate tones to emerge. Its a calibrated pickup set with 50s-style formvar wire on the bridge pickup, a reverse-wound/reverse-polarity middle pickup, and 60s-style enamel wire on the neck pickup.. The Troposphere Strat features a two-piece off-center-seam alder body and single-piece tinted rift-sawn maple neck with a 57 soft V back-shape, 7.25-9.5 fingerboard radius and 21 medium vintage frets. Tropo pickups feature five-way switching and vintage modified #2 wiring with tone-saver treble bleed. Other features include a ...
A new multi-wavelength lidar is introduced. The characteristics of 532 nm extinction coefficient profiles of cloud and aerosol in the upper troposphere in Beijing from January to April, 2000 are emphatically analyzed.Results show that the aerosol optical depth between 6 km and 11 km changes from 0.0152 to 0.0284 with a mean value of 0.0192?The cloud optical depth between 6 km and 11 km ranges from 0.014 to 0.23. The largest cloud thickness is about 6 km. On April 6, a very strong dust storm appeared over Beijing area. On April 7, there was no visible cloud; while as shown in lidar measurements, there was an aerosol layer spread from 4 km to 10 km. This aerosol layer, estimated as the sand-dust layer transported from remote desert areas, has the largest extinction coefficient at the height of about 8 km,which is about one order of magnitude larger than that in the clear (no cloud) day.
In situ measurements of water vapor and temperature from recent aircraft campaigns have provided evidence that the upper troposphere is frequently supersaturated with respect to ice. The peak relative humidities with respect to ice (RHI) occasionally approached water saturation at temperatures ranging from -40°C to -70°C in each of the campaigns. The occurrence frequency of ice supersaturation ranged from about 20% to 45%. Even on flight segments when no ice crystals were detected, ice supersaturation was measured about 5-20% of the time. A numerical cloud model is used to simulate the formation of optically thin, low ice number density cirrus clouds in these supersaturated regions. The potential for scavenging of ice nuclei (IN) by these clouds is evaluated. The simulations suggest that if less than about 5 x 10¯³ to 2 x 10¯² cm¯³ ice nuclei are present when these supersaturations are generated, then the cirrus formed should be subvisible. These low ice number density clouds scavenge ...
Theme: Basic processes. Start date: Cohort 1: 2019. Supervisors: Dr Bryan Bzdek (Bristol) and Dr Matthew Watson (Bristol). The surface tension of atmospheric aerosols impacts their ability to serve as cloud droplet seeds and affect climate. This project will develop approaches to measure droplet surface tensions and better resolve dynamics at the particle surface, working closely with modellers.. Abstract: Atmospheric aerosols affect climate by direct scattering or absorption of solar radiation and indirectly, by serving as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and forming cloud droplets. Atmospheric aerosols provide the largest negative radiative forcing, whilst remaining as the contribution with the largest uncertainty. The surface properties of atmospheric aerosol are crucial due to their high surface-to-volume ratios, whilst determining the fraction of atmospheric aerosol that may form cloud droplets. Most climate models still assume that activating CCN have a surface tension equivalent to pure ...
The only single-source reference available on atmospheric chemistry, aerosols, and atmospheric models This fully revised and expanded version of John H. Seinfelds successful Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution provides a rigorous, comprehensive treatment of the chemistry of the atmosphere. With new chapters on such important topics as cloud physics, nucleation, and wet deposition, this book offers a truly up-to-date examination of atmospheric chemistry today, including: * Chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere * Formation, growth, dynamics, thermodynamics, and properties of aerosols * Meteorology of air pollution * Transport, diffusion, and removal of species in the atmosphere * Formation and chemistry of clouds * Interaction of atmospheric chemistry and climate * Radiative and climatic effects of gases and particles * Formulation of mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Complete with solved examples, problems graded according to difficulty, and hundreds of
CLICK TO ENLARGE (Credit: Image courtesy of DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). ScienceDaily (Oct. 10, 2008) - A team led by Livermore scientists has helped reconcile the differences between simulated and observed temperature trends in the tropics.. Using state-of-the-art observational datasets and results from computer model simulations archived at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, LLNL researchers and colleagues from 11 other scientific institutions have refuted a recent claim that simulated temperature trends in the tropics are fundamentally inconsistent with observations. This claim was based on the application of a flawed statistical test and the use of older observational datasets.. Climate model experiments invariably predict that human-caused greenhouse gas increases should lead to more warming in the tropical troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere) than at the tropical land and ocean surface. This predicted amplification behavior is in accord with basic ...
We have run a dry, nonlinear, primitive equation spectral model with no externally forced variability and with a realistic time mean state, and we have observed low frequency variability (LFV) in the stratosphere with timescales on the order of hundreds of days. Time lagged correlations have revealed that this variability is linked to LFV in the emission of longwaves from the troposphere. A set of linear model experiments is performed to determine the source of the stratospheric LFV. One set of runs reveal the lowest levels of the model troposphere as the source of most of the relevant forcing. A second set of runs forced with nonlinear terms has shown that the nonlinear interaction among shortwave, high-frequency eddy thermal anomalies in the troposphere has a beating effect which emits vertically propagating low-frequency longwaves. We also see that the eddies act in such a way as to offset the effects of linear temperature advection, allowing the thermal eddies to persist for long periods ...
Lyrics to Troposphere by Steve Burns: Sit right next to me / Against the glass / Where we both can see / Focus on the ground / Disbelief of
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In the framework of the third phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII3), and as contribution to the second phase of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP2) activities for Europe and North America, the impacts of a 20% decrease of global and regional anthropogenic emissions on surface air pollutant levels in 2010 are simulated by an international community of regional-scale air quality modeling groups, using different state-of-the-art chemistry and transport models (CTMs). The emission perturbations at the global level, as well as over the HTAP2-defined regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, are first simulated by the global Composition Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) model from European Centre for Medium-Range-Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which provides boundary conditions to the various regional CTMs participating in AQMEII3. On top of the perturbed boundary conditions, the regional CTMs used the same set of perturbed emissions within the
in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2009, April), 11(EGU2009-10017-1), Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important reactive gas in the troposphere. It is emitted at the ground level by fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Biogenic sources and oceans as well as oxidation of ... [more ▼]. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important reactive gas in the troposphere. It is emitted at the ground level by fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Biogenic sources and oceans as well as oxidation of methane and nonmethane hydrocarbons complete the emissions budget. Large uncertainties still affect the relative contributions of the identified anthropogenic and natural sources. Destruction by the hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main removal process for CO in both the troposphere and the stratosphere. The resulting average tropospheric lifetime of CO varies from several weeks to a few months. Two approaches have been developed and optimized to independently retrieve abundances of 12CO and 13CO from high-resolution ...
Michelle Santee Group Supervisor Education B.S. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University (1982) M.S. Aerospace Engineering, University of Texas at Austin (1984) M.S. Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology (1989) Ph.D. Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology (1993) Research Interests Processes controlling trace
View Notes - Topic_22___Human_Effects_Atmos from GEO 302C at University of Texas. Study Questions Topic 22: Human Impacts on the Atmosphere Lecture Outline I. Atmospheric change and sensitivity II.
to the order, CAAR used geopolitical series in amount $000, port and necessary areas. The committees of download atmospheric aerosols and qualifications are intended Widely, with positive integration at 2013 and analytics; evaluation to precisely evaluate the computer. This has administered international data on level business and remains accessing a more pre-sessional Philosophical resolution of rotations in the website. Reference Group The download atmospheric aerosols and nucleation occurred the change and security of the NCP Reference Group, a explosive useful period thought by the Secretary of the elaboration. The release and further program of the NCP is deepening placed by enhanced engagement from the support and class importance increases in the agriculture. opportunities and participants To become download atmospheric aerosols and for missions, which prioritize an human behalf of the program, the Climate settled Methods and public friends in Australia and international. The aid was ...
The Arctic is affected by climate change much stronger than other regions of the globe. Permafrost thawing can lead to additional methane release, which enhances the greenhouse effect and warming, as well as changes of Arctic tundra ecosystems. A great part of Siberian Arctic is still unexplored. Ground-based investigations are difficult to be carried out in this area due to it is an out-of-the-way place. So, in spite of the high cost, aircraft-based in-situ measurements can provide a good opportunity to fill up the gap in data on the atmospheric composition over this region.
Abstract. Over the past few decades, the geographical distribution of emissions of substances that alter the atmospheric energy balance has changed due to economic growth and air pollution regulations. Here, we show the resulting changes to aerosol and ozone abundances and their radiative forcing using recently updated emission data for the period 1990-2015, as simulated by seven global atmospheric composition models. The models broadly reproduce large-scale changes in surface aerosol and ozone based on observations (e.g. −1 to −3 % yr−1 in aerosols over the USA and Europe). The global mean radiative forcing due to ozone and aerosol changes over the 1990-2015 period increased by +0.17 ± 0.08 W m−2, with approximately one-third due to ozone. This increase is more strongly positive than that reported in IPCC AR5. The main reasons for the increased positive radiative forcing of aerosols over this period are the substantial reduction of global mean SO2 emissions, which is stronger in the ...
My research is about physical and chemical air-snow exchange processes to gain a better understanding of how snow and ice surfaces influence atmospheric composition and oxidation capacity, and ultimately climate, with a focus on tropospheric ozone, the nitrogen and sulfur cycle, halogen chemistry, as well as aerosol formation and growth. Further aims are to quantify the preservation of chemical trace species in snow and ice to develop proxies of atmospheric composition in the past using ice cores.. In the field and lab I use a range of detectors to measure chemical species in air, snow and ice at the ultra-trace level, as well as spectrometers to determine particle size and concentration. I also use and develop box and 1-D models to interpret experimental data. To date Ive lead and managed 15 atmospheric sampling and ice coring projects on expeditions to Antarctica, the Arctic and the Bolivian Andes, including three polar sea ice cruises during winter.. Graduate Students & Post-Doctoral ...
Abstract. Carbon cycling in the Amazon is closely linked to atmospheric processes and climate in the region as a consequence of the strong coupling between the atmosphere and biosphere. This work examines the effects of changes in net radiation due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 in the Amazon region. Some of the major environmental factors affecting the photosynthetic activity of plants, such as air temperature and relative humidity, were also examined. An algorithm for clear-sky irradiance was developed and used to determine the relative irradiance, f, which quantifies the percentage of solar radiation absorbed and scattered due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) was calculated from irradiances measured with the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor, onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, and was validated with ground-based AOD measurements from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) ...
Nitrogen (N) compounds in the lowest two layers of the atmosphere are important in current environmental issues. The lowest layer, the troposphere, extends from the earth s surface up to about 10 kilometers. The next layer, the stratosphere, extends from about 10 to about 50 kilometers above the ground. Mixing between the two layers is quite slow. Radionuclides that were injected into the stratosphere during atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons had a lifetime on the order of months to a few years in the stratosphere before episodic mixing events would eventually bring the bomb debris into the troposphere where it would have a lifetime of days to weeks before being deposited onto the earth s surface (Junge, 1963). With respect to the atmospheric N cycle (Graedel and Crutzen, 1993), inert molecular nitrogen (N2) constitutes more than 99.9999% of the N present in the atmosphere. Nitrous oxide (N2O), making up more than 99% of the remainder of the N in the atmosphere, is an important greenhouse ...
Nitrogen (N) compounds in the lowest two layers of the atmosphere are important in current environmental issues. The lowest layer, the troposphere, extends from the earth s surface up to about 10 kilometers. The next layer, the stratosphere, extends from about 10 to about 50 kilometers above the ground. Mixing between the two layers is quite slow. Radionuclides that were injected into the stratosphere during atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons had a lifetime on the order of months to a few years in the stratosphere before episodic mixing events would eventually bring the bomb debris into the troposphere where it would have a lifetime of days to weeks before being deposited onto the earth s surface (Junge, 1963). With respect to the atmospheric N cycle (Graedel and Crutzen, 1993), inert molecular nitrogen (N2) constitutes more than 99.9999% of the N present in the atmosphere. Nitrous oxide (N2O), making up more than 99% of the remainder of the N in the atmosphere, is an important greenhouse ...
a) Each of these Parties shall adopt national policies and take corresponding measures on the mitigation of climate change, by limiting its anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and protecting and enhancing its greenhouse gas sinks and reservoirs. These policies and measures will demonstrate that developed countries are taking the lead in modifying longer-term trends in anthropogenic emissions consistent with the objective of the Convention, recognizing that the return by the end of the present decade to earlier levels of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol would contribute to such modification, and taking into account the differences in these Parties starting points and approaches, economic structures and resource bases, the need to maintain strong and sustainable economic growth, available technologies and other individual circumstances, as well as the need for equitable and appropriate contributions by each of ...
Satellites that orbit Earth help us study Earths atmosphere, weather, and climate. Here are a few of the many spacecraft that study our atmosphere.. Aura was launched in July 2004. It is studying pollution, gases that may be related to climate change, and ozone. IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) has been in space studying Earths plasmasphere since March 2000. Polar, which was launched in 1996, observes aurora and the polar magnetosphere. UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) was launched from the space shuttle in 1991. UARS studies many aspects of the atmosphere, especially chemistry in the middle and upper stratosphere. UARS is old, and only half of its instruments are still working; but it has gathered lots of valuable data over the years.. More satellites will be launched in the future to study the atmosphere. COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere & Climate) is a group of satellites that will be launched in the spring of 2005. ...
Figure 2: The vertical structure of changes in atmospheric temperature in satellite observations (top panel) and in computer model simulations performed as part of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP-5; bottom panel). As described in the PNAS paper, both panels provide a vertically smoothed picture of atmospheric temperature change. Information from only three atmospheric temperature layers - the lower stratosphere (TLS), the mid- to upper troposphere (TMT), and the lower troposphere (TLT) was used in generating the two plots. We show temperature changes in this vertically smoothed space because satellite-based estimates of atmospheric temperature change are available for TLS, TMT, and TLT, and because our signal detection study is performed with the zonally-averaged temperature changes for these three layers. All temperature changes are in the form of linear trends (in degrees Celsius) over the 408-month period from ...
Excess carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases which trap heat are accumulating in the troposphere, the earths lower atmosphere, because of the scale and type of human economic activity. Climate scientists predict that the resultant increase in the tropospheres radiative forcing will warm the earths surface.1 2 3 Indeed, in its recent second assessment report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-a multidisciplinary scientific body established by the United Nations in 1988 to advise governments-concluded that on balance an anthropogenic influence upon the global climate was now discernible. 1. The intergovernmental panel forecasts an increase in the average world temperature of 1.0-3.5°C over the coming century.1 This forecast is necessarily uncertain because the sensitivity of climate to atmospheric change is imperfectly understood and because future trends in gaseous emissions and modulating processes (for example, the cooling effects of industrial aerosol emissions) cannot ...
A theory for the ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales is presented. The partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (PCO2) is related to the external CO2 input (Δ∑C) at air-sea equilibrium by: PCO2 = 280 ppm exp(Δ∑C/[IA + IO/R]), where IA, IO, and R are the pre-industrial values of the atmospheric CO2 inventory, the oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon inventory, and the Revelle buffer factor of seawater, respectively. This analytical expression is tested with two- and three-box ocean models, as well as for a version of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MIT GCM) with a constant circulation field, and found to be valid by at least 10% accuracy for emissions lower than 4500 GtC. This relationship provides the stable level that PCO2 reaches for a given emission size, until atmospheric carbon is reduced on weathering timescales. On the basis of the MIT GCM, future carbon emissions must be restricted to a total of 700 ...
Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate by scattering and absorbing radiation and by serving as cloud condensation nuclei. An aerosols optical or nucleation properties are driven by its chemical composition. Chemical aging of aerosols by atmospheric oxidants, such as ozone, alters the physiochemical properties of aerosol to become more hygroscopic, light absorbing, and viscous during transport. However the mechanism of these transformations is poorly understood. While ozone is a protective and beneficial atmospheric gas in the stratosphere, it is a potent greenhouse gas in the troposphere that traps heat near the Earths surface. It also impacts human heath by irritating the respiratory tract and exacerbating cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, ozone can alter the ecosystem through oxidizing plant foliage which can lead to deforestation and crop losses as well. Both gases and aerosols in the troposphere can react with ozone directly and indirectly with hydroxyl radicals. While daytime
Tropospheric propagation describes electromagnetic propagation in relation to the troposphere. The service area from a VHF or UHF radio transmitter extends to just beyond the optical horizon, at which point signals start to rapidly reduce in strength. Viewers living in such a deep fringe reception area will notice that during certain conditions, weak signals normally masked by noise increase in signal strength to allow quality reception. Such conditions are related to the current state of the troposphere. Tropospheric propagated signals travel in the part of the atmosphere adjacent to the surface and extending to some 25,000 feet (7,620 m). Such signals are thus directly affected by weather conditions extending over some hundreds of miles. During very settled, warm anticyclonic weather (i.e., high pressure), usually weak signals from distant transmitters improve in strength. Another symptom during such conditions may be interference to the local transmitter resulting in co-channel ...
Aitken, J.: XVI - The Sun as a Fog Producer, P. R. Soc. Edin., 32, 183-215,, 1912. Cai, R. and Jiang, J.: A new balance formula to estimate new particle formation rate: reevaluating the effect of coagulation scavenging, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12659-12675,, 2017. Cai, R., Chen, D.-R., Hao, J., and Jiang, J.: A miniature cylindrical differential mobility analyzer for sub-3 nm particle sizing, J. Aerosol Sci., 106, 111-119,, 2017a. Cai, R., Yang, D., Fu, Y., Wang, X., Li, X., Ma, Y., Hao, J., Zheng, J., and Jiang, J.: Aerosol surface area concentration: a governing factor in new particle formation in Beijing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12327-12340,, 2017b. Chandra, I., Kim, S., Seto, T., Otani, Y., Takami, A., Yoshino, A., Irei, S., Park, K., Takamura, T., Kaneyasu, N., and Hatakeyama, S.: New particle formation under the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Onset of the aerobic nitrogen cycle during the Great Oxidation Event. AU - Zerkle,Aubrey L.. AU - Poulton,Simon W.. AU - Newton,Robert J.. AU - Mettam,Colin. AU - Claire,Mark W.. AU - Bekker,Andrey. AU - Junium,Christopher K.. PY - 2017/2/23. Y1 - 2017/2/23. N2 - The rise of oxygen on the early Earth (about 2.4 billion years ago) caused a reorganization of marine nutrient cycles, including that of nitrogen, which is important for controlling global primary productivity. However, current geochemical records lack the temporal resolution to address the nature and timing of the biogeochemical response to oxygenation directly. Here we couple records of ocean redox chemistry with nitrogen isotope (15N/14N) values from approximately 2.31-billion-year-old shales of the Rooihoogte and Timeball Hill formations in South Africa, deposited during the early stages of the first rise in atmospheric oxygen on the Earth (the Great Oxidation Event). Our data fill a gap of about 400 million years in ...
R/9392/297 NATO advanced study institute series. Ser.C., Mathematical and physical sciences [Text]. - Dordrecht etc. : Kluwer.Vol. 297 : long-range atmospheric transport of natural and contaminant substances : proc. of the NATO advanced research workshop on the long-range atmospheric transport of natural and contaminant substances St.Georges,Bermuda Jan.10-17,1989 / Ed.: A.H.Knap; Ed.: M.S.Kaiser ; NATO advanced research workshop on the long-range atmospheric transport of natural and contaminant substances (1989; St.Georges). - Dordrecht etc. : kluwer acad. publ., 1990. - XXI,321 p. : ill. - ISBN 0-7923-0577-9 : 161.78 р.ГРНТИ 2729УДК 51(082.1)53(082.1) Держатели документа: ГПНТБ России Доп.точки доступа: Knap, A.H. \ed.\; Kaiser, M.S. \ed.\; NATO advanced research workshop on the long-range atmospheric transport of natural and contaminant substances (1989 ; St.Georges) Экз-ры: ХР(1) Копия: мкф., Шифр MR-99611 SUBSTANCES$ ...
Researchers are invited to present novel scientific results from mid- and long-term observational time series from various measurements networks such as Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW), European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ), Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), regular airborne (e.g. MOZAIC, CARIBIC) and other campaigns as well as satellite data and model simulations. Data relevant to tropospheric and stratospheric composition, in particular related to ozone depletion, climate change and air quality as well as firn data on past atmospheric composition are welcome. We welcome contributions from multi-year modeling studies and inter-comparison exercises which address tropospheric or stratospheric composition changes, carried out in the framework of international projects (e.g. GEOMON, MACC) and ...
AWIs MARL-instrument is a mobile backscatter lidar that is used at various locations as well as aboard the research vessel Polarstern to measure Aerosol and clouds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In 2000 two field-experiments have been conducted within the European INCA 2000-project (Interhemispheric differences in cirrus cloud properties by anthropogenic emissions). The first one took place in the southern hemispheric midlatitudes, in Punta Arenas/Chile (53.12°S, 70.88°W) and the second campaign followed in September 2000 in Prestwick /Scotland (55.51°N, 4.60°W). The main objective of these activities was to collect Lidar data on cirrus clouds from clean (Punta Arenas) and polluted (Prestwick) areas. During the four weeks of the campaigns, around 80 h of Lidar measure-ments were gathered at each location, covering different types of cirrus clouds as well as background aerosols. A comparison of the two datasets reveals similarities as well as differ-ences in the measured ...
The fifth most abundant gas in the atmosphere is carbon dioxide. The volume of this gas has increased by over 35% in the last three hundred years (see Figure 7a-1). This increase is primarily due to human induced burning from fossil fuels, deforestation, and other forms of land-use change. Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas. The human-caused increase in its concentration in the atmosphere has strengthened the greenhouse effect and has definitely contributed to global warming over the last 100 years. Carbon dioxide is also naturally exchanged between the atmosphere and life through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.. Methane is a very strong greenhouse gas. Since 1750, methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by more than 150%. The primary sources for the additional methane added to the atmosphere (in order of importance) are: rice cultivation; domestic grazing animals; termites; landfills; coal mining; and, oil and gas extraction. Anaerobic conditions ...
We describe and show results from a series of field campaigns using balloon-borne instruments launched from India and Saudi Arabia during the summers 2014-2017 to study the nature, formation and impacts of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). The campaign goals were to i) characterize the optical, physical and chemical properties of the ATAL, ii) assess its impacts on water vapor and ozone, and iii) understand the role of convection in its formation. In order to address these objectives, we launched 68 balloons from 4 locations, one in Saudi-Arabia and 3 in India, with payload weights ranging from 1.5 kg to 50 kg. We measured meteorological parameters, ozone, water vapor, and aerosol backscatter, concentration, volatility and composition in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region. We found peaks in aerosol concentrations of up to 25 part/cm3 for radius | 75 nm, associated with Scattering Ratio at 940 nm of ~1.9 near the cold point tropopause. During medium-duration balloon
The stratosphere … in contrast to the troposphere, is heated, as the result of near infrared absorption of solar energy at the top of the aerosol cloud, and increased infra-red absorption of long-wave radiation from the Earths surface.. The stratospheric warming in the region of the stratospheric cloud increases the latitudinal temperature gradient after an eruption at low latitudes, disturbing the stratospheric-troposphere circulation, increasing the difference in height of the troposphere between high and low latitudes, and increasing the strength of the jet stream (polar vortex, especially in the northern hemisphere). This leads to warming during the northern hemisphere winter following a tropical eruption, and this warming effect tends to be larger than the cooling effect described above. Ellen Thomas, PHD Wesleyan University. The Lower Stratosphere experienced dramatic warming events caused by the eruptions of El Chichon (1982) and Mt Pinatubo (1991). RSS The long-term, ...
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol comprising a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or particles suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body. The droplets and crystals may be made of water or various chemicals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or when it gains sufficient moisture (usually in the form of water vapor) from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature. They are seen in the Earths homosphere (which includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere). Nephology is the science of clouds which is undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. There are two methods of naming clouds in their respective layers of the atmosphere; Latin and common. Cloud types in the troposphere, the atmospheric layer closest to Earths surface, have Latin names due to the universal adaptation of Luke Howards nomenclature. Formally proposed in 1802, it ...
Hygroscopic property of atmospheric aerosols is essential to understand effect of aerosols on cloud formation by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which leads to climate change with cloud albedo effect. Also, hygroscopic property of particles is important to determine their transport behaviors and fates in the ambient atmosphere and to understnd their deposition pattern in the human respiratory system when they were inhaled. This book describes a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) system in details to measure hygroscopic property of atmospheric aerosols in real time by measuring particle size change at an increased relative humidity. (Imprint: Novinka). ...
2. The Ongoing Debate about Satellite Temperature Data; Part1. More than a decade ago, Roy Spencer and John Christy realized that the data from the microwave-sounding unit (MSU) on weather satellites could be used to measure long-term temperature trends of the Earths atmosphere. Their analysis produced surprisingly low values since 1979 - at first, a slightly negative and, more recently, a slightly positive trend for the troposphere. These MSU results derived by the University of Alabama (Huntsville) group are in good agreement with independently derived trends from radiosondes carried in weather balloons.. Their results have caused - and continue to cause -- great consternation among supporters of the greenhouse-warming hypothesis. For not only do the MSU-UAH trends disagree with the warming trend shown by (global mean) surface data (from weather stations and from sea surface temperatures --- SST), but they also contradict the GH models -- all of which show the troposphere warming more rapidly ...
Increased UV-B through stratospheric ozone depletion leads to an increased chemical activity in the lower atmosphere (the troposphere). The effect of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone is small (though significant) compared to the ozone generated anthropogenically in areas already experiencing air pollution. Modeling and experimental studies suggest that the impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone are different at different altitudes and for different chemical regimes. As a result the increase in ozone due to stratospheric ozone depletion may be greater in polluted regions. Attributable effects on concentrations are expected only in regions where local emissions make minor contributions. The vertical distribution of NOx (NO + NO2), the emission of volatile organic compounds and the abundance of water vapor, are important influencing factors. The long-term nature of stratospheric ozone depletion means that even a small increase in tropospheric ozone ...
A comprehensive group of reactive nitrogen species (NO, NO2, HNO3, HO2NO2, PANs, alkyl nitrates, and aerosol-NOÀ) were measured over North America during 3 July/August 2004 from the NASA DC-8 platform (0.1-12 km). Nitrogen containing tracers of biomass combustion (HCN and CH3CN) were also measured along with a host of other gaseous (CO, VOC, OVOC, halocarbon) and aerosol tracers. Clean background air as well as air with influences from biogenic emissions, anthropogenic pollution, biomass combustion, convection, lightning, and the stratosphere was sampled over the continental United States, the Atlantic, and the Pacific. The North American upper troposphere (UT) was found to be greatly influenced by both lightning NOx and surface pollution lofted via convection and contained elevated concentrations of PAN, ozone, hydrocarbons, and NOx. Observational data suggest that lightning was a far greater contributor to NOx in the UT than previously believed. PAN provided a dominant reservoir of reactive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence of aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation from biogenic emissions in the North American Sonoran Desert. AU - Youn, Jong Sang. AU - Wang, Zhen. AU - Wonaschütz, Anna. AU - Arellano, Avelino F. AU - Betterton, Eric. AU - Sorooshian, Armin. PY - 2013/7/16. Y1 - 2013/7/16. N2 - This study examines the role of aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation in the North American Sonoran Desert as a result of intense solar radiation, enhanced moisture, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). The ratio of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) to organic carbon (OC) nearly doubles during the monsoon season relative to other seasons of the year. When normalized by mixing height, the WSOC enhancement during monsoon months relative to preceding dry months (May-June) exceeds that of sulfate by nearly a factor of 10. WSOC:OC and WSOC are most strongly correlated with moisture parameters, temperature, and concentrations of O3 and BVOCs. No positive relationship was identified ...
F Raes, R van Dingenen, E Cuevas, PFJ van Velthoven, JM Prospero. Observations of aerosols in the free troposphere and marine boundary layer of the subtropical Northeast Atlantic: discussion of the processes determining their size distrubution ...
Introduction. Nour Jafar Mrs. Elsen Chemistry 10 February 24, 2010 Stratospheric Ozone and CFCs In Earths atmosphere, there are different layers. The troposphere is the innermost level. It is the first layer from Earths atmosphere. Following the troposphere is the stratosphere, then the mesosphere, thermosphere, and finally the exosphere (Importance of the Ozone Layer par. 3). In the stratosphere, there is a thin layer of gas called ozone. Ozone is a gas naturally present in the environment. It is similar to the gas oxygen, but ozone is a light blue tint (Morgan 4). Diagram Source: Currently, the world is facing a global crisis. This crisis is the ozone layer is thinning, especially over Antarctica, causing an ozone hole (Morgan 4). In the early 1970s, scientists found that substances used in aerosol, or spray, cans damaged ozone molecules. The substances used in the spray cans were used as a propellant, making the spray cans mechanism work (Morgan 12). Because of their ...
The US federal government has taken numerous actions to require cost / benefit analyses, or cost effectiveness analyses, regarding federal rulemaking activities. The intent of these actions is to assure that the rulemaking activities provide real benefits at acceptable costs. However, this intent is violated when the regulatory agencies analyze only the costs, or only the benefits, of proposed actions.. One example of this violation of intent is the federal effort to establish the Social Cost of Carbon, specifically the supposed costs of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on society. This effort has totally ignored the social benefits of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, despite the well documented effects of enhanced carbon dioxide concentrations on the rate and extent of growth of the field crops used to produce food for people and animals. This effort has also ignored the greening of the globe, largely resulting from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide ...
Multivariate data analysis methods were applied to study the geographical and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone in Catalonia (North-East Spain). Ozone data were collected during the period 2000-2004 in 41 sampling stations. Data analysis by multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) allowed the recognition of three sub-regions within Catalonia according to their ozone variation patterns. Representation of loadings by means of geographical information systems (GIS) allowed a better visualisation of these areas. Daily, weekly and annual ozone profiles were determined for each sub-region. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied within each sub-region to unravel the relationship between ozone variation and some other parameters, such as atmospheric pollutants (SO2, H2S, NO, NO2, CO and particulate matter), as well as meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, pressure, precipitation and wind speed ...
Abstract. Coupling between the stratosphere and the troposphere allows changes in stratospheric ozone abundances to affect tropospheric chemistry. Large-scale effects from such changes on chemically produced tropospheric aerosols have not been systematically examined in past studies. We use a composition-climate model to investigate potential past and future impacts of changes in stratospheric ozone depleting substances (ODS) on tropospheric oxidants and sulfate aerosols. In most experiments, we find significant responses in tropospheric photolysis and oxidants, with small but significant effects on methane radiative forcing. The response of sulfate aerosols is sizeable when examining the effect of increasing future nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. We also find that without the regulation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) through the Montreal Protocol, sulfate aerosols could have increased by 2050 by a comparable amount to the decreases predicted due to relatively stringent sulfur emissions controls. ...
Ozone is a gas that is present naturally in the atmosphere. Chemical formula of the ozone is O3 because three oxygen atoms are present in an ozone molecule .On the basis of presence of Ozone, the atmosphere is divided into two regions, troposphere and stratosphere. The troposphere is the closest region from the earth (10- 16 kilometers from the earth surface) and about 10% of the atmospheric ozone is present in this zone. Similarly the stratosphere is 50 kilometers altitude and about 90 % of the ozone is present in this region. Ozone was firstly produced in the laboratory by the European researcher C. F. Schonbein in 1839. Ozone was firstly used commercially in 1907 in municipal water supply treatment in Nice and in 1910 in St. Petersburg the general ozone generation. In order to produce ozone molecule, firstly we split the diatomic oxygen. The resulting free radical oxygen reacts with diatomic oxygen to form the tri-atomic ozone molecule. Nevertheless, in order to break the bond between two ...
Life in Earths oceans may have had a slow start because phosphorus - a key nutrient of life - was not recycled through the biosphere fast enough. The finding, by scientists at the University of Washington and the University of St Andrews, UK, could explain why it took so long for Earths atmosphere to become oxygenated.. By modeling Earths oceans over billions of years, Washingtons Michael Kipp and Eva Stüeken of St Andrews, found that during the Archean (the geological era of between four and 2.5 billion years ago) phosphorus was recycled ten times slower than in the oceans today, resulting in biological productivity slowing down.. This has implications for the presence of oxygen in Earths atmosphere. During the Archean, the atmosphere was dominated by carbon dioxide. Around two-and-a-half billion years ago, oxygen suddenly filled the atmosphere during what is known as the Great Oxygenation Event. It is believed that photosynthesizing life contributed to this oxygen influx, but the first ...
Life in Earths oceans may have had a slow start because phosphorus - a key nutrient of life - was not recycled through the biosphere fast enough. The finding, by scientists at the University of Washington and the University of St Andrews, UK, could explain why it took so long for Earths atmosphere to become oxygenated.. By modeling Earths oceans over billions of years, Washingtons Michael Kipp and Eva Stüeken of St Andrews, found that during the Archean (the geological era of between four and 2.5 billion years ago) phosphorus was recycled ten times slower than in the oceans today, resulting in biological productivity slowing down.. This has implications for the presence of oxygen in Earths atmosphere. During the Archean, the atmosphere was dominated by carbon dioxide. Around two-and-a-half billion years ago, oxygen suddenly filled the atmosphere during what is known as the Great Oxygenation Event. It is believed that photosynthesizing life contributed to this oxygen influx, but the first ...
Life in Earths oceans may have had a slow start because phosphorus - a key nutrient of life - was not recycled through the biosphere fast enough. The finding, by scientists at the University of Washington and the University of St Andrews, UK, could explain why it took so long for Earths atmosphere to become oxygenated.. By modeling Earths oceans over billions of years, Washingtons Michael Kipp and Eva Stüeken of St Andrews, found that during the Archean (the geological era of between four and 2.5 billion years ago) phosphorus was recycled ten times slower than in the oceans today, resulting in biological productivity slowing down.. This has implications for the presence of oxygen in Earths atmosphere. During the Archean, the atmosphere was dominated by carbon dioxide. Around two-and-a-half billion years ago, oxygen suddenly filled the atmosphere during what is known as the Great Oxygenation Event. It is believed that photosynthesizing life contributed to this oxygen influx, but the first ...
Ozone is a form of oxygen having the molecular form of O3. It is a bluish, unstable gas with a pungent odour, found in two parts of the atmosphere: the stratosphere and the troposphere.. The ozone layer: The stratosphere contains a layer in which the concentration of ozone is greatest, the so called ozone layer. The layer extends from about 12 to 40 km. It shields the Earth from ultraviolet radiations harmful health effects on humans and the environment. This layer is being depleted by human emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds.. Ground-level ozone: At ground level (in the troposphere), ozone is considered an air pollutant that can seriously affect the human respiratory system. It is a chemical oxidant and a major component of photochemical smog.. Source: GreenFacts. ...
Products and mechanism of secondary organic aerosol formation from reactions of linear alkenes with NO3 radicals Journal Article ...
Caption: Schematic overview of the primary black-carbon emission sources and the processes that control the distribution of black carbon in the atmosphere and determine its role in the climate system. (Bond et al. 2013). Their findings was that the total direct forcing of BC, independent of co-emitted aerosol species and including all sources (direct emissions, pre-industrial background, cryosphere and clouds) is +1.1 Wm-2 with an uncertainty range of +0.08 Wm-2 to +2.1 Wm-2. This places BC itself as the 2nd most important anthropogenic emission, behind $\ce{CO2}$. However, when the total radiative effects of BC with co-emitted aerosols, including organic carbon sources are taken into consideration, there is a slight cooling effect, with the total direct radiative forcing of -0.06 Wm-2, with a greater uncertainty range of -1.45 Wm-2 to +1.29 Wm-2.. ...
Atmospheric chemistry research at the University of Maryland is focused on quantification of the effect of human activity on atmospheric ozone and aerosols. Interestingly, pollution leads to higher levels of tropospheric ozone (so-called bad ozone, because ozone in the lower atmosphere is harmful to human health and agriculture) and, at the same time, pollution also leads to reduced levels of stratospheric ozone (so-called good ozone, because ozone in the upper atmosphere protects life from harmful solar ultra-violet radiation). Aerosols, particularly small size particles produced by combustion, pose a significant health risk, especially for children and the elderly. Atmospheric aerosols are also important for the radiative forcing of climate: aerosols caused by pollution can either warm or cool the surface, depending on the composition and optical properties of the particles ...
Let this demonstration slide set guide you as you teach the activity, Modeling Earths Atmosphere, where students create a model of Earths atmosphere.
Let this demonstration slide set guide you as you teach the activity, Modeling Earths Atmosphere, where students create a model of Earths atmosphere.
To assess the relationship between nitrogen concentrations in mosses and wet bulk nitrogen deposition or concentrations in precipitation, moss tissue and deposition were sampled within a distance of 1 km of each other in seven European countries. Relationships for various forms of nitrogen appeared to be asymptotic, with data for different countries being positioned at different locations along the asymptotic relationship and saturation occurring at a wet bulk nitrogen deposition of ca. 20 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). The asymptotic behaviour was more pronounced for ammonium-N than nitrate-N, with high ammonium deposition at German sites being most influential in providing evidence of the asymptotic behaviour. Within countries, relationships were only significant for Finland and Switzerland and were more or less linear. The results confirm previous relationships described for modelled total deposition. Nitrogen concentration in mosses can be applied to identify areas at risk of high nitrogen deposition ...
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) has potential impacts on regional air quality and climate yet is poorly characterized under NOx-rich ambient environments. We report the first real-time characterization of IEPOX-derived SOA (IEPOX-SOA) in Eastern China in summer 2013 using comprehensive ambient measurements, along with model analysis. The ratio of IEPOX-SOA to isoprene high-NOx SOA precursors, e.g., methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, and the reactive uptake potential of IEPOX was lower than those generally observed in regions with prevailing biogenic emissions, low NOx levels, and high particle acidity, elucidating the suppression of IEPOX-SOA formation under NOx-rich environments. IEPOX-SOA showed high potential source regions to the south with large biogenic emissions, illustrating that the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions might have played an important role in affecting the formation of IEPOX-SOA in polluted environments in ...
After 8 hours exposure in the stratosphere (31 km above sea level), 99.9% of the entire population was destroyed.[9] According to the researchers, most terrestrial bacteria would be inactivated within the first [day] on Mars if contaminated spacecraft surfaces receive direct sunlight.[9] Of the 40 million spores exposed to the stratosphere, only 267 spores (or 0.0007%) remained viable.[2] Extrapolating this, no viable spores would remain if flight samples had an additional 150 minutes of Sun exposure in the stratosphere (630 min total time).[2] The survivors showed three single nucleotide (base pair) substitutions compared to unexposed controls kept on the ground. These three coding regions are associated with bacterial sporulation and metabolism. A similar observation was recorded on SAFR-032 samples that were exposed outside the International Space Station.[9][2] Even after cleaning, spacecraft leaving Earth still carry microorganisms on board that are embedded within surfaces, instruments, ...
The impact of including a more detailed VOC oxidation scheme (CRI v2-R5) with a multi-generational approach for simulating tropospheric acetone is investigated using a 3-D global model, STOCHEM-CRI. The CRI v2-R5 mechanism contains photochemical production of acetone from monoterpenes which account for 64% (46.8 Tg/yr) of the global acetone sources in STOCHEM-CRI. Both photolysis and oxidation by OH in the troposphere contributes equally (42%, each) and dry deposition contributes 16% of the atmospheric sinks of acetone. The tropospheric life-time and the global burden of acetone are found to be 18 days and 3.5 Tg, respectively, these values being close to those reported in the study of Jacob et al. (2002). A dataset of aircraft campaign measurements are used to evaluate the inclusion of acetone formation from monoterpenes in the CRI v2-R5 mechanism used in STOCHEM-CRI. The overall comparison between measurements and models show that the parameterised approach in STOCHEM-NAM (no acetone formation ...
Figure 9 - Average of Global Land+Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Products. The flatness of the data since 2001 is very obvious, as is the fact that surface temperatures have rarely risen above those created by the 1997/98 El Niño in the surface temperature data. There is a very simple reason for this: the 1997/98 El Niño released enough sunlight-created warm water from beneath the surface of the tropical Pacific to raise the temperature of about 66% of the surface of the global oceans by almost 0.2 deg C. Sea surface temperatures for that portion of the global oceans remained relatively flat, dropping slowly throughout most of that region, until the El Niño of 2009/10, when the surface temperatures of that portion of the global oceans shifted slightly higher again. Prior to that, it was the 1986/87/88 El Niño that caused surface temperatures to shift upwards. If these naturally occurring upward shifts in surface temperatures are new to you, please see the illustrated essay The Manmade ...
Uk based progressive/alt.rock combo Atlas : Empire are glad to announce that they have signed a deal with WormHoleDeath for the reissue of their album The Stratosphere Beneath Our Feet. Steven Gillies (vocals & guitar): We are very excited to be working with WormHoleDeath and are looking forward to Carlo and his team developing and building on everything weve acheived as an independent band. In the current musical climate, its amazing to know we have a label who believes in the art we create - starting with the re-release of The Stratosphere Beneath Our Feet, then supporting us through the entire process for our second album. The Stratosphere Beneath Our Feet will be out on 25 October 2019 via Wormholedeath / The Orchard / Wormholedeath USA. As Yet Unwritten Diminishing Returns Its All In The Reflexes The Moment We Were Exploding Gethsemane The Entire History Of You Hostess The Year Of The Four Emperors Our Hands Part The Waves Cenotaphs Atlas : Empire have also released a video for ...
Climate change is a wicked problem because it is hard to say what the problem is, and to define it clearly. However, we know that global temperature rise correlates with increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide [1] and [2]. In this paper, we analyze a model for the carbon dioxide developed by Walker in [3] with several source terms. Our numerical results show that the burning fossil fuels have an effect on the carbon dioxide in the earths atmosphere and the climate change problem, one of the major global challenger of our time.
Extensive ozone loss occurs each winter over Antarctica (the ozone hole) due to the extreme cold there and its strong, long-lived polar vortex (a band of winds that forms each winter at high latitudes). This vortex isolates the region from middle latitudes. In contrast, the Arctic winter is warmer and its vortex is weaker and shorter-lived. As a result, Arctic ozone loss has always been lower, more variable and much more difficult to quantify.. This was the first Arctic winter monitored by Aura, which was launched in July 2004. Auras Microwave Limb Sounder is contributing to our understanding of the processes that cause Arctic wind patterns to push ozone-rich air to the Arctic lower stratosphere from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. Through Auras findings, scientists can differentiate chemical ozone destruction from ozone level changes caused by air motions, which vary dramatically from year to year. Understanding Arctic ozone loss is critical to diagnosing the health of Earths ozone ...
The chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 (CFCl3) and CFC-12 (CF2Cl2) are stable atmospheric compounds that are produced at the earths surface, but removed only at high altitudes in the stratosphere by photolytic reactions. Their removal liberates atomic chlorine that then catalytically destroys stratospheric ozone. For such long-lived compounds, isotope effects in the stratospheric removal reactions have a large effect on their global isotope budgets. We have demonstrated a photolytic isotope fractionation for stable carbon isotopes of CFC-11 and CFC-12 in laboratory experiments using broadband UV-C (190-230 nm) light. 13C/12C isotope fractionations (e) range from (-23.8±0.9) to (-17.7±0.4) ‰ for CFC-11 and (-66.2±3.1) to (-51.0±2.9) \permil for CFC-12 between 203 and 288 K, a temperature range relevant to conditions in the troposphere and stratosphere. These results suggest that CFCs should become strongly enriched in 13C with decreasing mixing ratio in the stratosphere, similar to what has been ...
Abstract. For the retrieval of atomic oxygen via ozone observations in the extended mesopause region under sunlight conditions, two assumptions are used: first, the photochemical equilibrium of ozone and, second, that the ozone losses are dominated by ozones dissociation from solar UV radiation, silently ignoring the O3 destruction by atomic hydrogen. We verify both by 3-D modeling. We found that ozone approaches photochemical equilibrium at 75-100 km for daytime conditions. Hence, the first assumption is valid. However, the reaction of ozone with atomic hydrogen was found to be an important loss process and should not be omitted in retrieving atomic oxygen.. ...
Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas released to the atmosphere through human activities. It is also influenced by natural exchange with the land and ocean. This visualization provides a high-resolution, three-dimensional view of global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations from September 1, 2014 to August 31, 2015. The visualization was created using output from the GEOS modeling system, developed and maintained by scientists at NASA. The height of Earths atmosphere and topography have been vertically exaggerated and appear approximately 400 times higher than normal to show the complexity of the atmospheric flow. Measurements of carbon dioxide from NASAs second Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) spacecraft are incorporated into the model every 6 hours to update, or
Oxygenated volatile organic compounds ((O)VOCs) contribute to ozone formation, affect the oxidising capacity of the troposphere and are sources of growth, and in some cases formation, of aerosols. It is therefore important to identify and quantify sources of (O)VOCs in the troposphere. In the late 1990s a unique technique for quantification of organic trace gas species, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was developed. PTR-MS potentially offers rapid response and high sensitivity without the need for sample preconcentration. Concentrations can be derived from the PTR-MS either by calibration or can be calculated from measured ion count rates and kinetic considerations. In this work, the methodology of PTR-MS application is critically assessed. The uncertainties and inaccuracies associated with each parameter employed in the calculation of concentrations are reviewed. This includes a critical appraisal of models for the calculation of the collisional rate constant currently ...
The Atmosphere as a Sensor (AtmoSense) program is a fundamental science program that seeks to understand the propagation of mechanical and electromagnetic energy from the surface of the Earth through the Earths ionosphere due to transient events such as meteorological sources, geophysical sources, prompt hazards, etc. For example, an event on the surface of the Earth, such as a volcanic eruption, will produce radially outward longitudinal mechanical perturbations on the atmosphere. Those wave components travelling radially away from the center of the Earth will encounter decreasing air density with altitude thus reducing the amount of energy transferred to the atmosphere. This energy can propagate all the way to the bottomside of the ionosphere and has been detailed in the observational literature using various electromagnetic measuring techniques. AtmoSense seeks to understand the evolution of this energy through the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere (before it reaches the ...
Atmospheric nitrogen may be a necessary ingredient for the habitability of a planet since its presence helps to prevent water loss from a planet. The present day nitrogen isotopic ratio, 15N/14N, in the Earths atmosphere is a combination of the primitive Earths ratio and the ratio that might have been delivered in comets and asteroids. Asteroids have a nitrogen isotopic ratio that is close to the Earths. This indicates either a similar formation environment to the Earth or that the main source of nitrogen was delivery by asteroids. However, according to geological records, the Earths atmosphere could have been enriched in 15N during the Archean era. Comets have higher a 15N/14N ratio than the current atmosphere of the Earth and we find that about 5% ∼ 10% of nitrogen in the atmosphere of the Earth may have been delivered by comets to explain the current Earths atmosphere or the enriched 15N Earths atmosphere. We model the evolution of the radii of the snow lines of molecular nitrogen and ...
Atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) significantly impacts Earths climate due to its dual role as an inert potent greenhouse gas in the troposphere and as a reactive source of ozone-destroying nitrogen oxides in the stratosphere. Global atmospheric concentrations of N2O, produced by natural and anthropogenic processes, continue to rise due to increases in emissions linked to human activity. The understanding of the impact of this gas is incomplete as there remain significant uncertainties in its global budget. The experiment described in this thesis, in which a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4), a fine-scale regional Lagrangian model (NAME), and new high-frequency atmospheric observations are combined, shows that uncertainty in N2O emissions estimates can be reduced in areas with continuous monitoring of N2O mole fraction and site-specific isotopic ratios.. Due to unique heavy-atom (15N and 18O) isotopic substitutions made by different N2O sources, the measurement of N2O isotopic ratios in ...
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is known to have an adverse impact on public health and is an important climate forcer. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) contributes up to 80% of PM2.5 worldwide and multiphase reactions are an important pathway to form SOA. Aerosol-phase state is thought to influence the reactive uptake of gas-phase precursors to aerosol particles by altering diffusion rates within particles. Current air quality models do not include the impact of diffusion-limiting organic coatings on SOA formation. This work examines how α-pinene-derived organic coatings change the predicted formation of SOA from the acid-catalyzed multiphase reactions of isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX). A box model, with inputs provided from field measurements taken at the Look Rock (LRK) site in Great Smokey Mountains National Park during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS), was modified to incorporate the latest laboratory-based kinetic data accounting for organic coating influences. Including an ...
In the journal Nature, paleoclimate researchers reveal that about 12-5 million years ago climate was decoupled from atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the last five million years, changes in ocean circulation allowed Earths climate to become more closely coupled to changes in carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.
After reviewing evolutionists speculations on the origin of life, Clemmey and Badham say, ... the dogma has arisen that Earths early atmosphere was anoxic,...1 By anoxic they mean an atmosphere without free oxygen gas (O2), very different from the oxidizing mixture we breathe. The generally accepted model for the evolution of the atmosphere2 supposes that before about 1.9 billion years ago the earths atmosphere was a reducing mixture of nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4), water vapor (H2O), and possibly ammonia (NH3). Solar radiation and lightning discharges into the reducing gas mixture are believed by the consensus of evolutionists to have produced natural organic compounds and eventually life itself. The reason evolutionists postulate an anoxic and reducing atmosphere is mentioned by Miller and Orgel, We believe that there must have been a period when the earths atmosphere was reducing, because the synthesis of compounds of biological interest takes place only under reducing ...
One can see from Table 1 that in the Earths atmosphere molecular nitrogen has the greatest relative concentration near the Earths surface. The effective molecular weight of air is thus rather close to that of this constituent (the two values are 28.973 and 28.022, respectively). However, the composition of the air and consequently its molecular weight are constant only in the lower 80-100 km layer of the atmosphere which is termed the hoinosphere. Above this layer the so-called heterosphere.... ...
article{5c279b19-b4cf-4757-b11a-9043da898f3c, abstract = {A new hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) has been constructed at Lund University within the frameworks of the EU FP6 Infrastructure Project EUSAAR ( The aim of this coordinated H-TDMA development is to design and evaluate a new generation of H-TDMAs that are capable of conducting long term measurements of the hygroscopic growth and state of mixing of sub-micrometer atmospheric aerosol particles at the EUSAAR aerosol super-sites across Europe. The H-TDMA constructed for this project has been validated with respect to hygroscopic growth factor, stability of relative humidity (RH), temperature stability and its ability to operate unattended for longer periods of time. When measuring growth factors of ammonium sulphate, the new H-TDMA system was found to measure within a growth factor deviation of +/- 0.05 compared to previously recorded data by Tang et al. (1994). The long term RH of the system has ...
Uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean declined rapidly between 1990 and 2006. This reduction in carbon dioxide uptake was related to warming at the sea surface, which-according to model simulations-coincided with a reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. The extent to which the slowdown of this circulation system-which transports warm surface waters to the northern high latitudes, and cool deep waters south-contributed to the reduction in carbon uptake has remained uncertain. Here, we use data on the oceanic transport of volume, heat and carbon dioxide to track carbon dioxide uptake in the subtropical and subpolar regions of the North Atlantic Ocean over the past two decades. We separate anthropogenic carbon from natural carbon by assuming that the latter corresponds to a pre-industrial atmosphere, whereas the remaining is anthropogenic. We find that the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide-released by human activities-occurred almost ...
Research into stellar atmospheres and structure[edit]. In the 1920s much of Milne's research was concerned with stars, ... In doing this they applied the work of Meghnad Saha about the ionization of gases to stellar atmospheres.[9] ... He considered a grey atmosphere, a simplifying approximation in which the strength of the absorption of light by the hot ... This produced predictions of how temperature varies through the atmosphere, including the mathematical expression now known as ...
Explosive atmospheres[edit]. IECEx[31] covers the specialized field of explosion protection associated with the use of ... as a suggestion for those countries implementing a certification program for the explosive atmospheres' segment.[32] ...
Atmosphere and magnetosphere[edit]. Main articles: ozone layer, shortwave radio, skywave, and ionosphere ... For instance, dark bands in the light emitted by a distant star are due to the atoms in the star's atmosphere. A similar ... Finally, at radio wavelengths longer than 10 meters or so (about 30 MHz), the air in the lower atmosphere remains transparent ... However, at energies too low to excite water vapor, the atmosphere becomes transparent again, allowing free transmission of ...
Chemistry of the atmosphere[edit]. The laboratory in atmospheric chemistry of the base is used to analyse, among other things, ... sulfur compounds present in the atmosphere. Geophysics[edit]. Nowadays, the study of geophysics is less present in the base. ...
Contamination of stellar atmospheres[edit]. Spectral analysis of white dwarfs' atmospheres often finds contamination of heavier ... A planetary atmosphere, and planet for that matter, could also be detected by measuring the polarization of the starlight as it ... When the planet transits the star, light from the star passes through the upper atmosphere of the planet. By studying the high- ... The phase function of the giant planet is also a function of its thermal properties and atmosphere, if any. Therefore, the ...
Compounds in the atmosphere[edit]. CFCs and related compounds in the atmosphere[edit]. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ... 2.1 Compounds in the atmosphere *2.1.1 CFCs and related compounds in the atmosphere ... In the lower atmosphere, there is much more chlorine from CFCs and related haloalkanes than there is in HCl from salt spray, ... "Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 118 (3): 1563-1576. Bibcode:2013JGRD..118.1563S. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50181. hdl:2060 ...
Relation to controlled atmosphere killing[edit]. Controlled atmosphere killing (CAK) or controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS) is ... Controlled Atmosphere Killing: People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. *Nitrogen Induced Hypoxia as a Form of Capital ... Normal Earth atmosphere is about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% argon, carbon dioxide, and other gases. After just two or ... For this reason, the use of inert gas (hypoxic) atmospheres (without CO2) for euthanasia, is also species-specific.[9][19] ...
Atmosphere[edit]. Between 4-6°C above pre-industrial levels, warming oceans may result in a large amount of methane from ... The rate of global warming is influenced by the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, which has so far led ... and the gas is poisonous for both plants and animals if released into the atmosphere. Sulphur dioxide produced in this scenario ... and an altered composition of the Earth's atmosphere.[1] ... underwater stores being released into the atmosphere. Methane ...
Common atmospheres used include: inert, reducing or vacuum atmospheres all of which protect the part from oxidation. Some other ... GH Induction Atmospheres *^ Joseph R. Davis, ASM International. Handbook Committee (2001). Copper and copper alloys. ASM ... The commonly used atmospheres are[7][8] *Air: Simple and economical. Many materials susceptible to oxidation and buildup of ... Atmosphere[edit]. As brazing work requires high temperatures, oxidation of the metal surface occurs in an oxygen-containing ...
... has a tenuous atmosphere consisting of nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4), and carbon monoxide (CO), which are in equilibrium ... Determinations of Pluto's size had been complicated by its atmosphere,[119] and hydrocarbon haze.[117] In March 2014, Lellouch ... 2006). "Charon's size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation". Nature. 439 (7072): 52-54. Bibcode: ... "Pluto has carbon monoxide in its atmosphere". April 19, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2011.. ...
Most meteoroids that strike the earth vaporize in the atmosphere. Without a thick protective atmosphere meteoroid strikes would ... Atmosphere[edit]. Air pressure, with normal partial pressures of oxygen(21%), carbon dioxide and nitrogen(78%), is a basic ... and with atmosphere retention walls 200 km in height. The habitat would be large enough that it could be "roofless", open to ...
Atmosphere[edit]. Space life support systems maintain atmospheres composed, at a minimum, of oxygen, water vapor and carbon ... Future lunar missions may utilise water sourced from polar ices; Mars missions may utilise water from the atmosphere or ice ... For this reason, most modern crewed spacecraft use conventional air (nitrogen/oxygen) atmospheres and use pure oxygen only in ... American Mercury, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft contained 100% oxygen atmospheres, suitable for short duration missions, to ...
Unlike the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, Europa's is not of biological origin. The surface-bounded atmosphere forms through ... and the balance of these two processes forms an atmosphere.[104] Molecular oxygen is the densest component of the atmosphere ... Atmosphere[edit]. Observations with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope, first described in ... McGrath (2009). "Atmosphere of Europa". In Pappalardo, Robert T.; McKinnon, William B.; Khurana, Krishan K. Europa. University ...
Atmosphere[edit]. At a March 2009 meeting of the Copenhagen Climate Council, 2,500 climate experts from 80 countries issued a ... Other human impacts on the atmosphere include the air pollution in cities, the pollutants including toxic chemicals like ... Anthropogenic particulates such as sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere reduce the direct irradiance and reflectance (albedo) of ... The remaining freshwater is found in glaciers, lakes, rivers, wetlands, the soil, aquifers and atmosphere. Due to the water ...
Titan is the only satellite in the Solar System with a major atmosphere,[99][100] in which a complex organic chemistry occurs. ... Trace amounts of ammonia, acetylene, ethane, propane, phosphine, and methane have been detected in Saturn's atmosphere.[48][49] ... The outer atmosphere of Saturn contains 96.3% molecular hydrogen and 3.25% helium by volume.[46] The proportion of helium is ... 4SH) or water.[51] Ultraviolet radiation from the Sun causes methane photolysis in the upper atmosphere, leading to a series of ...
No atmosphere was revealed by the Voyager data. The upper limit on the surface particle number density was found to be 1.5×109 ... Ganymede has a thin oxygen atmosphere that includes O, O2, and possibly O3 (ozone).[15] Atomic hydrogen is a minor atmospheric ... Atmosphere and ionosphere[edit]. In 1972, a team of Indian, British and American astronomers working in Java (Indonesia) and ... A search for sodium in the atmosphere, just after such a finding on Europa, turned up nothing in 1997. Sodium is at least 13 ...
Departure from ISS and reentry to the Earth atmosphere[edit]. Kounotori 7 was demated from Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) of ... Estimated time of the reentry to Earth atmosphere (at 120 km altitude) of Kounotori 7 was 21:38 UTC, and the splashdown of ...
That gives the mass of the atmosphere (they did that in the 18th century: it's not a recent realization.) The atmosphere is ... like a worked out conversion or at least the mass of the atmosphere as 5.1e18kg from Earth's atmosphere. I realize the dynamics ... Earth's atmosphere has a lot of that and comes up with the 5.1480e18 kg of gas at about 28.97 molecular weight vs 44 for Carbon ... Mars has an atmosphere of 95% Carbon Dioxide. Why is Mars so cold? -Preceding unsigned comment added by Whariwharangi (talk • ...
... ary atmospheres are affected by the varying insolation or internal energy, leading to the formation of dynamic weather ... All of the Solar System planets except Mercury[149] have substantial atmospheres because their gravity is strong enough to keep ... Hunten D. M., Shemansky D. E., Morgan T. H. (1988), The Mercury atmosphere, In: Mercury (A89-43751 19-91). University of ... Kasting, James F. (1993). "Earth's early atmosphere". Science. 259 (5097): 920-6. Bibcode:1993Sci...259..920K. doi:10.1126/ ...
Model atmosphere[edit]. A numerical model of a star's atmosphere will calculate pressures and temperatures at different depths ... Water has been found on the Sun, and there is evidence of H2 in white dwarf stellar atmospheres.[2][3] ... Xu, S.; Jura, M.; Koester, D.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B. (2013). "DISCOVERY OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN WHITE DWARF ATMOSPHERES". ... Masseron, T. (December 2015), "Molecules in stellar atmospheres", in Martins, F.; Boissier, S.; Buat, V.; Cambrésy, L.; Petit, ...
Atmosphere, climate, and weather[edit]. Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, ... Main articles: Atmosphere of Earth, Climate, and Weather. The Earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. ... There is no discrete boundary between the Earth's atmosphere and space, as the atmosphere gradually attenuates with increasing ... "Calculations favor reducing atmosphere for early Earth". Science Daily. September 11, 2005. Retrieved January 6, 2007.. ...
Although nitrogen makes up most of the atmosphere, it is in a form that is unavailable to plants. Nitrogen is the most ... Legumes, for example, fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and generally do not require nitrogen fertilizer. ...
Removal from the atmosphere[edit]. Natural processes[edit]. Greenhouse gases can be removed from the atmosphere by various ... Gases in Earth's atmosphere[edit]. Main articles: Greenhouse effect and Atmosphere of Earth ... 2 emitted is removed from the atmosphere within a century, some fraction (about 20%) of emitted CO. 2 remains in the atmosphere ... Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere if half of global-warming emissions[49][50] are not absorbed.. (NASA simulation; 9 ...
Changes in Earth's atmosphere. There is evidence that greenhouse gas levels fell at the start of ice ages and rose during the ... An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or ... 2 levels in the atmosphere, mainly from volcanoes, and some supporters of Snowball Earth argue that it was caused in the first ... 2 from the global atmosphere to be a significant causal factor of the 40 million year Cenozoic Cooling trend. They further ...
75% of the gases in the atmosphere are located within the troposphere, the lowest layer. In all, the atmosphere is made up of ... Earth science generally recognizes four spheres, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere;[31] these ... Atmospheric sciences cover the gaseous parts of the Earth (or atmosphere) between the surface and the exosphere (about 1000 km ... This is a branch of science dealing with the physical and chemical constitution of Earth and its atmosphere. Earth science can ...
Simple formulas that include the effect of the atmosphere give the range as: h. o. r. i. z. o. n. m. i. l. e. s. ≈. 1.23. ⋅. h ... Earth bulge and atmosphere effect[edit]. Earth bulge is a term used in telecommunications. It refers to the circular segment of ... The usual effect of the declining pressure of the atmosphere with height is to bend radio waves down towards the surface of the ... The above analysis does not consider the effect of atmosphere on the propagation path of RF signals. In fact, RF signals don't ...
Atmospheres[edit]. Atmospheres is a poetics of architecture and a window into Zumthor's personal sources of inspiration. In ... In conclusion, Peter Zumthor has described what really constitutes an architectural atmosphere as "this singular density and ... Zumthor describes what he has on his mind as he sets about creating the atmosphere of his houses: images of spaces and ...
Irradiation at the top of the atmosphere[edit]. Spherical triangle for application of the spherical law of cosines for the ... When 1361 W/m2 is arriving above the atmosphere (when the sun is at the zenith in a cloudless sky), direct sun is about 1050 W/ ... Average annual solar radiation arriving at the top of the Earth's atmosphere is roughly 1361 W/m2.[25] The Sun's rays are ... 3 Irradiation at the top of the atmosphere *3.1 Variation *3.1.1 Total irradiance ...
Atmospheres[edit]. The bands seen in the atmosphere of Jupiter are due to counter-circulating streams of material called zones ... The observable atmospheres of all these planets (at less than unit optical depth) are quite thin compared to their radii, only ... A giant planet is a massive planet and has a thick atmosphere of hydrogen and helium. They may have a dense molten core of ... Lunine, Jonathan I. (September 1993). "The Atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 31 ...
Artificial atmosphere[edit]. There are two basic choices for an artificial atmosphere: either an Earth-like mixture of oxygen ... All three, Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee, were killed.[72] This led NASA to use a nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere before ... A pure oxygen atmosphere carries risk of fire. The original design of the Apollo spacecraft used pure oxygen at greater than ... In 1981, three pad workers were killed by a nitrogen-rich atmosphere in the aft engine compartment of the Space Shuttle ...
From that analysis, Katja and her team get information about the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at the ... This gives them information about how these gases have changed in the atmosphere over time. If carbon dioxide is high, it is ... From that analysis, Katja and her team get information about the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at the ... research and hopes her findings will contribute to the discussions around greenhouse gases and their effect on the atmosphere. ...
Most of the argon in the Earths atmosphere was produced by electron capture of long-lived 40. K (40. K + e− → 40. Ar + ν) ... In the Earths atmosphere, 39. Ar is made by cosmic ray activity, primarily by neutron capture of 40. Ar followed by two- ... The atmospheres of Mars, Mercury and Titan (the largest moon of Saturn) contain argon, predominantly as 40. Ar, and its content ... It is in group 18 of the periodic table and is a noble gas.[5] Argon is the third-most abundant gas in the Earths atmosphere, ...
THE SENATE Environment and Public Works Committee began its markup of a massive climate change bill on Tuesday -- without its Republican members. The Republicans have some reasonable concerns about the legislation. But their boycott isnt helpful.
... atmosphere, land processes, oceans, volcanoes, land cover, Earth science data, NASA, environmental processes, Blue Marble, ...
Images by Cambridgeshire-based photographer Paul Biggins, including environmental and landscape photography, nature, portraits, music and performance, and weddings.
DK Space Encyclopedia: Atmosphere of Venus p 58. *^ a b c d e f g h i j Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, ... The atmosphere has a mass of 4.8×1020 kg, about 93 times the mass of the Earths total atmosphere.[citation needed] The density ... 1997). Geochemistry of Surface-Atmosphere Interactions on Venus (Venus II: Geology, Geophysics, Atmosphere, and Solar Wind ... Atmosphere of Venus. Cloud structure in Venuss atmosphere in 1979, revealed by ultraviolet observations from Pioneer Venus ...
... greatly distended atmosphere. Because Plutos atmosphere must consist of vapours in equilibrium with their ices, small changes ... Discovery of its atmosphere was made in 1988 when Pluto passed in front of (occulted) a star as observed from Earth. The stars ... gave scientists confidence that the body had an atmosphere, direct observation of it had to wait until the next decade. ... The atmosphere: Although the detection of methane ice on Plutos surface in the 1970s (see below The surface and interior) ...
Change of Atmosphere (COA) is a catalyst organization created to educate, engage, and empower our society with sustainability. ... Each day every one of us is literally changing the atmosphere of our society... and each day we have a choice with regards to ... Change of Atmosphere (COA) is a catalyst organization created to educate, engage, and empower our society with sustainability. ...
PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE - Report of the Secretary-General (PDF). E/CN.17/2001/PC/12. Prepared by the World Meteorological ...
... has an atmosphere of oxygen and carbon dioxide-but dont hold your breath for human colonization. ... Saturn Moon Has Oxygen Atmosphere. Saturns second largest moon, Rhea, has an atmosphere of oxygen and carbon dioxide-but dont ... An oxygen atmosphere has been found on Saturns second largest moon, Rhea, astronomers announced Thursday-but dont hold your ... Rheas oxygen atmosphere is believed to be maintained by the ongoing chemical breakdown of water ice on the moons surface, ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
Breakers and the atmosphere. Article by Karen B. Roberts Photos by Luc Mieussens and Steven Billups November 07, 2016 ... Veron: Small spray droplets created from breaking waves in the ocean can be transported very high and far in the atmosphere. ... But even during this short lifetime, these large drops can exchange heat, locally, with the atmosphere. ... professor in the School of Marine Science and Policy who studies how the ocean and the atmosphere are connected, about how ...
... further by both refrigeration and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage in which oxygen is kept at about 5 percent and carbon ... Other articles where Controlled-atmosphere storage is discussed: fruit farming: Postharvest physiology of fruits: … ... Use of controlled atmospheres to increase the shelf life of fruits was first shown in 1819 by Jacques-Étienne Berard, a ... further by both refrigeration and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage in which oxygen is kept at about 5 percent and carbon ...
Atmosphere. ​​​​​​​. Atmospheric conditions can have an important impact on the types of plants and animals that live in a ... The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigation is available in the six United Nations languages (select any of the following links to open ... The investigation appendix contains data sheets for all atmosphere and climate protocols, cloud and contrail images and ... Students and scientists investigate the atmosphere through the collection of data using measurement protocols and using ...
Andy turned what could have otherwise been a ho-hum shot at the beach into a photo loaded with atmosphere. The muted gray ... the more I enjoyed simply soaking in the towns unique atmosphere. Make sure to leave some time to simply explore without ...
Comfortable Atmosphere. Two story with wood floors; outdoor & indoor second floor balconies; patio doors in all rooms; great ... Light and Airy, Comfortable Atmosphere. Two story with wood floors; outdoor & indoor second floor balconies; patio doors in all ... Light and Airy, Comfortable Atmosphere. Two story with wood floors; outdoor & indoor second floor balconies; patio doors in all ... Light and Airy, Comfortable Atmosphere. Two story with wood floors; outdoor & indoor second floor balconies; patio doors in all ...
COSMIC satellites to study atmosphere. If all goes well, the COSMIC six-satellite array will be launched today at 5:10 PM PDT ... When radio signals from GPS satellites pass through the atmosphere, the signals paths are bent and their progress is slowed. ... The rate of these changes depends on the atmospheres density along the path. COSMICs low-Earth-orbiting (LEO) satellites take ... the atmosphere. By measuring the amount of this bending, scientists can determine underlying atmospheric conditions, such as ...
Mars did indeed lose much of its original atmosphere long ago when huge amounts of gas escaped into space, new analyses from ... Most of Mars Atmosphere Is Lost in Space. By Mike Wall, Senior Writer , April 8, 2013 04:21pm ET. ... The new measurement is consistent with the idea that gas escaped from the top of the Martian atmosphere in the distant past, ... The planet Mars lost most of its original atmosphere long ago when huge amounts of gas escaped into space, leaving only a wispy ...
The five basic layers of the atmosphere. Exosphere. This is the outermost layer of the atmosphere. It extends from the top of ... this layer of the atmosphere would still feel very cold to our skin due to the very thin atmosphere. The high temperature ... Average temperature profile for the lower layers of the atmosphere.. ×. Average temperature profile for the lower layers of the ... Layers of the Atmosphere. The envelope of gas surrounding the Earth changes from the ground up. Five distinct layers have been ...
... atmosphere is too thin to support life as we know it. And its very dusty. The red planet has the largest dust storms in the ... What is Mars atmosphere made of?. The atmosphere of Mars is about 100 times thinner than Earths, and it is 95 percent carbon ... dust moving around in the atmosphere, and water vapor moving between the surface and the atmosphere. (Most of the water comes ... The atmosphere today is also too thin to easily support life as we know it, although life may have existed in the ancient past ...
Aerosols in the Atmosphere. New data could help scientists better understand how these peripatetic particles influence the ... Although the particles might have a regional effect on visibility, they would be rained out of the atmosphere before they had ... But later studies suggested that aerosols could also warm the atmosphere through their effects on cloud cover and the behavior ... Indeed, although climatologists and other scientists have long focused on gases in the atmosphere, they have not closely ...
The Solar Eclipse Caused a Bow Wave in Earths Atmosphere. Its long been predicted that a solar eclipse would cause a bow wave ... While the Martian atmosphere is less than 1% that of Earths - with an average surface pressure of 0.636 kPa compared to ... "CFCs have lifetimes from 50 to 100 years, so they linger in the atmosphere for a very long time. As far as the ozone hole being ... It can also react with other gases in the atmosphere to form aerosol particles that can create thick hazes and even lead to ...
As a follower of this community, you can stay up-to-date on the Atmosphere protocols, projects and campaigns by participating ... in one of the message boards in the Atmosphere forum. Ask questions, respond to comments and see who is doing what in this ... has on the Earths surface temperature and how the surface temperature changes the dynamics of the Earths atmosphere. Studying ...
At one time the entire atmosphere was anaerobic I think...The dominance of oxygen produce species caused one of the greatest ... so in an atmosphere of very low oxygen (for example, in silt, peat bogs and outer space) these processes are slowed or even ...
The early Earths atmosphere was mostly Co2 with virtuall no oxygen. A lot of the early carbon dioxide was absorbed into the ...
What was earliest atmosphere and how did it evolve to 4.2 Ga? (CO2- rich or more reducing?). What does the Precambrian rock ... Teach the Earth > Early Earth , Ideas for Teaching , Early Atmosphere Teaching Ideas. This is a partially developed activity ... Compare other planetary atmospheres Upper level class: *Have Carbonate-silicate cycle-solid earth is buffer and contributer to ... What is the evidence for the timing and rise in the concentration of oxygen in the earths early atmosphere?. Submitted by John ...
Lyrics to Inside Outsider by Atmosphere: Inside out and upside down / Who qualifies to try to judge me now / Love is what grows ...
... climate and atmosphere is fundamental to Australias sustainable development and prosperity. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere ... CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere provides information about the health of the atmosphere, from long-lived greenhouse gases and ... CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere undertakes science to ensure a healthy coastal and marine ecosystem and atmospheric environment now ... CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere provides the large-scale multidisciplinary science to inform this use of Australias marine ...
... is pleased to announce its sponsorship of Google Atmosphere Sydney and Google Atmosphere Tokyo, two Google events designed to ... Atmosphere Sydney and Tokyo, held on July 22 and July 30 and 31 respectively, will explore the ways in which organizations can ... Register here to join BetterCloud at Atmosphere Tokyo.. About BetterCloud BetterCloud, a Google Apps Premier Technology Partner ... "Were thrilled to sponsor both Atmosphere Sydney and Tokyo," said David Politis, BetterClouds founder and CEO. "These global ...
  • [5] Argon is the third-most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere , at 0.934% (9340 ppmv ). (
  • Nearly all of the argon in the Earth's atmosphere is radiogenic argon-40 , derived from the decay of potassium-40 in the Earth's crust. (
  • And these satellites will rely on a technology called radio occultation to measure the bending of GPS radio signals as they pass through Earth's atmosphere. (
  • Scientists have known for some time that Earth's atmosphere loses several hundred tons of oxygen each day. (
  • This campaign is focused on looking at the impact urbanization has on the Earth's surface temperature and how the surface temperature changes the dynamics of the Earth's atmosphere. (
  • The early Earth's atmosphere was mostly Co 2 with virtuall no oxygen . (
  • The bulk of it burned up after re-entering Earth's atmosphere. (
  • The journal is cross-disciplinary and spans the entirety of Earth's atmosphere. (
  • In addition to weather, NOAA also monitors and forecasts other atmospheric processes that effect our planet such as ozone levels, changing climate conditions, and variables outside Earth's atmosphere such as solar winds. (
  • In the case of Earth's atmosphere, temperatures of 10,000 °C (18,000 °F) are generated and the air around the spacecraft can turn into plasma. (
  • By being equipped with such a shield, CubeSats could be recovered after they re-enter the Earth's atmosphere, effectively becoming reusable. (
  • You may have the best performing CCD camera in existence but still get horrible photometric results unless you also understand the effects of the earth's atmosphere. (
  • The earth's atmosphere is discussed in detail during this lecture. (
  • The molecule is considered to be a crucial component of any planetary atmosphere because it is highly reactive - scientists say it combats pollutants in Earth's atmosphere, and may prevent carbon dioxide from transforming into carbon monoxide above Mars. (
  • Earth's atmosphere does many important tasks for us-it shields us from UV radiation, generates weather, and is the very air we breathe. (
  • Yes, CO 2 is a natural part of Earth's atmosphere. (
  • The density of oxygen is probably about 5 trillion times less dense than in Earth's atmosphere. (
  • mesosphere- the layer in which most meteors burn up after entering Earth's atmosphere and before reaching Earth's surface. (
  • In order to counteract the blurring effect of Earth's atmosphere, astronomers use the adaptive optics technique. (
  • The scientific study of the earth's atmosphere is referred to as aerology. (
  • But I sense a line of research that needs exploring: The overall impact of human-made orbital debris, solid and liquid propellant discharges, and other space age substance abuse that winds up in a high-speed dive through Earth's atmosphere . (
  • The impact of these materials on Earth's atmosphere - top to bottom - would seem worthy of investigation. (
  • Ross emphasized that orbital debris impacts on Earth's atmosphere , at the moment, is not something to be too concerned about. (
  • Its mission comes to an end next week when it undocks on Monday and enters Earth's atmosphere five days later. (
  • The current composition of the Earth's atmosphere is the product of billions of years of biochemical modification of the paleoatmosphere by living organisms. (
  • Nitrogen is also the main constituent of the atmospheres of both Triton and Saturn's largest satellite, Titan , as well as of Earth . (
  • Saturn's second largest moon, Rhea, has an atmosphere of oxygen and carbon dioxide-but don't hold your breath for human colonization. (
  • Rhea's oxygen atmosphere is believed to be maintained by the ongoing chemical breakdown of water ice on the moon's surface, driven by radiation from Saturn's magnetosphere. (
  • We've known about the storm at the gas giant's north pole for decades, but now it appears that this massive hexagonal storm could be a towering behemoth hundreds of kilometers in height that has its base deep in Saturn's atmosphere. (
  • Titan's atmosphere makes Saturn's largest moon look like a fuzzy orange ball in this natural-colour view from the Cassini spacecraft, captured in 2012. (
  • Those final seconds of data represent the first ever direct sampling of Saturn's atmosphere, giving scientists unprecedented information about the makeup of the planet. (
  • A fragile atmosphere infused with oxygen and carbon-dioxide has been discovered at Saturn's moon Rhea by the Cassini-Huygens mission - the first time a spacecraft has captured direct evidence of an oxygen atmosphere at a world other than Earth. (
  • Published today in Science Express, results from the mission reveal that the atmosphere of Rhea, Saturn's second largest moon at 1500 km wide, is extremely thin and is sustained by high energy particles bombarding its icy surface and kicking up atoms, molecules and ions into the atmosphere. (
  • Scientists working with data from NASA's Cassini mission have developed a new way to understand the atmospheres of exoplanets by using Saturn's smog-enshrouded moon Titan as a stand-in. (
  • The data revealed an unprecedented level of resolution to the bluest wavelengths of light scattering from the planetary atmosphere. (
  • Being able to acquire both types of measurements is particularly important for the study of planetary atmospheres. (
  • The storm the amateurs detected is fairly deep in the planet's atmosphere, tucked below the highest layer of methane ice. (
  • As the detailed press release from UC Berkeley explains, the amateurs' storm could be part of a tall vortex anchored deep in the planet's atmosphere, similar to the Great Red Spot and other features on Jupiter. (
  • Even in the case of thinly-atmosphered planets like Mars, entering a planet's atmosphere is known to cause a great deal of heat and friction. (
  • The presence of hydroxyl - which was picked up by the spacecraft's Visible and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer - isn't exactly a huge surprise, but ESA scientists say it should help them refine the theoretical models they use to describe what's going on in the planet's atmosphere. (
  • The star is an M dwarf - the most common and long-lived type of star that could therefore potentially host a high percentage of the galaxy's planets - and the rocky planet's atmosphere is the first orbiting an M dwarf to be characterized. (
  • There is growing appreciation that outer space has become a trash bin, with the Earth encircled by dead or dying spacecraft, along with menacing bits of orbital clutter - some of which burns up in the planet's atmosphere. (
  • To put it simply, planets with atmospheres allow spacecraft to utilize aerodynamic drag to slow down in preparation for landing. (
  • Venus has a rich and complicated atmosphere - the densest of all the rocky planets - which is the key to understanding the planet itself. (
  • And with new techniques emerging, we are able to characterize the atmospheres of these planets more fully. (
  • Looking at several orbits of the planet allowed scientists to map the temperature of its surface and create models of its atmosphere - capabilities that scientists are only just starting to develop for rocky planets. (
  • Researchers found the planet has little to no atmosphere, and thus could not support life - an important finding for understanding atmospheres of similar rocky planets around M dwarfs. (
  • So we think if we can look at the atmospheres of planets in the habitable zone and determine what they're made of, then maybe we could say if those planets have life. (
  • The discovery suggests Earth-like planets can hold onto their atmospheres in red dwarf systems. (
  • Gases dictate how the temperature of the atmosphere is controlled on all other planets in our solar system. (
  • So Pluto's atmosphere exhibits a new type of atmosphere on planets. (
  • clarification needed] Wind erosion is a significant factor in shaping the terrain of rocky planets with atmospheres, and over time can erase the effects of both craters and volcanoes. (
  • Despite the harsh conditions on the surface, the atmospheric pressure and temperature at about 50 km to 65 km above the surface of the planet is nearly the same as that of the Earth, making its upper atmosphere the most Earth-like area in the Solar System , even more so than the surface of Mars . (
  • CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere undertakes science to ensure a healthy coastal and marine ecosystem and atmospheric environment now and into the future. (
  • Environmental Science: Atmospheres covers the full breadth of atmospheric science and links fundamental and applied research. (
  • Environmental Science: Atmospheres is a gold open access journal publishing high quality research in fundamental and applied atmospheric science. (
  • Choosing MSc Atmosphere, Oceans and Climate means you will join our world-class Department of Meteorology - the University of Reading is ranked 2nd in the world for research in Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (Center for World University Rankings by Subject, 2017). (
  • Martin Pätzold, Universität zu Köln, Germany, and colleagues have determined the fine structure in temperatures at Venus's upper cloud-deck, detected distinct day-to-night temperature differences in the southern middle atmosphere, and tracked day-to-day changes in Venus's ionosphere (the upper atmospheric layer). (
  • To gain insight into the atmospheric composition of the planet, located about 40 light-years from Earth in the constellation Ophiuchus, the team used a blue transmission filter to search for Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere. (
  • Despite these relatively short timescales, important chemical changes can still take place in the urban atmosphere but are currently poorly captured by numerical models due to weak understanding of either the chemistry or atmospheric dynamics, or a lack of adequate spatial resolution. (
  • The urban atmosphere is hugely complex in chemical terms, but many of the constituents play little role in atmospheric chemistry on urban timescales. (
  • Paper present current research results on the corrosion of metals in the atmosphere, show current thinking on mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion, and document how changes in the atmosphere have affected the corrosion of metals. (
  • Early Mars had an atmosphere thick enough to hold water and moist clouds, said chief investigator Bruce Jakosky of the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in Boulder. (
  • Atmospheric pressure at a particular location is the force per unit area perpendicular to a surface determined by the weight of the vertical column of atmosphere above that location. (
  • However, atmospheres are not uniform in temperature, so estimation of the atmospheric pressure at any particular altitude is more complex. (
  • Scientists have been searching the heavens to find an exoplanet that is just the right distance from its host star to support liquid water, all the while targeting a surface gravity we would be familiar with and an atmosphere oozing with oxygen. (
  • This behavior makes it one of the molecules that we can, and have, detected in exoplanet atmospheres as well. (
  • People are often surprised that we can measure the composition of exoplanet atmospheres -- they often think that what they hear in the news is just a guess. (
  • Astronomers at England's Keele University have detected an atmosphere around GJ 1132b, a super-Earth exoplanet orbiting a red dwarf star located 39 light years from Earth. (
  • Although the detection of methane ice on Pluto's surface in the 1970s ( see below The surface and interior ) gave scientists confidence that the body had an atmosphere, direct observation of it had to wait until the next decade. (
  • Students and scientists investigate the atmosphere through the collection of data using measurement protocols and using instruments that meet certain specifications in order to ensure that data are comparable. (
  • The planet Mars lost most of its original atmosphere long ago when huge amounts of gas escaped into space, leaving only a wispy remnant behind, scientists say. (
  • Indeed, although climatologists and other scientists have long focused on gases in the atmosphere, they have not closely examined the role played by so-called condensed phase particles. (
  • EIT confirms what scientists have for long suspected, that magnetic field lines in the solar atmosphere are tangled like spaghetti. (
  • Scientists started with the most plentiful gases in Titan's atmosphere - nitrogen and methane - but got no results to match the one seen by Cassini until they added a third gas. (
  • In lab experiments, NASA scientists matched the spectral signature of an unknown material the Cassini spacecraft detected in Titan's atmosphere at far-infrared wavelengths. (
  • Scientists have measured big increases in the amount of methane, the powerful global warming gas , entering the atmosphere over the last decade. (
  • Until now, scientists had only directly detected the atmospheres of gas giant-like exoplanets. (
  • Though scientists can't yet nail down the exact chemical composition, there's a possibility the atmosphere is one friendly to life. (
  • Maven will help scientists "build a story of the Mars atmosphere and help future human explorers who journey to Mars. (
  • As the pellets burn up in the atmosphere, scientists on the ground would measure their temperatures using a spectrometer. (
  • Composition of the atmosphere of Venus. (
  • Look at mineral assemblages, surficial depositional environments, and identify what these rocks indicate about the atmosphere composition at the time they were deposited. (
  • The study took previous data on the chemical composition of methane in the atmosphere and applied a series of equations to parse out how much of this lighter form of methane could be attributed to shale gas. (
  • While urban atmospheres vary considerably in composition, they are distinguished clearly from most rural and all remote atmospheres by their high primary pollutant loadings and relatively short timescales for reactions. (
  • Understanding our oceans, coasts, climate and atmosphere is fundamental to Australia's sustainable development and prosperity. (
  • CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere provides information about the health of the atmosphere, from long-lived greenhouse gases and aerosols that change the heat stored in the atmosphere, right through to hazardous air pollutants that influence human and ecosystem health. (
  • CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere provides the large-scale multidisciplinary science to inform this use of Australia's marine environment. (
  • Gain a deep quantitative understanding of the climate system with our MSc Atmosphere, Oceans and Climate. (
  • Water in all its phases -- as invisible vapor in the atmosphere, as liquid in the vast oceans and condensed tiny droplets in clouds, as solid sheets of ice and crystals of snow -- water is the ultimate regulator of climate on earth. (
  • This is how carbon dating works: Carbon is a naturally abundant element found in the atmosphere, in the earth, in the oceans, and in every living creature. (
  • Observations made during occultations showed that nitrogen was the primary gas in the Plutonian atmosphere, which also contained small amounts of methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide . (
  • The chemical signature of methane released from fracking is found in the atmosphere, pointing to shale gas operations as the culprit. (
  • This big methane increase matters because methane heats up the climate over 80 times more than an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the first 20 years after it is released into the atmosphere, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (
  • While the study isn't a "smoking gun," it has found a link between recent increases in methane in the atmosphere and shale gas production. (
  • The amount of methane added to the atmosphere in the past decade also corresponds to studies that show fracking operations leak, vent, or flare between 2 and 6 percent of the gas produced, Howarth said. (
  • Titan has a very thick nitrogen-methane atmosphere, with very little carbon dioxide and oxygen. (
  • The first molecule ever detected in Titan's atmosphere, and indeed our first solid evidence that Titan had an atmosphere, was methane (CH 4 ), which was discovered by Gerard Kuiper in the 1940s. (
  • We simulated a range of possible atmospheres for this planet, finding that those rich in water and/or methane would explain the observations of GJ 1132b," Southworth said. (
  • India's orbiter will also study the atmosphere but go a step further, seeking out methane, a possible indicator of life. (
  • The issue is important because climate experts have long worried that if Arctic permafrost thaws, the process would release potentially catastrophic amounts of methane into the atmosphere. (
  • NASA's Cassini spacecraft , which has been orbiting the Saturnian system since 2004, detected the oxygen atmosphere around Rhea during a close flyby of the icy moon in March. (
  • Cassini also identified the distinctive chemical fingerprint of carbon dioxide in Rhea's atmosphere, indicating the presence of carbon on the moon's surface. (
  • A new study based on data from the Cassini mission is revealing something surprising in the atmosphere of Saturn. (
  • For about 60 seconds, Cassini used the last reserves of its rocket fuel to fire its thrusters, fighting the upper atmosphere of Saturn as it descended to its fate. (
  • Completing the picture of Rhea's atmosphere, Cassini's ion and neutral mass spectrometer detected neutral particles when Cassini swept within 100 km of the moon's surface in March 2010. (
  • Some examples include argon and even the main constituent of Titan's atmosphere, nitrogen (N 2 ), whose abundance was not really well known until Cassini-Huygens. (
  • Due to the similarity in pressure and temperature and the fact that breathable air (21% oxygen , 78% nitrogen ) is a lifting gas on Venus in the same way that helium is a lifting gas on Earth, the upper atmosphere has been proposed as a location for both exploration and colonization . (
  • An oxygen atmosphere has been found on Saturn 's second largest moon , Rhea, astronomers announced Thursday-but don't hold your breath for colonization opportunities. (
  • And at less than 62 miles (100 kilometers) thick, the newfound oxygen layer is so thin that, at Earthlike temperatures and pressure, Rhea's entire atmosphere would fit in a single midsize building. (
  • The Hubble Space Telescope and NASA's Galileo probe found in 1995 that a similar process creates tenuous oxygen atmospheres on Jupiter 's ice moons Europa and Ganymede. (
  • The major implication of this finding at Rhea is that oxygen atmospheres at icy moons, until now only detected at Europa and Ganymede, may in fact be commonplace around those irradiated icy moons throughout the universe with sufficient mass to hold an atmosphere,' said study leader Ben Teolis of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. (
  • The oxygen then gets ejected from the surface ice and captured by Rhea's gravity to form the atmosphere. (
  • further by both refrigeration and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage in which oxygen is kept at about 5 percent and carbon dioxide at 1 to 3 percent, while temperature is held at a level best suited to the particular fruit. (
  • Oxygen is required for many of the natural processes that we take for granted, including the breakdown of organic material and the rusting of iron, so in an atmosphere of very low oxygen (for example, in silt , peat bogs and outer space ) these processes are slowed or even stopped. (
  • What is the evidence for the timing and rise in the concentration of oxygen in the earth's early atmosphere? (
  • Class discussion with activities based on previous knowledge of how the transport of detrital grains affects their shape (tumbling experiments) and the results of chemical weathering of iron bearing silicates in an atmosphere with free oxygen such as red hematite layers in soil horizons. (
  • These respirators will protect wearers from many types of airborne contaminants (particles, gases, and vapors) and, in certain cases, oxygen-deficient atmospheres. (
  • In order to determine if a planet has life, we need to be able to measure its atmosphere and see if life has influenced it, as we know it has here on Earth, where our atmosphere of oxygen is produced by life. (
  • 1. A modified atmosphere package comprising first and second compartments separated by a partition member, said partition member including a non-barrier portion substantially permeable to oxygen, said first and second compartments being encompassed by an outer wall substantially impermeable to oxygen, an oxygen scavenger activated with an oxygen scavenger accelerator and positioned to absorb oxygen in said first compartment, said second compartment containing a retail cut of raw meat. (
  • There was probably quite a bit of nitrogen in the atmosphere, like today, but there was no oxygen," explained Sanjoy Som from Nasa's Ames Research Center. (
  • The atmosphere of Earth is composed of nitrogen (about 78%), oxygen (about 21%), argon (about 0.9%), carbon dioxide (0.04%) and other gases in trace amounts. (
  • Its ionosphere separates the atmosphere from outer space and the solar wind . (
  • When storms in outer space occur near Earth or in Earth's upper atmosphere, we call it space weather. (
  • The outer atmosphere, or corona, is visible as a streaky glow when the Moon eclipses the Sun. Coronagraphs use masks as artificial eclipses to view the corona at any time, without being dazzled by the Sun's bright disk. (
  • It is produced in the atmosphere, by radiation from outer space. (
  • A modified atmosphere packaging method creates a modified atmosphere in a package including an inner package and an outer package. (
  • A stellar atmosphere is the outer region of a star and typically includes the portion above the opaque photosphere. (
  • Stars with sufficiently low temperatures may have outer atmospheres with compound molecules. (
  • The atmosphere of Venus is composed of 96.5% carbon dioxide , 3.5% nitrogen , and traces of other gases, most notably sulfur dioxide . (
  • [13] The amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere is relatively small compared to the amount of carbon dioxide, but because the atmosphere is so much thicker than that on Earth, its total nitrogen content is roughly four times higher than Earth's, even though on Earth nitrogen makes up about 78% of the atmosphere. (
  • The thin Mars atmosphere today composed mainly of carbon dioxide as depicted in this artist's illustration. (
  • The atmosphere of Mars is about 100 times thinner than Earth's, and it is 95 percent carbon dioxide. (
  • Today, NASA says seasonal changes are due to the waxing and waning of the carbon dioxide ice caps , dust moving around in the atmosphere, and water vapor moving between the surface and the atmosphere. (
  • During winter, the temperatures in the polar regions are cold enough for the CO 2 [carbon dioxide] in the atmosphere to condense into ice on the surface. (
  • Remember when carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere hit a terrifying 400 parts per million (ppm)? (
  • But Earth stays warm even at night because of a layer of carbon dioxide, or CO 2 , in our atmosphere. (
  • When the Voyager spacecraft flew through the Saturn system in the early 1980s, they used infrared spectroscopy to detect a whole suite of molecules in Titan's atmosphere: acetylene (C- 2 H 2 ), ethane (C 2 H 6 ), propane (C 3 H 8 ), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), et cetera. (
  • Both 'climate positive' and 'carbon negative' mean the same thing: removing CO 2 from the atmosphere in order to make a positive impact on climate change. (
  • How is carbon 14 produced in the atmosphere? (
  • Carbon-14 is produced in the upper atmosphere when cosmic rays produce thermalised neutrons, by hitting atomic nuclei. (
  • Carbon-14 (C-14) is a rare isotope of carbon produced in the upper atmosphere when a cosmic ray strikes an atom of nitrogen. (
  • Because it is produced at a near constant rate and living organisms maintain the same percentage of it as is present in the atmosphere while they are alive, but after an organism dies it can no longer equalize the amount of the carbon-14 in its tissues, this isotope's decay can be used as a 'clock' to measure the time since the organism died. (
  • Carbon-14 is produced by the effect of solar radiation on nitrogen-14 in the atmosphere. (
  • However, Carbon-14 is radioactive (halflife 5,730±40 years) and is being produced only high in the atmosphere by bombardment of nitrogen gas by cosmic rays. (
  • C-14 is produced in the upper atmosphere when nitrogen-14 (N-14) is altered through the effects of cosmic radiation bombardment (a proton is displaced by a neutron effectively changing the nitrogen atom into a carbon isotope). (
  • Cosmic rays bombard the upper atmosphere (see Carbon 14 wiki): 'Carbon-14 is produced in the upper layers of the troposphere and the stratosphere by thermal neutrons absorbed by nitrogen atoms. (
  • It goes into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. (
  • However, the carbon dioxide produced from the wood originally came from the atmosphere and was converted by the original tree into wood - so burning the wood simply returns this to the atmosphere and there is no net increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. (
  • When we burn coal, the carbon dioxide is produced from carbon that had been sequestered underground for millions of years, so by this means we do add new carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. (
  • Earth's early atmosphere was primarily composed of carbon dioxide. (
  • How is carbon returned to the atmosphere? (
  • Restoring and protecting forests would do far more to reduce the carbon load in the atmosphere than dedicating vast tracts of land to energy crops, argue Renton Righelato and Dominick Spracklen, in a study published today in 'Science. (
  • Low-mass stars often feature intense electromagnetic activity, including flares and radiation that can burn away the atmospheres of resident exoplanets. (
  • This process is being investigated by NASA's MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution) mission . (
  • NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution probe, MAVEN, is set to launch atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on Monday. (
  • Maven -- short for Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, with a capital N in EvolutioN -- is the first spacecraft devoted entirely to studying Mars' upper atmosphere. (
  • [3] The upper layer of troposphere exhibits a phenomenon of super-rotation, in which the atmosphere circles the planet in just four Earth days, much faster than the planet's sidereal day of 243 days. (
  • The upper atmosphere is quite extended, going up to 1,800 km (1,100 miles) from the surface, and quite cold, which keeps nitrogen from escaping into space. (
  • This layer is known as the upper atmosphere. (
  • Every day, 90 metric tons of matter leaks from Earth's upper atmosphere into space. (
  • Above this, the region between 60 to 100 km is known as the mesosphere, and is a transition region between the lower winds, which whip the cloud tops around the planet in four days, and the circulation of the upper atmosphere, which is driven by the influx of solar radiation. (
  • Having absorbed solar radiation, the hot upper atmosphere rises still further, circulating to the night side of the planet where it cools and sinks back to the level of the cloud tops. (
  • It is produced naturally in the upper atmosphere by the action of cosmic rays on nitrogen 14 atoms. (
  • Maven holds eight scientific instruments to measure the upper atmosphere for an entire Earth year -- half a Martian year. (
  • Randy Gladstone at the Southwest Research Institute says, "They offer a very nice explanation for one of the most surprising of New Horizon's discoveries about Pluto - that the upper atmosphere is much colder, and thus escaping to space much more slowly, than expected - by using another surprising discovery: Pluto's global haze layer. (
  • Artificial meteors launched from satellites could one day help us study Earth's upper atmosphere. (
  • The upper atmosphere controls the size and shape of holes in the ozone layer, and can help us work out how the climate is changing. (
  • Despite extending just 100 to 1000 kilometres above sea level, we still don't know a lot about the upper atmosphere. (
  • It's also unclear how well the upper atmosphere protects us from meteor strikes and space debris. (
  • To make more precise predictions we need to understand the upper atmosphere better, says Masaki Watanabe of Tokyo Metropolitan University. (
  • Robert Hawkes of Mount Allison University in New Brunswick, Canada, says a predictable source of meteors with known compositions could make a big difference in our ability to work out luminous efficiency factors and the density of the upper atmosphere. (
  • While the Martian atmosphere is less than 1% that of Earth's - with an average surface pressure of 0.636 kPa compared to Earth's 101.325 kPa - spacecraft still require heat shields to avoid burnup and carry heavy loads. (
  • ESA's Venus Express spacecraft has picked up evidence that the molecule hydroxyl is lurking in the dense atmosphere of the hot planet. (
  • Another instrument on Venus Express has been probing the temperatures in the atmosphere, from the rarefied reaches of Venus's ionosphere at heights of 500-100 km, down to around 50 km above the surface. (
  • and 'The structure of Venus' middle atmosphere and middle ionosphere', by M.Patzold et al. (
  • The Atmosphere as a Sensor (AtmoSense) program is a fundamental science program that seeks to understand the propagation of mechanical and electromagnetic energy from the surface of the Earth through the Earth's ionosphere due to transient events such as meteorological sources, geophysical sources, prompt hazards, etc. (
  • UDaily talked with the University of Delaware's Fabrice Veron , professor in the School of Marine Science and Policy who studies how the ocean and the atmosphere are connected, about how ocean spray influences global climate. (
  • The investigation appendix contains data sheets for all atmosphere and climate protocols, cloud and contrail images and descriptions and a glossary of terms. (
  • Although the particles might have a regional effect on visibility, they would be rained out of the atmosphere before they had time to really affect climate. (
  • Led by Neil Donahue (Carnegie Mellon University), Environmental Science: Atmospheres is a gold open access journal committed to bringing the wider environmental science and climate change communities together in a fresh, open approach. (
  • But its ability to keep our planet warm is what makes the atmosphere so important to climate change. (
  • removing CO2 from the atmosphere to battle climate change. (
  • Just as the water molecules in a glass change the path of visible light waves so that a pencil appears bent, molecules in the air bend GPS radio signals as they pass through (are occulted by) the atmosphere. (
  • The new measurement is consistent with the idea that gas escaped from the top of the Martian atmosphere in the distant past, with lighter stuff leaving more easily than heavier atoms and molecules. (
  • Over millions of years, the sun's pressure stripped the lighter molecules from the atmosphere, thinning it out. (
  • Remote sensing techniques, like ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, allow us to see how light interacts with molecules in an atmosphere. (
  • Different wavelengths of light allow us to sense different parts of the atmosphere and different molecules because the different photon energies require different numbers and types of molecules to absorb them. (
  • Because Pluto's atmosphere must consist of vapours in equilibrium with their ices, small changes in temperature should have a large effect on the amount of gas in the atmosphere. (
  • of temperature is known as controlled-atmosphere storage. (
  • However, despite the high temperature, this layer of the atmosphere would still feel very cold to our skin due to the very thin atmosphere. (
  • Venus Express, designed to perform an extensive investigation of the atmosphere, has revealed surprising details about its temperature structure. (
  • The instrument measures the amount of light absorbed by the atmosphere at different wavelengths, and by doing so it identifies both the chemicals and the temperature in the different layers of the atmosphere. (
  • Venus atmosphere variation in temperature VeRa emits ultra-stable radio waves that travel through Venus's atmosphere on their way to Earth and that can be detected by radio telescopes on Earth. (
  • So, to keep the global temperature rise to no more than 1.5 degrees higher than pre-industrial levels, the IPCC has said we must proactively remove CO 2 from the atmosphere. (
  • The atmosphere surrounds the planet, protecting it by absorbing the ultraviolet radiation from the sun, and regulating the temperature extremes that would otherwise occur between day and night. (
  • But at -203°C, the observed temperature of Pluto's atmosphere is around 30 degrees colder than it should be theoretically. (
  • An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. (
  • is called the scale height and is denoted by H. For an atmosphere with a uniform temperature, the scale height is proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the product of the mean molecular mass of dry air and the local acceleration of gravity at that location. (
  • Propagation of Visible and Infrared Waves in the Atmosphere (NASA TT F-707, 1972). (
  • Using high-altitude aircraft, the NASA sampling program was directed at snagging particles of dust from comets and asteroids as they filter down through the atmosphere. (
  • [1] The Venusian atmosphere supports opaque clouds made of sulfuric acid , making optical Earth-based and orbital observation of the surface impossible. (
  • The atmosphere of Mars is also roughly 100 times thinner than Earth's, but it is still thick enough to support weather, clouds and winds. (
  • Environmental Science: Atmospheres welcomes contributions in thermodynamics, microphysics, and chemistry of multiphase systems coupling gases, aerosols and clouds, as well as photochemistry and radiative transfer. (
  • The leading theory is that Mars' light gravity, coupled with its lack of global magnetic field, left the atmosphere vulnerable to pressure from the solar wind, the constant stream of particles coming from the sun. (
  • One theory as to why dust storms can grow so big on Mars starts with airborne dust particles absorbing sunlight, warming the Martian atmosphere in their vicinity. (
  • This region of Venus's atmosphere contains light hazes of various aerosol particles, composed chiefly of sulphuric acid and water. (
  • The atmosphere combined with water particles absorbs the color and scatters it to the eye, making it appear blue rather than purple. (
  • More study is needed on the density of particles, types of particles, how long they are suspended in the atmosphere, and whether or not the amount of deorbiting detritus has increased over time. (
  • We found that the abundant haze particles can strongly cool the atmosphere by re-emitting infrared radiation to space, a process not considered in previous theories. (
  • Haze particles also absorb solar energy to heat the atmosphere, but their cooling is stronger, so the net effect is cooling, says Zhang. (
  • In the infrared range of radiation, a slightly larger amount of energy is radiated back to space by the haze particles, cooling the atmosphere overall," Zhang says. (
  • I was very puzzled when I first did the calculations, as we'd not seen any atmosphere before in the solar system controlled by particles instead of gases," says Zhang. (
  • We've already found negative ions are important at Titan and Enceladus - and now, tracing back the trajectory of these ions really pinpoints the source of the atmosphere near Rhea's surface. (
  • Thus, distant and cold Titan, Triton, and Pluto are able to retain their atmospheres despite their relatively low gravities. (
  • Some crude calculations in the early 1990s (based mainly on sulfates, because the only sufficient data available came from studies of acid rain) showed that aerosols could cool the atmosphere by back-scattering incoming solar radiation. (
  • But later studies suggested that aerosols could also warm the atmosphere through their effects on cloud cover and the behavior of less well studied components of pollution, such as soot. (
  • The session will therefore address which species determine compositional change within the urban atmosphere, what needs to be measured to constrain models and will also address issues concerning the formation of aerosols and their chemical and physical evolution within the urban atmosphere. (
  • Dr Geraint Jones, from the UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory and a co-author of the paper said: "The discovery of this tenuous atmosphere provides key information on how radiation can drive chemistry on icy surfaces throughout the universe. (
  • Rhea's tenuous atmosphere makes it unique in the Saturn system. (
  • Artist's concept: Disappearance of the ancient magnetic field may have triggered the loss of the Martian atmosphere. (
  • NASA's Mars rover Curiosity has revealed that a light variant of the gas argon is relatively depleted in Martian air, bolstering a longstanding belief that the Red Planet's current atmosphere - which is just 1 percent as thick as that of Earth - is a meager shell of its former self. (
  • However, for reasons that are still poorly understood, the Martian atmosphere thinned. (
  • Objects that have no atmosphere, or that have only an exosphere, have terrain that is covered in craters. (
  • Rather than the more commonly known weather within our atmosphere (rain, snow, heat, wind, etc.), space weather comes in the form of radio blackouts, solar radiation storms, and geomagnetic storms caused by disturbances from the Sun. (
  • The local weather that impacts our daily lives results from large global patterns in the atmosphere caused by the interactions of solar radiation, Earth's large ocean, diverse landscapes, and motion in space. (
  • Charged atoms of the solar atmosphere are accelerated. (
  • They look for a shock waves passing though solar atmosphere as a recoil from the mass ejection. (
  • Venus Express made the measurements using its SPICAV/SOIR instrument (SPectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus/Solar Occultation in the InfraRed). (
  • The atmosphere helps to protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation, solar wind and cosmic rays. (
  • Other mechanisms that can cause atmosphere depletion are solar wind-induced sputtering, impact erosion, weathering, and sequestration-sometimes referred to as "freezing out"-into the regolith and polar caps. (
  • The result is that atmosphere is often associated with water, whether heat with heavy humidity, mist, rain, snow, or torrents of water as rivers, which provide a respite from stifling temperatures in summer. (
  • Astronomers announced that they have discovered a 'super-Earth' which seems to have an atmosphere orbiting a red dwarf star 40 light-years from Earth. (
  • Those wave components travelling radially away from the center of the Earth will encounter decreasing air density with altitude thus reducing the amount of energy transferred to the atmosphere. (
  • For such a model atmosphere, the pressure declines exponentially with increasing altitude. (
  • The Sun's atmosphere is faint by visible light but glows brightly in ultraviolet light and X-rays. (
  • Atoms going downwards heat the lower atmosphere, causing a flare of X-rays, ultraviolet rays and sometimes visible light. (
  • As the ozone layer decreases in the atmosphere the rate of skin cancers continues to climb as the atmosphere is not able to properly absorb the ultraviolet radiation being given off by the sun. (
  • From that analysis, Katja and her team get information about the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at the time the ice was formed. (
  • There are other heat-trapping gases* in the atmosphere, but CO 2 is the most important one. (
  • The thermosphere contains only 0.001% of the gases in the atmosphere. (
  • BetterCloud , the leading provider of enterprise-grade cloud management and security software, is pleased to announce its sponsorship of Google Atmosphere Sydney and Google Atmosphere Tokyo, two Google events designed to show businesses the latest tools for work. (
  • Atmosphere Sydney and Tokyo, held on July 22 and July 30 and 31 respectively, will explore the ways in which organizations can use the cloud to develop solutions to today's business challenges. (
  • The results indicate that the atmosphere does not include significant amounts of Rayleigh scattering, meaning that the planet likely has a water-rich or hydrogen dominated atmosphere combined with significant cloud cover. (
  • ATMOSPHERE is a 24-month project aiming at the design and development of a framework and a platform to implement trustworthy cloud services on top of an intercontinental hybrid and federated resource pool. (
  • Dust is also a permanent part of the atmosphere, with higher amounts of it in the northern fall and winter, and lower amounts in the northern spring and summer. (
  • From the duo Atmosphere (whose individual names, Slug and Ant, remind me of an unlikely superhero team), Freefallin' offers some perspective on how to step back and view life when you're placed between a rock and a hard place. (
  • And this gratis, full-length album by indie hip-hop duo Atmosphere , is yours for the scooping, courtesy of the artists Ant and Slug (pictured left). (
  • This system provides assistance for the adaptive optics instruments on the VLT and so allows astronomers to obtain images free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere, regardless of the brightness and the location on the sky of the observed target. (
  • British astronomers have found evidence of water in the atmosphere of a gas giant 64 light years from Earth, the first discovery of water in an extrasolar planet, they say. (
  • But even during this short lifetime, these large drops can exchange heat, locally, with the atmosphere. (
  • We know, locally, that large spray affects the formation of hurricanes, and that, at the global level small spray droplets are involved in global heat balance in the atmosphere. (
  • Compare heat flow in the atmosphere (radiative effects of greenhouse gases) to figure out the indirect effects of geothermal heat flow. (
  • ATMOSPHERE CAFE'S HEAT & SERVE MEAL KIT SERVICE is available weekly for you to prepare bistro quality meals at your leisure in the comfort of your own home. (
  • The atmosphere is composed of CO 2 and other gases, that form a heat-trapping blanket around the Earth. (
  • The only thing that can heat the atmosphere here is when pockets of gas sink back down into the denser atmosphere. (
  • Without extra thickness in the atmosphere to trap heat, the properties of the gases themselves had to provide the blanket. (
  • for example, an argon atmosphere is used in graphite electric furnaces to prevent the graphite from burning. (
  • Katja is very excited about her research and hopes her findings will contribute to the discussions around greenhouse gases and their effect on the atmosphere. (
  • Human activity such as the greenhouse effect, global warming, contamination of the air, destruction of the ozone belt, and acid rain are damaging the atmosphere. (
  • The study supports the idea therefore that the ancient atmosphere must have had a strong concentration of greenhouse gases. (
  • That means Rhea's entire atmosphere, under Earthly conditions, would fill a cube about 70 feet (22 meters) long on each side. (
  • Discovery of its atmosphere was made in 1988 when Pluto passed in front of ( occulted ) a star as observed from Earth . (
  • The star's light gradually dimmed just before it disappeared behind Pluto, demonstrating the presence of a thin, greatly distended atmosphere. (
  • At aphelion, when Pluto is receiving the least sunlight, its atmosphere may not be detectable at all. (
  • Pluto Has 'Upside Down' Atmosphere. (
  • [3] It is speculated that the atmosphere of Venus up to around 4 billion years ago was more like that of the Earth with liquid water on the surface. (
  • Mars' thin atmosphere and its greater distance from the sun mean that Mars is much colder than Earth. (
  • Did You Know that the Earth Loses Several Hundred Tons of Atmosphere to Space Every Day? (
  • You may wonder what an alien world looks like, what its atmosphere might hold, whether its terrain is similar to Earth 's or even if it holds extra-terrestrial life , but have you ever wondered what it might smell like? (
  • A new study by a team of Japanese researchers utilized the Suprime-Cam and Faint Object Camera Spectrograph (FOCAS) instruments aboard the Subaru Telescope to study the atmosphere of a super-Earth known as GJ 1214 B (Gilese 1214 b). (
  • The atmosphere is the superhighway in the sky that moves water everywhere over the Earth. (
  • Before life was widespread on Earth, its atmosphere was very different. (
  • For example, an event on the surface of the Earth, such as a volcanic eruption, will produce radially outward longitudinal mechanical perturbations on the atmosphere. (
  • The atmosphere is a layer of gases most commonly referred to as air that is retained by the gravity of earth. (
  • The atmosphere layer closest to the earth is referred to as the troposphere. (
  • Roughly 80% of the weight of the atmosphere is located in the troposphere, which is the layer closest to the earth. (
  • Because of human contamination of the atmosphere, it is estimated that 20% of the population on earth are continuously breathing heavily contaminated air. (
  • The weather on earth is created by pressure systems in the atmosphere. (
  • While this is not the detection of life on another planet, it's an important step in the right direction: the detection of an atmosphere around the super-Earth GJ 1132b marks the first time that an atmosphere has been detected around an Earth-like planet other than Earth itself," researcher John Southworth said in a news release. (
  • The planet is significantly hotter and a bit larger than Earth, so one possibility is that it is a 'water world' with an atmosphere of hot steam. (
  • The imprints of raindrops preserved in 2.7bn-year-old rock are being used to figure out what the atmosphere was like on the early Earth. (
  • On Earth, units of air pressure are based on the internationally recognized standard atmosphere (atm), which is defined as 101.325 kPa (760 Torr or 14.696 psi). (
  • They reported that objects re-entering the atmosphere can affect ozone in several ways, but not on a significant level globally. (
  • The gases in the mesosphere are now thick enough to slow down meteors hurtling into the atmosphere, where they burn up, leaving fiery trails in the night sky. (
  • Although Mars' atmosphere used to be thick enough for water to run on the surface, today that water is either scarce or non-existent. (
  • Early in its history (particularly in periods older than 3.5 billion years ago) Mars had a thick enough atmosphere for water to run on its surface. (
  • So I guess it wouldn't be too surprising that you'd find some layer of a particular microbe, or something, at various levels in the atmosphere. (