The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The motion of air currents.
The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SERRATIA found in plants and the DIGESTIVE TRACT of rodents. It is the most prevalent Serratia species in the natural environment.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The nettles plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Many have stinging hairs on stems and leaves. Flowers are small and greenish in leaf axils. The fruit is dry and one-seeded.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.
Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.
The eighth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its two natural satellites are Nereid and Triton.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Relating to the size of solids.
The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The mechanical process of cooling.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family CARNOBACTERIACEAE. They are tolerant to freezing/thawing and high pressure and able to grow at low temperatures.
Keeping food for later consumption.
Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.
Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.
Discarded electronic devices containing valuable and sometimes hazardous materials such as LEAD, NICKEL, CADMIUM, and MERCURY. (from http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials/ecycling/faq.htm#impact accessed 4/25/2010)
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A large group of rod-shaped bacteria that retains the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.

Passive exchanges during water vapour absorption in mealworms (Tenebrio molitor): a new approach to studying the phenomenon. (1/768)

The weights of single mealworms were continuously recorded at 20 degrees C during exposure to periods of constant humidity and to abrupt changes in atmospheric vapour pressure. Two exchange stages were recognized in each animal. Weight changes were either limited to slow losses, suggesting transpiration through the external cuticle, or showed more rapid humidity-dependent gains as well as losses. Rapid exchanges indicated that water was gained or lost through permeable barriers, from a fluid compartmet of significantly lower vapour pressure than the haemolymph, equivalent to about 90% R.H. Weight gains and losses during humidity changes provided evidence of a significant, passively exchanging fluid compartment located between the exchange surface and absorbing mechanism. Weight changes in faecal pellets following their elimination provide further support for a rectal site of atmospheric absorption.  (+info)

Volatile anaesthetics and the atmosphere: atmospheric lifetimes and atmospheric effects of halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane. (2/768)

The atmospheric lifetimes of the halogenated anaesthetics halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane with respect to reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH.) and UV photolysis have been determined from observations of OH. reaction kinetics and UV absorption spectra. Rate coefficients for the reaction with OH radicals for all halogenated anaesthetics investigated ranged from 0.44 to 2.7 x 10(-14) cm3 molec-1 s-1. Halothane, enflurane and isoflurane showed distinct UV absorption in the range 200-350 nm. In contrast, no absorption in this wavelength range was detected for desflurane or sevoflurane. The total atmospheric lifetimes, as derived from both OH. reactivity and photolysis, were 4.0-21.4 yr. It has been calculated that up to 20% of anaesthetics enter the stratosphere. As a result of chlorine and bromine content, the ozone depletion potential (ODP) relative to chlorofluorocarbon CFC-11 varies between 0 and 1.56, leading to a contribution to the total ozone depletion in the stratosphere of approximately 1% for halothane and 0.02% for enflurane and isoflurane. Estimates of the greenhouse warming potential (GWP) relative to CFC-12 yield values of 0.02-0.14, resulting in a relative contribution to global warming of all volatile anaesthetics of approximately 0.03%. The stratospheric impact of halothane, isoflurane and enflurane and their influence on ozone depletion is of increasing importance because of decreasing chlorofluorocarbons globally. However, the influence of volatile anaesthetics on greenhouse warming is small.  (+info)

Effects of in vitro atmospheric ammonia exposure on recovery rate and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of bovine neutrophils and bronchoalveolar macrophages. (3/768)

The effects of atmospheric ammonia, a major pollutant in animal confinement facilities, on bovine neutrophils and bronchoalveolar macrophages were evaluated in vitro. Ammonia exposure at concentrations 50, 100 and 200 ppm for one hour impaired recovery rates of neutrophils dose-dependently but enhanced their chemiluminescence activity per cell at lower concentrations (50 and 100 ppm). Macrophages were resistant to the exposure. Their recovery rates and chemiluminescence remained unaffected even at 200 ppm exposure. The present results suggest that ammonia exposure is unfavorable for bovine neutrophils in vitro, and probably in vivo also, in light of causing cell damage and triggering wider inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Galileo imaging of atmospheric emissions from Io. (4/768)

The Galileo spacecraft has detected diffuse optical emissions from Io in high-resolution images acquired while the satellite was eclipsed by Jupiter. Three distinct components make up Io's visible emissions. Bright blue glows of more than 300 kilorayleighs emanate from volcanic plumes, probably due to electron impact on molecular sulfur dioxide. Weaker red emissions, possibly due to atomic oxygen, are seen along the limbs, brighter on the pole closest to the plasma torus. A faint green glow appears concentrated on the night side of Io, possibly produced by atomic sodium. Io's disk-averaged emission diminishes with time after entering eclipse, whereas the localized blue glows brighten instead.  (+info)

Archean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaryotes. (5/768)

Molecular fossils of biological lipids are preserved in 2700-million-year-old shales from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Sequential extraction of adjacent samples shows that these hydrocarbon biomarkers are indigenous and syngenetic to the Archean shales, greatly extending the known geological range of such molecules. The presence of abundant 2alpha-methylhopanes, which are characteristic of cyanobacteria, indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved well before the atmosphere became oxidizing. The presence of steranes, particularly cholestane and its 28- to 30-carbon analogs, provides persuasive evidence for the existence of eukaryotes 500 million to 1 billion years before the extant fossil record indicates that the lineage arose.  (+info)

Increased summertime UV radiation in New Zealand in response to ozone loss. (6/768)

Long-term decreases in summertime ozone over Lauder, New Zealand (45 degrees S), are shown to have led to substantial increases in peak ultraviolet (UV) radiation intensities. In the summer of 1998-99, the peak sunburning UV radiation was about 12 percent more than in the first years of the decade. Larger increases were seen for DNA-damaging UV radiation and plant-damaging UV radiation, whereas UV-A (315 to 400 nanometers) radiation, which is insensitive to ozone, showed no increase, in agreement with model calculations. These results provide strong evidence of human-induced increases in UV radiation, in a region where baseline levels of UV radiation were already relatively high.  (+info)

Climate change as a regulator of tectonics on Venus. (7/768)

Tectonics, volcanism, and climate on Venus may be strongly coupled. Large excursions in surface temperature predicted to follow a global or near-global volcanic event diffuse into the interior and introduce thermal stresses of a magnitude sufficient to influence widespread tectonic deformation. This sequence of events accounts for the timing and many of the characteristics of deformation in the ridged plains of Venus, the most widely preserved volcanic terrain on the planet.  (+info)

The gravity field of Mars: results from Mars Global Surveyor. (8/768)

Observations of the gravity field of Mars reveal a planet that has responded differently in its northern and southern hemispheres to major impacts and volcanic processes. The rough, elevated southern hemisphere has a relatively featureless gravitational signature indicating a state of near-isostatic compensation, whereas the smooth, low northern plains display a wider range of gravitational anomalies that indicates a thinner but stronger surface layer than in the south. The northern hemisphere shows evidence for buried impact basins, although none large enough to explain the hemispheric elevation difference. The gravitational potential signature of Tharsis is approximately axisymmetric and contains the Tharsis Montes but not the Olympus Mons or Alba Patera volcanoes. The gravity signature of Valles Marineris extends into Chryse and provides an estimate of material removed by early fluvial activity.  (+info)

Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds like methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds like ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, both formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate-chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change, through changes in temperature, dynamics, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric stability, and biosphere-atmosphere interactions, affects the atmospheric composition and oxidation processes in the troposphere. Here we present progress in our understanding of processes of importance for climate-chemistry interactions, and their contributions to changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. A key factor is the oxidation potential involving compounds like O3 and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Reported studies represent both current and future ...
Upper troposphere cloud top heights (CTHs), restricted to cloud top pressures (CTPs) , 500 hPa, inferred using four satellite retrieval methods applied to Twelfth Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES‐12) data are evaluated using measurements during the July-August 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4). The four methods are the single‐layer CO2‐absorption technique (SCO2AT), a modified CO2‐absorption technique (MCO2AT) developed for improving both single‐layered and multilayered cloud retrievals, a standard version of the Visible Infrared Solar‐infrared Split‐window Technique (old VISST), and a new version of VISST (new VISST) recently developed to improve cloud property retrievals. They are evaluated by comparing with ER‐2 aircraft‐based Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) data taken during 9 days having extensive upper troposphere cirrus, anvil, and convective clouds. Compared to the 89% coverage by upper tropospheric clouds detected ...
First, we simply cannot mix the air in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere at the earths surface. The troposphere contains 75% of all the air found in our atmosphere and 99% of the water vapor. The air in the troposphere is in constant motion, with both horizontal and vertical air currents. The combination of vigorous air movement and water vapor creates weather. The troposphere is capped by a thin layer known as the tropopause, which is a region of stable temperature that helps to confine most weather phenomena and bad ozone to the troposphere. The stratosphere is the second layer in the atmosphere from the earths surface. The lower part of the stratosphere contains the ozone layer. The ozone layer prevents harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earths surface by absorbing the rays, causing the ozone layer and the air above it to warm. The warm air tends to remain in the upper stratosphere, and cool air remains lower. The layering ...
We report airborne measurements of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) during the first and second deployments of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom). The budget of CH3CHO is examined using the Community Atmospheric Model with chemistry (CAM‐chem), with a newly developed online air‐sea exchange module. The upper limit of the global ocean net emission of CH3CHO is estimated to be 34 Tg/a (42 Tg/a if considering bubble‐mediated transfer), and the ocean impacts on tropospheric CH3CHO are mostly confined to the marine boundary layer. Our analysis suggests that there is an unaccounted CH3CHO source in the remote troposphere and that organic aerosols can only provide a fraction of this missing source. We propose that peroxyacetic acid is an ideal indicator of the rapid CH3CHO production in the remote troposphere. The higher‐than‐expected CH3CHO measurements represent a missing sink of hydroxyl radicals (and halogen radical) in current chemistry‐climate ...
A new multi-wavelength lidar is introduced. The characteristics of 532 nm extinction coefficient profiles of cloud and aerosol in the upper troposphere in Beijing from January to April, 2000 are emphatically analyzed.Results show that the aerosol optical depth between 6 km and 11 km changes from 0.0152 to 0.0284 with a mean value of 0.0192?The cloud optical depth between 6 km and 11 km ranges from 0.014 to 0.23. The largest cloud thickness is about 6 km. On April 6, a very strong dust storm appeared over Beijing area. On April 7, there was no visible cloud; while as shown in lidar measurements, there was an aerosol layer spread from 4 km to 10 km. This aerosol layer, estimated as the sand-dust layer transported from remote desert areas, has the largest extinction coefficient at the height of about 8 km,which is about one order of magnitude larger than that in the clear (no cloud) day.
In situ measurements of water vapor and temperature from recent aircraft campaigns have provided evidence that the upper troposphere is frequently supersaturated with respect to ice. The peak relative humidities with respect to ice (RHI) occasionally approached water saturation at temperatures ranging from -40°C to -70°C in each of the campaigns. The occurrence frequency of ice supersaturation ranged from about 20% to 45%. Even on flight segments when no ice crystals were detected, ice supersaturation was measured about 5-20% of the time. A numerical cloud model is used to simulate the formation of optically thin, low ice number density cirrus clouds in these supersaturated regions. The potential for scavenging of ice nuclei (IN) by these clouds is evaluated. The simulations suggest that if less than about 5 x 10¯³ to 2 x 10¯² cm¯³ ice nuclei are present when these supersaturations are generated, then the cirrus formed should be subvisible. These low ice number density clouds scavenge ...
Jensen, E. J., O. B. Toon, S. A. Vay, J. Ovarlez, R. May, T. P. Bui, C. Twohy, B. Gandrud, R. Pueschel, and U. Schumann (2001), Prevalence of Ice-supersaturated regions in the upper troposphere: Implications for optically thin ice cloud formation, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 17253-17266 ...
Theme: Basic processes. Start date: Cohort 1: 2019. Supervisors: Dr Bryan Bzdek (Bristol) and Dr Matthew Watson (Bristol). The surface tension of atmospheric aerosols impacts their ability to serve as cloud droplet seeds and affect climate. This project will develop approaches to measure droplet surface tensions and better resolve dynamics at the particle surface, working closely with modellers.. Abstract: Atmospheric aerosols affect climate by direct scattering or absorption of solar radiation and indirectly, by serving as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and forming cloud droplets. Atmospheric aerosols provide the largest negative radiative forcing, whilst remaining as the contribution with the largest uncertainty. The surface properties of atmospheric aerosol are crucial due to their high surface-to-volume ratios, whilst determining the fraction of atmospheric aerosol that may form cloud droplets. Most climate models still assume that activating CCN have a surface tension equivalent to pure ...
The only single-source reference available on atmospheric chemistry, aerosols, and atmospheric models This fully revised and expanded version of John H. Seinfelds successful Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution provides a rigorous, comprehensive treatment of the chemistry of the atmosphere. With new chapters on such important topics as cloud physics, nucleation, and wet deposition, this book offers a truly up-to-date examination of atmospheric chemistry today, including: * Chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere * Formation, growth, dynamics, thermodynamics, and properties of aerosols * Meteorology of air pollution * Transport, diffusion, and removal of species in the atmosphere * Formation and chemistry of clouds * Interaction of atmospheric chemistry and climate * Radiative and climatic effects of gases and particles * Formulation of mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Complete with solved examples, problems graded according to difficulty, and hundreds of
CLICK TO ENLARGE (Credit: Image courtesy of DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). ScienceDaily (Oct. 10, 2008) - A team led by Livermore scientists has helped reconcile the differences between simulated and observed temperature trends in the tropics.. Using state-of-the-art observational datasets and results from computer model simulations archived at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, LLNL researchers and colleagues from 11 other scientific institutions have refuted a recent claim that simulated temperature trends in the tropics are fundamentally inconsistent with observations. This claim was based on the application of a flawed statistical test and the use of older observational datasets.. Climate model experiments invariably predict that human-caused greenhouse gas increases should lead to more warming in the tropical troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere) than at the tropical land and ocean surface. This predicted amplification behavior is in accord with basic ...
We have run a dry, nonlinear, primitive equation spectral model with no externally forced variability and with a realistic time mean state, and we have observed low frequency variability (LFV) in the stratosphere with timescales on the order of hundreds of days. Time lagged correlations have revealed that this variability is linked to LFV in the emission of longwaves from the troposphere. A set of linear model experiments is performed to determine the source of the stratospheric LFV. One set of runs reveal the lowest levels of the model troposphere as the source of most of the relevant forcing. A second set of runs forced with nonlinear terms has shown that the nonlinear interaction among shortwave, high-frequency eddy thermal anomalies in the troposphere has a beating effect which emits vertically propagating low-frequency longwaves. We also see that the eddies act in such a way as to offset the effects of linear temperature advection, allowing the thermal eddies to persist for long periods ...
Lyrics to Troposphere by Steve Burns: Sit right next to me / Against the glass / Where we both can see / Focus on the ground / Disbelief of
Setyan, A., Zhang, Q., Merkel, M., Knighton, W., Sun, Y., Song, C., ... Ramachandran, S. (2012). Characterization of submicron particles influenced by mixed biogenic and anthropogenic emissions using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: results from CARES. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 8131 - 8156 ...
in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2009, April), 11(EGU2009-10017-1), Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important reactive gas in the troposphere. It is emitted at the ground level by fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Biogenic sources and oceans as well as oxidation of ... [more ▼]. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important reactive gas in the troposphere. It is emitted at the ground level by fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Biogenic sources and oceans as well as oxidation of methane and nonmethane hydrocarbons complete the emissions budget. Large uncertainties still affect the relative contributions of the identified anthropogenic and natural sources. Destruction by the hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main removal process for CO in both the troposphere and the stratosphere. The resulting average tropospheric lifetime of CO varies from several weeks to a few months. Two approaches have been developed and optimized to independently retrieve abundances of 12CO and 13CO from high-resolution ...
Michelle Santee Group Supervisor Education B.S. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University (1982) M.S. Aerospace Engineering, University of Texas at Austin (1984) M.S. Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology (1989) Ph.D. Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology (1993) Research Interests Processes controlling trace
View Notes - Topic_22___Human_Effects_Atmos from GEO 302C at University of Texas. Study Questions Topic 22: Human Impacts on the Atmosphere Lecture Outline I. Atmospheric change and sensitivity II.
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The Arctic is affected by climate change much stronger than other regions of the globe. Permafrost thawing can lead to additional methane release, which enhances the greenhouse effect and warming, as well as changes of Arctic tundra ecosystems. A great part of Siberian Arctic is still unexplored. Ground-based investigations are difficult to be carried out in this area due to it is an out-of-the-way place. So, in spite of the high cost, aircraft-based in-situ measurements can provide a good opportunity to fill up the gap in data on the atmospheric composition over this region.
Abstract. Over the past few decades, the geographical distribution of emissions of substances that alter the atmospheric energy balance has changed due to economic growth and air pollution regulations. Here, we show the resulting changes to aerosol and ozone abundances and their radiative forcing using recently updated emission data for the period 1990-2015, as simulated by seven global atmospheric composition models. The models broadly reproduce large-scale changes in surface aerosol and ozone based on observations (e.g. −1 to −3 % yr−1 in aerosols over the USA and Europe). The global mean radiative forcing due to ozone and aerosol changes over the 1990-2015 period increased by +0.17 ± 0.08 W m−2, with approximately one-third due to ozone. This increase is more strongly positive than that reported in IPCC AR5. The main reasons for the increased positive radiative forcing of aerosols over this period are the substantial reduction of global mean SO2 emissions, which is stronger in the ...
Abstract. Carbon cycling in the Amazon is closely linked to atmospheric processes and climate in the region as a consequence of the strong coupling between the atmosphere and biosphere. This work examines the effects of changes in net radiation due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 in the Amazon region. Some of the major environmental factors affecting the photosynthetic activity of plants, such as air temperature and relative humidity, were also examined. An algorithm for clear-sky irradiance was developed and used to determine the relative irradiance, f, which quantifies the percentage of solar radiation absorbed and scattered due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) was calculated from irradiances measured with the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor, onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, and was validated with ground-based AOD measurements from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) ...
Nitrogen (N) compounds in the lowest two layers of the atmosphere are important in current environmental issues. The lowest layer, the troposphere, extends from the earth s surface up to about 10 kilometers. The next layer, the stratosphere, extends from about 10 to about 50 kilometers above the ground. Mixing between the two layers is quite slow. Radionuclides that were injected into the stratosphere during atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons had a lifetime on the order of months to a few years in the stratosphere before episodic mixing events would eventually bring the bomb debris into the troposphere where it would have a lifetime of days to weeks before being deposited onto the earth s surface (Junge, 1963). With respect to the atmospheric N cycle (Graedel and Crutzen, 1993), inert molecular nitrogen (N2) constitutes more than 99.9999% of the N present in the atmosphere. Nitrous oxide (N2O), making up more than 99% of the remainder of the N in the atmosphere, is an important greenhouse ...
Nitrogen (N) compounds in the lowest two layers of the atmosphere are important in current environmental issues. The lowest layer, the troposphere, extends from the earth s surface up to about 10 kilometers. The next layer, the stratosphere, extends from about 10 to about 50 kilometers above the ground. Mixing between the two layers is quite slow. Radionuclides that were injected into the stratosphere during atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons had a lifetime on the order of months to a few years in the stratosphere before episodic mixing events would eventually bring the bomb debris into the troposphere where it would have a lifetime of days to weeks before being deposited onto the earth s surface (Junge, 1963). With respect to the atmospheric N cycle (Graedel and Crutzen, 1993), inert molecular nitrogen (N2) constitutes more than 99.9999% of the N present in the atmosphere. Nitrous oxide (N2O), making up more than 99% of the remainder of the N in the atmosphere, is an important greenhouse ...
Satellites that orbit Earth help us study Earths atmosphere, weather, and climate. Here are a few of the many spacecraft that study our atmosphere.. Aura was launched in July 2004. It is studying pollution, gases that may be related to climate change, and ozone. IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) has been in space studying Earths plasmasphere since March 2000. Polar, which was launched in 1996, observes aurora and the polar magnetosphere. UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) was launched from the space shuttle in 1991. UARS studies many aspects of the atmosphere, especially chemistry in the middle and upper stratosphere. UARS is old, and only half of its instruments are still working; but it has gathered lots of valuable data over the years.. More satellites will be launched in the future to study the atmosphere. COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere & Climate) is a group of satellites that will be launched in the spring of 2005. ...
Figure 2: The vertical structure of changes in atmospheric temperature in satellite observations (top panel) and in computer model simulations performed as part of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP-5; bottom panel). As described in the PNAS paper, both panels provide a vertically smoothed picture of atmospheric temperature change. Information from only three atmospheric temperature layers - the lower stratosphere (TLS), the mid- to upper troposphere (TMT), and the lower troposphere (TLT) was used in generating the two plots. We show temperature changes in this vertically smoothed space because satellite-based estimates of atmospheric temperature change are available for TLS, TMT, and TLT, and because our signal detection study is performed with the zonally-averaged temperature changes for these three layers. All temperature changes are in the form of linear trends (in degrees Celsius) over the 408-month period from ...
Excess carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases which trap heat are accumulating in the troposphere, the earths lower atmosphere, because of the scale and type of human economic activity. Climate scientists predict that the resultant increase in the tropospheres radiative forcing will warm the earths surface.1 2 3 Indeed, in its recent second assessment report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-a multidisciplinary scientific body established by the United Nations in 1988 to advise governments-concluded that on balance an anthropogenic influence upon the global climate was now discernible. 1. The intergovernmental panel forecasts an increase in the average world temperature of 1.0-3.5°C over the coming century.1 This forecast is necessarily uncertain because the sensitivity of climate to atmospheric change is imperfectly understood and because future trends in gaseous emissions and modulating processes (for example, the cooling effects of industrial aerosol emissions) cannot ...
Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate by scattering and absorbing radiation and by serving as cloud condensation nuclei. An aerosols optical or nucleation properties are driven by its chemical composition. Chemical aging of aerosols by atmospheric oxidants, such as ozone, alters the physiochemical properties of aerosol to become more hygroscopic, light absorbing, and viscous during transport. However the mechanism of these transformations is poorly understood. While ozone is a protective and beneficial atmospheric gas in the stratosphere, it is a potent greenhouse gas in the troposphere that traps heat near the Earths surface. It also impacts human heath by irritating the respiratory tract and exacerbating cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, ozone can alter the ecosystem through oxidizing plant foliage which can lead to deforestation and crop losses as well. Both gases and aerosols in the troposphere can react with ozone directly and indirectly with hydroxyl radicals. While daytime
Tropospheric propagation describes electromagnetic propagation in relation to the troposphere. The service area from a VHF or UHF radio transmitter extends to just beyond the optical horizon, at which point signals start to rapidly reduce in strength. Viewers living in such a deep fringe reception area will notice that during certain conditions, weak signals normally masked by noise increase in signal strength to allow quality reception. Such conditions are related to the current state of the troposphere. Tropospheric propagated signals travel in the part of the atmosphere adjacent to the surface and extending to some 25,000 feet (7,620 m). Such signals are thus directly affected by weather conditions extending over some hundreds of miles. During very settled, warm anticyclonic weather (i.e., high pressure), usually weak signals from distant transmitters improve in strength. Another symptom during such conditions may be interference to the local transmitter resulting in co-channel ...
Aitken, J.: XVI - The Sun as a Fog Producer, P. R. Soc. Edin., 32, 183-215, https://doi.org/10.1017/s0370164600012864, 1912. Cai, R. and Jiang, J.: A new balance formula to estimate new particle formation rate: reevaluating the effect of coagulation scavenging, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12659-12675, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-12659-2017, 2017. Cai, R., Chen, D.-R., Hao, J., and Jiang, J.: A miniature cylindrical differential mobility analyzer for sub-3 nm particle sizing, J. Aerosol Sci., 106, 111-119, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2017.01.004, 2017a. Cai, R., Yang, D., Fu, Y., Wang, X., Li, X., Ma, Y., Hao, J., Zheng, J., and Jiang, J.: Aerosol surface area concentration: a governing factor in new particle formation in Beijing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12327-12340, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-12327-2017, 2017b. Chandra, I., Kim, S., Seto, T., Otani, Y., Takami, A., Yoshino, A., Irei, S., Park, K., Takamura, T., Kaneyasu, N., and Hatakeyama, S.: New particle formation under the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Onset of the aerobic nitrogen cycle during the Great Oxidation Event. AU - Zerkle,Aubrey L.. AU - Poulton,Simon W.. AU - Newton,Robert J.. AU - Mettam,Colin. AU - Claire,Mark W.. AU - Bekker,Andrey. AU - Junium,Christopher K.. PY - 2017/2/23. Y1 - 2017/2/23. N2 - The rise of oxygen on the early Earth (about 2.4 billion years ago) caused a reorganization of marine nutrient cycles, including that of nitrogen, which is important for controlling global primary productivity. However, current geochemical records lack the temporal resolution to address the nature and timing of the biogeochemical response to oxygenation directly. Here we couple records of ocean redox chemistry with nitrogen isotope (15N/14N) values from approximately 2.31-billion-year-old shales of the Rooihoogte and Timeball Hill formations in South Africa, deposited during the early stages of the first rise in atmospheric oxygen on the Earth (the Great Oxidation Event). Our data fill a gap of about 400 million years in ...
R/9392/297 NATO advanced study institute series. Ser.C., Mathematical and physical sciences [Text]. - Dordrecht etc. : Kluwer.Vol. 297 : long-range atmospheric transport of natural and contaminant substances : proc. of the NATO advanced research workshop on the long-range atmospheric transport of natural and contaminant substances St.Georges,Bermuda Jan.10-17,1989 / Ed.: A.H.Knap; Ed.: M.S.Kaiser ; NATO advanced research workshop on the long-range atmospheric transport of natural and contaminant substances (1989; St.Georges). - Dordrecht etc. : kluwer acad. publ., 1990. - XXI,321 p. : ill. - ISBN 0-7923-0577-9 : 161.78 р.ГРНТИ 2729УДК 51(082.1)53(082.1) Держатели документа: ГПНТБ России Доп.точки доступа: Knap, A.H. \ed.\; Kaiser, M.S. \ed.\; NATO advanced research workshop on the long-range atmospheric transport of natural and contaminant substances (1989 ; St.Georges) Экз-ры: ХР(1) Копия: мкф., Шифр MR-99611 SUBSTANCES$ ...
Researchers are invited to present novel scientific results from mid- and long-term observational time series from various measurements networks such as Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW), European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ), Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), regular airborne (e.g. MOZAIC, CARIBIC) and other campaigns as well as satellite data and model simulations. Data relevant to tropospheric and stratospheric composition, in particular related to ozone depletion, climate change and air quality as well as firn data on past atmospheric composition are welcome. We welcome contributions from multi-year modeling studies and inter-comparison exercises which address tropospheric or stratospheric composition changes, carried out in the framework of international projects (e.g. GEOMON, MACC) and ...
AWIs MARL-instrument is a mobile backscatter lidar that is used at various locations as well as aboard the research vessel Polarstern to measure Aerosol and clouds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In 2000 two field-experiments have been conducted within the European INCA 2000-project (Interhemispheric differences in cirrus cloud properties by anthropogenic emissions). The first one took place in the southern hemispheric midlatitudes, in Punta Arenas/Chile (53.12°S, 70.88°W) and the second campaign followed in September 2000 in Prestwick /Scotland (55.51°N, 4.60°W). The main objective of these activities was to collect Lidar data on cirrus clouds from clean (Punta Arenas) and polluted (Prestwick) areas. During the four weeks of the campaigns, around 80 h of Lidar measure-ments were gathered at each location, covering different types of cirrus clouds as well as background aerosols. A comparison of the two datasets reveals similarities as well as differ-ences in the measured ...
The fifth most abundant gas in the atmosphere is carbon dioxide. The volume of this gas has increased by over 35% in the last three hundred years (see Figure 7a-1). This increase is primarily due to human induced burning from fossil fuels, deforestation, and other forms of land-use change. Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas. The human-caused increase in its concentration in the atmosphere has strengthened the greenhouse effect and has definitely contributed to global warming over the last 100 years. Carbon dioxide is also naturally exchanged between the atmosphere and life through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.. Methane is a very strong greenhouse gas. Since 1750, methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by more than 150%. The primary sources for the additional methane added to the atmosphere (in order of importance) are: rice cultivation; domestic grazing animals; termites; landfills; coal mining; and, oil and gas extraction. Anaerobic conditions ...
We describe and show results from a series of field campaigns using balloon-borne instruments launched from India and Saudi Arabia during the summers 2014-2017 to study the nature, formation and impacts of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). The campaign goals were to i) characterize the optical, physical and chemical properties of the ATAL, ii) assess its impacts on water vapor and ozone, and iii) understand the role of convection in its formation. In order to address these objectives, we launched 68 balloons from 4 locations, one in Saudi-Arabia and 3 in India, with payload weights ranging from 1.5 kg to 50 kg. We measured meteorological parameters, ozone, water vapor, and aerosol backscatter, concentration, volatility and composition in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region. We found peaks in aerosol concentrations of up to 25 part/cm3 for radius | 75 nm, associated with Scattering Ratio at 940 nm of ~1.9 near the cold point tropopause. During medium-duration balloon
The stratosphere … in contrast to the troposphere, is heated, as the result of near infrared absorption of solar energy at the top of the aerosol cloud, and increased infra-red absorption of long-wave radiation from the Earths surface.. The stratospheric warming in the region of the stratospheric cloud increases the latitudinal temperature gradient after an eruption at low latitudes, disturbing the stratospheric-troposphere circulation, increasing the difference in height of the troposphere between high and low latitudes, and increasing the strength of the jet stream (polar vortex, especially in the northern hemisphere). This leads to warming during the northern hemisphere winter following a tropical eruption, and this warming effect tends to be larger than the cooling effect described above. Ellen Thomas, PHD Wesleyan University. The Lower Stratosphere experienced dramatic warming events caused by the eruptions of El Chichon (1982) and Mt Pinatubo (1991). RSS The long-term, ...
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol comprising a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or particles suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body. The droplets and crystals may be made of water or various chemicals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or when it gains sufficient moisture (usually in the form of water vapor) from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature. They are seen in the Earths homosphere (which includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere). Nephology is the science of clouds which is undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. There are two methods of naming clouds in their respective layers of the atmosphere; Latin and common. Cloud types in the troposphere, the atmospheric layer closest to Earths surface, have Latin names due to the universal adaptation of Luke Howards nomenclature. Formally proposed in 1802, it ...
Hygroscopic property of atmospheric aerosols is essential to understand effect of aerosols on cloud formation by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which leads to climate change with cloud albedo effect. Also, hygroscopic property of particles is important to determine their transport behaviors and fates in the ambient atmosphere and to understnd their deposition pattern in the human respiratory system when they were inhaled. This book describes a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) system in details to measure hygroscopic property of atmospheric aerosols in real time by measuring particle size change at an increased relative humidity. (Imprint: Novinka). ...
2. The Ongoing Debate about Satellite Temperature Data; Part1. More than a decade ago, Roy Spencer and John Christy realized that the data from the microwave-sounding unit (MSU) on weather satellites could be used to measure long-term temperature trends of the Earths atmosphere. Their analysis produced surprisingly low values since 1979 - at first, a slightly negative and, more recently, a slightly positive trend for the troposphere. These MSU results derived by the University of Alabama (Huntsville) group are in good agreement with independently derived trends from radiosondes carried in weather balloons.. Their results have caused - and continue to cause -- great consternation among supporters of the greenhouse-warming hypothesis. For not only do the MSU-UAH trends disagree with the warming trend shown by (global mean) surface data (from weather stations and from sea surface temperatures --- SST), but they also contradict the GH models -- all of which show the troposphere warming more rapidly ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Global change and photosynthesis. AU - Bernacchi, C. J.. AU - Calfapietra, C.. AU - Centritto, M.. AU - Valladares, F.. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The phrase global change is generally associated with alterations of climate (temperatures, fluctuations in precipitation, etc.) that stem from changes in atmospheric composition. In reality, global change also encompasses more than changes in climate or atmospheric composition; any global-scale change that influences biota directly or indirectly can be considered global change. Global change has influenced the biosphere throughout geological time, with changes occurring over periods that allow for either species to evolve to these changes when they occur over long periods, to adapt or acclimate to the changes or to perish when neither of the previous two responses is effective. Although we are currently in the midst of abrupt global change, it certainly is not the first time that rapid global change has occurred. What ...
The atmosphere is a layer of gases most commonly referred to as air that is retained by the gravity of earth. The atmosphere surrounds the planet, protecting it by absorbing the ultraviolet radiation from the sun, and regulating the temperature extremes that would otherwise occur between day and night. The atmosphere, or air, is made up of nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor and other small amounts of various gases. Three quarters of the atmosphere is located within 12km of the earths surface and is referred to as the troposphere. The scientific study of the earths atmosphere is referred to as aerology.
Organonitrates (ON) are important products of gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds in the troposphere; some models predict, and laboratory studies show, the formation of large, multifunctional ON with vapor pressures low enough to partition to the particle phase. Organosulfates (OS) have also been recently detected in secondary organic aerosol. Despite their potential importance, ON and OS remain a nearly unexplored aspect of atmospheric chemistry because few studies have quantified particulate ON or OS in ambient air. We report the response of a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to aerosol ON and OS standards and mixtures. We quantify the potentially substantial underestimation of organic aerosol O/C, commonly used as a metric for aging, and N/C. Most of the ON-nitrogen appears as NO(x)+ ions in the AMS, which are typically dominated by inorganic nitrate. Minor organonitrogen ions are observed although their identity and intensity vary between standards. We
Abstract. The isotopic composition of carbon (Δ14C and δ13C) in atmospheric CO2 and in oceanic and terrestrial carbon reservoirs is influenced by anthropogenic emissions and by natural carbon exchanges, which can respond to and drive changes in climate. Simulations of 14C and 13C in the ocean and terrestrial components of Earth system models (ESMs) present opportunities for model evaluation and for investigation of carbon cycling, including anthropogenic CO2 emissions and uptake. The use of carbon isotopes in novel evaluation of the ESMs component ocean and terrestrial biosphere models and in new analyses of historical changes may improve predictions of future changes in the carbon cycle and climate system. We compile existing data to produce records of Δ14C and δ13C in atmospheric CO2 for the historical period 1850-2015. The primary motivation for this compilation is to provide the atmospheric boundary condition for historical simulations in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 ...
To keep things as clear as possible this analysis has only looked at cumulative emissions. The limitation of this approach is that it doesnt tell us much about the annual rates of carbon emission and sink absorption.. The high level story is pretty simple. Human kind is emitting more and more carbon dioxide, as falling land-use emissions are dwarfed by emissions from our growing use of fossil fuels. In reaction to increased emission rates and growing atmospheric concentrations both land and ocean sinks are absorbing more carbon dioxide. The Global Carbon Budget has an excellent summary of this.. Despite the fact that sinks are absorbing more CO2 the atmospheric concentration is growing at a faster rate than ever. In the decade from 2000-2009 the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide grew at an average rate of 2.0 ppm/yr, higher than any previous decade measured. To reduce this growth rate global carbon emissions need to decline. To stop concentrations growing at all would require an ...
Increased UV-B through stratospheric ozone depletion leads to an increased chemical activity in the lower atmosphere (the troposphere). The effect of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone is small (though significant) compared to the ozone generated anthropogenically in areas already experiencing air pollution. Modeling and experimental studies suggest that the impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone are different at different altitudes and for different chemical regimes. As a result the increase in ozone due to stratospheric ozone depletion may be greater in polluted regions. Attributable effects on concentrations are expected only in regions where local emissions make minor contributions. The vertical distribution of NOx (NO + NO2), the emission of volatile organic compounds and the abundance of water vapor, are important influencing factors. The long-term nature of stratospheric ozone depletion means that even a small increase in tropospheric ozone ...
A comprehensive group of reactive nitrogen species (NO, NO2, HNO3, HO2NO2, PANs, alkyl nitrates, and aerosol-NOÀ) were measured over North America during 3 July/August 2004 from the NASA DC-8 platform (0.1-12 km). Nitrogen containing tracers of biomass combustion (HCN and CH3CN) were also measured along with a host of other gaseous (CO, VOC, OVOC, halocarbon) and aerosol tracers. Clean background air as well as air with influences from biogenic emissions, anthropogenic pollution, biomass combustion, convection, lightning, and the stratosphere was sampled over the continental United States, the Atlantic, and the Pacific. The North American upper troposphere (UT) was found to be greatly influenced by both lightning NOx and surface pollution lofted via convection and contained elevated concentrations of PAN, ozone, hydrocarbons, and NOx. Observational data suggest that lightning was a far greater contributor to NOx in the UT than previously believed. PAN provided a dominant reservoir of reactive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence of aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation from biogenic emissions in the North American Sonoran Desert. AU - Youn, Jong Sang. AU - Wang, Zhen. AU - Wonaschütz, Anna. AU - Arellano, Avelino F. AU - Betterton, Eric. AU - Sorooshian, Armin. PY - 2013/7/16. Y1 - 2013/7/16. N2 - This study examines the role of aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation in the North American Sonoran Desert as a result of intense solar radiation, enhanced moisture, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). The ratio of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) to organic carbon (OC) nearly doubles during the monsoon season relative to other seasons of the year. When normalized by mixing height, the WSOC enhancement during monsoon months relative to preceding dry months (May-June) exceeds that of sulfate by nearly a factor of 10. WSOC:OC and WSOC are most strongly correlated with moisture parameters, temperature, and concentrations of O3 and BVOCs. No positive relationship was identified ...
F Raes, R van Dingenen, E Cuevas, PFJ van Velthoven, JM Prospero. Observations of aerosols in the free troposphere and marine boundary layer of the subtropical Northeast Atlantic: discussion of the processes determining their size distrubution ...
Introduction. Nour Jafar Mrs. Elsen Chemistry 10 February 24, 2010 Stratospheric Ozone and CFCs In Earths atmosphere, there are different layers. The troposphere is the innermost level. It is the first layer from Earths atmosphere. Following the troposphere is the stratosphere, then the mesosphere, thermosphere, and finally the exosphere (Importance of the Ozone Layer par. 3). In the stratosphere, there is a thin layer of gas called ozone. Ozone is a gas naturally present in the environment. It is similar to the gas oxygen, but ozone is a light blue tint (Morgan 4). Diagram Source: Draget.net Currently, the world is facing a global crisis. This crisis is the ozone layer is thinning, especially over Antarctica, causing an ozone hole (Morgan 4). In the early 1970s, scientists found that substances used in aerosol, or spray, cans damaged ozone molecules. The substances used in the spray cans were used as a propellant, making the spray cans mechanism work (Morgan 12). Because of their ...
The US federal government has taken numerous actions to require cost / benefit analyses, or cost effectiveness analyses, regarding federal rulemaking activities. The intent of these actions is to assure that the rulemaking activities provide real benefits at acceptable costs. However, this intent is violated when the regulatory agencies analyze only the costs, or only the benefits, of proposed actions.. One example of this violation of intent is the federal effort to establish the Social Cost of Carbon, specifically the supposed costs of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on society. This effort has totally ignored the social benefits of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, despite the well documented effects of enhanced carbon dioxide concentrations on the rate and extent of growth of the field crops used to produce food for people and animals. This effort has also ignored the greening of the globe, largely resulting from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide ...
Multivariate data analysis methods were applied to study the geographical and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone in Catalonia (North-East Spain). Ozone data were collected during the period 2000-2004 in 41 sampling stations. Data analysis by multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) allowed the recognition of three sub-regions within Catalonia according to their ozone variation patterns. Representation of loadings by means of geographical information systems (GIS) allowed a better visualisation of these areas. Daily, weekly and annual ozone profiles were determined for each sub-region. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied within each sub-region to unravel the relationship between ozone variation and some other parameters, such as atmospheric pollutants (SO2, H2S, NO, NO2, CO and particulate matter), as well as meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, pressure, precipitation and wind speed ...
Abstract. Coupling between the stratosphere and the troposphere allows changes in stratospheric ozone abundances to affect tropospheric chemistry. Large-scale effects from such changes on chemically produced tropospheric aerosols have not been systematically examined in past studies. We use a composition-climate model to investigate potential past and future impacts of changes in stratospheric ozone depleting substances (ODS) on tropospheric oxidants and sulfate aerosols. In most experiments, we find significant responses in tropospheric photolysis and oxidants, with small but significant effects on methane radiative forcing. The response of sulfate aerosols is sizeable when examining the effect of increasing future nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. We also find that without the regulation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) through the Montreal Protocol, sulfate aerosols could have increased by 2050 by a comparable amount to the decreases predicted due to relatively stringent sulfur emissions controls. ...
Ozone is a gas that is present naturally in the atmosphere. Chemical formula of the ozone is O3 because three oxygen atoms are present in an ozone molecule .On the basis of presence of Ozone, the atmosphere is divided into two regions, troposphere and stratosphere. The troposphere is the closest region from the earth (10- 16 kilometers from the earth surface) and about 10% of the atmospheric ozone is present in this zone. Similarly the stratosphere is 50 kilometers altitude and about 90 % of the ozone is present in this region. Ozone was firstly produced in the laboratory by the European researcher C. F. Schonbein in 1839. Ozone was firstly used commercially in 1907 in municipal water supply treatment in Nice and in 1910 in St. Petersburg the general ozone generation. In order to produce ozone molecule, firstly we split the diatomic oxygen. The resulting free radical oxygen reacts with diatomic oxygen to form the tri-atomic ozone molecule. Nevertheless, in order to break the bond between two ...
Life in Earths oceans may have had a slow start because phosphorus - a key nutrient of life - was not recycled through the biosphere fast enough. The finding, by scientists at the University of Washington and the University of St Andrews, UK, could explain why it took so long for Earths atmosphere to become oxygenated.. By modeling Earths oceans over billions of years, Washingtons Michael Kipp and Eva Stüeken of St Andrews, found that during the Archean (the geological era of between four and 2.5 billion years ago) phosphorus was recycled ten times slower than in the oceans today, resulting in biological productivity slowing down.. This has implications for the presence of oxygen in Earths atmosphere. During the Archean, the atmosphere was dominated by carbon dioxide. Around two-and-a-half billion years ago, oxygen suddenly filled the atmosphere during what is known as the Great Oxygenation Event. It is believed that photosynthesizing life contributed to this oxygen influx, but the first ...
Life in Earths oceans may have had a slow start because phosphorus - a key nutrient of life - was not recycled through the biosphere fast enough. The finding, by scientists at the University of Washington and the University of St Andrews, UK, could explain why it took so long for Earths atmosphere to become oxygenated.. By modeling Earths oceans over billions of years, Washingtons Michael Kipp and Eva Stüeken of St Andrews, found that during the Archean (the geological era of between four and 2.5 billion years ago) phosphorus was recycled ten times slower than in the oceans today, resulting in biological productivity slowing down.. This has implications for the presence of oxygen in Earths atmosphere. During the Archean, the atmosphere was dominated by carbon dioxide. Around two-and-a-half billion years ago, oxygen suddenly filled the atmosphere during what is known as the Great Oxygenation Event. It is believed that photosynthesizing life contributed to this oxygen influx, but the first ...
Life in Earths oceans may have had a slow start because phosphorus - a key nutrient of life - was not recycled through the biosphere fast enough. The finding, by scientists at the University of Washington and the University of St Andrews, UK, could explain why it took so long for Earths atmosphere to become oxygenated.. By modeling Earths oceans over billions of years, Washingtons Michael Kipp and Eva Stüeken of St Andrews, found that during the Archean (the geological era of between four and 2.5 billion years ago) phosphorus was recycled ten times slower than in the oceans today, resulting in biological productivity slowing down.. This has implications for the presence of oxygen in Earths atmosphere. During the Archean, the atmosphere was dominated by carbon dioxide. Around two-and-a-half billion years ago, oxygen suddenly filled the atmosphere during what is known as the Great Oxygenation Event. It is believed that photosynthesizing life contributed to this oxygen influx, but the first ...
Products and mechanism of secondary organic aerosol formation from reactions of linear alkenes with NO3 radicals Journal Article ...
Caption: Schematic overview of the primary black-carbon emission sources and the processes that control the distribution of black carbon in the atmosphere and determine its role in the climate system. (Bond et al. 2013). Their findings was that the total direct forcing of BC, independent of co-emitted aerosol species and including all sources (direct emissions, pre-industrial background, cryosphere and clouds) is +1.1 Wm-2 with an uncertainty range of +0.08 Wm-2 to +2.1 Wm-2. This places BC itself as the 2nd most important anthropogenic emission, behind $\ce{CO2}$. However, when the total radiative effects of BC with co-emitted aerosols, including organic carbon sources are taken into consideration, there is a slight cooling effect, with the total direct radiative forcing of -0.06 Wm-2, with a greater uncertainty range of -1.45 Wm-2 to +1.29 Wm-2.. ...
Atmospheric chemistry research at the University of Maryland is focused on quantification of the effect of human activity on atmospheric ozone and aerosols. Interestingly, pollution leads to higher levels of tropospheric ozone (so-called bad ozone, because ozone in the lower atmosphere is harmful to human health and agriculture) and, at the same time, pollution also leads to reduced levels of stratospheric ozone (so-called good ozone, because ozone in the upper atmosphere protects life from harmful solar ultra-violet radiation). Aerosols, particularly small size particles produced by combustion, pose a significant health risk, especially for children and the elderly. Atmospheric aerosols are also important for the radiative forcing of climate: aerosols caused by pollution can either warm or cool the surface, depending on the composition and optical properties of the particles ...
Let this demonstration slide set guide you as you teach the activity, Modeling Earths Atmosphere, where students create a model of Earths atmosphere.
Let this demonstration slide set guide you as you teach the activity, Modeling Earths Atmosphere, where students create a model of Earths atmosphere.
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) has potential impacts on regional air quality and climate yet is poorly characterized under NOx-rich ambient environments. We report the first real-time characterization of IEPOX-derived SOA (IEPOX-SOA) in Eastern China in summer 2013 using comprehensive ambient measurements, along with model analysis. The ratio of IEPOX-SOA to isoprene high-NOx SOA precursors, e.g., methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, and the reactive uptake potential of IEPOX was lower than those generally observed in regions with prevailing biogenic emissions, low NOx levels, and high particle acidity, elucidating the suppression of IEPOX-SOA formation under NOx-rich environments. IEPOX-SOA showed high potential source regions to the south with large biogenic emissions, illustrating that the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions might have played an important role in affecting the formation of IEPOX-SOA in polluted environments in ...
After 8 hours exposure in the stratosphere (31 km above sea level), 99.9% of the entire population was destroyed.[9] According to the researchers, most terrestrial bacteria would be inactivated within the first [day] on Mars if contaminated spacecraft surfaces receive direct sunlight.[9] Of the 40 million spores exposed to the stratosphere, only 267 spores (or 0.0007%) remained viable.[2] Extrapolating this, no viable spores would remain if flight samples had an additional 150 minutes of Sun exposure in the stratosphere (630 min total time).[2] The survivors showed three single nucleotide (base pair) substitutions compared to unexposed controls kept on the ground. These three coding regions are associated with bacterial sporulation and metabolism. A similar observation was recorded on SAFR-032 samples that were exposed outside the International Space Station.[9][2] Even after cleaning, spacecraft leaving Earth still carry microorganisms on board that are embedded within surfaces, instruments, ...
The impact of including a more detailed VOC oxidation scheme (CRI v2-R5) with a multi-generational approach for simulating tropospheric acetone is investigated using a 3-D global model, STOCHEM-CRI. The CRI v2-R5 mechanism contains photochemical production of acetone from monoterpenes which account for 64% (46.8 Tg/yr) of the global acetone sources in STOCHEM-CRI. Both photolysis and oxidation by OH in the troposphere contributes equally (42%, each) and dry deposition contributes 16% of the atmospheric sinks of acetone. The tropospheric life-time and the global burden of acetone are found to be 18 days and 3.5 Tg, respectively, these values being close to those reported in the study of Jacob et al. (2002). A dataset of aircraft campaign measurements are used to evaluate the inclusion of acetone formation from monoterpenes in the CRI v2-R5 mechanism used in STOCHEM-CRI. The overall comparison between measurements and models show that the parameterised approach in STOCHEM-NAM (no acetone formation ...
Figure 9 - Average of Global Land+Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Products. The flatness of the data since 2001 is very obvious, as is the fact that surface temperatures have rarely risen above those created by the 1997/98 El Niño in the surface temperature data. There is a very simple reason for this: the 1997/98 El Niño released enough sunlight-created warm water from beneath the surface of the tropical Pacific to raise the temperature of about 66% of the surface of the global oceans by almost 0.2 deg C. Sea surface temperatures for that portion of the global oceans remained relatively flat, dropping slowly throughout most of that region, until the El Niño of 2009/10, when the surface temperatures of that portion of the global oceans shifted slightly higher again. Prior to that, it was the 1986/87/88 El Niño that caused surface temperatures to shift upwards. If these naturally occurring upward shifts in surface temperatures are new to you, please see the illustrated essay The Manmade ...
Uk based progressive/alt.rock combo Atlas : Empire are glad to announce that they have signed a deal with WormHoleDeath for the reissue of their album The Stratosphere Beneath Our Feet. Steven Gillies (vocals & guitar): We are very excited to be working with WormHoleDeath and are looking forward to Carlo and his team developing and building on everything weve acheived as an independent band. In the current musical climate, its amazing to know we have a label who believes in the art we create - starting with the re-release of The Stratosphere Beneath Our Feet, then supporting us through the entire process for our second album. The Stratosphere Beneath Our Feet will be out on 25 October 2019 via Wormholedeath / The Orchard / Wormholedeath USA. As Yet Unwritten Diminishing Returns Its All In The Reflexes The Moment We Were Exploding Gethsemane The Entire History Of You Hostess The Year Of The Four Emperors Our Hands Part The Waves Cenotaphs Atlas : Empire have also released a video for ...
Climate change is a wicked problem because it is hard to say what the problem is, and to define it clearly. However, we know that global temperature rise correlates with increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide [1] and [2]. In this paper, we analyze a model for the carbon dioxide developed by Walker in [3] with several source terms. Our numerical results show that the burning fossil fuels have an effect on the carbon dioxide in the earths atmosphere and the climate change problem, one of the major global challenger of our time.
Extensive ozone loss occurs each winter over Antarctica (the ozone hole) due to the extreme cold there and its strong, long-lived polar vortex (a band of winds that forms each winter at high latitudes). This vortex isolates the region from middle latitudes. In contrast, the Arctic winter is warmer and its vortex is weaker and shorter-lived. As a result, Arctic ozone loss has always been lower, more variable and much more difficult to quantify.. This was the first Arctic winter monitored by Aura, which was launched in July 2004. Auras Microwave Limb Sounder is contributing to our understanding of the processes that cause Arctic wind patterns to push ozone-rich air to the Arctic lower stratosphere from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. Through Auras findings, scientists can differentiate chemical ozone destruction from ozone level changes caused by air motions, which vary dramatically from year to year. Understanding Arctic ozone loss is critical to diagnosing the health of Earths ozone ...
The chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 (CFCl3) and CFC-12 (CF2Cl2) are stable atmospheric compounds that are produced at the earths surface, but removed only at high altitudes in the stratosphere by photolytic reactions. Their removal liberates atomic chlorine that then catalytically destroys stratospheric ozone. For such long-lived compounds, isotope effects in the stratospheric removal reactions have a large effect on their global isotope budgets. We have demonstrated a photolytic isotope fractionation for stable carbon isotopes of CFC-11 and CFC-12 in laboratory experiments using broadband UV-C (190-230 nm) light. 13C/12C isotope fractionations (e) range from (-23.8±0.9) to (-17.7±0.4) ‰ for CFC-11 and (-66.2±3.1) to (-51.0±2.9) \permil for CFC-12 between 203 and 288 K, a temperature range relevant to conditions in the troposphere and stratosphere. These results suggest that CFCs should become strongly enriched in 13C with decreasing mixing ratio in the stratosphere, similar to what has been ...
Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas released to the atmosphere through human activities. It is also influenced by natural exchange with the land and ocean. This visualization provides a high-resolution, three-dimensional view of global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations from September 1, 2014 to August 31, 2015. The visualization was created using output from the GEOS modeling system, developed and maintained by scientists at NASA. The height of Earths atmosphere and topography have been vertically exaggerated and appear approximately 400 times higher than normal to show the complexity of the atmospheric flow. Measurements of carbon dioxide from NASAs second Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) spacecraft are incorporated into the model every 6 hours to update, or
Oxygenated volatile organic compounds ((O)VOCs) contribute to ozone formation, affect the oxidising capacity of the troposphere and are sources of growth, and in some cases formation, of aerosols. It is therefore important to identify and quantify sources of (O)VOCs in the troposphere. In the late 1990s a unique technique for quantification of organic trace gas species, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was developed. PTR-MS potentially offers rapid response and high sensitivity without the need for sample preconcentration. Concentrations can be derived from the PTR-MS either by calibration or can be calculated from measured ion count rates and kinetic considerations. In this work, the methodology of PTR-MS application is critically assessed. The uncertainties and inaccuracies associated with each parameter employed in the calculation of concentrations are reviewed. This includes a critical appraisal of models for the calculation of the collisional rate constant currently ...
The Atmosphere as a Sensor (AtmoSense) program is a fundamental science program that seeks to understand the propagation of mechanical and electromagnetic energy from the surface of the Earth through the Earths ionosphere due to transient events such as meteorological sources, geophysical sources, prompt hazards, etc. For example, an event on the surface of the Earth, such as a volcanic eruption, will produce radially outward longitudinal mechanical perturbations on the atmosphere. Those wave components travelling radially away from the center of the Earth will encounter decreasing air density with altitude thus reducing the amount of energy transferred to the atmosphere. This energy can propagate all the way to the bottomside of the ionosphere and has been detailed in the observational literature using various electromagnetic measuring techniques. AtmoSense seeks to understand the evolution of this energy through the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere (before it reaches the ...
Atmospheric nitrogen may be a necessary ingredient for the habitability of a planet since its presence helps to prevent water loss from a planet. The present day nitrogen isotopic ratio, 15N/14N, in the Earths atmosphere is a combination of the primitive Earths ratio and the ratio that might have been delivered in comets and asteroids. Asteroids have a nitrogen isotopic ratio that is close to the Earths. This indicates either a similar formation environment to the Earth or that the main source of nitrogen was delivery by asteroids. However, according to geological records, the Earths atmosphere could have been enriched in 15N during the Archean era. Comets have higher a 15N/14N ratio than the current atmosphere of the Earth and we find that about 5% ∼ 10% of nitrogen in the atmosphere of the Earth may have been delivered by comets to explain the current Earths atmosphere or the enriched 15N Earths atmosphere. We model the evolution of the radii of the snow lines of molecular nitrogen and ...
Atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) significantly impacts Earths climate due to its dual role as an inert potent greenhouse gas in the troposphere and as a reactive source of ozone-destroying nitrogen oxides in the stratosphere. Global atmospheric concentrations of N2O, produced by natural and anthropogenic processes, continue to rise due to increases in emissions linked to human activity. The understanding of the impact of this gas is incomplete as there remain significant uncertainties in its global budget. The experiment described in this thesis, in which a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4), a fine-scale regional Lagrangian model (NAME), and new high-frequency atmospheric observations are combined, shows that uncertainty in N2O emissions estimates can be reduced in areas with continuous monitoring of N2O mole fraction and site-specific isotopic ratios.. Due to unique heavy-atom (15N and 18O) isotopic substitutions made by different N2O sources, the measurement of N2O isotopic ratios in ...
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is known to have an adverse impact on public health and is an important climate forcer. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) contributes up to 80% of PM2.5 worldwide and multiphase reactions are an important pathway to form SOA. Aerosol-phase state is thought to influence the reactive uptake of gas-phase precursors to aerosol particles by altering diffusion rates within particles. Current air quality models do not include the impact of diffusion-limiting organic coatings on SOA formation. This work examines how α-pinene-derived organic coatings change the predicted formation of SOA from the acid-catalyzed multiphase reactions of isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX). A box model, with inputs provided from field measurements taken at the Look Rock (LRK) site in Great Smokey Mountains National Park during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS), was modified to incorporate the latest laboratory-based kinetic data accounting for organic coating influences. Including an ...
After reviewing evolutionists speculations on the origin of life, Clemmey and Badham say, ... the dogma has arisen that Earths early atmosphere was anoxic,...1 By anoxic they mean an atmosphere without free oxygen gas (O2), very different from the oxidizing mixture we breathe. The generally accepted model for the evolution of the atmosphere2 supposes that before about 1.9 billion years ago the earths atmosphere was a reducing mixture of nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4), water vapor (H2O), and possibly ammonia (NH3). Solar radiation and lightning discharges into the reducing gas mixture are believed by the consensus of evolutionists to have produced natural organic compounds and eventually life itself. The reason evolutionists postulate an anoxic and reducing atmosphere is mentioned by Miller and Orgel, We believe that there must have been a period when the earths atmosphere was reducing, because the synthesis of compounds of biological interest takes place only under reducing ...
One can see from Table 1 that in the Earths atmosphere molecular nitrogen has the greatest relative concentration near the Earths surface. The effective molecular weight of air is thus rather close to that of this constituent (the two values are 28.973 and 28.022, respectively). However, the composition of the air and consequently its molecular weight are constant only in the lower 80-100 km layer of the atmosphere which is termed the hoinosphere. Above this layer the so-called heterosphere.... ...
article{5c279b19-b4cf-4757-b11a-9043da898f3c, abstract = {A new hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) has been constructed at Lund University within the frameworks of the EU FP6 Infrastructure Project EUSAAR (www.eusaar.org). The aim of this coordinated H-TDMA development is to design and evaluate a new generation of H-TDMAs that are capable of conducting long term measurements of the hygroscopic growth and state of mixing of sub-micrometer atmospheric aerosol particles at the EUSAAR aerosol super-sites across Europe. The H-TDMA constructed for this project has been validated with respect to hygroscopic growth factor, stability of relative humidity (RH), temperature stability and its ability to operate unattended for longer periods of time. When measuring growth factors of ammonium sulphate, the new H-TDMA system was found to measure within a growth factor deviation of +/- 0.05 compared to previously recorded data by Tang et al. (1994). The long term RH of the system has ...
Uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean declined rapidly between 1990 and 2006. This reduction in carbon dioxide uptake was related to warming at the sea surface, which-according to model simulations-coincided with a reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. The extent to which the slowdown of this circulation system-which transports warm surface waters to the northern high latitudes, and cool deep waters south-contributed to the reduction in carbon uptake has remained uncertain. Here, we use data on the oceanic transport of volume, heat and carbon dioxide to track carbon dioxide uptake in the subtropical and subpolar regions of the North Atlantic Ocean over the past two decades. We separate anthropogenic carbon from natural carbon by assuming that the latter corresponds to a pre-industrial atmosphere, whereas the remaining is anthropogenic. We find that the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide-released by human activities-occurred almost ...
Online and offline measurements of ambient particulate matter (PM) near the urban and industrial Houston Ship Channel in Houston, Texas, USA, during May 2015 were utilized to characterize its chemical composition and to evaluate the relative contributions of primary, secondary, biogenic, and anthropogenic sources. Aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) on nonrefractory PM1 (PM ≤ 1µm) indicated major contributions from sulfate (averaging 50% by mass), organic aerosol (OA, 40%), and ammonium (14%). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of AMS data categorized OA on average as 22% hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), 29% cooking-influenced less-oxidized oxygenated organic aerosol (CI-LO-OOA), and 48% more-oxidized oxygenated organic aerosol (MO-OOA), with the latter two sources indicative of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Chemical analysis of PM2.5 (PM ≤ 2.5µm) filter samples agreed that organic matter (35%) and sulfate (21%) were the most abundant components. Organic speciation of PM2.5 organic ...
Air Pollution: Tropospheric Ozone, Particulates, and Indoor Carbon Dioxide Bad ozone, dangerous particulates, and significant CO2 buildup-in and around your school! Access a series of field tests students can use to measure your schools tropospheric ozone levels and the number of deposited particulates in different locations, and to study how carbon dioxide concentrations indoors vary throughout the school day. View » ...
Air Pollution: Tropospheric Ozone, Particulates, and Indoor Carbon Dioxide Bad ozone, dangerous particulates, and significant CO2 buildup-in and around your school! Access a series of field tests students can use to measure your schools tropospheric ozone levels and the number of deposited particulates in different locations, and to study how carbon dioxide concentrations indoors vary throughout the school day. View » ...
A proxy for the amount of carbon dioxide taken up by plants for photosynthesis has been used to estimate historical global uptake, revealing a large increase that might partly offset the rise in atmospheric CO2 levels. See Letter p.84 The potential growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations remains poorly understood. This has led to large uncertainties in modelled estimates of terrestrial carbon storage and carbon cycle-climate feedbacks. This paper presents an estimate of GPP growth during the twentieth century, based on long-term records of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide, which responds to changes in its sources and sinks, such as uptake by plant leaves. With the help of model simulations, the authors find that the carbonyl sulfide record is most consistent with climate-carbon cycle model simulations that assume about 30 per cent growth in GPP during the twentieth century
Atmosphere. 7 (6): 83. Bibcode:2016Atmos...7...83G. doi:10.3390/atmos7060083.. ...
"Atmosphere - Ford One". Rhymesayers Entertainment. Retrieved July 25, 2016. Noixe (November 22, 2000). "Atmosphere :: Fords 1 ... Ford One is an EP by American hip hop group Atmosphere. It was released on Rhymesayers Entertainment in 2000. It is the first ...
Atmosphere. 8 (12): 252. Bibcode:2017Atmos...8..252.. doi:10.3390/atmos8120252. Media related to January 2017 European cold ...
In the upper-levels of the atmosphere above the low, strong westerly winds from the jet stream created ample wind shear, a key ... Atmosphere. 5 (1): 113-129. Hossain, Akram; Karmakar, Samarendra (1998). "Some Meteorological aspects of the Saturia tornado, ...
The fires also incur significant firefighting costs and carbon release to the atmosphere. Some of the more direct damage caused ... Atmosphere. 11 (1): 9. Bibcode:2019Atmos..11....9H. doi:10.3390/atmos11010009. ISSN 2073-4433. Chan, Sze Ling; Ho, Andrew Fw; ...
Behrensmeyer, Ak (Jan 2006). "Atmosphere. Climate change and human evolution". Science. 311 (5760): 476-8. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Atmosphere. [20] 2018, Cornell University; Continuum: Power Through Perspective. [21] 2019, Florida; Introspection 2020, ...
"Atmosphere". Seville, Spain: Mondomix. October 24, 2003. Archived from the original on February 25, 2009. Retrieved January 20 ...
It contains over 99% of the mass of the Earth's atmosphere. The density of air decreases with height in the homosphere. By ... The homosphere is the layer of an atmosphere where the bulk gases are homogeneously mixed due to turbulent mixing or eddy ... This created ozone itself blocks most ultraviolet light from penetrating to lower layers of the atmosphere and creating similar ... The heat gained and lost by water through these processes increases turbulence in the lower atmosphere, especially at mesoscale ...
Atmosphere. 10 (12): 788. doi:10.3390/atmos10120788. https://www.ouest-france.fr/pays-de-la-loire/la-roche-sur-yon-85000/ ...
It is in this film that Arletty says the famous line, "Atmosphere! Atmosphere! Do I have an atmosphere hangover?" It became one ... "Atmosphere" to which her talent, her artistic magic, made her a success that we remember." Arletty said, "Nothing is out of ... went to the real Hôtel du Nord to soak up the atmosphere and get inspiration for how the film should look. Bessy later wrote an ... "which lack atmosphere." However, as Jacques Lourcelles points out in his Dictionary of Cinema, this line highlights less the ...
He has made a study of detecting life on other planets by analysis of their atmosphere and extended this to world pollution ... To Lovelock, the stark contrast between the Martian atmosphere and chemically dynamic mixture of the Earth's biosphere was ... He has many inventions, including a gas chromatograph, which will be used to investigate planetary atmospheres. His ... Pagani, M.; Caldeira, K.; Archer, D.; Zachos, C. (December 2006). "Atmosphere. An ancient carbon mystery". Science. 314 (5805 ...
The MRAMS operates at the mesoscale and microscale, modeling and simulating the Martian atmosphere. The smaller scale modeling ... The MRAMS dynamical core integrates equations for momentum, thermodynamics (atmosphere-surface heat exchange), tracers, and ... is a computer program that simulates the circulations of the Martian atmosphere at regional and local scales. MRAMS, developed ... Atmosphere. 10 (12): 747. Bibcode:2019Atmos..10..747R. doi:10.3390/atmos10120747. MRAMS homepage.. ...
The heterosphere extends from the turbopause to the edge of a planet's atmosphere and lies directly above the homosphere. The ... The heterosphere is the layer of an atmosphere where the gases are separated out by molecular diffusion with increasing ... "Atmosphere , gaseous envelope". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-05-30. "1965SAOSR.184.....J Page 2". articles.adsabs. ... The heterosphere contains less than 0.001% of the Earth's atmosphere's total mass. "The Thermosphere: A Part of the ...
... 's minor role of Raymonde in his film, Hotel du Nord, garnered attention for her "Atmosphere! Atmosphere!" performance. ...
Atmosphere. MDPI. 7 (11): 151. Bibcode:2016Atmos...7..151C. doi:10.3390/atmos7110151. "The Lightning Flash, 2nd Edition - The ... Atmosphere. MDPI. 8 (3): 46. Bibcode:2017Atmos...8...46C. doi:10.3390/atmos8030046. Cooray, Vernon; Cooray, Gerald (2016). "On ...
Responsible for the assembly and operation of systems related to atmosphere control and supply, atmosphere revitalization, ... MPSR Position ACE (Atmosphere and Consumables Engineer) Responsible for all spacesuit and spacewalking-related tasks, equipment ... EECOM leads an integrated team response to emergencies (fire/cabin leak/toxic atmosphere/loss of cooling), and to internal and ... such as atmosphere and thermal control, that keep the crew alive. Monitored cryogenic levels for the fuel cells, electrical ...
Atmosphere. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. Farrick, Kegan K.; Branfireun, Brian A. (2014-12-01). "Soil water ...
Atmosphere. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. 5 (3): 635. Bibcode:2014Atmos...5..635C. doi:10.3390/atmos5030635. ...
Stephen L. Durden (12 July 2010). "Remote Sensing and Modeling of Cyclone Monica near Peak Intensity". Atmosphere. ...
Atmosphere. 3 (4): 229-245. Bibcode:2012Atmos...3..229A. doi:10.3390/atmos3010229. Mutsuyoshi Nishimura (2014). "A new market- ... the CO2 concentration already released into the atmosphere since the beginning of industrialization, which has risen from well ... cost applied to carbon pollution to encourage polluters to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases they emit into the atmosphere ...
Atmosphere. 8 (10): 182. Bibcode:2017Atmos...8..182W. doi:10.3390/atmos8100182. ISSN 2073-4433. PMC 5662140. PMID 29093969. ...
Taylor, Patrick (July 14, 2009). "Atmosphere :: Leak at Will :: Rhymesayers Entertainment". RapReviews. Retrieved March 2, 2018 ...
However, the real atmosphere can vary greatly from the norm. Temperature inversions often form near the ground, for instance by ... However, the atmosphere has a refractive index that diminishes with height, due to its diminishing density. This bends the ... On the other hand, if the air is unstable and cools faster than the standard atmosphere with height, the beam ends up higher ... "The atmosphere, the weather and flying (Weather radars chapter 19)" (PDF). Environment Canada. Archived (PDF) from the original ...
Atmosphere is the second art piece by Pegasus dedicated to the late Amy Winehouse in the singer's home area of Camden. It can ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Contact Music (14 July 2013). "Picture - Atmosphere". Contact Music. Retrieved 20 March ...
"Edmund de Waal's Atmosphere - Crafts Council". craftscouncil.org.uk. Retrieved 15 September 2019. "Another Hour by Edmund de ... 2014 atmosphere. Turner Contemporary, Margate. 2014 another hour. Southwark Cathedral, London. 2014 Lichtzwang. Theseus Temple ... ISBN 978-0-8478-4926-0 atmosphere. Margate, UK: Turner Contemporary. 2014. ISBN 978-1938748011 Atemwende. New York: Gagosian ...
... an Atmosphere/Glacier Hierarchical Modeling Approach, Annals of Glaciology, Vol. 46, 283 - 290. Retrieved 2016-09-14. Zhang, J ... Atmosphere. 16 (3). ISSN 1172-1014. Retrieved 25 October 2010. Pelto, Mauri (November 9, 2006). "Glacier Mass Balance". North ...
Fast Atmosphere. "Outside Lands - August 12-14, 2011 : Music - Food - Wine - Art". Sfoutsidelands.com. Archived from the ...
ATM Magazine:: Features - Dillinja". Atmosphere Magazine. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
"Roxette - MTV Unplugged Set List". Atmosphere Music. Retrieved 2009-08-01. "Les Fradkin - Music Press reviews". lesfradkin.com ...
From that analysis, Katja and her team get information about the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at the ... This gives them information about how these gases have changed in the atmosphere over time. If carbon dioxide is high, it is ... From that analysis, Katja and her team get information about the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at the ... research and hopes her findings will contribute to the discussions around greenhouse gases and their effect on the atmosphere. ...
Most of the argon in the Earths atmosphere was produced by electron capture of long-lived 40. K (40. K + e− → 40. Ar + ν) ... In the Earths atmosphere, 39. Ar is made by cosmic ray activity, primarily by neutron capture of 40. Ar followed by two- ... The atmospheres of Mars, Mercury and Titan (the largest moon of Saturn) contain argon, predominantly as 40. Ar, and its content ... It is in group 18 of the periodic table and is a noble gas.[5] Argon is the third-most abundant gas in the Earths atmosphere, ...
THE SENATE Environment and Public Works Committee began its markup of a massive climate change bill on Tuesday -- without its Republican members. The Republicans have some reasonable concerns about the legislation. But their boycott isnt helpful.
Atmosphere of the Sun Atmosphere of Mercury Atmosphere of Venus Atmosphere of Earth Atmosphere of the Moon Atmosphere of Mars ... Atmosphere of Ceres Atmosphere of Jupiter Atmosphere of Io Atmosphere of Callisto Atmosphere of Europa Atmosphere of Ganymede ... Atmosphere of Saturn Atmosphere of Titan Atmosphere of Enceladus Atmosphere of Uranus Atmosphere of Titania Atmosphere of ... Neptune Atmosphere of Triton Atmosphere of Pluto Atmosphere of HD 209458 b The circulation of the atmosphere occurs due to ...
... atmosphere, land processes, oceans, volcanoes, land cover, Earth science data, NASA, environmental processes, Blue Marble, ...
High Atmosphere: Ballads and Banjo Tunes from Virginia and North Carolina is a 1975 compilation album released by Rounder ... "allmusic ((( High Atmosphere > Overview )))". allmusic. Retrieved 2008-12-28. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Smith, ... 1992 includes three covers of songs from High Atmosphere. Jeff Tweedy is the vocalist on all of these cover versions. Allmusic ... review http://www.discogs.com/Various-High-Atmosphere/release/3769167 and the actual LP for confirmation Mathews, Burgin. " ...
DK Space Encyclopedia: Atmosphere of Venus p 58. *^ a b c d e f g h i j Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, ... The atmosphere has a mass of 4.8×1020 kg, about 93 times the mass of the Earths total atmosphere.[citation needed] The density ... 1997). Geochemistry of Surface-Atmosphere Interactions on Venus (Venus II: Geology, Geophysics, Atmosphere, and Solar Wind ... Atmosphere of Venus. Cloud structure in Venuss atmosphere in 1979, revealed by ultraviolet observations from Pioneer Venus ...
Change of Atmosphere (COA) is a catalyst organization created to educate, engage, and empower our society with sustainability. ... Each day every one of us is literally changing the atmosphere of our society... and each day we have a choice with regards to ... Change of Atmosphere (COA) is a catalyst organization created to educate, engage, and empower our society with sustainability. ...
PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE - Report of the Secretary-General (PDF). E/CN.17/2001/PC/12. Prepared by the World Meteorological ...
... has an atmosphere of oxygen and carbon dioxide-but dont hold your breath for human colonization. ... Saturn Moon Has Oxygen Atmosphere. Saturns second largest moon, Rhea, has an atmosphere of oxygen and carbon dioxide-but dont ... An oxygen atmosphere has been found on Saturns second largest moon, Rhea, astronomers announced Thursday-but dont hold your ... Rheas oxygen atmosphere is believed to be maintained by the ongoing chemical breakdown of water ice on the moons surface, ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
Breakers and the atmosphere. Article by Karen B. Roberts Photos by Luc Mieussens and Steven Billups November 07, 2016 ... Veron: Small spray droplets created from breaking waves in the ocean can be transported very high and far in the atmosphere. ... But even during this short lifetime, these large drops can exchange heat, locally, with the atmosphere. ... professor in the School of Marine Science and Policy who studies how the ocean and the atmosphere are connected, about how ...
Atmosphere. ​​​​​​​. Atmospheric conditions can have an important impact on the types of plants and animals that live in a ... The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigation is available in the six United Nations languages (select any of the following links to open ... The investigation appendix contains data sheets for all atmosphere and climate protocols, cloud and contrail images and ... Students and scientists investigate the atmosphere through the collection of data using measurement protocols and using ...
Andy turned what could have otherwise been a ho-hum shot at the beach into a photo loaded with atmosphere. The muted gray ... the more I enjoyed simply soaking in the towns unique atmosphere. Make sure to leave some time to simply explore without ...
Comfortable Atmosphere. Two story with wood floors; outdoor & indoor second floor balconies; patio doors in all rooms; great ... Light and Airy, Comfortable Atmosphere. Two story with wood floors; outdoor & indoor second floor balconies; patio doors in all ... Light and Airy, Comfortable Atmosphere. Two story with wood floors; outdoor & indoor second floor balconies; patio doors in all ... Light and Airy, Comfortable Atmosphere. Two story with wood floors; outdoor & indoor second floor balconies; patio doors in all ...
COSMIC satellites to study atmosphere. If all goes well, the COSMIC six-satellite array will be launched today at 5:10 PM PDT ... When radio signals from GPS satellites pass through the atmosphere, the signals paths are bent and their progress is slowed. ... The rate of these changes depends on the atmospheres density along the path. COSMICs low-Earth-orbiting (LEO) satellites take ... the atmosphere. By measuring the amount of this bending, scientists can determine underlying atmospheric conditions, such as ...
Evolution of the atmosphere, the development of Earths atmosphere across geologic time. The process by which the current ... atmosphere arose from earlier conditions is complex; however, evidence related to the evolution of Earths atmosphere, though ... Evolution of the atmosphere, the development of Earths atmosphere across geologic time. The process by which the current ... atmosphere. Atmosphere. , the gas and aerosol envelope that extends from the ocean, land, and ice-covered surface of a planet ...
Mars did indeed lose much of its original atmosphere long ago when huge amounts of gas escaped into space, new analyses from ... Most of Mars Atmosphere Is Lost in Space. By Mike Wall, Space.com Senior Writer , April 8, 2013 04:21pm ET. ... The new measurement is consistent with the idea that gas escaped from the top of the Martian atmosphere in the distant past, ... The planet Mars lost most of its original atmosphere long ago when huge amounts of gas escaped into space, leaving only a wispy ...
... atmosphere is too thin to support life as we know it. And its very dusty. The red planet has the largest dust storms in the ... What is Mars atmosphere made of?. The atmosphere of Mars is about 100 times thinner than Earths, and it is 95 percent carbon ... dust moving around in the atmosphere, and water vapor moving between the surface and the atmosphere. (Most of the water comes ... The atmosphere today is also too thin to easily support life as we know it, although life may have existed in the ancient past ...
Aerosols in the Atmosphere. New data could help scientists better understand how these peripatetic particles influence the ... Although the particles might have a regional effect on visibility, they would be rained out of the atmosphere before they had ... But later studies suggested that aerosols could also warm the atmosphere through their effects on cloud cover and the behavior ... Indeed, although climatologists and other scientists have long focused on gases in the atmosphere, they have not closely ...
The Solar Eclipse Caused a Bow Wave in Earths Atmosphere. Its long been predicted that a solar eclipse would cause a bow wave ... While the Martian atmosphere is less than 1% that of Earths - with an average surface pressure of 0.636 kPa compared to ... "CFCs have lifetimes from 50 to 100 years, so they linger in the atmosphere for a very long time. As far as the ozone hole being ... It can also react with other gases in the atmosphere to form aerosol particles that can create thick hazes and even lead to ...
As a follower of this community, you can stay up-to-date on the Atmosphere protocols, projects and campaigns by participating ... in one of the message boards in the Atmosphere forum. Ask questions, respond to comments and see who is doing what in this ... has on the Earths surface temperature and how the surface temperature changes the dynamics of the Earths atmosphere. Studying ...
At one time the entire atmosphere was anaerobic I think...The dominance of oxygen produce species caused one of the greatest ... so in an atmosphere of very low oxygen (for example, in silt, peat bogs and outer space) these processes are slowed or even ...
The early Earths atmosphere was mostly Co2 with virtuall no oxygen. A lot of the early carbon dioxide was absorbed into the ...
Lyrics to Inside Outsider by Atmosphere: Inside out and upside down / Who qualifies to try to judge me now / Love is what grows ...
... is pleased to announce its sponsorship of Google Atmosphere Sydney and Google Atmosphere Tokyo, two Google events designed to ... Atmosphere Sydney and Tokyo, held on July 22 and July 30 and 31 respectively, will explore the ways in which organizations can ... Register here to join BetterCloud at Atmosphere Tokyo.. About BetterCloud BetterCloud, a Google Apps Premier Technology Partner ... "Were thrilled to sponsor both Atmosphere Sydney and Tokyo," said David Politis, BetterClouds founder and CEO. "These global ...
A Guide to Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number: 2019-174. ... A Guide to Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators pdf icon[PDF - 638 KB]. Suggested Citation. NIOSH [2019]. A Guide to Atmosphere- ... oxygen-deficient atmospheres. There are three types of atmosphere-supplying respirators: supplied-air respirators (SARs), self- ... Atmosphere-supplying respirators provide clean breathing air from a source independent of the work area. These respirators will ...
"Entry into the atmosphere occurred over the central Pacific Ocean," Roscosmos said in a statement. The time of re-entry was 5: ... Progess M-27M burns up in Earths atmosphere. *Some small fragments are expected to make it down to Earths surface, but hit ... Even if Russia hadnt lost contact with the craft, the original plan was for Progress to burn up re-entering Earths atmosphere ... Russian spacecraft ceased to exist, burned in Earths atmosphere. By Ben Brumfield and Laura Smith-Spark, CNN ...
Atmospheres is a gold open access journal publishing high quality research in fundamental and applied atmospheric chemistry. ... This includes atmosphere-biosphere, atmosphere-ocean, and atmosphere-surface interactions. We also encourage research related ... Environmental Science: Atmospheres. For pre-submission queries, please contact Anna Rulka, Executive Editor Email: click here ... despite its limitations when applied to the ambient atmosphere. A complex and dynamic system, the atmospheres (gas and ...
  • [5] Argon is the third-most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere , at 0.934% (9340 ppmv ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nearly all of the argon in the Earth's atmosphere is radiogenic argon-40 , derived from the decay of potassium-40 in the Earth's crust. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current composition of the Earth's atmosphere is the product of billions of years of biochemical modification of the paleoatmosphere by living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • And these satellites will rely on a technology called radio occultation to measure the bending of GPS radio signals as they pass through Earth's atmosphere. (zdnet.com)
  • Figure 2: A "best guess" reconstruction of the abundance of O 2 in the Earth's atmosphere as a function of time. (britannica.com)
  • Before life began on the planet, Earth's atmosphere was largely made up of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases. (britannica.com)
  • Scientists have known for some time that Earth's atmosphere loses several hundred tons of oxygen each day. (universetoday.com)
  • This campaign is focused on looking at the impact urbanization has on the Earth's surface temperature and how the surface temperature changes the dynamics of the Earth's atmosphere. (globe.gov)
  • The early Earth's atmosphere was mostly Co 2 with virtuall no oxygen . (everything2.com)
  • The bulk of it burned up after re-entering Earth's atmosphere. (cnn.com)
  • The journal is cross-disciplinary and spans the entirety of Earth's atmosphere. (rsc.org)
  • In addition to weather, NOAA also monitors and forecasts other atmospheric processes that effect our planet such as ozone levels, changing climate conditions, and variables outside Earth's atmosphere such as solar winds. (noaa.gov)
  • In the case of Earth's atmosphere, temperatures of 10,000 °C (18,000 °F) are generated and the air around the spacecraft can turn into plasma. (universetoday.com)
  • By being equipped with such a shield, CubeSats could be recovered after they re-enter the Earth's atmosphere, effectively becoming reusable. (universetoday.com)
  • You may have the best performing CCD camera in existence but still get horrible photometric results unless you also understand the effects of the earth's atmosphere. (gumroad.com)
  • The earth's atmosphere is discussed in detail during this lecture. (gumroad.com)
  • The molecule is considered to be a crucial component of any planetary atmosphere because it is highly reactive - scientists say it combats pollutants in Earth's atmosphere, and may prevent carbon dioxide from transforming into carbon monoxide above Mars. (popsci.com)
  • Earth's atmosphere does many important tasks for us-it shields us from UV radiation, generates weather, and is the very air we breathe. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Yes, CO 2 is a natural part of Earth's atmosphere. (exploratorium.edu)
  • The density of oxygen is probably about 5 trillion times less dense than in Earth's atmosphere. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • mesosphere- the layer in which most meteors burn up after entering Earth's atmosphere and before reaching Earth's surface. (cotf.edu)
  • In order to counteract the blurring effect of Earth's atmosphere, astronomers use the adaptive optics technique. (innovations-report.com)
  • The scientific study of the earth's atmosphere is referred to as aerology. (softschools.com)
  • But I sense a line of research that needs exploring: The overall impact of human-made orbital debris, solid and liquid propellant discharges, and other space age substance abuse that winds up in a high-speed dive through Earth's atmosphere . (foxnews.com)
  • The impact of these materials on Earth's atmosphere - top to bottom - would seem worthy of investigation. (foxnews.com)
  • Ross emphasized that orbital debris impacts on Earth's atmosphere , at the moment, is not something to be too concerned about. (foxnews.com)
  • Its mission comes to an end next week when it undocks on Monday and enters Earth's atmosphere five days later. (spaceref.com)
  • The Earth's atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding our planet and retained by the Earth's gravity. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The properties of the Earth's atmosphere vary with altitude. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The Earth's atmosphere (by volume) is about 77.8% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen, 0.9% argon, 0.4% water vapor, 0.037% carbon dioxide, and 0.003% other gases. (johnstonsarchive.net)
  • Certain gases in the Earth's atmosphere are transparent to the Sun's visible light but tend to absorb the outgoing infrared light emitted by the Earth. (johnstonsarchive.net)
  • This is different from the oxygen we breath (O2), which has two atoms of oxygen and makes up 21% of the Earth's atmosphere. (johnstonsarchive.net)
  • Ozone is found throughout the Earth's atmosphere in minute quantities (about 0.6 parts per million, on average). (johnstonsarchive.net)
  • The storm the amateurs detected is fairly deep in the planet's atmosphere, tucked below the highest layer of methane ice. (skyandtelescope.com)
  • As the detailed press release from UC Berkeley explains, the amateurs' storm could be part of a tall vortex anchored deep in the planet's atmosphere, similar to the Great Red Spot and other features on Jupiter. (skyandtelescope.com)
  • Even in the case of thinly-atmosphered planets like Mars, entering a planet's atmosphere is known to cause a great deal of heat and friction. (universetoday.com)
  • The presence of hydroxyl - which was picked up by the spacecraft's Visible and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer - isn't exactly a huge surprise, but ESA scientists say it should help them refine the theoretical models they use to describe what's going on in the planet's atmosphere. (popsci.com)
  • The star is an M dwarf - the most common and long-lived type of star that could therefore potentially host a high percentage of the galaxy's planets - and the rocky planet's atmosphere is the first orbiting an M dwarf to be characterized. (stanford.edu)
  • There is growing appreciation that outer space has become a trash bin, with the Earth encircled by dead or dying spacecraft, along with menacing bits of orbital clutter - some of which burns up in the planet's atmosphere. (foxnews.com)
  • Atmospheric pressure at a particular location is the force per unit area perpendicular to a surface determined by the weight of the vertical column of atmosphere above that location. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, atmospheres are not uniform in temperature, so estimation of the atmospheric pressure at any particular altitude is more complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the harsh conditions on the surface, the atmospheric pressure and temperature at about 50 km to 65 km above the surface of the planet is nearly the same as that of the Earth, making its upper atmosphere the most Earth-like area in the Solar System , even more so than the surface of Mars . (wikipedia.org)
  • For modern atmospheric chemistry and physics, see atmosphere . (britannica.com)
  • Information regarding these particular processes, however, is incomplete even for the present atmosphere, and there is almost no direct evidence regarding atmospheric constituents and their rates of supply and consumption in the past. (britannica.com)
  • Environmental Science: Atmospheres covers the full breadth of atmospheric science and links fundamental and applied research. (rsc.org)
  • Environmental Science: Atmospheres is a gold open access journal publishing high quality research in fundamental and applied atmospheric science. (rsc.org)
  • Choosing MSc Atmosphere, Oceans and Climate means you will join our world-class Department of Meteorology - the University of Reading is ranked 2nd in the world for research in Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (Center for World University Rankings by Subject, 2017). (reading.ac.uk)
  • Martin Pätzold, Universität zu Köln, Germany, and colleagues have determined the fine structure in temperatures at Venus's upper cloud-deck, detected distinct day-to-night temperature differences in the southern middle atmosphere, and tracked day-to-day changes in Venus's ionosphere (the upper atmospheric layer). (esa.int)
  • To gain insight into the atmospheric composition of the planet, located about 40 light-years from Earth in the constellation Ophiuchus, the team used a blue transmission filter to search for Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere. (redorbit.com)
  • Despite these relatively short timescales, important chemical changes can still take place in the urban atmosphere but are currently poorly captured by numerical models due to weak understanding of either the chemistry or atmospheric dynamics, or a lack of adequate spatial resolution. (rsc.org)
  • The urban atmosphere is hugely complex in chemical terms, but many of the constituents play little role in atmospheric chemistry on urban timescales. (rsc.org)
  • Paper present current research results on the corrosion of metals in the atmosphere, show current thinking on mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion, and document how changes in the atmosphere have affected the corrosion of metals. (astm.org)
  • Early Mars had an atmosphere thick enough to hold water and moist clouds, said chief investigator Bruce Jakosky of the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in Boulder. (dailyherald.com)
  • The results open up a new suite of research questions, including atmospheric pathways for the dispersal of pathogens, the role of small islands as stepping stones for the cross-basin transport of land microbes across vast distances, and the role these organisms play in condensing particles, including rain drops, in the atmosphere," says Duarte. (innovations-report.com)
  • clarification needed] Wind erosion is a significant factor in shaping the terrain of rocky planets with atmospheres, and over time can erase the effects of both craters and volcanoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • To put it simply, planets with atmospheres allow spacecraft to utilize aerodynamic drag to slow down in preparation for landing. (universetoday.com)
  • Venus has a rich and complicated atmosphere - the densest of all the rocky planets - which is the key to understanding the planet itself. (esa.int)
  • And with new techniques emerging, we are able to characterize the atmospheres of these planets more fully. (redorbit.com)
  • Looking at several orbits of the planet allowed scientists to map the temperature of its surface and create models of its atmosphere - capabilities that scientists are only just starting to develop for rocky planets. (stanford.edu)
  • Researchers found the planet has little to no atmosphere, and thus could not support life - an important finding for understanding atmospheres of similar rocky planets around M dwarfs. (stanford.edu)
  • So we think if we can look at the atmospheres of planets in the habitable zone and determine what they're made of, then maybe we could say if those planets have life. (stanford.edu)
  • The discovery suggests Earth-like planets can hold onto their atmospheres in red dwarf systems. (spacedaily.com)
  • Saturn's second largest moon, Rhea, has an atmosphere of oxygen and carbon dioxide-but don't hold your breath for human colonization. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Rhea's oxygen atmosphere is believed to be maintained by the ongoing chemical breakdown of water ice on the moon's surface, driven by radiation from Saturn's magnetosphere. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • We've known about the storm at the gas giant's north pole for decades, but now it appears that this massive hexagonal storm could be a towering behemoth hundreds of kilometers in height that has its base deep in Saturn's atmosphere. (universetoday.com)
  • Titan's atmosphere makes Saturn's largest moon look like a fuzzy orange ball in this natural-colour view from the Cassini spacecraft, captured in 2012. (forbes.com)
  • Those final seconds of data represent the first ever direct sampling of Saturn's atmosphere, giving scientists unprecedented information about the makeup of the planet. (popularmechanics.com)
  • A fragile atmosphere infused with oxygen and carbon-dioxide has been discovered at Saturn's moon Rhea by the Cassini-Huygens mission - the first time a spacecraft has captured direct evidence of an oxygen atmosphere at a world other than Earth. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Published today in Science Express, results from the mission reveal that the atmosphere of Rhea, Saturn's second largest moon at 1500 km wide, is extremely thin and is sustained by high energy particles bombarding its icy surface and kicking up atoms, molecules and ions into the atmosphere. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Scientists working with data from NASA's Cassini mission have developed a new way to understand the atmospheres of exoplanets by using Saturn's smog-enshrouded moon Titan as a stand-in. (usra.edu)
  • Scientists have been searching the heavens to find an exoplanet that is just the right distance from its host star to support liquid water, all the while targeting a surface gravity we would be familiar with and an atmosphere oozing with oxygen. (redorbit.com)
  • This behavior makes it one of the molecules that we can, and have, detected in exoplanet atmospheres as well. (planetary.org)
  • People are often surprised that we can measure the composition of exoplanet atmospheres -- they often think that what they hear in the news is just a guess. (planetary.org)
  • Astronomers at England's Keele University have detected an atmosphere around GJ 1132b, a super-Earth exoplanet orbiting a red dwarf star located 39 light years from Earth. (spacedaily.com)
  • To the Earth scientist, the crust includes not only the top layer of solid material (soil and rocks to a depth of 6 to 70 km [4 to 44 miles], separated from the underlying mantle by differences in density and by susceptibility to surficial geologic processes) but also the hydrosphere (oceans, surface waters on land, and groundwater beneath the land surface) and the atmosphere. (britannica.com)
  • There are intriguing clues that billions of years ago Mars was even more Earth-like than today, with a denser, warmer atmosphere and much more water - rivers , lakes , flood channels, and perhaps oceans . (britannica.com)
  • Gain a deep quantitative understanding of the climate system with our MSc Atmosphere, Oceans and Climate. (reading.ac.uk)
  • Water in all its phases -- as invisible vapor in the atmosphere, as liquid in the vast oceans and condensed tiny droplets in clouds, as solid sheets of ice and crystals of snow -- water is the ultimate regulator of climate on earth. (americanthinker.com)
  • This is how carbon dating works: Carbon is a naturally abundant element found in the atmosphere, in the earth, in the oceans, and in every living creature. (answers.com)
  • Microbes in the atmosphere and the role of the oceans in their movement have been largely overlooked by researchers. (innovations-report.com)
  • Now, an international team shows that the oceans contribute to a large fraction of the microbes found in the global atmosphere. (innovations-report.com)
  • What they didn't know was how many microbes actually exist in the atmosphere over the oceans. (innovations-report.com)
  • They also found an average of 32,000 eukaryotes (nucleus-containing microbes like fungi) per cubic meter of sampled air over the oceans compared to 240,000 fungal spores found per cubic meter of atmosphere over land. (innovations-report.com)
  • The team conducted genetic analyses and found 25% of the microbes in the atmosphere above the oceans were of marine origin, while 42% were land-based organisms and the remaining 24% were undetermined. (innovations-report.com)
  • This transfers water from the oceans and other water bodies back into the atmosphere as part of the water cycle. (johnstonsarchive.net)
  • Due to the similarity in pressure and temperature and the fact that breathable air (21% oxygen , 78% nitrogen ) is a lifting gas on Venus in the same way that helium is a lifting gas on Earth, the upper atmosphere has been proposed as a location for both exploration and colonization . (wikipedia.org)
  • When storms in outer space occur near Earth or in Earth's upper atmosphere, we call it space weather. (noaa.gov)
  • Every day, 90 metric tons of matter leaks from Earth's upper atmosphere into space. (inhabitat.com)
  • For about 60 seconds, Cassini used the last reserves of its rocket fuel to fire its thrusters, fighting the upper atmosphere of Saturn as it descended to its fate. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Above this, the region between 60 to 100 km is known as the mesosphere, and is a transition region between the lower winds, which whip the cloud tops around the planet in four days, and the circulation of the upper atmosphere, which is driven by the influx of solar radiation. (esa.int)
  • Having absorbed solar radiation, the hot upper atmosphere rises still further, circulating to the night side of the planet where it cools and sinks back to the level of the cloud tops. (esa.int)
  • Carbon-14 is produced in the upper atmosphere when cosmic rays produce thermalised neutrons, by hitting atomic nuclei. (answers.com)
  • Carbon-14 (C-14) is a rare isotope of carbon produced in the upper atmosphere when a cosmic ray strikes an atom of nitrogen. (answers.com)
  • C-14 is produced in the upper atmosphere when nitrogen-14 (N-14) is altered through the effects of cosmic radiation bombardment (a proton is displaced by a neutron effectively changing the nitrogen atom into a carbon isotope). (answers.com)
  • It is produced naturally in the upper atmosphere by the action of cosmic rays on nitrogen 14 atoms. (answers.com)
  • Cosmic rays bombard the upper atmosphere (see Carbon 14 wiki): 'Carbon-14 is produced in the upper layers of the troposphere and the stratosphere by thermal neutrons absorbed by nitrogen atoms. (answers.com)
  • Maven -- short for Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, with a capital N in EvolutioN -- is the first spacecraft devoted entirely to studying Mars' upper atmosphere. (dailyherald.com)
  • Maven holds eight scientific instruments to measure the upper atmosphere for an entire Earth year -- half a Martian year. (dailyherald.com)
  • Artificial meteors launched from satellites could one day help us study Earth's upper atmosphere. (newscientist.com)
  • The upper atmosphere controls the size and shape of holes in the ozone layer, and can help us work out how the climate is changing. (newscientist.com)
  • Despite extending just 100 to 1000 kilometres above sea level, we still don't know a lot about the upper atmosphere. (newscientist.com)
  • It's also unclear how well the upper atmosphere protects us from meteor strikes and space debris. (newscientist.com)
  • To make more precise predictions we need to understand the upper atmosphere better, says Masaki Watanabe of Tokyo Metropolitan University. (newscientist.com)
  • Robert Hawkes of Mount Allison University in New Brunswick, Canada, says a predictable source of meteors with known compositions could make a big difference in our ability to work out luminous efficiency factors and the density of the upper atmosphere. (newscientist.com)
  • Ozone in the upper atmosphere is important to health. (johnstonsarchive.net)
  • Composition of the atmosphere of Venus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The composition of the atmosphere encodes a great deal of information bearing on its origin. (britannica.com)
  • A complete reconstruction of the origin and development of the atmosphere would include details of its size and composition at all times during the 4.5 billion years since Earth's formation. (britannica.com)
  • The study took previous data on the chemical composition of methane in the atmosphere and applied a series of equations to parse out how much of this lighter form of methane could be attributed to shale gas. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • While urban atmospheres vary considerably in composition, they are distinguished clearly from most rural and all remote atmospheres by their high primary pollutant loadings and relatively short timescales for reactions. (rsc.org)
  • Though scientists can't yet nail down the exact chemical composition, there's a possibility the atmosphere is one friendly to life. (spacedaily.com)
  • Students and scientists investigate the atmosphere through the collection of data using measurement protocols and using instruments that meet certain specifications in order to ensure that data are comparable. (globe.gov)
  • The planet Mars lost most of its original atmosphere long ago when huge amounts of gas escaped into space, leaving only a wispy remnant behind, scientists say. (space.com)
  • Indeed, although climatologists and other scientists have long focused on gases in the atmosphere, they have not closely examined the role played by so-called condensed phase particles. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Scientists started with the most plentiful gases in Titan's atmosphere - nitrogen and methane - but got no results to match the one seen by Cassini until they added a third gas. (forbes.com)
  • In lab experiments, NASA scientists matched the spectral signature of an unknown material the Cassini spacecraft detected in Titan's atmosphere at far-infrared wavelengths. (forbes.com)
  • Scientists have measured big increases in the amount of methane, the powerful global warming gas , entering the atmosphere over the last decade. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Until now, scientists had only directly detected the atmospheres of gas giant-like exoplanets. (spacedaily.com)
  • Maven will help scientists "build a story of the Mars atmosphere and help future human explorers who journey to Mars. (dailyherald.com)
  • As the pellets burn up in the atmosphere, scientists on the ground would measure their temperatures using a spectrometer. (newscientist.com)
  • Earth's original atmosphere was rich in methane , ammonia , water vapour, and the noble gas neon , but it lacked free oxygen . (britannica.com)
  • The chemical signature of methane released from fracking is found in the atmosphere, pointing to shale gas operations as the culprit. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • This big methane increase matters because methane heats up the climate over 80 times more than an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the first 20 years after it is released into the atmosphere, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • While the study isn't a "smoking gun," it has found a link between recent increases in methane in the atmosphere and shale gas production. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The amount of methane added to the atmosphere in the past decade also corresponds to studies that show fracking operations leak, vent, or flare between 2 and 6 percent of the gas produced, Howarth said. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Titan has a very thick nitrogen-methane atmosphere, with very little carbon dioxide and oxygen. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The first molecule ever detected in Titan's atmosphere, and indeed our first solid evidence that Titan had an atmosphere, was methane (CH 4 ), which was discovered by Gerard Kuiper in the 1940s. (planetary.org)
  • We simulated a range of possible atmospheres for this planet, finding that those rich in water and/or methane would explain the observations of GJ 1132b," Southworth said. (spacedaily.com)
  • India's orbiter will also study the atmosphere but go a step further, seeking out methane, a possible indicator of life. (dailyherald.com)
  • The issue is important because climate experts have long worried that if Arctic permafrost thaws, the process would release potentially catastrophic amounts of methane into the atmosphere. (nytimes.com)
  • NASA's Cassini spacecraft , which has been orbiting the Saturnian system since 2004, detected the oxygen atmosphere around Rhea during a close flyby of the icy moon in March. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Cassini also identified the distinctive chemical fingerprint of carbon dioxide in Rhea's atmosphere, indicating the presence of carbon on the moon's surface. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • A new study based on data from the Cassini mission is revealing something surprising in the atmosphere of Saturn. (universetoday.com)
  • Completing the picture of Rhea's atmosphere, Cassini's ion and neutral mass spectrometer detected neutral particles when Cassini swept within 100 km of the moon's surface in March 2010. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Some examples include argon and even the main constituent of Titan's atmosphere, nitrogen (N 2 ), whose abundance was not really well known until Cassini-Huygens. (planetary.org)
  • While the Martian atmosphere is less than 1% that of Earth's - with an average surface pressure of 0.636 kPa compared to Earth's 101.325 kPa - spacecraft still require heat shields to avoid burnup and carry heavy loads. (universetoday.com)
  • ESA's Venus Express spacecraft has picked up evidence that the molecule hydroxyl is lurking in the dense atmosphere of the hot planet. (popsci.com)
  • When the Voyager spacecraft flew through the Saturn system in the early 1980s, they used infrared spectroscopy to detect a whole suite of molecules in Titan's atmosphere: acetylene (C- 2 H 2 ), ethane (C 2 H 6 ), propane (C 3 H 8 ), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), et cetera. (planetary.org)
  • Given that it lies between the maximum altitude for most aircraft and the minimum altitude for most spacecraft , this region of the atmosphere is directly accessible only through the use of sounding rockets. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Low-mass stars often feature intense electromagnetic activity, including flares and radiation that can burn away the atmospheres of resident exoplanets. (spacedaily.com)
  • The atmosphere of Earth is composed of nitrogen (about 78%), oxygen (about 21%), argon (about 0.9%), carbon dioxide (0.04%) and other gases in trace amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • An oxygen atmosphere has been found on Saturn 's second largest moon , Rhea, astronomers announced Thursday-but don't hold your breath for colonization opportunities. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • And at less than 62 miles (100 kilometers) thick, the newfound oxygen layer is so thin that, at Earthlike temperatures and pressure, Rhea's entire atmosphere would fit in a single midsize building. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The Hubble Space Telescope and NASA's Galileo probe found in 1995 that a similar process creates tenuous oxygen atmospheres on Jupiter 's ice moons Europa and Ganymede. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The major implication of this finding at Rhea is that oxygen atmospheres at icy moons, until now only detected at Europa and Ganymede, may in fact be commonplace around those irradiated icy moons throughout the universe with sufficient mass to hold an atmosphere,' said study leader Ben Teolis of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The oxygen then gets ejected from the surface ice and captured by Rhea's gravity to form the atmosphere. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • It is likely that hundreds of millions of years separated the first biological production of oxygen by unicellular organisms and its eventual accumulation in the atmosphere. (britannica.com)
  • The development of the atmosphere and such interactions are discussed in this article, with particular attention given to the rise of biologically produced molecular oxygen, O 2 , as a major component of air . (britannica.com)
  • Oxygen is required for many of the natural processes that we take for granted, including the breakdown of organic material and the rusting of iron, so in an atmosphere of very low oxygen (for example, in silt , peat bogs and outer space ) these processes are slowed or even stopped. (everything2.com)
  • These respirators will protect wearers from many types of airborne contaminants (particles, gases, and vapors) and, in certain cases, oxygen-deficient atmospheres. (cdc.gov)
  • In order to determine if a planet has life, we need to be able to measure its atmosphere and see if life has influenced it, as we know it has here on Earth, where our atmosphere of oxygen is produced by life. (stanford.edu)
  • 1. A modified atmosphere package comprising first and second compartments separated by a partition member, said partition member including a non-barrier portion substantially permeable to oxygen, said first and second compartments being encompassed by an outer wall substantially impermeable to oxygen, an oxygen scavenger activated with an oxygen scavenger accelerator and positioned to absorb oxygen in said first compartment, said second compartment containing a retail cut of raw meat. (google.es)
  • There was probably quite a bit of nitrogen in the atmosphere, like today, but there was no oxygen," explained Sanjoy Som from Nasa's Ames Research Center. (bbc.com)
  • Its ionosphere separates the atmosphere from outer space and the solar wind . (wikipedia.org)
  • Another instrument on Venus Express has been probing the temperatures in the atmosphere, from the rarefied reaches of Venus's ionosphere at heights of 500-100 km, down to around 50 km above the surface. (esa.int)
  • and 'The structure of Venus' middle atmosphere and middle ionosphere', by M.Patzold et al. (esa.int)
  • The Atmosphere as a Sensor (AtmoSense) program is a fundamental science program that seeks to understand the propagation of mechanical and electromagnetic energy from the surface of the Earth through the Earth's ionosphere due to transient events such as meteorological sources, geophysical sources, prompt hazards, etc. (darpa.mil)
  • Stars with sufficiently low temperatures may have outer atmospheres with compound molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just as the water molecules in a glass change the path of visible light waves so that a pencil appears bent, molecules in the air bend GPS radio signals as they pass through (are occulted by) the atmosphere. (zdnet.com)
  • The new measurement is consistent with the idea that gas escaped from the top of the Martian atmosphere in the distant past, with lighter stuff leaving more easily than heavier atoms and molecules. (space.com)
  • Over millions of years, the sun's pressure stripped the lighter molecules from the atmosphere, thinning it out. (space.com)
  • Remote sensing techniques, like ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, allow us to see how light interacts with molecules in an atmosphere. (planetary.org)
  • Different wavelengths of light allow us to sense different parts of the atmosphere and different molecules because the different photon energies require different numbers and types of molecules to absorb them. (planetary.org)
  • Today, NASA says seasonal changes are due to the waxing and waning of the carbon dioxide ice caps , dust moving around in the atmosphere, and water vapor moving between the surface and the atmosphere. (space.com)
  • Propagation of Visible and Infrared Waves in the Atmosphere (NASA TT F-707, 1972). (springer.com)
  • Using high-altitude aircraft, the NASA sampling program was directed at snagging particles of dust from comets and asteroids as they filter down through the atmosphere. (foxnews.com)
  • The water vapor and carbon dioxide naturally occurring in the atmosphere produce a greenhouse effect which gives the Earth a temperature 30° C more than it would have without these gases, making life possible. (johnstonsarchive.net)
  • The data revealed an unprecedented level of resolution to the bluest wavelengths of light scattering from the planetary atmosphere. (redorbit.com)
  • The leading theory is that Mars' light gravity, coupled with its lack of global magnetic field, left the atmosphere vulnerable to pressure from the solar wind, the constant stream of particles coming from the sun. (space.com)
  • One theory as to why dust storms can grow so big on Mars starts with airborne dust particles absorbing sunlight, warming the Martian atmosphere in their vicinity. (space.com)
  • Although the particles might have a regional effect on visibility, they would be rained out of the atmosphere before they had time to really affect climate. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This region of Venus's atmosphere contains light hazes of various aerosol particles, composed chiefly of sulphuric acid and water. (esa.int)
  • The atmosphere combined with water particles absorbs the color and scatters it to the eye, making it appear blue rather than purple. (softschools.com)
  • More study is needed on the density of particles, types of particles, how long they are suspended in the atmosphere, and whether or not the amount of deorbiting detritus has increased over time. (foxnews.com)
  • Dr Geraint Jones, from the UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory and a co-author of the paper said: "The discovery of this tenuous atmosphere provides key information on how radiation can drive chemistry on icy surfaces throughout the universe. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Rhea's tenuous atmosphere makes it unique in the Saturn system. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • UDaily talked with the University of Delaware's Fabrice Veron , professor in the School of Marine Science and Policy who studies how the ocean and the atmosphere are connected, about how ocean spray influences global climate. (udel.edu)
  • The investigation appendix contains data sheets for all atmosphere and climate protocols, cloud and contrail images and descriptions and a glossary of terms. (globe.gov)
  • Led by Neil Donahue (Carnegie Mellon University), Environmental Science: Atmospheres is a gold open access journal committed to bringing the wider environmental science and climate change communities together in a fresh, open approach. (rsc.org)
  • In the Arctic, as the climate warms, most of the additional heat remains trapped in a shallow layer of the atmosphere close to the ground, not deeper than 1 or 2 kilometers [0.6 to 1.2 miles],' said Felix Pithan, a climate scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Germany and lead author of the new study. (livescience.com)
  • But its ability to keep our planet warm is what makes the atmosphere so important to climate change. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Artist's concept: Disappearance of the ancient magnetic field may have triggered the loss of the Martian atmosphere. (space.com)
  • NASA's Mars rover Curiosity has revealed that a light variant of the gas argon is relatively depleted in Martian air, bolstering a longstanding belief that the Red Planet's current atmosphere - which is just 1 percent as thick as that of Earth - is a meager shell of its former self. (space.com)
  • However, for reasons that are still poorly understood, the Martian atmosphere thinned. (space.com)
  • [1] The Venusian atmosphere supports opaque clouds made of sulfuric acid , making optical Earth-based and orbital observation of the surface impossible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The atmosphere of Mars is also roughly 100 times thinner than Earth's, but it is still thick enough to support weather, clouds and winds. (space.com)
  • Environmental Science: Atmospheres welcomes contributions in thermodynamics, microphysics, and chemistry of multiphase systems coupling gases, aerosols and clouds, as well as photochemistry and radiative transfer. (rsc.org)
  • During winter, the temperatures in the polar regions are cold enough for the CO 2 [carbon dioxide] in the atmosphere to condense into ice on the surface. (space.com)
  • The result is that atmosphere is often associated with water, whether heat with heavy humidity, mist, rain, snow, or torrents of water as rivers, which provide a respite from stifling temperatures in summer. (lacma.org)
  • [13] The amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere is relatively small compared to the amount of carbon dioxide, but because the atmosphere is so much thicker than that on Earth, its total nitrogen content is roughly four times higher than Earth's, even though on Earth nitrogen makes up about 78% of the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the carbon dioxide produced from the wood originally came from the atmosphere and was converted by the original tree into wood - so burning the wood simply returns this to the atmosphere and there is no net increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. (answers.com)
  • But the Voyager data covered just one moment in time and only gave us information about one region of the atmosphere. (planetary.org)
  • In the stratosphere, the region of the atmosphere about 12 to 45 km above the surface of the Earth, ozone exists in larger amounts. (johnstonsarchive.net)
  • Astronomers announced that they have discovered a 'super-Earth' which seems to have an atmosphere orbiting a red dwarf star 40 light-years from Earth. (slashdot.org)
  • For such a model atmosphere, the pressure declines exponentially with increasing altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those wave components travelling radially away from the center of the Earth will encounter decreasing air density with altitude thus reducing the amount of energy transferred to the atmosphere. (darpa.mil)
  • Some crude calculations in the early 1990s (based mainly on sulfates, because the only sufficient data available came from studies of acid rain) showed that aerosols could cool the atmosphere by back-scattering incoming solar radiation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But later studies suggested that aerosols could also warm the atmosphere through their effects on cloud cover and the behavior of less well studied components of pollution, such as soot. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The session will therefore address which species determine compositional change within the urban atmosphere, what needs to be measured to constrain models and will also address issues concerning the formation of aerosols and their chemical and physical evolution within the urban atmosphere. (rsc.org)
  • From that analysis, Katja and her team get information about the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at the time the ice was formed. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • There are other heat-trapping gases* in the atmosphere, but CO 2 is the most important one. (exploratorium.edu)
  • The thermosphere contains only 0.001% of the gases in the atmosphere. (softschools.com)
  • Furthermore, the nature and variations of the minor components reveal extensive interactions between the atmosphere, terrestrial environment , and biota. (britannica.com)
  • This includes atmosphere-biosphere, atmosphere-ocean, and atmosphere-surface interactions. (rsc.org)
  • These changes are due to natural interactions between the ocean and atmosphere. (noaa.gov)
  • The local weather that impacts our daily lives results from large global patterns in the atmosphere caused by the interactions of solar radiation, Earth's large ocean, diverse landscapes, and motion in space. (noaa.gov)
  • BetterCloud , the leading provider of enterprise-grade cloud management and security software, is pleased to announce its sponsorship of Google Atmosphere Sydney and Google Atmosphere Tokyo, two Google events designed to show businesses the latest tools for work. (prweb.com)
  • Atmosphere Sydney and Tokyo, held on July 22 and July 30 and 31 respectively, will explore the ways in which organizations can use the cloud to develop solutions to today's business challenges. (prweb.com)
  • The results indicate that the atmosphere does not include significant amounts of Rayleigh scattering, meaning that the planet likely has a water-rich or hydrogen dominated atmosphere combined with significant cloud cover. (redorbit.com)
  • ATMOSPHERE is a 24-month project aiming at the design and development of a framework and a platform to implement trustworthy cloud services on top of an intercontinental hybrid and federated resource pool. (slideshare.net)
  • Thus, distant and cold Titan, Triton, and Pluto are able to retain their atmospheres despite their relatively low gravities. (wikipedia.org)
  • We've already found negative ions are important at Titan and Enceladus - and now, tracing back the trajectory of these ions really pinpoints the source of the atmosphere near Rhea's surface. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Human activity such as the greenhouse effect, global warming, contamination of the air, destruction of the ozone belt, and acid rain are damaging the atmosphere. (softschools.com)
  • As the ozone layer decreases in the atmosphere the rate of skin cancers continues to climb as the atmosphere is not able to properly absorb the ultraviolet radiation being given off by the sun. (softschools.com)
  • They reported that objects re-entering the atmosphere can affect ozone in several ways, but not on a significant level globally. (foxnews.com)
  • The atmosphere helps to protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation, solar wind and cosmic rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because it is produced at a near constant rate and living organisms maintain the same percentage of it as is present in the atmosphere while they are alive, but after an organism dies it can no longer equalize the amount of the carbon-14 in its tissues, this isotope's decay can be used as a 'clock' to measure the time since the organism died. (answers.com)
  • An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. (wikipedia.org)
  • is called the scale height and is denoted by H. For an atmosphere with a uniform temperature, the scale height is proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the product of the mean molecular mass of dry air and the local acceleration of gravity at that location. (wikipedia.org)
  • Venus Express, designed to perform an extensive investigation of the atmosphere, has revealed surprising details about its temperature structure. (esa.int)
  • The instrument measures the amount of light absorbed by the atmosphere at different wavelengths, and by doing so it identifies both the chemicals and the temperature in the different layers of the atmosphere. (esa.int)
  • Venus atmosphere variation in temperature VeRa emits ultra-stable radio waves that travel through Venus's atmosphere on their way to Earth and that can be detected by radio telescopes on Earth. (esa.int)
  • The atmosphere surrounds the planet, protecting it by absorbing the ultraviolet radiation from the sun, and regulating the temperature extremes that would otherwise occur between day and night. (softschools.com)
  • The lower atmosphere is heated by the Earth's surface, and temperature decreases with height. (johnstonsarchive.net)
  • A modified atmosphere packaging method creates a modified atmosphere in a package including an inner package and an outer package. (google.es)
  • This system provides assistance for the adaptive optics instruments on the VLT and so allows astronomers to obtain images free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere, regardless of the brightness and the location on the sky of the observed target. (innovations-report.com)
  • British astronomers have found evidence of water in the atmosphere of a gas giant 64 light years from Earth, the first discovery of water in an extrasolar planet, they say. (cbc.ca)
  • The atmosphere of Venus is the layer of gases surrounding Venus . (wikipedia.org)
  • The atmosphere is a layer of gases most commonly referred to as air that is retained by the gravity of earth. (softschools.com)
  • It is produced in the atmosphere, by radiation from outer space. (answers.com)
  • Other mechanisms that can cause atmosphere depletion are solar wind-induced sputtering, impact erosion, weathering, and sequestration-sometimes referred to as "freezing out"-into the regolith and polar caps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than the more commonly known weather within our atmosphere (rain, snow, heat, wind, etc.), space weather comes in the form of radio blackouts, solar radiation storms, and geomagnetic storms caused by disturbances from the Sun. (noaa.gov)
  • Venus Express made the measurements using its SPICAV/SOIR instrument (SPectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus/Solar Occultation in the InfraRed). (esa.int)
  • Carbon-14 is produced by the effect of solar radiation on nitrogen-14 in the atmosphere. (answers.com)
  • An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός (atmos), meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα (sphaira), meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without an atmosphere, the planet has no protection from meteoroids, and all of them collide with the surface as meteorites and create craters. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] The upper layer of troposphere exhibits a phenomenon of super-rotation, in which the atmosphere circles the planet in just four Earth days, much faster than the planet's sidereal day of 243 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, it is a poorly studied region of the planet because earlier spaceprobes that descended through the atmosphere only began their measurements at or below 60 km. (esa.int)
  • The planet may be similar to Mercury or Earth's moon, with little to no atmosphere. (stanford.edu)
  • If the atmosphere did not exist life could not be sustained on the planet. (softschools.com)
  • While this is not the detection of life on another planet, it's an important step in the right direction: the detection of an atmosphere around the super-Earth GJ 1132b marks the first time that an atmosphere has been detected around an Earth-like planet other than Earth itself," researcher John Southworth said in a news release. (spacedaily.com)
  • The planet is significantly hotter and a bit larger than Earth, so one possibility is that it is a 'water world' with an atmosphere of hot steam. (spacedaily.com)
  • The headline says, "newly discovered planet could possibly maybe have an atmosphere. (slashdot.org)
  • Well, TFA is primarily about the planet and the fact that it seems to have an atmosphere. (slashdot.org)
  • There, it will orbit Mars and study the atmosphere to try to understand how the planet morphed from warm and wet to cold and dry. (dailyherald.com)
  • This process is being investigated by NASA's MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution) mission . (space.com)
  • NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution probe, MAVEN, is set to launch atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on Monday. (dailyherald.com)
  • Much of the recent research on urban air pollution has focused upon cities as a source of air pollutants to the regional and global atmosphere. (rsc.org)
  • In the regional and global atmosphere, processes with timescales of days can play an important role, whereas in the urban atmosphere, typical timescales are hours at most, and in some situations such as street canyons, typical residence times are of the order of minutes. (rsc.org)
  • The latter is a key point as the global atmosphere is frequently rather well mixed in the vertical (at least within the boundary layer and within the free troposphere) whereas the urban atmosphere has very strong gradients of concentration because of a predominance of ground-level pollutant emissions, and for this reason, mixing processes may be as big a determinant of concentration as chemical reactivity. (rsc.org)
  • for example, an argon atmosphere is used in graphite electric furnaces to prevent the graphite from burning. (wikipedia.org)
  • For more on the smelly atmospheres of alien worlds and other science and tech news, follow me on Twitter and Google + . (forbes.com)
  • Objects that have no atmosphere, or that have only an exosphere, have terrain that is covered in craters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dust is also a permanent part of the atmosphere, with higher amounts of it in the northern fall and winter, and lower amounts in the northern spring and summer. (space.com)
  • That means Rhea's entire atmosphere, under Earthly conditions, would fill a cube about 70 feet (22 meters) long on each side. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The study supports the idea therefore that the ancient atmosphere must have had a strong concentration of greenhouse gases. (bbc.com)
  • The only thing that can heat the atmosphere here is when pockets of gas sink back down into the denser atmosphere. (esa.int)
  • Visit the Atmosphere Wiki for information on the framework. (grails.org)
  • You may wonder what an alien world looks like, what its atmosphere might hold, whether its terrain is similar to Earth 's or even if it holds extra-terrestrial life , but have you ever wondered what it might smell like? (forbes.com)
  • On Earth, units of air pressure are based on the internationally recognized standard atmosphere (atm), which is defined as 101.325 kPa (760 Torr or 14.696 psi). (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] It is speculated that the atmosphere of Venus up to around 4 billion years ago was more like that of the Earth with liquid water on the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution of the atmosphere , the development of Earth 's atmosphere across geologic time . (britannica.com)
  • Mars' thin atmosphere and its greater distance from the sun mean that Mars is much colder than Earth. (space.com)
  • Did You Know that the Earth Loses Several Hundred Tons of Atmosphere to Space Every Day? (universetoday.com)
  • But Earth stays warm even at night because of a layer of carbon dioxide, or CO 2 , in our atmosphere. (exploratorium.edu)
  • The atmosphere is composed of CO 2 and other gases, that form a heat-trapping blanket around the Earth. (exploratorium.edu)
  • A new study by a team of Japanese researchers utilized the Suprime-Cam and Faint Object Camera Spectrograph (FOCAS) instruments aboard the Subaru Telescope to study the atmosphere of a super-Earth known as GJ 1214 B (Gilese 1214 b). (redorbit.com)
  • The atmosphere is the superhighway in the sky that moves water everywhere over the Earth. (usgs.gov)
  • Before life was widespread on Earth, its atmosphere was very different. (stanford.edu)
  • For example, an event on the surface of the Earth, such as a volcanic eruption, will produce radially outward longitudinal mechanical perturbations on the atmosphere. (darpa.mil)
  • The atmosphere layer closest to the earth is referred to as the troposphere. (softschools.com)
  • Roughly 80% of the weight of the atmosphere is located in the troposphere, which is the layer closest to the earth. (softschools.com)
  • Because of human contamination of the atmosphere, it is estimated that 20% of the population on earth are continuously breathing heavily contaminated air. (softschools.com)
  • The weather on earth is created by pressure systems in the atmosphere. (softschools.com)
  • The imprints of raindrops preserved in 2.7bn-year-old rock are being used to figure out what the atmosphere was like on the early Earth. (bbc.com)
  • The atmosphere protects and sustains life on Earth in a variety of ways. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The atmosphere and the Earth itself becomes warmer than it would be without the greenhouse gases. (johnstonsarchive.net)
  • From the duo Atmosphere (whose individual names, Slug and Ant, remind me of an unlikely superhero team), Freefallin' offers some perspective on how to step back and view life when you're placed between a rock and a hard place. (djbooth.net)
  • And this gratis, full-length album by indie hip-hop duo Atmosphere , is yours for the scooping, courtesy of the artists Ant and Slug (pictured left). (wired.com)
  • Restoring and protecting forests would do far more to reduce the carbon load in the atmosphere than dedicating vast tracts of land to energy crops, argue Renton Righelato and Dominick Spracklen, in a study published today in 'Science. (wired.com)
  • Even in the open ocean, more than half of the microbial load in the atmosphere is derived from land. (innovations-report.com)
  • Remember when carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere hit a terrifying 400 parts per million (ppm)? (inhabitat.com)
  • So I guess it wouldn't be too surprising that you'd find some layer of a particular microbe, or something, at various levels in the atmosphere. (foxnews.com)
  • I have been surrounded by chanting children with zombie-like faces, who have been trained by their teachers to yell fatuous slogans, such as, "Oooh, oooh, it's hot in here, there's too much carbon in the atmosphere. (marketplace.org)
  • The thin Mars atmosphere today composed mainly of carbon dioxide as depicted in this artist's illustration. (space.com)
  • Although Mars' atmosphere used to be thick enough for water to run on the surface, today that water is either scarce or non-existent. (space.com)
  • What is Mars' atmosphere made of? (space.com)
  • The atmosphere of Mars is about 100 times thinner than Earth's, and it is 95 percent carbon dioxide. (space.com)
  • Early in its history (particularly in periods older than 3.5 billion years ago) Mars had a thick enough atmosphere for water to run on its surface. (space.com)
  • Understanding the makeup and dynamics of Mars' present atmosphere will help guide humans more safely to the planet's surface, especially if the ship takes advantage of the atmosphere for braking, Jakosky said. (dailyherald.com)