Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)
Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.
A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.
The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
The large hole at the base of the skull through which the SPINAL CORD passes.
Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)
The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the CLAVICLE and the inner margin of the acromion process of the SCAPULA.
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
The first cervical vertebra.
A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5)
A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
A double gliding joint formed by the CLAVICLE, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sterni at the clavicular notch, and the cartilage of the first rib.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
A subjective visual sensation with the eyes closed and in the absence of light. Phosphenes can be spontaneous, or induced by chemical, electrical, or mechanical (pressure) stimuli which cause the visual field to light up without optical inputs.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The articulations between the CARPAL BONES and the METACARPAL BONES.
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A dead body, usually a human body.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Pain in the joint.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The articulations between the various CARPAL BONES. This does not include the WRIST JOINT which consists of the articulations between the RADIUS; ULNA; and proximal CARPAL BONES.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.
Various conditions with the symptom of HEADACHE. Headache disorders are classified into major groups, such as PRIMARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on characteristics of their headache symptoms) and SECONDARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on their etiologies). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46)
The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The application, via IMPLANTED ELECTRODES, of short bursts of electrical energy in the radiofrequency range, interspersed with pauses in delivery of the current long enough to dissipate the generated heat and avoid heat-induced tissue necrosis.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.
The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Partial or total replacement of a joint.
Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)
Veins draining the cerebrum.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Secondary headache attributed to TRAUMA of the HEAD and/or the NECK.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
Loss of the power to comprehend written materials despite preservation of the ability to write (i.e., alexia without agraphia). This condition is generally attributed to lesions that "disconnect" the visual cortex of the non-dominant hemisphere from language centers in the dominant hemisphere. This may occur when a dominant visual cortex injury is combined with underlying white matter lesions that involve crossing fibers from the occipital lobe of the opposite hemisphere. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p483)
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.
Fixation and immobility of a joint.
Differential response to different stimuli.
A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p323)
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.
Manner or style of walking.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
The inability to recognize a familiar face or to learn to recognize new faces. This visual agnosia is most often associated with lesions involving the junctional regions between the temporal and occipital lobes. The majority of cases are associated with bilateral lesions, however unilateral damage to the right occipito-temporal cortex has also been associated with this condition. (From Cortex 1995 Jun;31(2):317-29)
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
A condition that is characterized by HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and visual loss with edema in the posterior aspects of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, such as the BRAIN STEM. Generally, lesions involve the white matter (nerve fibers) but occasionally the grey matter (nerve cell bodies).
A serious complication of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA; DEHYDRATION; serum hyperosmolarity; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA in the absence of KETOSIS and ACIDOSIS.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.

Transoral decompression for craniovertebral osseous anomalies: perioperative management dilemmas. (1/92)

The surgical outcome of 74 patients, who underwent transoral decompression (TOD) for ventral irreducible craniovertebral junction anomalies between January 1989 to September 1997, was studied to evaluate the perioperative complications and problems encountered. The indications for TOD included irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (n=24), basilar invagination (n=16), and a combination of both (n=35). Following TOD, occipitocervical stabilization using Jain's technique was carried out in 50 (67.5%) and atlantoaxial fusion using Brooks' construct in 18 (24.3%) patients. The pre- and postoperative radiology was compared to assess the adequacy of decompression and stability. The major morbidity included pharyngeal wound sepsis leading to dehiscence (20.3%) and haemorrhage (4%), valopharyngeal insufficiency (8.1%), CSF leak (6.7%) and inadequate decompression (6.7%). Neurological deterioration occurred transiently in 17 (22.9%) and was sustained in 7 (9.4%) patients. The mortality in six cases was due to operative trauma, exanguination from pharyngeal wound (one each), postoperative instability and inability to be weaned off from the ventilator (two each). Of the 47 (63.5%) patients available at follow up ranging from 3 months to 2 years, 26 (55.3%) showed improvement from their preoperative status while 14 (29.8%) demonstrated stabilization of their neurological deficits. Seven (14.9%) of them deteriorated. Though TOD is logical and effective in relieving ventral compression due to craniovertebral junction anomalies, it carries the formidable risks of instability, incomplete decompression, neurological deterioration, CSF leak, infection and palatopharyngeal dysfunction.  (+info)

Bow hunter's stroke associated with atlantooccipital assimilation--case report. (2/92)

A 39-year-old male presented with bow hunter's stroke manifesting as repeated vertebrobasilar ischemic attacks induced by head rotation 45 degrees to the left. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography clearly showed the occluded right vertebral artery (VA) between the axis and atlas. Single photon emission computed tomography study showed diffuse hypoperfusion of the brain stem and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, suggesting hemodynamic compromise of these regions. He refused surgery and was treated conservatively. The most likely mechanism is that the affected VA was fixed by the ossification of the atlantooccipital membrane, vascular groove, and transverse foramen of the atlas, and therefore became elongated and compressed by head-turning.  (+info)

Surgical treatment of nonunited fractures of the odontoid process, with special reference to occipitocervical fusion for unreducible atlantoaxial subluxation or instability. (3/92)

Fifty-seven consecutive patients treated surgically for nonunited fractures of the odontoid process were reviewed. All patients presented late, exhibiting neurological deficits subsequent to nonunion. Delay in presentation was between 6 and 120 months (mean 32 months) after the original injury, due to missed diagnosis or inappropriate management. Seven patients who were reduced in traction underwent a Gallie atlantoaxial fusion. In the remaining 50 patients who were unreducible, an occipitocervical arthrodesis was performed. They were followed up for a minimum of 2 years, except one who died from postoperative respiratory failure. All patients obtained a solid bony union, including two in whom nonunion occurred following atlantoaxial fusion, and occipitocervical fusion was added as a rescue. Thirty-eight patients achieved excellent neurological recovery, nine still had some disability, five retained their neurological deficits and two reported a deterioration. In two patients, a recurrence in a traumatic episode was experienced long after a resolution. Our findings demonstrate that occipitocervical arthrodesis is preferable for unreducible subluxation or instability of atlantoaxial articulation in nonunion of odontoid fractures.  (+info)

Bilateral type 1 proatlantal arteries with absence of vertebral arteries. (4/92)

The persistent proatlantal artery is a well-described communication between the carotid and vertebrobasilar system. However, persistence of bilateral proatlantal arteries is exceptionally rare. Although usually noted as an incidental finding, the presence of a proatlantal artery, particularly when bilateral, may result in unusual symptoms or may have implications for therapy. We report a case of bilateral proatlantal arteries, describe their embryology, and consider potential clinical implications of this finding.  (+info)

Hindbrain stroke in children caused by extracranial vertebral artery trauma. (5/92)

Hindbrain transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) culminating in posterior circulation stroke are described in five children. Atlanto-axial subluxation and angiographical documentation of C1 to C2 level arterial pathology are documented in one patient. Four additional patients with nearly identical clinical presentations, posterior fossa TIAs, stroke and basilar angiographical pathology are reviewed. A mechanical traumatic etiology is suggested. Unexplained transient repeated brain stem and/or cerebellar sympotomatology may be due to extracranial vetebral artery stenosis or occlusion by atlanto-axial instability. After appropriate documentation, stabilization may prevent further TIAs or strokes.  (+info)

Recognition and management of atlanto-occipital dislocation: improving survival from an often fatal condition. (6/92)

OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of atlanto-occipital dislocation and associated occipital condyle fracturcs so as to alert physicians to this rare injury and potentially improve patient outcome. The pertinent anatomy, mechanism of injury, clinical and radiologic evaluation and the management of these rare injuries are discussed in an attempt to alert physicians to this type of injury and to improve outcome. DATA SOURCES: The data were obtained from a MEDLINE search of the English literature from 1966 to 1999 and the experience of 4 spine surgeons at a quaternary care acute spinal cord injury unit. STUDY SELECTION: Detailed anatomic and epidemiologically sound radiology studies were identified and analyzed. Only small retrospective studies or case series were available in the literature. DATA EXTRACTION: Valid anatomic, biomechanical and radiologic evaluation was extracted from studies. Clinical data came from limited studies and expert opinion. DATA SYNTHESIS: Early diagnosis is essential and is facilitated by a detailed clinical examination and strict adherence to an imaging algorithm that includes CT and MRI scanning. When the dislocation is identified, timely gentle reduction and prompt stabilization throuigh nonoperative or operative means is found to optimize patient outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Atlanto-occipital dislocation should be suspected in any patient involved in a high speed motor vehicle or pedestrian collision. Once suspected, proper imaging and appropriate management of these once fatal injuries can improve survival and neurologic outcome.  (+info)

Skeletal aspects of the atlanto-occipital fusion in a Japanese brown calf. (7/92)

Atlanto-occipital fusion in a Japanese Brown calf was examined morphologically, paying special attention to skeletal changes. At the craniovertebral junction, the basal occipital bone fused to the cranial extremity of the ventral arch of the atlas with the rudiment of the atlantal centrum. The dens was not formed at the axis. These changes suggest that a hypocentrum and a centrum of the atlas derived from the first cervical sclerotome had failed to separate the occipital base from the proatlantal sclerotome including the apical element of the dens. Although a developmental disturbance at the cervical and thoracic vertebrae was also associated, critical neurological signs such as ataxia and paralysis were absent.  (+info)

Traumatic posterior atlantooccipital dislocation with Jefferson fracture and fracture-dislocation of C6-C7: a case report with survival. (8/92)

Atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD) is a rare and usually fatal injury. In the current study, the authors reported an extremely rare case of posterior AOD with Jefferson fracture and fracture-dislocation of C6-C7. The patient survived the injury and had only incomplete quadriplegia below the C7 segment with anterior cord syndrome. He was successfully managed with in situ occipitocervical fusion using the Cotrel-Dubousset rod system, corpectomy of C6, and anterior interbody fusion of C5-C7 with plating. To our knowledge, this is the first report of posterior AOD with two other non-contiguous cervical spine injuries. A high index of suspicion and careful examination of the upper cervical spine should be considered as the key to the diagnosis of AOD in cases that involve multiple or lower cervical spine injuries.  (+info)

Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is an ominous injury with high mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. Improved survival has been observed wit
What happens during an injection?. A local anesthetic will be used to numb your skin. The doctor will then insert a thin needle directly into the atlanto-occipital joint. Fluoroscopy, a type of x-ray, must be used to ensure the safe and proper position of the needle. A dye may also be injected to make sure the needle is at the correct spot.. When the doctor is sure the needle is at the correct place, the anesthetic and steroid will be injected.. What happens after an AO injection?. You will be monitored for up to 30 minutes after the injection. When you are ready to leave, the staff will give you discharge instructions and a pain diary. It is important to fill out the pain diary because it helps your doctor know how the injection is working.. It may help to move your neck in ways that hurt before the injection, to see if the pain is still there, but do not overdo it. Take it easy for the rest of the day.. You may feel immediate pain relief and numbness in your upper neck for a period of time ...
The atlanto-occipital articulations function as bilaterally symmetrical joints, each of which is formed by an occipital condyle and a superior articular facet of the atlas. Each is classified as an ellipsoidal joint because of its shape. The capsule is rather roomy and relaxed and the joint possesses no individual accessory ligaments ...
This study describes the ultrasonographic appearance of the atlanto-occipital space and ultrasound-guided collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cattle. The atlanto-occipital space of 73 euthanized cattle (group A) and 14 live cattle with neurological disorders (group B) was examined in the sagittal and transverse planes using a 5.0-MHz convex transducer. Optimal ultrasonograms were frozen on the screen and various variables were measured in both planes using the electronic cursors. Puncture of the subarachnoid space was achieved using a spinal needle introduced in the median plane in a caudoventral direction while the spinal cord was viewed in longitudinal section. The examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was limited to gross evaluation and a red blood cell count. The spinal cord and the subarachnoid space were seen in the sagittal plane in all cattle. In group A, the mean distance between the skin and subarachnoid space was 38.6 mm, the mean depth of the subarachnoid space dorsal and ventral
Steffen F, Flueckiger M, Montavon PM. Vet Surg 2003;32:411-415. OBJECTIVE: To present a detailed description of a dog with atlanto-occipital (A-O) luxation,
A broad, thin ligamentous sheet that connects the posterior rim of the foramen magnum to the superior border of the posterior arch of the atlas. The lateral aspects of the membrane blend with the posterior surfaces of the atlanto-occipital joint capsules. It is equivalent to the ligamentum flavum at other vertebral levels ...
A broad, thin ligamentous sheet that connects the posterior rim of the foramen magnum to the superior border of the posterior arch of the atlas. The lateral aspects of the membrane blend with the posterior surfaces of the atlanto-occipital joint capsules. It is equivalent to the ligamentum flavum at other vertebral levels ...
A broad fibrous sheet that binds the anterior edge of the foramen magnum to the superior margin of the anterior arch of the atlas. The thickened median portion of this membrane is the continuation of the anterior longitudinal ligament. Laterally it covers the anterior surface of the atlanto-occipital joints ...
The posterior atlantooccipital membrane (posterior atlantooccipital ligament) is a broad but thin membrane. It is connected above to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum and below to the upper border of the posterior arch of the atlas. On each side of this membrane there is a defect above the groove for the vertebral artery which serves as an opening for the entrance of the artery. The suboccipital nerve also passes through this defect. The free border of the membrane arches over the artery and nerve and is sometimes ossified. The membrane is deep to the Recti capitis posteriores minores and Obliqui capitis superiores and is superficial to the dura mater of the vertebral canal to which it is closely associated. In 2015, Scali et al. revisited the anatomy of the posterior atlantooccipital membrane via plastination. Their findings revealed that the PAO membrane superiorly consisted of periosteum of the occiput, whereas inferiorly it formed part of the dura at the cerebrospinal junction, ...
Posterior occipitocervical fixation and fusion are often required to address occipitocervical instability. Safe, stable internal fixation with screws is vital for the success of such surgery. Thus, poor selection of an internal fixation technique may cause fixation and fusion failure, possibly leading to neurovascular injury. Hence, in certain cases, such as in patients with severe instability of an occipitocervical deformity or osteoporosis, we hypothesized that having a third anchor point (a screw in C2) could enhance the stability of the occipitocervical fixation. A 31-year-old man with occipitocervical deformity and spinal cord edema underwent a traditional occipitocervical fixation procedure but with the addition of a spinous process screw in C2 as a third anchor point. The procedure included posterior internal fixation and fusion. The occipitocervical fixation was completed by inserting occipital screws, bilateral C2 pedicle screws, C3 lateral mass screws, and a spinous process screw in C2 as a
The C1 and C2 vertebra and the occipital bone of the skull form the atlanto-occipital joint. This type of joint is a synovial joint and allows flexion and extension. This allows the head to make...
The rectus capitis posterior major (or rectus capitis posticus major, both being Latin for larger posterior straight muscle of the head) arises by a pointed tendon from the spinous process of the axis, and, becoming broader as it ascends, is inserted into the lateral part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface of the bone immediately below the line.. A soft tissue connection bridging from the rectus capitis posterior major to the cervical dura mater was described in 2011. Various clinical manifestations may be linked to this anatomical relationship.[1] It has also been postulated that this connection serves as a monitor of dural tension along with the rectus capitis posterior minor and the obliquus capitis inferior.. As the muscles of the two sides pass upward and lateralward, they leave between them a triangular space, in which the rectus capitis posterior minor is seen.. Its main actions are to extend and rotate the atlanto-occipital joint.. ...
Lets begin with a little coding and documentation background. According to the American Medical Association, chiropractic manipulative treatment (CMT) is a form of manual treatment to influence joint and neurophysiological function. The CMT codes include a pre-manipulation patient assessment. Additional evaluation and management (E/M) services may be reported separately using modifier 25, if the patients condition requires a separate E/M service, above and beyond the usual pre-service and post-service. The E/M service may be caused or prompted by the same symptoms or condition for which the CMT service was provided. As such, different diagnoses are not required for the reporting of the CMT and E/M service on the same date.. For purposes of CMT, the five spinal regions referred to are: cervical region (includes atlanto-occipital joint); thoracic region (includes costovertebral and costotransverse joints); lumbar region; sacral region; and pelvic (sacro-iliac joint) region.. ...
Tracheal intubation is generally considered the best method for airway management under a wide variety of circumstances, as it provides the most reliable means of oxygenation and ventilation and the greatest degree of protection against regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration.[2] However, tracheal intubation requires a great deal of clinical experience to master[81] and serious complications may result even when properly performed.[82]. Four anatomic features must be present for orotracheal intubation to be straightforward: adequate mouth opening (full range of motion of the temporomandibular joint), sufficient pharyngeal space (determined by examining the back of the mouth), sufficient submandibular space (distance between the thyroid cartilage and the chin, the space into which the tongue must be displaced in order for the larygoscopist to view the glottis), and adequate extension of the cervical spine at the atlanto-occipital joint. If any of these variables is in any way compromised, ...
At the atlanto-occipital joint, the joint between the neck and the skull, the rectus capitis anterior muscle takes care of flexing the neck, allowing the head to nod downward. This takes place at a low region on the back the skull.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Traumatic occipitoatlantal dislocation. AU - Montane, Ismael. AU - Eismont, Frank J.. AU - Green, Barth A.. PY - 1991/2. Y1 - 1991/2. N2 - Four patients with traumatic occipitoatlantal dislocation are presented. The dislocations were the result of rapid deceleration motor vehicle accidents. The mechanism of injury was by hyperextension-rotation combined with a distraction force. Three patients sustained multiple injuries. Neurologic findings were variable. One patient with complete cord transection and closed head trauma died 4 days after the injury. In the three surviving patients, the occipitoatlantal dislocation was not diagnosed by the initial examiner. Prompt recognition and stabilization are essential to avoid further neurologic injury. Care must be taken not to increase the dislocation. A halo applied before operation facilitates reduction and allows posterior occipitoatlantal fusion to be performed under optimum conditions.. AB - Four patients with traumatic ...
Numerous reports of atlantooccipital dislocations (AODs) have been described in frontal impacts and vehicle versus pedestrian collisions. Reports of survival after AOD in conjunction with side impacts have infrequently been reported in the literature. The objective of this study is to present a case of an AOD from a side impact vehicle collision, and deduce the mechanism of injury. A clinical and biomechanical reconstruction of the collision was performed to investigate the mechanism of the dislocation. A 51-year-old female was traveling in a four-door sedan and sustained a side impact collision with a compact pickup truck. At the time of extrication, the patient was neurologically intact with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. After admittance to the hospital, the patient developed a decline in respiratory status, right mild hemiparesis, and left sixth-nerve palsy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) reconstructions indicated a craniocervical dislocation. Surgical ...
Anterior view of structures at atlantooccipital region. Bone of the lower clivus and adjacent parts of the occipital bone were removed to expose...
Atlanto-occipital dislocation is a highly unstable craniocervical injury, resulting from damage to ligaments and/or bony structures connecting the skull to
In the previous studies, the stroke mechanism of patients with infarction aged below 50 years was reported [1]-[3]. According to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification of stroke mechanism, the proportion of other determined etiology in young-age stroke is rather high: large-artery atherosclerosis, 11%, cardioembolism, 24%, small-artery occlusion, 8%, stroke of other determined etiology, 27%, and stroke of undetermined etiology, 29% [3]. Vertebral arterial injuries associated with structural osseous anomaly, one of other determined etiology, have been reported [4],[5].. Anomalous occipital bony process may be a byproduct of fusion abnormalities [6]-[8]. The incidence of anomaly of atlanto-occipital fusion that could cause compression of the vertebral artery varies between 0.5% and 1.0% [6],[7]. The symptoms may be headache, neck pain, numbness, and weakness in the limbs, or cranial nerve dysfunction including tinnitus, visual disturbance, dysphagia, or dysarthria ...
A method and system for thermal-dynamic modeling and performance evaluation of a nuclear Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) core design is presented. A data processing system is used to execute specific program routines that simultaneously simulate the thermal operating characteristics of fuel rods within the reactor during a transient operational condition. The method employs a multi-dimensional approach for the simulation of postulated operational events or an anticipated operational occurrence (AOO) which produces a transient condition in the reactor-such as might be caused by single operator error or equipment malfunction. Based on a generic transient bias and uncertainty in the change in critical power ratio (ΔCPR/ICPR), histograms of fuel rod critical power ratio (CPR) are generated. Ultimately, the operating limit minimum critical power ratio (OLMCPR) of the reactor is evaluated from a histogram of probability calculations representing the number of fuel rods subject to a boiling transition (NRSBT)
The unilateral transection of the cerebellar peduncles was performed on 29 rats (Table 1). In these animals the atlanto-occipital membrane was exposed and excised, and the cerebellar peduncles of one side was cut by inserting a microknife into the fourth ventricle underneath the cerebellum. These animals belong to an experimental set described in a previous study to which it can be referred for details about the surgical procedures and the evaluation of lesion extent (Buffo et al., 1998).. The Purkinje cell axonal transport was blocked in vivo by injecting a colchicine solution into the cerebellar parenchyma of uninjured rats. These animals were placed on a stereotaxic frame, the occipital bone was exposed, and a hole was drilled in the superior aspect to expose the cerebellar vermis. A total of 4 μg of either colchicine (n = 17, Table 1) or β-lumicolchicine, as a control (n = 4, Table 1), diluted in 1 μl of saline solution was pressure-injected 1 mm deep within the cerebellar parenchyma ...
This issue of Acta Neurochirururgica presents the latest surgical and experimental approaches to the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). It discusses anterior
Craniocervical Junction Disorders - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
Craniocervical Junction Disorders - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Craniocervical Junction Disorders from the Home Version of the Merck Manuals.
Dean, C. B., Bellhouse, D. R., Brown, S., Froda, S. and Heckman, N. (2015). Vignette 7.1 A glimpse into women who lay the foundation for the development of statistics in Canada. Advancing Women in Science: An International Perspective , 219-225 ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A new technique for intraoperative reduction of occipitocervical instability.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The post defines the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) and using matlab/octave script, computes the cumulative distribuition function (CDF) of PAPR for 802.11a specification.
The post defines the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) and using matlab/octave script, computes the cumulative distribuition function (CDF) of PAPR for 802.11a specification.
The vertebral arteries pass through the intervertebral foramen of the axis before passing through the anterior atlantooccipital membrane to enter the suboccipitial triangle ...
To access some of the advanced features (e.g. adding comments on articles, adding a meeting, viewing a PDF or making your favorite list) you need to login ...
List Price: $199.00. ADD TO SHOPPING CART. This text includes stabilization techniques for the entire spinal column, ranging from the cranio-cervical junction to the pelvis. The information is presented in an easily digestible format that is suitable for those in school or training, yet includes pearls and insight that can be appreciated by even the most seasoned surgeon. The text is divided into major sections based on the anatomical regions of the spine - cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral. An additional section is devoted to related surgical concepts and principles such as spinal biomechanics and bone grafting options. Each chapter has a uniform design including background, indications, patient selection, preoperative considerations, surgical technique, technical pearls, and strategies for complication avoidance. Preoperative and postoperative images and/or illustrations are utilized to highlight the presented information.. ...
The other thing that is progressing is my cranio-cervical instability. During spells, I feel my brain ache and feel heavy, and I get extreme nausea. I know that this is the exact feeling that restricted me to bed not so many years ago. In some ways, I cant wait for the fusion surgery to matter what I have to go through, in the hopes that I may actually get better this time. I think there is reason to believe that this is the time. This is the surgery that will finally help! I hope I dont have to become completely debilitated before it is time for surgery, though ...
Craniocervical syndromes may be a key culprit in many neurological and neurodegenerative conditions similar to their role in Ehlers-Danlos and multiple sclerosis.
spine glossary craniocervical junction craniocervical junction. this is aplex region where the skull and upper cervical spine connect. the connection between the brain and the spinal cord is at the base of the brainstem in the region of the craniocervical junction.cervical spine anatomy overview gross anatomy the cervical spine is m up of 7 vertebrae. the first 2 c1 and c2 are highly specialized and are given unique names atlas and axis respectively. c3c7 are more classic vertebrae having a body pedicles laminae spinous processes and facet joints. c1 and c2 form a unique set of articulationsupper cervical spine disors anatomy of the head and upper cervical spine disors anatomy of the head and upper neck a quick lesson to help you learn more about your craniovertebral junction condition.craniocervical junction disors brain spinal cord the craniocervical junction consists of the bone that forms the base of the skull occipital bone and the first two bones in the spine which are in the neck the ...
Occipital condyle definition, a protrusion on the occipital bone of the skull that forms a joint with the first cervical vertebra, enabling the head to move relative to the neck. See more.
Atlantooccipital dislocation Dislocation of the atlantooccipital joint is rare, usually occurring secondary to cervical hyperextension injury. To see you the best accessible pa this example is seconds. Physical Therapies In one study of 40 people, hypnosis resolved more warts than either topical salicylic acid, or a placebo (dummy treatment). 3) Work with the resistance of patients. (1997). You may be able to take advantage of resources like CommonApp. If your child has swollen glands or other signs of infection and is taking one of these drugs, tell your doctor immediately. I dropped his prescriptions off Monday at about 1 oclock, and said wed be back about 6 to pick them maxalt (rizatriptan) 5 mg order up. And cheap benemid (probenecid) for sale he believed an interview involving both players would be the right way to get wounds to heal. 9,651.0 9,668.2 9,668.7 9,658.4 856.8 798.6 797.4 799.5 8.9 8.3 8.2 8.3North Carolina. Beckers selected critical access hospitals for inclusion based on ...
Neck pain is a common complaint. The prevalence is approximately between 75% and 80% in the U.S. population. Fortunately, acute neck pain has a very favorable prognosis, with 80% of cases resolved within 2 years.1 But 20% of cases are estimated not to improve and of these, 5% are characterized by severe disabling chronic neck pain.2 The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) describes chronic cervical spine pain as follows: Pain perceived as arising from anywhere within the region bounded superiorly by the superior nuchal line, inferiorly by an imaginary transverse line through the tip of the first thoracic spinous process, and laterally by sagittal planes tangential to the lateral borders of the neck.3 The potential sources of neck pain are derived from those structures that have abundant nociceptive innervation, which include the cervical zygapophysial (facet) joints (including atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital), posterior neck muscles, cervical intervertebral discs, vertebral ...
Objective: Despite the development of atraumatic microsurgical techniques and skull base approaches, tumors of the craniocervical junction still pose a major challenge. Due to the highly vulnerable vascular and neural structures, they are often only subtotally resected. They may represent an indication for adjuvant radiosurgery.. Methods: Between July 1992 and September 2001, 12 patients with a mean age of 48 years (range 15-68) received a postoperative radiosurgical treatment with the Gamma Knife. Nine patients had meningiomas, two had hemangioblastomas and one suffered from a chordoma. The median tumor volume was 3.8 ccm (range 0.79-15.6 ccm). Follow-up time ranged from 36-120 months (median 64). The tumor borders were covered with volume curves on the 45-60% isodose and received a marginal dosis of 12-15 Gy.. Results: Follow-up MR images revealed tumor shrinkage in 7 cases, constant volume in 3 cases and increased tumor size in 2 patients. Neurological examination showed improved status in 6 ...
Context: Existence of complex variable bony and vertebral artery (VA) anomalies at craniovertebral junction (CVJ) in subset of complex CVJ anomalies demands individualized instrumentation policy and placing screws in each bone requires strategic preoperative planning and intraoperative skills. Aim: To evaluate the clinical accuracy of knock and drill (K and D) technique for the screw placement in complex CVJ anomalies. Settings and Design: Prospective study and operative technical note. Materials and Methods: Totally 36 consecutive patients (16 - pediatrics, 20 - adult patients) of complex CVJ: Complete/partial occipitalized C1 vertebra; at least one hypoplastic (C1/C2) articular mass, rotational component, and variations in the third part of VA were included in this study. Preoperative detail computed tomography (CT) CT CVJ with three-dimensional reconstruction was done for the assessment of CVJ anatomy and facet joint orientation. The accuracy of novel technique was assessed with postoperative ...
A significant portion of the operating power of a base station is consumed by power amplifiers (PAs). Much of this power is dissipated in the form of heat, as the overall efficiency of currently deployed PAs is typically very low. This is because the structure of conventional precoding techniques typically results in a relatively high variation in output power at different antennas in the array, and many PAs are operated well below saturation to avoid distortion of the transmitted signals. In this work, we use a realistic model for power consumption in PAs and study the impact of power variation across antennas in the array on the energy efficiency of a massive MIMO downlink system. We introduce a family of linear precoding matrices that allow us to control the spatial peak-to-average power ratio by projecting a fraction of the transmitted power onto the null space of the channel. These precoding matrices preserve the structure of conventional precoders; e.g., they suppress multiuser interference when
The important thing for all of us, is to get our raised intra-cranial pressure down, one way or another and, if cranio-cervical instability is playing a part (i.e. if you are a stretchy type EDS person) you may need to stabilise the cranio-cervical joint with a good supporting collar (like a Philadelphia - NOT a soft collar as this does not support the head), when youre doing anything that involves a lot of head movement. I would avoid flexion at all costs because myself and others have found this exacerbates symptoms.. More recently it was suggested to me, by a practitioner, that Evening Primrose Oil (or more precisely VegEPA) can help get rid of chemicals in the brain that there is an excess of. Whether this is a significant amount or not, I dont know but one would think that this would reduce overall volume and help relieve symptoms.. Im only just starting out using this, so time will tell. If anyone has had any measure of success with this it would be nice to hear ...
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Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (OAAM) is a neurologic disorder caused by the malformation of the first two vertebrae of the neck, the atlas (C1) and the axis (C2), and the base of the skull ...
The contents of the jugular foramen (1,3,4) and hypoglossal canal (2) have been partially exposed without disturbing their relations. The capsule of the atlantoepistrophic joint (22) has been partially resected. The opposing articular surfaces of this joint are incongruous as compared to those of the atlantooccipital joint (6). A dense plexus of blood vessels (16) occupies the area between the dens and the margin of the foramen magnum. The apical ligament of the dens was not well defined ...
A total of 1458 eligible patients were identified from children between 1 and 18 years of age who underwent cervical spine CT scanning at a single institution. Patients were separated by both sex and age in years into 34 groups. Following this, patients within each group were randomly selected for inclusion until a target of 15 patients in each group had been reached. Each patient underwent measurement of the occipital condyle-C1 interval (CCI), pB-C2, atlantodental interval (ADI), basion-dens interval (BDI), basion-opisthion diameter (BOD), basion-axial interval (BAI), dens angulation, and canal diameter at C1. Mean values were calculated in each group. Each measurement was performed by two teams and compared for intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). ...
During this rotation residents gain experience in all aspects of neuroanesthesia practice. Residents have to anesthetize patients having a wide variety of neurosurgical procedures including craniotomies for supra- and infratentorial tumors, intracranial vascular surgical procedures for the treatment of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations, and spine surgery. The rotation stresses the pathophysiology of intracranial disease and surgery with special emphasis placed on understanding intrancranial elastance and intracranial hypertension and how they are altered during anesthesia and surgery. Residents gain experience with various techniques of neurophysiologic monitoring.. ...
2. When you keep twirling the hair, rotating the base of the braids, while still in extensions. This phenomenon is common at the front edge area of the hair. If you notice most ladies in box braids with attachment, you will see that the hair has rotated, so that it has a cylindrical shape. The continuous rotation stresses the edges, and eventually causes it to break away. When you play with your hair, whether your twists/braids are in extensions or not, you stress the hair too, and the already fragile thing just gets tired, and runs away from your head ...
CT scannogram -- CT scannogram depicts a large prevertebral soft tissue shadow indenting the nasopharyngeal & oropharyngeal air column.
An occipitocervical fixation system includes a plate for securing to the occiput and at least one pre-bent rod. The plate includes holes for receiving bone fasteners, and at least one clamping assembly for retaining a portion of a rod. The clamping assembly is selectively pivotable and lockable in place to fix the position of the rod.
Verpackung und Versand. Medizinische Themen und Kapitel. Others Humphries Dart no symptoms. Syrinxes usually result from lesions that partially obstruct CSF flow. Die Wahrnehmung von leichter Berührung sowie der Lage- und Vibrationssinn sind nicht betroffen. Jackpot Wheel first abnormality recognized may be a painless burn or cut. Share on: Facebook Twitter. Syrinxx content does not have an Arabic version. Underlying problems eg, craniocervical junction abnormalities, postoperative scarring, spinal tumors are corrected when possible. Later, Cavaly leg weakness develops. The song is about a dystopian futuristic society in which the arts, particularly music, have been suppressed by the Priests of the Temples of Syrinx. Eine Syrinx kann sich auch bilden bei Patienten mit Rückenmarkstumoren, Narbenbildung aufgrund eines stattgehabten Spinaltraumas oder ohne bekannte prädisponierende Faktoren. Our patients tell us that the quality Androidhandy their interactions, our attention to detail and the ...
atlasAtlasFirst cervical vertebra of, so called because it holds the head immediately, because it articulated with the skull through the occipital condyles.*Automatic Translation
14.96K Views0 Comments0 Likes. The occipitoatlantal (O-A) is the most superior weight-bearing synovial joint in the body, and the final junction for adapting to ...
The junction of the skull with the neck is called craniovertebral junction. This is the site for a number of pathologies, that can have severe neurological problems and can be potentially life threatening. Diagnosis is achieved by CT and MRI, and treatment involves decompression and provision of stability by metallic implants.. ...
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Its main actions are to extend and rotate the atlanto-occipital joint. Atlanto-occipital joint Rectus capitis lateralis Rectus ... Occipital bone. Outer surface. Rectus capitis posterior major's relationship to other suboccipital muscles. This article ... is inserted into the lateral part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface of the bone immediately ...
Its main actions are to extend and rotate the atlanto-occipital joint. ... is inserted into the lateral part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface of the bone immediately ...
The atlanto-occipital joint allows the head to nod up and down on the vertebral column. The dens acts as a pivot that allows ... Upper surface: rectus capitis anterior - occipital bone (inferior surface of the base) rectus capitis lateralis - occipital ... The atlas is the topmost vertebra and, with the axis (the vertebra below it), forms the joint connecting the skull and spine. ... The posterior part of the arch presents above and behind a rounded edge for the attachment of the posterior atlantooccipital ...
It acts at the atlanto-occipital joint to extend the head and flex the head to the ipsilateral side. Position of obliquus ... Deep muscles of the back (obliquus capitis superior labeled at upper left) Occipital bone. Outer surface. Muscle attachments ... superiorly and posteriorly to insert into the lateral half of the inferior nuchal line on the external surface of the occipital ...
... atlanto-occipital joints), and in cases of advanced decomposition. Visualization of the cardiovascular system. Replacement of ...
Atlanto-occipital joint Rectus capitis lateralis Rectus capitis posterior major muscle Rectus capitis anterior muscle This ... Connective tissue bridges were noted at the atlanto-occipital joint between the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and the ... Included are the joint complexes of the upper three cervical segments, the dura mater, and spinal cord. The dura-muscular, dura ... Lateral view of human skull (rectus capitis posterior minor shown in red.) Occipital bone. Outer surface. ...
Examples include: the wrist-joint metacarpophalangeal joints metatarsophalangeal joints atlanto-occipital joints These are also ... Radiocarpal joint and Metacarpo-phalangeal joint are examples of condyloid joints. An example of an Ellipsoid joint is the ... A condyloid joint (also called condylar, ellipsoidal, or bicondylar) is an ovoid articular surface, or condyle that is received ... These joints allow biaxial movements-i.e., forward and backward, or from side to side, but not rotation. ...
... may refer to: Atlanto-axial joint Atlanto-occipital joint This disambiguation page lists articles associated with ... the title Atlas joint. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended ...
The movement of nodding the head takes place predominantly through flexion and extension at the atlanto-occipital joint between ... This movement between the atlas and occipital bone is often referred to as the "yes joint", owing to its nature of being able ... cervical vertebra Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane and atlantoaxial ligament Median sagittal section through the occipital ... the atlanto-axial joint. A small amount of rotation of the vertebral column itself contributes to the movement. This movement ...
The atlanto-occipital joint allows the skull to move up and down, while the atlanto-axial joint allows the upper neck to twist ... Vertebral joint Costovertebral joint A facet joint between the superior and inferior articular processes (labeled at top and ... The sacrum with the ilium forms a sacroiliac joint on each side of the pelvis, which articulates with the hips. The last three ... There are superior and inferior articular facet joints on each side of the vertebra, which serve to restrict the range of ...
... the atlanto-occipital, atlanto-axial, lumbosacral, sacroiliac, costotransverse and costovertebral joints. National guidelines ... Osteopathic manipulation Joint manipulation Joint mobilization Spinal adjustment Koes BW, van Tulder M, Lin CW, Macedo LG, ... Mennel JM (1964). Joint Pain; Diagnosis and Treatment Using Manipulative Techniques. Boston: Little Brown and Co. American ... Tullberg T, Blomberg S, Branth B, Johnsson R (May 1998). "Manipulation does not alter the position of the sacroiliac joint. A ...
Synovial joint. Atlanto-axial. *Medial: Cruciate ligament of atlas (Transverse ligament of atlas) ... plane joint, ball and socket joint, hinge joint, pivot joint,[10][11] condyloid joint and saddle joint.[12] ... Simple joint: two articulation surfaces (e.g. shoulder joint, hip joint). *Compound joint: three or more articulation surfaces ... Types of joints based upon their structure (L to R): Cartilaginous joint, Fibrous joint, and Synovial joint. ...
... above horizontal through the flexing of the atlanto-occipital joint between the occipital condyles of the skull and the atlas ... Their rhachitomous vertebrae, notochord, and lack of occipital condyles (which attached the head to the neck) were features ... Edopoids have several primitive or plesiomorphic features, including a single occipital condyle and a bone called the ... to distinguish animals based on the absence or presence of occipital condyles. Temnospondyli became a commonly used name at the ...
... arytenoid cartilage arytenoideus muscle astereognosis asterion asterixis astrocyte asynergy ataxia atlanto-occipital joint ... obturator externus muscle obturator foramen obturator internus muscle occipital artery occipital bone occipital horn occipital ... tuberosity ischiorectal fossa ischium Islets of Langerhans isthmus Jacksonian seizure jaw jejunum joint joint capsule joint ... Tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint tectospinal tract tectum tegmen tympani tegmentum tela choroidae telencephalon ...
Albanerpetontids share with living lissamphibians an atlanto-occipital joint with two cotyles, a four fingered forelimb (manus ... Distinguishing apomorphic traits characterstic of albanerpetontids include a complex mortise and tenon like joint connecting ...
Plantar interossei Dorsal interossei torso/lumbar vertebrae Rectus abdominis muscle neck at atlanto-occipital joint Longus ... is a joint movement that decreases the angle between the bones that converge at the joint. For example, one's elbow joint ... A flexor is a muscle that flexes a joint. In anatomy, flexion (from the Latin verb flectere, to bend) ... in descending order of importance to the action of flexing the hip joint): Collectively known as the iliopsoas or inner hip ...
... medical condition where there is excessive movement of the vertebrae at the atlanto-occipital joint and the atlanto-axial joint ... It can be brought on by a trauma, frequently whiplash; laxity of the ligaments surrounding the joint; or other damage to the ... Common symptoms include: Occipital headaches Migraine Headaches neck, shoulder and jaw pain difficulty swallowing, or the ... It is frequently co-morbid with atlanto-axial instability, Chiari malformation and tethered cord syndrome. It is more common in ...
... acromioclavicular joint MeSH A02.835.583.097 - atlanto-axial joint MeSH A02.835.583.101 - atlanto-occipital joint MeSH A02.835. ... toe joint MeSH A02.835.583.405 - hand joints MeSH A02.835.583.405.174 - carpal joints MeSH A02.835.583.405.350 - finger joint ... foot joints MeSH A02.835.583.378.062 - ankle joint MeSH A02.835.583.378.531 - metatarsophalangeal joint MeSH A02.835.583.378. ... sacroiliac joint MeSH A02.835.583.748 - shoulder joint MeSH A02.835.583.781 - sternoclavicular joint MeSH A02.835.583.790 - ...
To facilitate a bottom dwelling lifestyle these organisms possess a special jaw joint, the atlanto-occipital joint, which ...
This maneuver involves flexion of the neck and extension of the head at Atlanto-occipital joint (also called the sniffing ...
... closing muscles attach at the median portion of the lower jaw and the jaw hinge attaches to the atlanto-occipital joint, ... The vertebrae of eusuchians had one convex and one concave articulating surface, allowing for a ball and socket type joint ... Their ankle joints flex in a different way from those of other reptiles, a feature they share with some early archosaurs. One ...
However, the atlanto-occipital joint, which controls neck movement, was stronger than it is in other sloths, which was probably ...
Occipital bone. Outer surface. Base of skull. Inferior surface. Atlanto-occipital joint Rectus capitis posterior major muscle ... Skull has been removed (except occipital bone). Lateral view. Still image. ... and is inserted into the under surface of the jugular process of the occipital bone. Position of rectus capitis lateralis ...
... and adequate extension of the cervical spine at the atlanto-occipital joint. If any of these variables is in any way ... the range of motion of the jaw (the temporomandibular joint): three of the subject's fingers should be able to fit between the ... temporomandibular joint or arytenoid cartilages, decreased oxygen content, elevated arterial carbon dioxide, and vocal cord ... full range of motion of the temporomandibular joint), sufficient pharyngeal space (determined by examining the back of the ...
To their margins are attached the capsules of the atlanto-occipital joints, and on the medial side of each is a rough ... Bilateral condyle fractures (e.g. as part of an atlanto-occipital dislocation or the "occipital ring fracture") are rare, but ... This injury tends to be unstable and may co-occur with atlanto-occipital subluxation or dislocation. Neurological injury may ... The occipital condyles are undersurface protuberances of the occipital bone in vertebrates, which function in articulation with ...
Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane: genetic traits can sometimes result in ossification, turning the groove into a foramen. ... There are three atlanto-axial joints: one median and two lateral: The median atlanto-axial joint is sometimes considered a ... It is a pivot joint. The atlanto-axial joint is of a complicated nature. It consists of no fewer than four distinct joints.[ ... The atlanto-axial joint is a joint in the upper part of the neck between the first and second cervical vertebrae; the atlas and ...
... consists of a pair of condyloid joints. The atlanto-occipital joint is a synovial joint. The ligaments connecting the bones are ... The atlanto-occipital joint (articulation between the atlas and the occipital bone; Capsula articularis atlantooccipitalis) ... capsules Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane The capsules of the atlantooccipital ... Occipital bone. Outer surface. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 295 of the 20th edition of Gray's ...
Talk:Atlanto-axial joint. *Talk:Atlanto-occipital joint. *Talk:Atrioventricular canal. *Talk:Atrioventricular node ...
... is attached to the basilar groove of the occipital bone, in front of the foramen magnum, where it blends with the cranial dura ... The tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint (occipitoaxial ligaments) is situated within the vertebral canal. It is a broad, ...
... in the temporomandibular joint: Mandibular condyle On the occipital bone, in the atlanto-occipital joint: Occipital condyles ... in the knee joint: Medial condyle Lateral condyle On the humerus, in the elbow joint: Condyle of humerus (Condylus humeri) On ... It is one of the markings or features of bones, and can refer to: On the femur, in the knee joint: Medial condyle Lateral ... and the femur head acts as a condyle in the hip joint. OED 2nd edition, 1989. Entry "condyle" in Merriam-Webster Online ...
The movement of nodding the head takes place predominantly through flexion and extension at the atlanto-occipital joint between ... This movement between the atlas and occipital bone is often referred to as the "yes joint", owing to its nature of being able ... the atlanto-axial joint. A small amount of rotation of the vertebral column itself contributes to the movement. This movement ... The atlas (C1) is the topmost vertebra, and along with the axis forms the joint connecting the skull and spine. It lacks a ...
... and adequate extension of the cervical spine at the atlanto-occipital joint. If any of these variables is in any way ... the range of motion of the jaw (the temporomandibular joint): three of the subject's fingers should be able to fit between the ... temporomandibular joint or arytenoid cartilages, decreased oxygen content, elevated arterial carbon dioxide, and vocal cord ... full range of motion of the temporomandibular joint), sufficient pharyngeal space (determined by examining the back of the ...
Subaxial cervical spine Atlanto-axial joint The elderly Because of such symptoms, people often mistake cervical spine disorder ... It results in occipital pain and myelopathy. Occipito-cervical junction This disorder may result from rheumatoid arthritis, ... The cervical spine contains many different anatomic compositions, including muscles, bones, ligaments, and joints. All of these ... Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Retrieved from Todd, ...
... and the Functional Implications of an Atypical Atlanto-Occipital Morphology". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 23 (2): 201-207. ... 2016). A study on the shape of the elbow joint of Thylacoleo carnifex and its implications for the predatory behavior of the ... as revealed by elbow joint morphology". Paleobiology. 42 (3): 508-531. doi:10.1017/pab.2015.55. hdl:1983/1f3ac566-0b08-48fb- ...
Atlanto-axial joint Gray's anatomy, 1918 Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Takahashi, Emiko; Funai, Mikiko; Joko, Masahiro ... The former is attached to the basilar part of the occipital bone, in close relation with the membrana tectoria; the latter is ...
"Atlanto-occipital assimilation , Radiology Reference Article ,". Radiopaedia. Retrieved 2020-12-17. Halmova, K ... For example GDF6 gene plays an important role in bone development and joint formation. The mutation in these genes can result ... It affects men and women equally when occurring due to atlanto-occipital assimilation. Increased incidences among low- ... When the occipital bone and the atlas (C1) are fused together in a condition called atlato-occipital assimilation it causes ...
The muscle is responsible for rotation of the head and first cervical vertebra (atlanto-axial joint). It forms the lower ... Vertebral column, occipital bone and obliquus capitis inferior muscle. The muscle arises from the apex of the spinous process ...
... consists of a pair of condyloid joints. The atlanto-occipital joint is a synovial joint. The ligaments connecting the bones are ... The atlanto-occipital joint (articulation between the atlas and the occipital bone; Capsula articularis atlantooccipitalis) ... capsules Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane The capsules of the atlantooccipital ... Occipital bone. Outer surface. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 295 of the 20th edition of Grays ...
Definition of atlantooccipital joint. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ... Definition: a condylar synovial joint between the superior articular facets of the atlas and the condyles of the occipital bone ...
To our best knowledge, there is no prior study to examine the role of range of motion (ROM) of the atlanto-occipital joint in ... Stiff atlanto-occipital joint, represented by low FOC, is an independent risk factor in the incidence of CS compared with ... Stiff atlanto-occipital joint, represented by low FOC, is an independent risk factor in the incidence of CS compared with ... To our best knowledge, there is no prior study to examine the role of range of motion (ROM) of the atlanto-occipital joint in ...
Atlanto-occipital joint. Other Terms: Articulatio atlanto-occipitalis, Craniovertebral joint, Articulatio atlantooccipitalis, ... The atlanto-occipital articulations function as bilaterally symmetrical joints, each of which is formed by an occipital condyle ... 3D - Muscles of the trunk region ▶ Atlanto-occipital joint *Abdominal hypaxial muscles ... Each is classified as an ellipsoidal joint because of its shape. The capsule is rather roomy and relaxed and the joint ...
Atlanto-occipital joint is the only bony connection between the cervical spine and the base of the skull. Learn about its ... Atlanto-occipital joint (Articulatio atlantooccipitalis). The atlanto-occipital joint (also known as the C0-C1 joint) is a ... Muscles acting on the atlanto-occipital joint. The postvertebral and anterior neck muscles act on the atlanto-occipital joint, ... The posterior atlanto-occipital membrane is a thin membrane that covers the posterior aspect of the atlanto-occipital joint. It ...
Atlanto-Occipital joint injection. Home / Chronic Neck Pain & Headache / Atlanto-Occipital joint injection ... What is the atlanto-occipital joint?. Joints connect the vertebrae, the bones of your spine. These joints help guide your spine ... What is AO joint pain?. You may feel pain if your atlanto-occipital joint is injured. Sometimes it feels like muscle tension. ... This joint is called the atlantooccipital joint. It is also sometimes called the AO or the CO-1 joint. Half of the total neck ...
Together they form the atlanto-occipital (AO) joint, where your head moves in relation to your neck. ... the spinal cord comes right out the bottom of the occipital bone ... The Importance of the Atlanto-occipital Joint January 29, 2019 ...
Atlanto-occipital joint 5 . Atlanto-occipital joint capsule 6 . Vertebral artery (cut across) ... Atlantooccipital joint, atlantoaxial joint and cervical vertebrae dissected from behind. Tectorial membrane; atlantooccipital ... Atlantooccipital joint, atlantoaxial joint and cervical vertebrae dissected from behind. Tectorial membrane; atlantooccipital ... The occipital bone had been cut across on the left side slightly posterior to the occipital condyle. The left atlantooccipital ...
Synovial joint. Atlanto-axial. *Medial: Cruciate ligament of atlas (Transverse ligament of atlas) ... plane joint, ball and socket joint, hinge joint, pivot joint,[10][11] condyloid joint and saddle joint.[12] ... Simple joint: two articulation surfaces (e.g. shoulder joint, hip joint). *Compound joint: three or more articulation surfaces ... Types of joints based upon their structure (L to R): Cartilaginous joint, Fibrous joint, and Synovial joint. ...
Atlanto-Occipital and Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections. Candido, Kenneth D. (et al.) ... Covers spinal interventional techniques, peripheral nerve blocks, sympathetic interventional techniques, soft tissue and joint ... soft tissue and joint injections, and implantables. Practical step-by-step and evidence-based guidance is given to each ...
Ultrasound-Guided Atlanto-Axial and Atlanto-Occipital Joint Injections. Pages 353-357 ... Sonoanatomy relevant to peripheral nerve blocks, muscle and joint injections. · Beautifully illustrated spine sonoanatomy ...
Its main actions are to extend and rotate the atlanto-occipital joint. ... is inserted into the lateral part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface of the bone immediately ...
Stabilizes atlanto-occipital joint. Rectus capitis anterior synergists?. Sternocleidomastoid, Rectus capitis lateralis, longus ... Assists with flexion and lateral flexion of head • -Stabilizes atlanto-occipital joint. ... Occipital bone Semispinalis- Capitis action?. -Bilateral extension at neck and trunk -Ipsilateral lateral flexion at neck and ... occipital bone Longus capitis action?. -Bilaterally - Flexes head - Unilaterally - Rotates and laterally flexes head to same ...
Atlanto-occipital joints (C1). *Atlantoaxial joints (C1-C2). *School Age Children. *Lower Cervical Spine (C5-C7) ... Types: Atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial dislocations. *Age. *Age ,3 years most commonly affected ...
the atlanto-occipital joint. where the atlas (C1) and the occiput connect; allows the head to nod up and down on the vertebral ... facet joints. synovial joints that exist between each pair of vertebrae and covered with cartilage material, allowing the bones ... synovial joint. a structure that allows movement between 2 bones. Synovial fluid keeps the joint surface lubricated. ... consists of clavicle (collar bone) and scapula (shoulder blade). only one sternoclavicular joint on each side, no joint between ...
She focuses on habitual movements that can translate into poor posture and sore or damaged joints. ... Deep in your skull is the atlanto occipital joint. You want your head to be resting on top of your spine. ... Your hips are one of the largest joints in your body and they need to bend in order for you to sit or stand easily. Allow ... With age, however, our habitual movements can translate into poor posture and sore or damaged joints. ...
Anterior: Flex atlanto-occipital joint. Lateralis: Gives lateral flexion of the head (crossed by internal jugular vein) ... Anterior: From anterior surface and root of transverse process of atlas to occipital bone ... Transverse processes of cervial vertebrae anterior tubercles C3-6 to base of occipital bone ...
Combined Procedure Allowing Atlantoaxial and Atlanto-Occipital Joint Motion for Complex Injuries in the Upper Cervical Spine ... Unintended Retention of Temporary Articulating Spacers in the Treatment of Periprosthetic Hip Joint Infection Kyung-Jae Lee, MD ... Needle Length Requirement for Glenohumeral Joint Injection Using the Neviaser Approach Lucas Teske, MD; Ian AlKhafaji, MD; ... Nutritional Counseling Program for Morbidly Obese Patients Enables Weight Optimization for Safe Total Joint Arthroplasty Max ...
atlantooccipital joint plane synovial joint b/w occipital condyles of skull and superior articulating facets of CV1 atlas. ... Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane. -b/w anterior arch of the atlas and anterior margin pf foramen magnum Posterior atlanto- ... articulating bones of a synovial joint are united by a joint capsule the joint capsule has two parts:. outer fibrous layer. ... the joint cavity contains synovial fluid articular cartilage covers the articulating surfaces of the bones PROVIDES FREE ...
The range of atlanto-occipital joint motion in cetaceans reflects their feeding behavior. ...
Rats were laid with their head flexed in order to open the atlanto-occipital joint. The skin over the cisterna magna was cut ...
Atlantooccipital joint, atlantoaxial joint and cervical vertebrae dissected from behind. Hypoglossal, accessory and vagus ... Upper pointer: Lesser occipital nerve Lower pointer: Unnamed cutaneous nerve 12 . Cervical fascia (deep layer of superficial ... Atlantooccipital joint, atlantoaxial joint and cervical vertebrae dissected from behind. Hypoglossal, accessory and vagus ...
... making it easy for you to visualize the examination and technique for each joint motion and muscle length test. ... For each measurable joint in the body, this resource provides consistent, easy-to-follow content that depict range of motion ... Atlanto-Occipital and Atlantoaxial Joints. *Intervertebral and Zygapophyseal (Facet) Joints. *Range of Motion Testing ... Metatarsophalangeal Joint: Adduction. *Interphalangeal Joint of the First Toe and Proximal Interphalangeal Joints of the Four ...
Its main actions are to extend and rotate the atlanto-occipital joint. Atlanto-occipital joint Rectus capitis lateralis Rectus ... Occipital bone. Outer surface. Rectus capitis posterior majors relationship to other suboccipital muscles. This article ... is inserted into the lateral part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface of the bone immediately ...
Previous: Consider Atlanto-Occipital Joint Dysfunction as a Cause of Secondary Otalgia ...
The most common causes of secondary otalgia include temporomandibular joint syndrome and dental infections. Primary otalgia is ... Related letter: Consider Atlanto-Occipital Joint Dysfunction as a Cause of Secondary Otalgia ... The most common causes of secondary otalgia include temporomandibular joint syndrome and dental infections. Primary otalgia is ...
The lesion surrounded the spinal canal, causing moderate dorsal spinal cord compression at the atlanto-occipital joint. A ... Ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity in a cat.. Aikawa T1, Sadahiro S, Nishimura M, ... a cystic lesion arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity and extending to the region of the occipital ... An intra-spinal ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity may be considered as an uncommon ...
Atlanto-Occipital and Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections Kenneth D. Candido, George C. Chang Chien, Alexander F. Bautista ... soft tissue and joint injections, and implantables. Practical step-by-step and evidence-based guidance is given to each ...
... the cervical spines atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints in the upper neck. C1-C2 allow your head to pivot, look up, down ...
  • The ligaments connecting the bones are: Two articular capsules Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane The capsules of the atlantooccipital articulation surround the condyles of the occipital bone, and connect them with the articular processes of the atlas: they are thin and loose. (
  • The atlanto-occipital joint (also known as the C0-C1 joint) is a paired symmetrical articulation between the cervical spine and the base of the skull . (
  • A joint or articulation (or articular surface ) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole. (
  • Compound Joint: 3 or more articulation surfaces (eg. (
  • Occipito-atlanto (C0-C1) joint (craniocervical articulation) injection is performed under fluoroscopic guidance to place a needle into the occipito-atlanto joint for purposes of delivering an aliquot of medication into the joint such as local anaesthetic for diagnostic purposes and/or corticosteroid for putatively therapeutic purposes. (
  • 1 Flexion is limited by contact between the odontoid process and the anterior border of the foramen magnum at the atlanto-occipital articulation and by the tectorial membrane and posterior elements at the Cl-C2 level. (
  • a condylar synovial joint between the superior articular facets of the atlas and the condyles of the occipital bone. (
  • The atlas is located at the top of the neck, just inferior to the condyles of the occipital bone of the skull and superior to the C2 vertebra. (
  • The superior articular facets form the atlanto-occipital joint with the condyles of the occipital bone of the skull, allowing the head to flex and extend at the neck. (
  • Two strong bands that pass from the posterolateral part of the tip of the dens of the axis upward and laterally to the condyles of the occipital bone. (
  • The capsule is rather roomy and relaxed and the joint possesses no individual accessory ligaments. (
  • This is why joint stability in the craniocervical region is maintained mainly by the fibrous capsules, ligaments , articular surfaces and surrounding muscles. (
  • Several ligaments cross the atlanto-occipital joint and participate in its stability. (
  • Of these, only two specifically connect the occipital bone with the atlas and thus are considered the principal ligaments of the atlanto-occipital joint. (
  • Other times it is the connecting ligaments surrounding the joint that are injured. (
  • synovial joint - not directly joined - the bones have a synovial cavity and are united by the dense irregular connective tissue that forms the articular capsule that is normally associated with accessory ligaments. (
  • First, the alar ligaments cross both the AA and AO joints, therefore a misalignment of C2 will doubly effect the alignment of C1 and the occiput. (
  • The tectorial membrane and alar ligaments provide most of the stability to the atlanto-occipital joint, and injury to these ligaments results in instability due to low inherent osseous stability 3 . (
  • The attachment of each ligament onto the medial aspect of the occipital condyle was consistent and just anterior to the attachment of the alar ligaments. (
  • Ligaments which span the anterior aspect of the sacroiliac joints, spanning from the sacrum to the iliac bones. (
  • Along with the atlantoaxial joint , it makes up a group called the craniovertebral joints . (
  • To realign the atlantoaxial (AA) and atlantooccipital (AO) joints, and to alleviate pain and irritation, a therapist must take all structures involved into consideration. (
  • the cervical spine's atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints in the upper neck. (
  • The posterior of the anterior arch meets the odontoid process of the C2 vertebra (axis) to form the median atlantoaxial joint. (
  • Imaging of Atlanto-Occipital and Atlantoaxial Traumatic Injuries: What the Radiologist Needs to Know. (
  • Biomechanics of CCJ The CCJ is composed of 2 major joints: the atlantooccipital and the atlantoaxial joints. (
  • We chose the term "C1-C2 intraarticular injection," as opposed to "lateral atlantoaxial joint injection" based on the documentation used in the procedure note and because both are frequently used in the published literature, but we do agree that the latter term is more common, particularly in recent publications. (
  • Perhaps most important among their comments, Drs. Datta and Manchikanti raise procedural considerations that affect the interpretation of our report and the very safety of performing injection of the lateral atlantoaxial joint. (
  • 1 The posterior approach is well described and potentially the safest approach to the injection of the lateral atlantoaxial joint. (
  • 3 Nonetheless, even if all appropriate safety measures are implemented, the risks of cervical injections of the lateral atlantoaxial joint are so devastating that they seem to outweigh the unproven benefits. (
  • Flexion-extension occurs in the upper cervical spine at both the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial articulations, and a combined 24° of motion may be achieved. (
  • The C1 and C2 vertebra and the occipital bone of the skull form the atlanto-occipital joint. (
  • Joints connect the vertebrae, the bones of your spine. (
  • These joints help guide your spine when you move. (
  • A dynamic myelographic study demonstrated attenuation of the dorsal contrast column at the atlanto-occipital joint when the cervical spine was positioned in extension. (
  • RA may affect the cervical spine and cause the facet joints in the neck to become inflamed and painful. (
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects joints, and it can be present in the spine. (
  • Bone syndrome - which can be characterized in short stature, severe joint and spine abnormalities and severe bone pain. (
  • Fluoroscopic-guided injection of anesthetic and corticosteroids into the occipito-atlanto joints may successfully treat occipital headaches and upper spine pain. (
  • Pain arising from the joints of the upper spine can occur from arthritic changes or trauma such as a whiplash injury. (
  • The joints of the upper spine are also thought to be a potential source of occipital headaches. (
  • This ascending syndrome can causes multiple variations in tibial and sacral torsion patterns, and can ascend into roto-scoliosis of the lumbar spine and compensatory scoliosis and kyphosis of the thoracic spine, locking down the Atlanto-occipital joint in the neck. (
  • These joints are responsible for the majority of the movement of the cervical spine and operate on different biomechanical principles. (
  • This handbook is a concise, compact guide on key principles of spine surgical knowledge - from the atlanto-occipital joint to the coccyx. (
  • C2/3 cervical spine joints. (
  • X-Ray cervical spine showed no bony or articular abnormality and the joint spaces were maintained. (
  • 2 Nichol and Zuck 2 suggested that attempts to extend the head in patients with a narrow atlanto-occipital gap results in anterior bowing of the cervical spine, forward displacement of the larynx, and a poor view during laryngoscopy. (
  • This joint between c1& c2, allows approximately 50% of the cervical spine side-to-side rotation. (
  • These are the ligamentum nuchae, alar ligament, apical ligament, lateral atlanto-occipital ligament, anterior atlanto-occipital membrane, posterior atlanto-occipital membrane and tectorial membrane. (
  • The posterior atlanto-occipital membrane is a thin membrane that covers the posterior aspect of the atlanto-occipital joint. (
  • The proximity of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane to the C1 nerve and vertebral artery is an important clinical landmark. (
  • J Bone Joint Surg Br 88(11):1464-8 2006 (Review) 3- Astur N, Klimo P Jr, Sawyer JR, Kelly DM, Muhlbauer MS, Warner WC Jr: Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation in children: evaluation, treatment, and outcomes. (
  • J Bone Joint Surg Am 61:248-250 1979 9- Bulas DI, Fitz CR, Johnson DL: Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation in children. (
  • Ann Rehabil Med 37(3):438-42 2013 12- Cohen A, Hirsch M, Katz M, Sofer S: Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation in children: review and report of five cases. (
  • The uppermost of these joints connects the skull (also called the occiput) to the first cervical vertebra (also called the atlas). (
  • Intercervical, atlanto, occipital, and cranial assessment will help the clinician appreciate occiput, sphenoid and temporal orientation and thus how to proceed in determining what PRI manual or non-manual techniques should be considered. (
  • The distance from the posterior arch of the atlas to the occiput is termed the atlanto-occipital gap , and a narrow atlanto-occipital gap has been cited as being a cause of difficult intubation. (
  • The atlanto-occipital articulations function as bilaterally symmetrical joints, each of which is formed by an occipital condyle and a superior articular facet of the atlas. (
  • The superior articular facets are located on the inferior aspect of the occipital bone, in the region of the occipital condyles . (
  • The occipital bone had been cut across on the left side slightly posterior to the occipital condyle. (
  • Learn more about the general features of the synovial joints by exploring articles, diagrams, videos and quizzes. (
  • synovial joints that exist between each pair of vertebrae and covered with cartilage material, allowing the bones to glide against one another without much friction. (
  • synovial joints. (
  • All diarthrosis joints are synovial joints (e.g., shoulder, hip, elbow, knee, etc.), and the terms "diarthrosis" and "synovial joint" are considered equivalent by Terminologia Anatomica . (
  • Craniovertebral (atlanto-occipital & atlanto-axial joints) is located between what two structures? (
  • Comparison of the Far Lateral and Extreme Lateral Variants of the Atlanto-occipital Transarticular Approach to Anterior Extradural Lesions of the Craniovertebral Junction Neurosurgery. (
  • The occipital condyles are directed anteromedially, and are situated immediately lateral to the anterior half of the foramen magnum. (
  • The anterior atlanto-occipital membrane is a dense band of fibrous tissue that spreads from the anterior border of the foramen magnum to the upper border of the anterior arch of the atlas. (
  • Medially, this membrane is strengthened by the anterior longitudinal ligament, while laterally it blends with the joint capsule of the atlanto-occipital joint. (
  • Atlanto-occipital joint Rectus capitis lateralis Rectus capitis posterior minor muscle Rectus capitis anterior muscle Position of rectus capitis posterior major muscle (shown in red). (
  • Also called anterior atlantooccipital ligament . (
  • The anterior arch curves posteriorly and laterally from the anterior tubercle and has a smooth joint-forming process on its posterior side. (
  • In 75% of specimens, there was some connection between the BL and the anterior atlantooccipital membrane. (
  • This ligament appears to resist extension of the atlantooccipital joint and may be synergistic with the anterior atlantooccipital membrane. (
  • At the atlanto-occipital joint, the joint between the neck and the skull, the rectus capitis anterior muscle takes care of flexing the neck, allowing the head to nod downward. (
  • The purposes of this study were to examine the microsurgical anatomy of the anterior extradural aspect of the CVJ and the differences in the exposure obtained by the far lateral and extreme lateral atlanto-occipital transarticular approaches. (
  • Ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity in a cat. (
  • Magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated a cystic lesion arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity and extending to the region of the occipital bone and the axis. (
  • An intra-spinal ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity may be considered as an uncommon differential diagnosis for cats with cervical myelopathy. (
  • It contains seven vertebrae and the joints that connect them. (
  • facet joint - joint between two articular processes between two vertebrae. (
  • Occipital vertebrae is a very rare anatomical variant and results from incomplete or aberrant fusion of occipital bone ossification centers. (
  • Most amphiarthrosis joints are cartilaginous joints (e.g., vertebrae). (
  • Lip of the lateral body that forms joints, which anchor the vertebrae together to provide more stability. (
  • The muscle originates at the atlas bone of the cervical vertebrae (the topmost vertebra) and inserts into the skull's occipital bone. (
  • This article will discuss the anatomy and function of the atlanto-occipital joint. (
  • Joints can also be classified based on their anatomy or on their biomechanical properties. (
  • Am J Neuroradiol 7:901-906 1986 8- Bucholz RW, Burkhead WZ: The pathological anatomy of fatal atlanto-occipital dislocations. (
  • The articular surfaces are oval (elliptical) in shape and reciprocally concave-convex, with the concave articular facets of C1 vertebra articulating with the convex surfaces of the occipital bone. (
  • Cut through skin and soft tissue ventral and lateral to the joint with a large knife, sever the brainstem-spinal cord junction at the joint, and disarticulate by applying leverage between the articular surfaces of occipital condyles and the first cervical vertebra (C1). (
  • The joint between the skull and the first cervical vertebra (c1). (
  • The upper cervical joints have long been known to be a cause for headaches, especially of traumatic origin. (
  • Studies showed that injection of saline into the upper cervical joints in normal volunteers could induce headache pain. (
  • Joints between the adjacent vertebral bodies. (
  • What Is the Joint Between the Skull and the Vertebral Column? (
  • In 2014, the American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association issued a joint statement supporting studies that had found an association between cervical manipulative therapy and vertebral artery dissection stroke in young patients . (
  • Slight depressions on each side of the posterior arch provide room for the C1 spinal nerve to exit the vertebral foramen and allow the vertebral artery to pass into the vertebral foramen before entering the skull at the foramen magnum of the occipital bone. (
  • The far lateral approach, as originally described, is a lateral suboccipital approach directed behind the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the vertebral artery and just medial to the occipital and atlantal condyles and the atlanto-occipital joint. (
  • Capsula articularis atlantooccipitalis) consists of a pair of condyloid joints. (
  • Functionally, these two ellipsoid (condyloid) joints perform their actions simultaneously, and thus can be mechanically considered as a single joint. (
  • plane joint , ball and socket joint , hinge joint , pivot joint , [10] [11] condyloid joint and saddle joint . (
  • [3] Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the sense organs. (
  • Structural classification names and divides joints according to the type of binding tissue that connects the bones to each other. (
  • primary cartilaginous joints composed of hyaline cartilage , and secondary cartilaginous joints composed of hyaline cartilage covering the articular surfaces of the involved bones with fibrocartilage connecting them. (
  • Damaging the cartilage of joints ( articular cartilage ) or the bones and muscles that stabilize the joints can lead to joint dislocations and osteoarthritis. (
  • According to Stanford Children's Health, the newborn skull consists of five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one occipital bone. (
  • Accessory sutures most commonly occur in the parietal and occipital bones, most likely as a consequence of their multiple ossification centers. (
  • A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. (
  • Structural classification names and divides joints according to how the bones are connected to each other. (
  • The first class lever is one of three classes of levers and is one possible arrangement of muscles, bones, and joints found in the human body. (
  • However in recent times, assessment of ligament stability has moved to systematically working through a series of active / patient generated, passive / therapist generated (with overpressure), and passive accessory movement tests, in order to feel the degree of movement or restriction at each joint and therefore ligament integrity, as well as to reproduce the patient's symptoms. (
  • The muscles that move the two TM joints are called muscles of mastication . (
  • B, the cialis mountainwest apothecary apophyseal joints become important when displacement of the adductor muscles of the. (
  • Several muscles in the neck pivot the skull at the atlanto-occipital joint to make the head flex and extend in a nodding motion. (
  • Includes clinically relevant discussions about how the brain may work, plasticity, the action potential and how "use it or lose it" is as relevant for the nervous system as it is for muscles and joints. (
  • Small contractions of the trapezius muscle in the neck pull on the occipital bone of the skull, causing it to pivot at the atlanto-occipital joint. (
  • The principal movement at the atlanto-occipital joint is flexion-extension. (
  • Chapters are grouped by specific treatment modalities that include spinal interventional techniques, nonspinal and peripheral nerve blocks, sympathetic interventional techniques, soft tissue and joint injections, and implantables. (
  • Occipito-atlanto injections are demanding, technically intensive, and dangerous procedures. (
  • It Is Time to Abandon Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections: Do No Harm! (
  • In the human body, a bone forms the lever and the fulcrum is a joint where a bone can move around the pivot point. (
  • As a result of lysosomal dysfunction and resultant disturbance of cellular homeostasis, LSDs have a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations including dysmorphism, visceromegaly, skeletal and joint abnormalities, hematologic findings and significant central and peripheral nervous system impairment. (
  • Delaying surgery may be indicated if: cervical neurologic dysfunction suggests potential instability of atlanto-occipital joint with risk of subluxation during intubation. (
  • The most common causes of secondary otalgia include temporomandibular joint syndrome and dental infections. (
  • The storage syndrome includes a constellation of symptoms/signs in connective tissue (subcutaneous and osteochondral joints), skeleton and visceral organs. (
  • Chiari syndrome is a developmental malformation of the occipital mesodermal somites that can be associated to syringomyelia and hydrocephalus. (
  • Occipital bone size and PCFV were normal in 225 patients with CM-I and occipitoatlantoaxial joint instability, 55 patients with CM-I and tethered cord syndrome (TCS), 30 patients with CM-I and intracranial mass lesions, and 28 patients with CM-I and lumboperitoneal shunts. (
  • The lesion surrounded the spinal canal, causing moderate dorsal spinal cord compression at the atlanto-occipital joint. (
  • Lateral flexion, or rotating the head from side to side, requires pivoting of the skull and atlas at the atlanto-axial joint. (
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between atlanto-occipital radiographic alignment in flexion and CS. (
  • Establish an understanding of sphenoid occipital-basilar (SB) and basilar sphenoid (BS) biomechanical influence on temporal and cervical-thoracic function. (
  • These are: the cervical region (includes atlanto-occipital joint), the thoracic region (includes costovertebral and costotransverse joints), the lumbar region, the sacral region and the pelvic (sacroiliac joint) region. (
  • An atlanto-occipital (AO) joint injection is an outpatient procedure for diagnosing and treating chronic upper neck pain and headache. (
  • [1] The headache begins in the neck or occipital region and can refer to the face and head. (
  • When your neck joints are too tight a headache can result in just a few minutes. (
  • El Abd OH, Rosenberg D, Gomba L, Isaac Z. The lateral atlanto-axial joint as a source of headache in congenital atlanto-occipital fusion. (
  • Most synarthrosis joints are fibrous joints (e.g., skull sutures). (
  • The two TMJs are the joints that connect the mandible to the skull. (
  • This is near the basilar part of the occipital bone, and near the foramen magnum, the hole in the skull through which the spinal cord and column pass. (
  • In 741 patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) and 11 patients with Chiari malformation type II (CM-II), the size of the occipital enchondrium and volume of the PCF (PCFV) were measured on reconstructed 2D-CT and MR images of the skull. (
  • Zygapophyseal "facet" joints is a ....... ...... joints. (
  • An anesthetic and steroid are injected into one or more of your cervical facet joints. (
  • A local anesthetic (numbing medicine) is injected near your medial branch nerve, which stops the transmission of pain signals from the facet joint. (
  • Radio frequency energy is used to disrupt nerve function and stop the transmission of pain from an injured facet joint. (
  • We present four patients who had sustained a traumatic dislocation of the atlanto-occipital joint. (
  • Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is an ominous injury with high mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. (
  • Traumatic brain injury is associated with an increased risk of death in patients with atlanto-occipital dislocation. (
  • 1- Ahuja A, Glasauer FE, Alker GJ Jr, Klein DM: Radiology in survivors of traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation. (
  • Mar 1;28(5):E95-7 2003 5- Belzberg AJ, Tranmer BI: Stabilization of traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation. (
  • Emerg Med Australas 19(4):379-82 2007 7- Bools JC, Rose BS: Traumatic Atlantooccipital Dislocation: Two Cases with Survival. (
  • 14(5):370-5 2000 (Review) 11- Choi EH, Jun AY, Choi EH, Shin KY, Cho AR: Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation presenting with Dysphagia as the chief complaint: a case report. (
  • While traumatic injury is the most common cause for these procedures in younger patients, joint involvement by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the more common reason in the older patient. (
  • Joints can also be classified, according to the number of axes of movement they allow, into nonaxial (gliding, as between the proximal ends of the ulna and radius), monoaxial (uniaxial), biaxial and multiaxial. (
  • Pain is created by the lack of balanced movement within the joints, as well as by a narrowing of the intervertebral foramen and pressure put on the exiting nerve roots. (
  • Which Type of Synovial Joint Has the Least Amount of Movement? (
  • The plane, or gliding, type of synovial joint provides the least amount of movement, says Springfield Technical Community College. (
  • The movement of the jaw involves the two temporomandibular joints. (
  • active range of motion - Degree of movement of a segment of a joint. (
  • First class lever systems provide a way for the body to change the direction, speed, and strength of movement at a joint. (
  • The atlanto-occipital joint is innervated by the ventral rami of C1 spinal nerve . (
  • 1 Since then there have been case reports of successful treatment of occipital headaches and neck pain with a fluoroscopically-guided injection of anesthetic and corticosteroids into the occipito-atlanto joints. (
  • This article will focus on the cases where occipito-atlanto (C0-C1) joints have been diagnosed as the source of occipital headaches or neck pain. (
  • 6 Pain referral patterns have been demonstrated by Dreyfuss 7 and Fukui 8 after joint capsule distension in normal volunteers generated ipsilateral superior posterior lateral neck pain with occasional temporal and occipital pain. (
  • Another cause of neck pain is structural and results from a neck joint issue. (
  • Most amphiarthrosis joints are cartilaginous joints (e.g., intervertebral discs ). (
  • [3] The connection between a tooth and the jawbone is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a gomphosis . (
  • Types of joints based upon their structure (L to R): Cartilaginous joint, Fibrous joint, and Synovial joint. (
  • one of two broad, densely woven fibrous sheets that form part of the atlantooccipital joint between the atlas and the occipital bone. (
  • Each atlanto-occipital joint is enveloped by a loose, thin articular capsule . (
  • It's lateral margins blend with the posteromedial joint capsule along its course. (
  • Aprill C, Axinn MJ, Bogduk N: Occipital headaches stemming from the lateral atlanto-axial (C1-2) joint. (
  • Atlanto-occipital dissociation (AOD) injuries are severe and include both atlanto-occipital dislocations and atlanto-occipital subluxations. (
  • When these people suffer an injury, beyond the chronic joint dislocations and subluxations that have become part of their lives, such as a whiplash injury from a car accident, which is the subject of this article, these people's lives can take a dramatic turn downward. (
  • Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements. (
  • One or multiple joints may be involved such as the carpus, hip, stifle, shoulder, elbow or atlanto-occipital joints. (
  • While less common in the body than second and third class levers, the first class lever system is found in the neck at the atlanto-occipital joint and in the elbow joint. (
  • For example, the atlanto-occipital joint in the neck bears the mass of the head, while the elbow joint moves the forearm and any mass held in the hand, like a dumbbell. (
  • In both the atlanto-occipital and elbow joints, the first class lever system is designed to increase the speed of the system at the cost of muscle strength. (
  • In the elbow joint, the triceps brachii muscle attaches to the olecranon process of the ulna posterior to the elbow joint. (
  • The movements permitted in this joint are: (a) flexion and extension around the mediolateral axis, which give rise to the ordinary forward and backward nodding of the head. (
  • The rectus capitis posterior major (or rectus capitis posticus major, both being Latin for larger posterior straight muscle of the head ) arises by a pointed tendon from the spinous process of the axis , and, becoming broader as it ascends, is inserted into the lateral part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface of the bone immediately below the line. (
  • The inferior articular facets are extremely smooth on their inferior surfaces and form the lateral atlanto-axial joint between the atlas and the axis. (
  • The synovial membrane (or synovium) is a thin connective tissue that lines the joint, tendon sheaths and bursae to enclose a cavity within the knee joint c. (
  • In an AO injection, a local anesthetic (numbing medicine) and a corticosteroid (anti-inflammatory medicine) are injected into the joint. (
  • A local anesthetic and a corticosteroid are injected into your atlanto-axial joint. (
  • While no randomized controlled trials exist, there are case reports of successful pain control after successful injection of local anaesthetic or corticosteroid into the occipito-atlanto joint. (
  • Clinical Effectiveness of Intra-articular Pulsed Radiofrequency Compared to Intra-articular Corticosteroid Injection for Management of Atlanto-occipital Joint Pain: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. (
  • Interposed between the two surfaces of the joint there is a disc composed of fibrocartilage. (
  • Analysis of Congruence and Asymmetry of the Atlanto-Occipital Joint. (
  • [1] [9] Joint movements are described with reference to the basic anatomical planes . (
  • Recognize and evaluate contributing muscular impact on torsion and compression of cervicothoracic, craniocervical, and craniomandibular joints. (
  • With ranges of motion of the craniocervical junction, only extension of the atlantooccipital joint produced tension in the BL. (