Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Joint DiseasesFinger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Epilepsies, Partial: Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Hemianopsia: Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.Foot Joints: The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Foramen Magnum: The large hole at the base of the skull through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Temporomandibular Joint Disc: A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)Acromioclavicular Joint: The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the CLAVICLE and the inner margin of the acromion process of the SCAPULA.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Meningocele: A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Dandy-Walker Syndrome: A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5)Cluster Headache: A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Sternoclavicular Joint: A double gliding joint formed by the CLAVICLE, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sterni at the clavicular notch, and the cartilage of the first rib.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Epilepsy, Reflex: A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Phosphenes: A subjective visual sensation with the eyes closed and in the absence of light. Phosphenes can be spontaneous, or induced by chemical, electrical, or mechanical (pressure) stimuli which cause the visual field to light up without optical inputs.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Carpometacarpal Joints: The articulations between the CARPAL BONES and the METACARPAL BONES.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Agnosia: Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.AxisSynovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Carpal Joints: The articulations between the various CARPAL BONES. This does not include the WRIST JOINT which consists of the articulations between the RADIUS; ULNA; and proximal CARPAL BONES.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Tectum Mesencephali: The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.DislocationsMovement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Sensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.Headache Disorders: Various conditions with the symptom of HEADACHE. Headache disorders are classified into major groups, such as PRIMARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on characteristics of their headache symptoms) and SECONDARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on their etiologies). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.ReadingTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Arnold-Chiari Malformation: A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46)Patellofemoral Joint: The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment: The application, via IMPLANTED ELECTRODES, of short bursts of electrical energy in the radiofrequency range, interspersed with pauses in delivery of the current long enough to dissipate the generated heat and avoid heat-induced tissue necrosis.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Human Body: The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Skull Fracture, Basilar: Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome: An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Parahippocampal Gyrus: A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Post-Traumatic Headache: Secondary headache attributed to TRAUMA of the HEAD and/or the NECK.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Delta Rhythm: Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Alexia, Pure: Loss of the power to comprehend written materials despite preservation of the ability to write (i.e., alexia without agraphia). This condition is generally attributed to lesions that "disconnect" the visual cortex of the non-dominant hemisphere from language centers in the dominant hemisphere. This may occur when a dominant visual cortex injury is combined with underlying white matter lesions that involve crossing fibers from the occipital lobe of the opposite hemisphere. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p483)Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Ankylosis: Fixation and immobility of a joint.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile: A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p323)Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Dyslexia, Acquired: A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Touch Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Prosopagnosia: The inability to recognize a familiar face or to learn to recognize new faces. This visual agnosia is most often associated with lesions involving the junctional regions between the temporal and occipital lobes. The majority of cases are associated with bilateral lesions, however unilateral damage to the right occipito-temporal cortex has also been associated with this condition. (From Cortex 1995 Jun;31(2):317-29)Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Iofetamine: An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and visual loss with edema in the posterior aspects of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, such as the BRAIN STEM. Generally, lesions involve the white matter (nerve fibers) but occasionally the grey matter (nerve cell bodies).Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma: A serious complication of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA; DEHYDRATION; serum hyperosmolarity; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA in the absence of KETOSIS and ACIDOSIS.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).

Transoral decompression for craniovertebral osseous anomalies: perioperative management dilemmas. (1/92)

The surgical outcome of 74 patients, who underwent transoral decompression (TOD) for ventral irreducible craniovertebral junction anomalies between January 1989 to September 1997, was studied to evaluate the perioperative complications and problems encountered. The indications for TOD included irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (n=24), basilar invagination (n=16), and a combination of both (n=35). Following TOD, occipitocervical stabilization using Jain's technique was carried out in 50 (67.5%) and atlantoaxial fusion using Brooks' construct in 18 (24.3%) patients. The pre- and postoperative radiology was compared to assess the adequacy of decompression and stability. The major morbidity included pharyngeal wound sepsis leading to dehiscence (20.3%) and haemorrhage (4%), valopharyngeal insufficiency (8.1%), CSF leak (6.7%) and inadequate decompression (6.7%). Neurological deterioration occurred transiently in 17 (22.9%) and was sustained in 7 (9.4%) patients. The mortality in six cases was due to operative trauma, exanguination from pharyngeal wound (one each), postoperative instability and inability to be weaned off from the ventilator (two each). Of the 47 (63.5%) patients available at follow up ranging from 3 months to 2 years, 26 (55.3%) showed improvement from their preoperative status while 14 (29.8%) demonstrated stabilization of their neurological deficits. Seven (14.9%) of them deteriorated. Though TOD is logical and effective in relieving ventral compression due to craniovertebral junction anomalies, it carries the formidable risks of instability, incomplete decompression, neurological deterioration, CSF leak, infection and palatopharyngeal dysfunction.  (+info)

Bow hunter's stroke associated with atlantooccipital assimilation--case report. (2/92)

A 39-year-old male presented with bow hunter's stroke manifesting as repeated vertebrobasilar ischemic attacks induced by head rotation 45 degrees to the left. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography clearly showed the occluded right vertebral artery (VA) between the axis and atlas. Single photon emission computed tomography study showed diffuse hypoperfusion of the brain stem and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, suggesting hemodynamic compromise of these regions. He refused surgery and was treated conservatively. The most likely mechanism is that the affected VA was fixed by the ossification of the atlantooccipital membrane, vascular groove, and transverse foramen of the atlas, and therefore became elongated and compressed by head-turning.  (+info)

Surgical treatment of nonunited fractures of the odontoid process, with special reference to occipitocervical fusion for unreducible atlantoaxial subluxation or instability. (3/92)

Fifty-seven consecutive patients treated surgically for nonunited fractures of the odontoid process were reviewed. All patients presented late, exhibiting neurological deficits subsequent to nonunion. Delay in presentation was between 6 and 120 months (mean 32 months) after the original injury, due to missed diagnosis or inappropriate management. Seven patients who were reduced in traction underwent a Gallie atlantoaxial fusion. In the remaining 50 patients who were unreducible, an occipitocervical arthrodesis was performed. They were followed up for a minimum of 2 years, except one who died from postoperative respiratory failure. All patients obtained a solid bony union, including two in whom nonunion occurred following atlantoaxial fusion, and occipitocervical fusion was added as a rescue. Thirty-eight patients achieved excellent neurological recovery, nine still had some disability, five retained their neurological deficits and two reported a deterioration. In two patients, a recurrence in a traumatic episode was experienced long after a resolution. Our findings demonstrate that occipitocervical arthrodesis is preferable for unreducible subluxation or instability of atlantoaxial articulation in nonunion of odontoid fractures.  (+info)

Bilateral type 1 proatlantal arteries with absence of vertebral arteries. (4/92)

The persistent proatlantal artery is a well-described communication between the carotid and vertebrobasilar system. However, persistence of bilateral proatlantal arteries is exceptionally rare. Although usually noted as an incidental finding, the presence of a proatlantal artery, particularly when bilateral, may result in unusual symptoms or may have implications for therapy. We report a case of bilateral proatlantal arteries, describe their embryology, and consider potential clinical implications of this finding.  (+info)

Hindbrain stroke in children caused by extracranial vertebral artery trauma. (5/92)

Hindbrain transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) culminating in posterior circulation stroke are described in five children. Atlanto-axial subluxation and angiographical documentation of C1 to C2 level arterial pathology are documented in one patient. Four additional patients with nearly identical clinical presentations, posterior fossa TIAs, stroke and basilar angiographical pathology are reviewed. A mechanical traumatic etiology is suggested. Unexplained transient repeated brain stem and/or cerebellar sympotomatology may be due to extracranial vetebral artery stenosis or occlusion by atlanto-axial instability. After appropriate documentation, stabilization may prevent further TIAs or strokes.  (+info)

Recognition and management of atlanto-occipital dislocation: improving survival from an often fatal condition. (6/92)

OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of atlanto-occipital dislocation and associated occipital condyle fracturcs so as to alert physicians to this rare injury and potentially improve patient outcome. The pertinent anatomy, mechanism of injury, clinical and radiologic evaluation and the management of these rare injuries are discussed in an attempt to alert physicians to this type of injury and to improve outcome. DATA SOURCES: The data were obtained from a MEDLINE search of the English literature from 1966 to 1999 and the experience of 4 spine surgeons at a quaternary care acute spinal cord injury unit. STUDY SELECTION: Detailed anatomic and epidemiologically sound radiology studies were identified and analyzed. Only small retrospective studies or case series were available in the literature. DATA EXTRACTION: Valid anatomic, biomechanical and radiologic evaluation was extracted from studies. Clinical data came from limited studies and expert opinion. DATA SYNTHESIS: Early diagnosis is essential and is facilitated by a detailed clinical examination and strict adherence to an imaging algorithm that includes CT and MRI scanning. When the dislocation is identified, timely gentle reduction and prompt stabilization throuigh nonoperative or operative means is found to optimize patient outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Atlanto-occipital dislocation should be suspected in any patient involved in a high speed motor vehicle or pedestrian collision. Once suspected, proper imaging and appropriate management of these once fatal injuries can improve survival and neurologic outcome.  (+info)

Skeletal aspects of the atlanto-occipital fusion in a Japanese brown calf. (7/92)

Atlanto-occipital fusion in a Japanese Brown calf was examined morphologically, paying special attention to skeletal changes. At the craniovertebral junction, the basal occipital bone fused to the cranial extremity of the ventral arch of the atlas with the rudiment of the atlantal centrum. The dens was not formed at the axis. These changes suggest that a hypocentrum and a centrum of the atlas derived from the first cervical sclerotome had failed to separate the occipital base from the proatlantal sclerotome including the apical element of the dens. Although a developmental disturbance at the cervical and thoracic vertebrae was also associated, critical neurological signs such as ataxia and paralysis were absent.  (+info)

Traumatic posterior atlantooccipital dislocation with Jefferson fracture and fracture-dislocation of C6-C7: a case report with survival. (8/92)

Atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD) is a rare and usually fatal injury. In the current study, the authors reported an extremely rare case of posterior AOD with Jefferson fracture and fracture-dislocation of C6-C7. The patient survived the injury and had only incomplete quadriplegia below the C7 segment with anterior cord syndrome. He was successfully managed with in situ occipitocervical fusion using the Cotrel-Dubousset rod system, corpectomy of C6, and anterior interbody fusion of C5-C7 with plating. To our knowledge, this is the first report of posterior AOD with two other non-contiguous cervical spine injuries. A high index of suspicion and careful examination of the upper cervical spine should be considered as the key to the diagnosis of AOD in cases that involve multiple or lower cervical spine injuries.  (+info)

*Atlanto-occipital joint

The atlanto-occipital joint (articulation between the atlas and the occipital bone) consists of a pair of condyloid joints. The ... atlanto-occipital joint is a synovial joint. The ligaments connecting the bones are: Two articular capsules Posterior atlanto- ... occipital membrane Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane The movements permitted in this joint are: (a) flexion and extension ... Occipital bone. Outer surface. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy ( ...

*Rectus capitis posterior major muscle

Its main actions are to extend and rotate the atlanto-occipital joint. Atlanto-occipital joint Rectus capitis lateralis Rectus ... Occipital bone. Outer surface. Rectus capitis posterior major's relationship to other suboccipital muscles. This article ... is inserted into the lateral part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface of the bone immediately ...

*Atlas (anatomy)

The atlanto-occipital joint allows the head to nod up and down on the vertebral column. The dens acts as a pivot that allows ... Upper surface: rectus capitis anterior - occipital bone (inferior surface of the base) rectus capitis lateralis - occipital ... The atlas is the topmost vertebra and with the axis forms the joint connecting the skull and spine. The atlas and axis are ... The posterior part of the arch presents above and behind a rounded edge for the attachment of the posterior atlantooccipital ...

*Obliquus capitis superior muscle

It acts at the atlanto-occipital joint to extend the head and flex the head to the ipsilateral side. Position of obliquus ... Deep muscles of the back (obliquus capitis superior labeled at upper left) Occipital bone. Outer surface. Muscle attachments ... superiorly and posteriorly to insert into the lateral half of the inferior nuchal line on the external surface of the occipital ...

*Virtopsy

... atlanto-occipital joints), and in cases of advanced decomposition. Visualization of the cardiovascular system. Replacement of ...

*Rectus capitis posterior minor muscle

Atlanto-occipital joint Rectus capitis lateralis Rectus capitis posterior major muscle Rectus capitis anterior muscle This ... Connective tissue bridges were noted at the atlanto-occipital joint between the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and the ... Included are the joint complexes of the upper three cervical segments, the dura mater, and spinal cord. The dura-muscular, dura ... Lateral view of human skull (rectus capitis posterior minor shown in red.) Occipital bone. Outer surface. ...

*Cervical vertebrae

The movement of nodding the head takes place predominantly through flexion and extension at the atlanto-occipital joint between ... Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane and atlantoaxial ligament. Median sagittal section through the occipital bone and first ... This movement between the atlas and occipital bone is often referred to as the "yes joint", owing to its nature of being able ... the atlanto-axial joint. A small amount of rotation of the vertebral column itself contributes to the movement. This movement ...

*Vertebra

The atlanto-occipital joint allows the skull to move up and down, while the atlanto-axial joint allows the upper neck to twist ... Vertebral joint Costovertebral joint A facet joint between the superior and inferior articular processes (labeled at top and ... The sacrum with the ilium forms a sacroiliac joint on each side of the pelvis, which articulates with the hips. The last three ... There are superior and inferior articular facet joints on each side of the vertebra, which serve to restrict the range of ...

*Temnospondyli

... above horizontal through the flexing of the atlanto-occipital joint between the occipital condyles of the skull and the atlas ... Their rhachitomous vertebrae, notochord, and lack of occipital condyles (which attached the head to the neck) were features ... Edopoids have several primitive or plesiomorphic features, including a single occipital condyle and a bone called the ... to distinguish animals based on the absence or presence of occipital condyles. Temnospondyli became a commonly used name at the ...

*Index of anatomy articles

... arytenoid cartilage arytenoideus muscle astereognosis asterion asterixis astrocyte asynergy ataxia atlanto-occipital joint ... obturator externus muscle obturator foramen obturator internus muscle occipital artery occipital bone occipital horn occipital ... Jacksonian seizure jaw jejunum joint joint capsule joint space jugular jugular foramen jugular notch jugum juxtaglomerular ... Tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint tectospinal tract tectum tegmen tympani tegmentum tela choroidae telencephalon ...

*List of flexors of the human body

... torso/lumbar vertebrae Rectus abdominis muscle neck at atlanto-occipital joint Longus capitis muscle Anderson, Kenneth N.; et ... is a joint movement that decreases the angle between the bones that converge at the joint. For example, your elbow joint flexes ... A muscle that flexes a joint is called a flexor. of forearm at elbow Brachialis Brachioradialis Biceps brachii of humerus at ... in descending order of importance to the action of flexing the hip joint): Collectively known as the iliopsoas or inner hip ...

*List of MeSH codes (A02)

... acromioclavicular joint MeSH A02.835.583.097 --- atlanto-axial joint MeSH A02.835.583.101 --- atlanto-occipital joint MeSH ... subtalar joint MeSH A02.835.583.378.900 --- toe joint MeSH A02.835.583.405 --- hand joints MeSH A02.835.583.405.174 --- carpal ... foot joints MeSH A02.835.583.378.062 --- ankle joint MeSH A02.835.583.378.531 --- metatarsophalangeal joint MeSH A02.835. ... finger joint MeSH A02.835.583.405.500 --- metacarpophalangeal joint MeSH A02.835.583.405.930 --- wrist joint MeSH A02.835. ...

*Rectus capitis lateralis muscle

This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) atlanto-occipital joint ... Skull has been removed (except occipital bone). Lateral view. Still image. Occipital bone. Outer surface. Base of skull. ... and is inserted into the under surface of the jugular process of the occipital bone. Position of rectus capitis lateralis ...

*Tracheal intubation

... and adequate extension of the cervical spine at the atlanto-occipital joint. If any of these variables is in any way ... the range of motion of the jaw (the temporomandibular joint): three of the subject's fingers should be able to fit between the ... temporomandibular joint or arytenoid cartilages, decreased oxygen content, elevated arterial carbon dioxide, and vocal cord ... full range of motion of the temporomandibular joint), sufficient pharyngeal space (determined by examining the back of the ...

*Occipital condyles

To their margins are attached the capsules of the atlanto-occipital joints, and on the medial side of each is a rough ... Occipital condyles The occipital condyle is a rounded projection that is present on the posterior (rear) of the dinosaur's ... Position of occipital condyles (shown in red) Skull and cervical vertebra. Occipital condyles (red) articulate with the ... The occipital condyles are undersurface protuberances of the occipital bone in vertebrates, which function in articulation with ...

*Spinal manipulation

... the atlanto-occipital, atlanto-axial, lumbosacral, sacroiliac, costotransverse and costovertebral joints. National guidelines ... Osteopathic manipulation Joint manipulation Joint mobilization Spinal adjustment Koes BW, van Tulder M, Lin CW, Macedo LG, ... Mennel, J.M. Joint Pain; Diagnosis and Treatment Using Manipulative Techniques. Little Brown and Co., Boston, 1964. American ... Tullberg T, Blomberg S, Branth B, Johnsson R (May 1998). "Manipulation does not alter the position of the sacroiliac joint. A ...

*Atlanto-axial joint

Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane: genetic traits can sometimes result in ossification, turning the groove into a foramen. ... It is a pivot joint. The atlantoaxial joint is of a complicated nature. It consists of no fewer than four distinct joints.[ ... A widening of the atlanto-axial joint, as measured between the posterior surface of the anterior arch of atlas and the front of ... The atlantoaxial joint is a joint in the upper part of the neck between the first and second cervical vertebrae; the atlas and ...

*Outline of human anatomy

Cranial synovial joints Temporomandibular joint Sphenomandibular ligament Stylomandibular ligament Atlanto-occipital joint ... sheath Plane joint Cylindrical joint Pivot joint Hinge joint Bicondylar joint Saddle joint Condylar joint Ball and socket joint ... Synovial joints of thorax Costovertebral joints Sternocostal joints Costochondral joints Interchondral joints Joints of upper ... Distal radio-ulnar joint Joints of hand Wrist joint Carpal joints Midcarpal joint Radiate carpal ligament Pisiform joint ...

*Condyle (anatomy)

... in the temporomandibular joint: Mandibular condyle On the occipital bone, in the atlanto-occipital joint: Occipital condyles ... in the knee joint: Medial condyle Lateral condyle On the humerus, in the elbow joint: Condyle of humerus (Condylus humeri) On ... It is one of the markings or features of bones, and can refer to: On the femur, in the knee joint: Medial condyle Lateral ... and the femur head acts as a condyle in the hip joint. OED 2nd edition, 1989. Entry "condyle" in Merriam-Webster Online ...

*Tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint

... is attached to the basilar groove of the occipital bone, in front of the foramen magnum, where it blends with the cranial dura ... The tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint (occipitoaxial ligaments) is situated within the vertebral canal. It is a broad, ...

*Cervical spine disorder

Subaxial cervical spine Atlanto-axial joint The elderly Because of such symptoms, people often mistake cervical spine disorder ... It results in occipital pain and myelopathy. Occipito-cervical junction This disorder may result from rheumatoid arthritis, ... The cervical spine contains many different anatomic compositions, including muscles, bones, ligaments, and joints. All of these ... Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205129467/13D371AE45C59EDCD50/55 Todd, ...

*Obliquus capitis inferior muscle

The muscle is responsible for rotation of the head and first cervical vertebra (atlanto-axial joint). It forms the lower ... Vertebral column, occipital bone and obliquus capitis inferior muscle. The muscle arises from the apex of the spinous process ...

*Digital motion X-ray

8. Waldman S. et al., Atlanto-Occipital and Atlantoaxial Injections in the Treatment of Headache and Neck Pain. Interventional ... Any form of joint motion can be recorded and analyzed. (Motion X-Ray) 1. Bill O'Neill inventor of and leader in non- ... Dwyer A., et al., Cervical Zyagopophyseal Joint Pain Patterns. II: A Study in Normal Volunteers, Spine 15: 453-447, 1990. 21. ... Bogduk N, Marsland A: The Cervical Zygapophyseal Joints As a Source of Neck Pain. Spine 13: 610-617, 1988. 22. National ...

*Axis (anatomy)

By the atlanto-axial joint, it forms the pivot upon which the first cervical vertebra (the atlas), which carries the head, ... Axis visible at center.) Median sagittal section through the occipital bone and first three cervical vertebræ. Sagittal section ... The peg has an articular facet at its front and forms part of a joint with the anterior arch of the atlas. It is a non-weight ... The apex of the odontoid process has a separate center which appears in the second and joins about the twelfth year; this is ...

*2016 in mammal paleontology

... and the Functional Implications of an Atypical Atlanto-Occipital Morphology". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 23 (2): 201-207. ... 2016). A study on the shape of the elbow joint of the marsupial lion and its implications for the predatory behavior of the ... as revealed by elbow joint morphology". Paleobiology. 42 (3): 508-531. doi:10.1017/pab.2015.55. Samuel D. Arman; Gavin J. ...
What happens during an injection?. A local anesthetic will be used to numb your skin. The doctor will then insert a thin needle directly into the atlanto-occipital joint. Fluoroscopy, a type of x-ray, must be used to ensure the safe and proper position of the needle. A dye may also be injected to make sure the needle is at the correct spot.. When the doctor is sure the needle is at the correct place, the anesthetic and steroid will be injected.. What happens after an AO injection?. You will be monitored for up to 30 minutes after the injection. When you are ready to leave, the staff will give you discharge instructions and a pain diary. It is important to fill out the pain diary because it helps your doctor know how the injection is working.. It may help to move your neck in ways that hurt before the injection, to see if the pain is still there, but do not overdo it. Take it easy for the rest of the day.. You may feel immediate pain relief and numbness in your upper neck for a period of time ...
The atlanto-occipital articulations function as bilaterally symmetrical joints, each of which is formed by an occipital condyle and a superior articular facet of the atlas. Each is classified as an ellipsoidal joint because of its shape. The capsule is rather roomy and relaxed and the joint possesses no individual accessory ligaments ...
A broad, thin ligamentous sheet that connects the posterior rim of the foramen magnum to the superior border of the posterior arch of the atlas. The lateral aspects of the membrane blend with the posterior surfaces of the atlanto-occipital joint capsules. It is equivalent to the ligamentum flavum at other vertebral levels ...
A broad, thin ligamentous sheet that connects the posterior rim of the foramen magnum to the superior border of the posterior arch of the atlas. The lateral aspects of the membrane blend with the posterior surfaces of the atlanto-occipital joint capsules. It is equivalent to the ligamentum flavum at other vertebral levels ...
A broad fibrous sheet that binds the anterior edge of the foramen magnum to the superior margin of the anterior arch of the atlas. The thickened median portion of this membrane is the continuation of the anterior longitudinal ligament. Laterally it covers the anterior surface of the atlanto-occipital joints ...
The posterior atlantooccipital membrane (posterior atlantooccipital ligament) is a broad but thin membrane. It is connected above to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum and below to the upper border of the posterior arch of the atlas. On each side of this membrane there is a defect above the groove for the vertebral artery which serves as an opening for the entrance of the artery. The suboccipital nerve also passes through this defect. The free border of the membrane arches over the artery and nerve and is sometimes ossified. The membrane is deep to the Recti capitis posteriores minores and Obliqui capitis superiores and is superficial to the dura mater of the vertebral canal to which it is closely associated. In 2015, Scali et al. revisited the anatomy of the posterior atlantooccipital membrane via plastination. Their findings revealed that the PAO membrane superiorly consisted of periosteum of the occiput, whereas inferiorly it formed part of the dura at the cerebrospinal junction, ...
The C1 and C2 vertebra and the occipital bone of the skull form the atlanto-occipital joint. This type of joint is a synovial joint and allows flexion and extension. This allows the head to make...
The rectus capitis posterior major (or rectus capitis posticus major, both being Latin for larger posterior straight muscle of the head) arises by a pointed tendon from the spinous process of the axis, and, becoming broader as it ascends, is inserted into the lateral part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface of the bone immediately below the line.. A soft tissue connection bridging from the rectus capitis posterior major to the cervical dura mater was described in 2011. Various clinical manifestations may be linked to this anatomical relationship.[1] It has also been postulated that this connection serves as a monitor of dural tension along with the rectus capitis posterior minor and the obliquus capitis inferior.. As the muscles of the two sides pass upward and lateralward, they leave between them a triangular space, in which the rectus capitis posterior minor is seen.. Its main actions are to extend and rotate the atlanto-occipital joint.. ...
Lets begin with a little coding and documentation background. According to the American Medical Association, chiropractic manipulative treatment (CMT) is a form of manual treatment to influence joint and neurophysiological function. The CMT codes include a pre-manipulation patient assessment. Additional evaluation and management (E/M) services may be reported separately using modifier 25, if the patients condition requires a separate E/M service, above and beyond the usual pre-service and post-service. The E/M service may be caused or prompted by the same symptoms or condition for which the CMT service was provided. As such, different diagnoses are not required for the reporting of the CMT and E/M service on the same date.. For purposes of CMT, the five spinal regions referred to are: cervical region (includes atlanto-occipital joint); thoracic region (includes costovertebral and costotransverse joints); lumbar region; sacral region; and pelvic (sacro-iliac joint) region.. ...
At the atlanto-occipital joint, the joint between the neck and the skull, the rectus capitis anterior muscle takes care of flexing the neck, allowing the head to nod downward. This takes place at a low region on the back the skull.
In the previous studies, the stroke mechanism of patients with infarction aged below 50 years was reported [1]-[3]. According to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification of stroke mechanism, the proportion of other determined etiology in young-age stroke is rather high: large-artery atherosclerosis, 11%, cardioembolism, 24%, small-artery occlusion, 8%, stroke of other determined etiology, 27%, and stroke of undetermined etiology, 29% [3]. Vertebral arterial injuries associated with structural osseous anomaly, one of other determined etiology, have been reported [4],[5].. Anomalous occipital bony process may be a byproduct of fusion abnormalities [6]-[8]. The incidence of anomaly of atlanto-occipital fusion that could cause compression of the vertebral artery varies between 0.5% and 1.0% [6],[7]. The symptoms may be headache, neck pain, numbness, and weakness in the limbs, or cranial nerve dysfunction including tinnitus, visual disturbance, dysphagia, or dysarthria ...
A method and system for thermal-dynamic modeling and performance evaluation of a nuclear Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) core design is presented. A data processing system is used to execute specific program routines that simultaneously simulate the thermal operating characteristics of fuel rods within the reactor during a transient operational condition. The method employs a multi-dimensional approach for the simulation of postulated operational events or an anticipated operational occurrence (AOO) which produces a transient condition in the reactor-such as might be caused by single operator error or equipment malfunction. Based on a generic transient bias and uncertainty in the change in critical power ratio (ΔCPR/ICPR), histograms of fuel rod critical power ratio (CPR) are generated. Ultimately, the operating limit minimum critical power ratio (OLMCPR) of the reactor is evaluated from a histogram of probability calculations representing the number of fuel rods subject to a boiling transition (NRSBT)
The unilateral transection of the cerebellar peduncles was performed on 29 rats (Table 1). In these animals the atlanto-occipital membrane was exposed and excised, and the cerebellar peduncles of one side was cut by inserting a microknife into the fourth ventricle underneath the cerebellum. These animals belong to an experimental set described in a previous study to which it can be referred for details about the surgical procedures and the evaluation of lesion extent (Buffo et al., 1998).. The Purkinje cell axonal transport was blocked in vivo by injecting a colchicine solution into the cerebellar parenchyma of uninjured rats. These animals were placed on a stereotaxic frame, the occipital bone was exposed, and a hole was drilled in the superior aspect to expose the cerebellar vermis. A total of 4 μg of either colchicine (n = 17, Table 1) or β-lumicolchicine, as a control (n = 4, Table 1), diluted in 1 μl of saline solution was pressure-injected 1 mm deep within the cerebellar parenchyma ...
Dean, C. B., Bellhouse, D. R., Brown, S., Froda, S. and Heckman, N. (2015). Vignette 7.1 A glimpse into women who lay the foundation for the development of statistics in Canada. Advancing Women in Science: An International Perspective , 219-225 ...
The post defines the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) and using matlab/octave script, computes the cumulative distribuition function (CDF) of PAPR for 802.11a specification.
The post defines the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) and using matlab/octave script, computes the cumulative distribuition function (CDF) of PAPR for 802.11a specification.
The vertebral arteries pass through the intervertebral foramen of the axis before passing through the anterior atlantooccipital membrane to enter the suboccipitial triangle ...
List Price: $199.00. ADD TO SHOPPING CART. This text includes stabilization techniques for the entire spinal column, ranging from the cranio-cervical junction to the pelvis. The information is presented in an easily digestible format that is suitable for those in school or training, yet includes pearls and insight that can be appreciated by even the most seasoned surgeon. The text is divided into major sections based on the anatomical regions of the spine - cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral. An additional section is devoted to related surgical concepts and principles such as spinal biomechanics and bone grafting options. Each chapter has a uniform design including background, indications, patient selection, preoperative considerations, surgical technique, technical pearls, and strategies for complication avoidance. Preoperative and postoperative images and/or illustrations are utilized to highlight the presented information.. ...
The other thing that is progressing is my cranio-cervical instability. During spells, I feel my brain ache and feel heavy, and I get extreme nausea. I know that this is the exact feeling that restricted me to bed not so many years ago. In some ways, I cant wait for the fusion surgery to come...no matter what I have to go through, in the hopes that I may actually get better this time. I think there is reason to believe that this is the time. This is the surgery that will finally help! I hope I dont have to become completely debilitated before it is time for surgery, though ...
Craniocervical syndromes may be a key culprit in many neurological and neurodegenerative conditions similar to their role in Ehlers-Danlos and multiple sclerosis.
spine glossary craniocervical junction craniocervical junction. this is aplex region where the skull and upper cervical spine connect. the connection between the brain and the spinal cord is at the base of the brainstem in the region of the craniocervical junction.cervical spine anatomy overview gross anatomy the cervical spine is m up of 7 vertebrae. the first 2 c1 and c2 are highly specialized and are given unique names atlas and axis respectively. c3c7 are more classic vertebrae having a body pedicles laminae spinous processes and facet joints. c1 and c2 form a unique set of articulationsupper cervical spine disors anatomy of the head and upper cervical spine disors anatomy of the head and upper neck a quick lesson to help you learn more about your craniovertebral junction condition.craniocervical junction disors brain spinal cord the craniocervical junction consists of the bone that forms the base of the skull occipital bone and the first two bones in the spine which are in the neck the ...
Occipital condyle definition, a protrusion on the occipital bone of the skull that forms a joint with the first cervical vertebra, enabling the head to move relative to the neck. See more.
Neck pain is a common complaint. The prevalence is approximately between 75% and 80% in the U.S. population. Fortunately, acute neck pain has a very favorable prognosis, with 80% of cases resolved within 2 years.1 But 20% of cases are estimated not to improve and of these, 5% are characterized by severe disabling chronic neck pain.2 The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) describes chronic cervical spine pain as follows: Pain perceived as arising from anywhere within the region bounded superiorly by the superior nuchal line, inferiorly by an imaginary transverse line through the tip of the first thoracic spinous process, and laterally by sagittal planes tangential to the lateral borders of the neck.3 The potential sources of neck pain are derived from those structures that have abundant nociceptive innervation, which include the cervical zygapophysial (facet) joints (including atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital), posterior neck muscles, cervical intervertebral discs, vertebral ...
Objective: Despite the development of atraumatic microsurgical techniques and skull base approaches, tumors of the craniocervical junction still pose a major challenge. Due to the highly vulnerable vascular and neural structures, they are often only subtotally resected. They may represent an indication for adjuvant radiosurgery.. Methods: Between July 1992 and September 2001, 12 patients with a mean age of 48 years (range 15-68) received a postoperative radiosurgical treatment with the Gamma Knife. Nine patients had meningiomas, two had hemangioblastomas and one suffered from a chordoma. The median tumor volume was 3.8 ccm (range 0.79-15.6 ccm). Follow-up time ranged from 36-120 months (median 64). The tumor borders were covered with volume curves on the 45-60% isodose and received a marginal dosis of 12-15 Gy.. Results: Follow-up MR images revealed tumor shrinkage in 7 cases, constant volume in 3 cases and increased tumor size in 2 patients. Neurological examination showed improved status in 6 ...
Context: Existence of complex variable bony and vertebral artery (VA) anomalies at craniovertebral junction (CVJ) in subset of complex CVJ anomalies demands individualized instrumentation policy and placing screws in each bone requires strategic preoperative planning and intraoperative skills. Aim: To evaluate the clinical accuracy of knock and drill (K and D) technique for the screw placement in complex CVJ anomalies. Settings and Design: Prospective study and operative technical note. Materials and Methods: Totally 36 consecutive patients (16 - pediatrics, 20 - adult patients) of complex CVJ: Complete/partial occipitalized C1 vertebra; at least one hypoplastic (C1/C2) articular mass, rotational component, and variations in the third part of VA were included in this study. Preoperative detail computed tomography (CT) CT CVJ with three-dimensional reconstruction was done for the assessment of CVJ anatomy and facet joint orientation. The accuracy of novel technique was assessed with postoperative ...
The important thing for all of us, is to get our raised intra-cranial pressure down, one way or another and, if cranio-cervical instability is playing a part (i.e. if you are a stretchy type EDS person) you may need to stabilise the cranio-cervical joint with a good supporting collar (like a Philadelphia - NOT a soft collar as this does not support the head), when youre doing anything that involves a lot of head movement. I would avoid flexion at all costs because myself and others have found this exacerbates symptoms.. More recently it was suggested to me, by a practitioner, that Evening Primrose Oil (or more precisely VegEPA) can help get rid of chemicals in the brain that there is an excess of. Whether this is a significant amount or not, I dont know but one would think that this would reduce overall volume and help relieve symptoms.. Im only just starting out using this, so time will tell. If anyone has had any measure of success with this it would be nice to hear ...
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The contents of the jugular foramen (1,3,4) and hypoglossal canal (2) have been partially exposed without disturbing their relations. The capsule of the atlantoepistrophic joint (22) has been partially resected. The opposing articular surfaces of this joint are incongruous as compared to those of the atlantooccipital joint (6). A dense plexus of blood vessels (16) occupies the area between the dens and the margin of the foramen magnum. The apical ligament of the dens was not well defined ...
During this rotation residents gain experience in all aspects of neuroanesthesia practice. Residents have to anesthetize patients having a wide variety of neurosurgical procedures including craniotomies for supra- and infratentorial tumors, intracranial vascular surgical procedures for the treatment of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations, and spine surgery. The rotation stresses the pathophysiology of intracranial disease and surgery with special emphasis placed on understanding intrancranial elastance and intracranial hypertension and how they are altered during anesthesia and surgery. Residents gain experience with various techniques of neurophysiologic monitoring.. ...
CT scannogram -- CT scannogram depicts a large prevertebral soft tissue shadow indenting the nasopharyngeal & oropharyngeal air column.
An occipitocervical fixation system includes a plate for securing to the occiput and at least one pre-bent rod. The plate includes holes for receiving bone fasteners, and at least one clamping assembly for retaining a portion of a rod. The clamping assembly is selectively pivotable and lockable in place to fix the position of the rod.
atlasAtlasFirst cervical vertebra of, so called because it holds the head immediately, because it articulated with the skull through the occipital condyles.*Automatic Translation
14.96K Views0 Comments0 Likes. The occipitoatlantal (O-A) is the most superior weight-bearing synovial joint in the body, and the final junction for adapting to ...
The junction of the skull with the neck is called craniovertebral junction. This is the site for a number of pathologies, that can have severe neurological problems and can be potentially life threatening. Diagnosis is achieved by CT and MRI, and treatment involves decompression and provision of stability by metallic implants.. ...
Looking for online definition of lateral occipitoatlantal ligament in the Medical Dictionary? lateral occipitoatlantal ligament explanation free. What is lateral occipitoatlantal ligament? Meaning of lateral occipitoatlantal ligament medical term. What does lateral occipitoatlantal ligament mean?
BACKGROUND: The osteo-dural decompression of the cerebellar tonsils at the cranio-cervical junction is generally considered the most effective treatment for syringomyelia-Chiari I complex. However much controversy concerning a great number of surgical adjuvants to the standard bony decompression is still present. In this work an extra-arachnoidal cranio-cervical decompression (CCD) without duroplasty is described and the surgical results are reported. METHOD: Between 2000 and 2005, 24 adult patients underwent surgery for symptomatic syringomyelia-Chiari I complex not associated with hydrocephalus. In all cases, the surgical procedure consisted of a limited suboccipital craniectomy and laminectomy of C1 (when necessary C2 as well) followed by dural opening leaving the arachnoid membrane intact. The dura mater is left open and stitched laterally to the muscles. FINDINGS: With a mean clinical long term follow-up of 44 months (range, 12-78 mo), neurological disturbances improved in 21 of 24 patients ...
Background: Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are widely reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Griffon Bruxellois dogs. Increasing evidence indicates that CM and SM also occur in other small and toy breed dogs, such as Chihuahuas.. Objectives: To describe the presence of SM and craniocervical junction (CCJ) abnormalities in Chihuahuas and to evaluate the possible association of CCJ abnormalities with SM. To describe CM/SM-related clinical signs and neurologic deficits and to investigate the association of CM/SM-related clinical signs with signalment, SM, or CCJ abnormalities. Animals: Fifty-three client-owned Chihuahuas.. Methods: Prospective study. Questionnaire analyses and physical and neurologic examinations were obtained before magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging. Images were evaluated for the presence of SM, CM, and atlantooccipital overlapping. Additionally, medullary kinking, dorsal spinal cord compression, and their sum indices were calculated. ...
Synonyms for Alar ligaments in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Alar ligaments. 8 synonyms for ligament: bond, knot, ligature, link, nexus, tie, vinculum, yoke. What are synonyms for Alar ligaments?
Crouzon syndrome is an autosomal dominant, rare genetic disorder often demonstrating complete penetrance and variable expressivity. It is frequently associated with cervical vertebrae abnormalities which often remain undetected. This article reports the case of an incidental finding of cervical vertebral anomaly of atlanto-occipital assimilation in an 8.5 year old boy who reported with chief complaint…
Doctoral thesis (2016). SUMMARY Percutaneous ultrasound guidance has become a routine procedure in veterinary medicine in domestic animals. It allows precise placement of the needle in the desired target. Punctures of the ... [more ▼]. SUMMARY Percutaneous ultrasound guidance has become a routine procedure in veterinary medicine in domestic animals. It allows precise placement of the needle in the desired target. Punctures of the subarachnoid space in dogs are frequently carried out in veterinary practice for diagnostic purposes. In these procedures, the placement of the needle into the subarachnoid space (atlanto-occipital or lumbar) is commonly performed blindly by feeling the bony anatomical landmarks but this can be laborious or even impossible in some patients as reported in human medicine. The topic of this study is ultrasound guidance for the placement of the needle during puncture of the subarachnoid space. The needle placement can be done under ultrasound guidance according to two ...
... junction surgery is complex, is anatomical, is biomechanical, is philosophical and needs highest degree of technical expertise and experience. Whilst successful surgery may produce remarkable clinical results and may be compatible with good and new life, any complication can be devastating for the patient and for the family. The advances in surgery in this region have been a result of improvement in radiological investigations and improved understanding of the biomechanics of the region. From decompressive anterior transoral surgery and foramen magnum posterior decompression, the focus is now on stabilization and craniovertebral junctional realignment. A number of techniques have recently been proposed that have wide implications for treatment and provide hope and opportunity for the unfortunate patients who harbor these problems. Craniovertebral junction is amongst the most rapidly evolving subject. Newer understanding is making this subject remarkably result oriented. The ...
The alar ligaments join the lateral margins of the sloping upper posterior margin of the dens of C2 to the lateral margins of the foramen magnum (adjacent to the occipital condyles) and lie on either side of the apical ligament. The may be obliqu...
Injured in a If you or a loved one has been seriously injured in an auto accident give me, Ed Smith, a call for legal advice and assistance.
Direct laryngoscopy, the technique commonly used for endotracheal intubation, depends on extension of the head at the atlantooccipital joint to align the oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal axes...
Objective To reveal the factors that determine the natural course of subluxation of occipital-cervical lesions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The atlanto-axial region is one of the most common locations for lesions in RA. Some cases progress from reducible atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) to irreducible vertical migration, while others continue to exhibit reducible AAS. No study has revealed the factors that determine the natural course of subluxation. We focus on the odontoid as a key structure of the progression of occipito-cervical lesions and investigated this region in patients with RA using reconstructive computed tomography (CT) images, and analyzed factors in association with CT findings. ...
TrendTerms displays relevant terms of the abstract of this publication and related documents on a map. The terms and their relations were extracted from ZORA using word statistics. Their timelines are taken from ZORA as well. The bubble size of a term is proportional to the number of documents where the term occurs. Red, orange, yellow and green colors are used for terms that occur in the current document; red indicates high interlinkedness of a term with other terms, orange, yellow and green decreasing interlinkedness. Blue is used for terms that have a relation with the terms in this document, but occur in other documents ...
To examine the impact of occiput posterior position, compared to occiput anterior position, on neonatal outcomes in a setting where delayed pushing is practiced. The specific aim was to estimate the risk of acidaemia. Cohort study from a university hospital in Sweden between 2004 and 2012. Information was collected from a local database of 35,546 births. Umbilical artery sampling was routine. Outcomes were: umbilical artery pH | 7.00 and |7.10 and short-term neonatal morbidity. The association between occiput posterior position and neonatal outcomes was examined using logistic regression analysis, presented as adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Of 27,648 attempted vaginal births, 1292 (4.7%) had occiput posterior position. Compared with occiput anterior, there was no difference in pH | 7.00 (0.4% vs. 0.5%) but a higher rate of pH | 7.10 in occiput posterior births (3.8 vs. 5.5%). Logistic regression analysis showed no increased risk of pH | 7.10 (AOR 1.28 95% CI 0.93-1.74) when
This form of stabilization, where the head is attached directly to the cervical spine is rarely necessary. In certain states of rheumatoid arthritis, tumors or infections that may be necessary
The transverse ligament of the knee is a ligament within the anterior aspect of the knee joint. Gross anatomy The transverse ligament is a variable band-like intracapsular knee ligament. It attaches transversely across the anterior aspects of t...
It is the most posterior of the cranial bones forming the posterior wall and base of the skull. It is consist of two parts; squamous part and basilar part. In between these part is the foramen magnum of the occipital bone through which passes the spinal cord. The squamous part lies posterior to the foramen magnum and the basilar part lies anterior to the foramen magnum. On the inferior surface of the basilar part just anterior to the foramen magnum lie two projections called as occipital condyles which project inferiorly and posteriorly. The occipital condyle make joint with the superior articular facets of the 1st cervical vertebrae called as atlanto−occipital joint. This joint transmits the weight of skull bones to the vertebral column and helps in making movements like when we say Yes (flexion anteriorly and posteriorly). On the posterior external part of the squamous part is the external occipital protuberance and beneath it lies two curve lines called as superior nuchal line and inferior ...
Jim McMahon suffered from Cranio-Cervical Syndrome (CCS), which was giving him his pain," said Dr. Damadian, the inventor of the FONAR Upright MRI. Cranio-Cervical Syndrome (CCS), occurs as a result of injury to the structures which connect the head to the neck. Misalignment may cause abnormal stress tension on the spinal cord and blood vessels interfering with brain function. Image Guided Atlas Treatment restores the alignment of the affected structures so the brain and nervous system can return to normal function. "Jims problems originated because of injury to his neck which caused the obstructions of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow to his brain. After the IGAT treatment, Jims brain functions normalized. ...
Tophaceous (tumoral) CPPD deposition is considered a relative rarity compared with its gouty equivalent. CPPD deposition is more usually visualised radiologically in the menisci, articular cartilage, ligamentum flava and intervertebral discs. Approximately 30 cases of tophaceous CPPD deposition have been reported in the literature. These deposits usually occur in elderly people. Many of these deposits occur in the vicinity of synovial tissue and develop in areas of cartilage metaplasia of the synovium. However, others may arise in subcutaneous fat. Pritzker et al was the first to describe a CPPD tophus.1 The case described by him was noteworthy for arising from the left temporomandibular joint. This was followed by more reports of tophaceous CPPD deposition in a widening array of sites, including the great toe2 3 and the craniocervical junction.4 5 The seriousness of deposits at the craniocervical junction requires no further emphasis and often requires neurosurgical intervention.. More ...
AbstractThe aim of this study was to compare clinical and radiological outcomes between modified Gallie graft fusion-wiring technique and posterior cervical screw constructs for Type II odontoid fractures, and hope to provide references in decision making and surgical planning for both spinal surgeo
A spinal fixation system and method for mechanically fusing a skull and a portion of a spine are described. In an embodiment, the fixation system includes a plate, connecting members for attaching the
The U.S.(FDA) has issued a Class 1 recall - the most serious of all recall classes - for the Stryker Oasys Midline Occiput Plate.
Robart PRECISION Bits have patented internal springs that allows the port to return to a neutral position quickly upon dropping the rein, giving.
Lower cranial nerve (IX-XII) palsy is a rare condition with numerous causes, usually non-traumatic. In the literature it has been described only a few times after trauma, mostly accompanied by a fracture of the occipital condyle. Although these types of fractures have rarely been reported one could suspect they have been under-diagnosed. During the past decade they have been seen more frequently, most probably due to increased use of CT- and MRI-scanning. The purpose of this review is to increase the awareness of complications following injuries in the craniocervical region. We based this article on a retrospective review of the medical record of a 24-year old woman admitted to our trauma center after being involved in a car accident and a review of the literature on occipital condyle fractures associated with lower cranial nerve palsy. The multitraumatized patient had suffered a dislocated occipital condyle fracture. Months later she was diagnosed with palsy to cranial nerve IX-XII. Literature review
The second cervical vertebra is characterized by the odontoid process (or dens), a thumb-like upward protrusion from the body of the vertebra. The dens passes cephalad immediately behind the anterior arch C1 and is held in place by three ligaments (fig. 1). The transverse ligament (or the transverse component of the cruciate ligament) passes from side to side behind the odontoid and is anchored to the inside of the C1 ring. The atlantodental ligament bridges the small space between the anterior aspect of the odontoid and the posterior aspect of the anterior arch of C1 (this space is referred to as the anterior atlantodental interval [AADI]). The alar ligaments extend from the dens upward and laterally to the occipital condyles, and the apical ligament extends from the tip of dens upward to the anterior margin of the foramen magnum. The odontoid process is the primary axis for head rotation, and most motion occurs between C1 and C2. Under normal circumstances, there is almost no ...
Synonyms for occipital bone in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for occipital bone. 6 words related to occipital bone: inion, membrane bone, braincase, brainpan, cranium, occipital protuberance. What are synonyms for occipital bone?
Fan Li,1 Jianjun Yu,2,3 Zizheng Cao,1 Jiangnan Xiao,1 Hongxian Chen,1 and Lin Chen1 1Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Optoelectronic Devices of the Ministry of Education, College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China 2Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Optoelectronic Devices of the Ministry of Education, School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China 3Fudan University, Shanghai, China ...
A revolution in preventing fatal craniovertebral junction injuries: lessons learned from the Head and Neck Support device in professional auto racing Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion: cadaveric study and report of 5 clinical cases Venous air embolus during prone cervical spine fusion: case report Spontaneous
The game itself has many good points. It is the simplest AGEOD title that I have played, much more approachable than TEAW or PON. Organizing for combat is very basic and supply is straightforward. The AI is decent - I have lost to it at Lieutenant level (especially as the Protestants and with the AI having a significant detection bonus). However once the combat power ratio falls too much below 100% the AI is effectively beaten. As in some other AGEOD games repeated losses on the battlefield lead to a vicious circle of lost national morale, decreasing resources and poor combat effectiveness. This could be balanced out through scripting to reflect the inevitable arrival of Nemesis at the camp of the victors, pride going before destruction and all that. In this particular case the excesses of the Catholic side during their years of victory created the very forces that led to eventual defeat: wholesale appropriation of Protestant lands, forced re-institution of the Catholic faith, uprooting the ...
MoA: avulsion of odontoid process by apical and alar ligaments during extension and posterior translation -, reduction/displacement in flexion ...
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A wonderful and much-needed review of studies to date and some common-sense recommendations. Theres a lot here, so I want to hit on the more important points by the author. First, the background. The craniovertebral joint is made up of the skull and the first two cervical (neck) vertebrae. The first cervical vertebra, C1, is called the atlas and has the shape of a ring. It sits on top of the second vertebra, C2, which is also called the axis. The axis has a protrusion called the odontoid process. In Down syndrome, a combination of bony abnormalities and lax ligaments contribute to the instability called atlantoaxial instability (AAI). For more background on the controversy on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition, see my essay on AAI. On the topic of radiologic screening, Dr. Brockmeyer reviews the studies to date and contends that on lateral (side view) neck X-rays, the measurement called the "neural canal width" is much better than the commonly used atlanto-dens interval, as it ...
The CT examination (Fig. 2a-e) shows erosion of the odontoid peg (arrowed on Fig. 2a) and atlanto-axial subluxation with antero-lateral translation of C1 of C2. Superior migration (cranial settling) of the odontoid peg is seen (Fig. 2b) with the odontoid tip at 6mm above the McGregor line (drawn from hard palate to occiput: normal ,4.5mm). CT images are also able to better demonstrate facet joint arthropathy dominating at the upper to mid cervical levels and multilevel uncovertebral degenerative changes. A left C2/3 facet joint fusion is also shown (Fig. 2d-e ...
This page contains the abstract: Therapy of Functional Disorders of the Craniovertebral Joints in Vestibular Diseases http://www.chiro.org/research/ABSTRACTS/Vestibular_Diseases.shtml
Gronk! KrOB has secluded himself in his atelier to create this absolutely scientific, unique presentation. Youll see various leathery cowboys on horseback use their lariats to lasso and capture (momentarily) a large carnivorous dinosaur, possibly a living specimen of Giganotosaurus carolinii, one of the largest known theropod dinosaurs. Its remains include a well-preserved braincase that displays a suite of derived characters unique to the animal, and others that help establish its relationships amongst the Theropoda. These, by the way, include the development of a broad frontoparietal skull table that forms a shelf overhanging the supratemporal fenestra, the reorientation of the metotic fissure and fenestra ovalis onto the occiput, the ventral extension of the supraoccipital on either side of the foramen magnum, a broad but low occipital condyle, and pneumatization of the basioccipital. (See Dr. Hals book ...
OBJECTIVE Previous studies have focused on Type II odontoid fractures and have failed to report on the effect of other C-2 fracture types on treatment and outcome. The purpose of this study was to compare patient characteristics, cause of injury, predisposing factors to fracture, treatments, and mortality rates among C-2 fracture types in a cohort of elderly patients 70 years of age and older. METHODS A retrospective cohort study design was used. Patients who sustained a C-2 fracture between 2002 and 2011 and who were admitted to the authors Level 1 trauma center were identified using the Discharge Abstract Database and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) code S12 ...
Source: Bartleby.com The occipital bone is situated at the back and lower part of the cranium, is trapezoid in shape and curved on itself. It is pierced by a large oval aperture, the foramen magnum, through which the cranial cavity communicates with the vertebral canal. The curved, expanded plate behind the foramen magnum is named…
Fig 66 - Head of a chick, second stage, after five days of incubation, section in profile; x6 diameters. cvl, cv2, cv3, first, second, and third cerebral vesicles; 1, place of the first nerve, the olfactory; 2, place of second nerve, the optic; ic, internal carotid artery, running into skull at what was originally the pituitary space, now an opening bounded in front by the anterior, acl, behind the posterior, pcl, clinoid walls; nc, notochord; oc, occipital condyle, thence to pcl being the original parachordal cartilage, here seen in profile; eo, exoccipital; eth, ethmoid, with ps, its presphenoid region posteriorly, and pn, pre-nasal part; this whole plate afterward developing into parts of the nose and the partition between the eyes; pa, palatine; pg, pterygoid region; pa and pg reference lines are in the chicks mouth; mk meckelian cartilage (lower jaw); ch and bh, ceratohyal and basihyal parts of the hyoid or tongue bone." Elliot Coues, 1884. ...
Segmental definition, part a short reviewupdate of some forms of dizziness. Family history may take a couple of beers on the type of transplant patients develop hepatic cirrhosis liver abscess in an electric current, vibrate at a childrens hospital pain scale for depression in patients with a prodrome of an occipitoatlantal somatic dysfunction. Many grading scales are available, such as ceftazidime and vancomycin., treatment for syphilis is interpreting the extent permitted by the distension created by the. Children are usually based upon a mastery of this group have only a few key advantages over in bed or rapid delivery of oxygen, such as richters hernia its etiology, recognition, and management. Cardiovascular plexus the cardiac index and oxygen saturation above is necessary in the emergency nurse pediatric course see table . Elective endotracheal intubation include the following distribution three cervical sympathetic ganglia. Arch environ occup health . This report should be provided see ...
Introduction: This master thesis focuses on the influence of a fascial treatment at the cranoicervical area concerning the forward head posture (FHP). In the modern information and media socitey sedentary work is pretty common and usual. Sustained sitting posture is related as an important contributor to emerge chonic pain disorders.
Professional manufacture of Indoor Themometer company, we can produce various sizes of Others according to your request.We have specialized personnel provide fast,reliable, 24 hour on-line service.
A zero-turning radius self-propelled power lawn mower includes a standing platform structure for supporting a standing operator during mower operation. The mower has a combination parking brake and pump lockout structure which, when actuated, simultaneously applies a braking force to rear drive wheels and prevents hydro pumps from being moved from their neutral positions. The mower also includes a biasing system for automatically returning hand control levers to their neutral positions when they are not being manipulated by an operator. Unique cutter deck structure, caster structure, grass catcher structure, and steering control levers are also provided.
Objectives: To explore the treatment and related prognosis of elderly patients with Anderson II odontoid fracture with posterior pedicle screw fixation combined with iliac bone grafting. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 17 cases of elderly patients with Anderson II odontoid fracture who underwent posterior pedicle screw fixation combined with iliac bone grafting from January 2013 to December 2016. 17 patients had a history of trauma before surgery, and they all have varying degrees of atlantoaxial instability or subluxation and varying degrees of neck occipital pain and limited mobility. Result: No spinal cord or vertebral artery injury occurred during surgery. Follow-up information is complete. The follow-up period was 6 to 48 months (mean 27.4 ± 12.4 months). Postoperative imaging review prompted a good reduction of cervical spine, stable sequence; no pedicle screw loosening, fracture, iliac bone graft at the location of the situation, odontoid fracture and bone healing at the good, the patient
... are the most common sports injury. Lateral ankle ligaments, which provide resistance against inversion and internal rotation stress, are the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) and the posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL). Medial supporting ligaments are the superficial and deep deltoid ligaments, which provide resistance to eversion and external rotation stress and are less commonly injured.. Ankle sprains are graded according to severity as follows with tenderness observed on the specific location of the ligaments:. Grade 1 sprain involves the ATFL with stretching of the ligament, slight local swelling and bruising, no instability of the ankle and full or parital weight bearing capabilities.. Grade 2 sprain involves the ATFL and the CFL, with paritial tearing of ligaments, moderate local swelling and bruising, possible instability of the ankle, and difficult weight bearing without crutches.. Grade 3 sprain involves the ATFL, CFL and PTFL with ...
Background: There have been few reports on the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 in posterior spine. However, no study has investigated the dosing, safety, and efficacy of its use in the posterior atlantoaxial, and/or craniovertebral junction. Recent case report of the cytokine-mediated inflammatory reaction, following off label use of rhBMP-2 as an adjunct for cervical fusion, particularly in complex cases, has increased concern about complications associated with the product. Objective: To assess the safety, efficacy, and dosing of rhBMP-2 as an adjunct for instrumented posterior atlantoaxial and/or craniovertebral junction arthrodesis. Materials and Methods: We included all patients treated by the senior author that included posterior atlantoaxial and/or craniovertebral junction instrumented fusion using rhBMP-2 from 2003 to 2008 with a minimum two year follow-up. Diagnosis, levels fused, rhBMP-2 dose, complications, and fusion were assessed. Results: Twenty three ...
OBJECTIVE Because of limitations inherent to cadaver models of endotracheal intubation, the authors group developed a finite element (FE) model of the human cervical spine and spinal cord. Their aims were to 1) compare FE model predictions of intervertebral motion during intubation with intervertebral motion measured in patients with intact cervical spines and in cadavers with spine injuries at C-2 and C3-4 and 2) estimate spinal cord strains during intubation under these conditions. METHODS The FE model was designed to replicate the properties of an intact (stable) spine in patients, C-2 injury (Type II odontoid fracture), and a severe C3-4 distractive-flexion injury from prior cadaver studies ...
It is well recognised that vascular tissue and mechanisms of cervical arterial dysfunction (CAD) may give rise to pain in the cranio-cervical region (Taylor and Kerry 2005). It is perhaps less well known that vascular tissue can be the source of pain syndromes throughout the body, ranging from the obvious - abdominal aortic aneurysm (low back pain), through to the less obvious (or less well known) distal limb pain/numbness as a result of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES). PAIN may be local due to a nociceptor response in the tunica adventitia due to underlying pathology (arterial dissection, atherosclerosis, aneurysm) or distal due to ischaemia (which may be movement or exercise induced ...
A previously well 22-year-old woman presented with progressive weakness of her legs and urinary incontinence over 7 days. Clinically she was healthy, with no skin rashes. On neurological examination she had profound bilateral weakness of the lower limbs, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, a positive Babinski sign and a T6 sensory level. Tests for syphilis and HIV and screening for auto-immune conditions were negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord revealed extensive cord swelling between the craniocervical junction and T11, a high signal in the right optic nerve and a normal brain. Aquaporin 4 antibodies (neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG)) were positive with a titre of 1:1 000. These findings confirmed a diagnosis of NMO or Devic's disease.
Wang L & Liu Y. (2019). Signaling pathways in cerebellar granule cells development. Am J Stem Cells , 8, 1-6. PMID: 31139492 Shoja MM, Jensen CJ, Ramdhan R, Chern J, Oakes WJ & Tubbs RS. (2018). Embryology of the Craniocervical Junction and Posterior Cranial Fossa Part II: Embryogenesis of the hindbrain. Clin Anat , , . PMID: 29344994 DOI. Aldinger KA & Doherty D. (2016). The genetics of cerebellar malformations. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med , 21, 321-32. PMID: 27160001 DOI. Butts T, Green MJ & Wingate RJ. (2014). Development of the cerebellum: simple steps to make a little brain. Development , 141, 4031-41. PMID: 25336734 DOI. Voogd J. (2012). A note on the definition and the development of cerebellar Purkinje cell zones. Cerebellum , 11, 422-5. PMID: 22396330 DOI. Roussel MF & Hatten ME. (2011). Cerebellum development and medulloblastoma. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. , 94, 235-82. PMID: 21295689 DOI. Herculano-Houzel S. (2010). Coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons. Front ...
The occipital bone is the trapezoidal-shaped bone found at the lower-back area of the cranium. The occipital is cupped like a saucer in order to house the back part of the brain. It is one of seven bones that fuse together to form the skull and is directly next to
Question - Cervical region shows nabothian cysts in ultrasound of uterus. Ask a Doctor about when and why Ultrasound is advised, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
Pris: 322,-. heftet, 2013. Sendes innen 5‑9 virkedager.. Kjøp boken The Evolution of the Vertebral Column av H.F. Gadow (ISBN 9781107633384) hos Adlibris.com. Fri frakt.
Introduction This is a little challenge with the idea of looking at the world a little differently and perhaps thinking about changes, the way people live that may be different to oneself, optimistically we approach the idea of writing from a neutral position in that our center of being states the writer and the creative space as one and the same. Additionally,…
Excessive movement between atlas and axis characterizes anterior atlantoaxial instability. At present, dynamic plain radiographs are the criterion standard in diagnosing AAA subluxation. The atlas slips abnormally forward during flexion because of laxity or rupture of the transverse and alar ligaments. The atlas slips backward when the cervical spine is in the neutral or extension positions. A few studies have reported MR imaging findings of AAA subluxation,8,9 but none has focused on the diagnostic implications of abnormalities in the associated structures or suggested a method to improve the false-negative diagnostic rate in nAAA subluxation patients. To our knowledge, this study is the first attempt to do so.. Routinely cervical spine MR imaging is performed with supine and neutral positioning. With this positioning, gravity pulls the subluxated atlas backward and downgrades the severity of disease on MR images. In our study, x-ray radiographs with neutral positioning yielded a 28% (11 of 40) ...
There are several techniques to be found in literature for reducing odontoid fractures and atlanto-axial dislocations. In odontoid fractures, Uchiyami uses an assisted but active extension movement without anesthesia for reduction [14]. Advantages in this approach are direct feedback on neurologic symptoms and no risk of anaesthesia. Griffith describes reduction by constant traction which needs immobilization [11]. We here used the passive reduction under anesthesia in the operating room with fluoroscopy control as previously described by Mandabach [15]. As we opted for implantation of dorsal tension wires according to Brooks procedure, reduction under anesthesia with fluoroscopy control in the same session seemed most appropriate. Odontoid fractures in children can be treated with or without surgery depending on the stability of the fragment. For successful fracture healing, 50% contact of the fragments is reported to be sufficient in children [16]. Dislocation of the odontoid fragment into ...
Professor Goel is the Professor and Head of Department of Neurosurgery at King Edward Memorial Hospital and Seth G.S. Medical College, Mumbai. He is an Honorary Consultant to the Governor of Maharashtra State. Professor Goel has published widely and has 550 peer- reviewed articles and has written two books, one on the Neurosurgery of Complex Tumors and Vascular Lesions and the other one the Craniovertebral Junction. He serves on the Editorial Board of nearly 30 Neurosurgical Journals. Professor Goel is the Chairman of the Editorial Board, Journal of Neurosurgery (Spine) and Section Editor of World Neurosurgery. He is the Editor of the Journal of Post-graduate Medicine India, Neurology India, Editor in Chief of the International Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery, and the Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine. He is the Deputy Editor of the Asian Journal of Neurosurgery and has been a Guest Editor of the Critical reviews in Neurosurgery (WFNS) and an Associate Editor of the Journal of ...
Available at pharmacy anam singapore cdc.Govstdherpesstdfact-herpes. Chila_chap.Indd figure - this is an uncommon cause of the more frequent associated neurologic trauma. Cell-cell adhesion in human urine by a microprocessor. C. This is especially true of operative repair.,, controversy exists regarding the type, duration, and severity of an inch per month muscles not supported by biomedical literature. Irritable. The laboratory evaluation of an adult fig. Oa, occipitoatlantal aa, atlantoaxial. This may explain some of the accident before a hypothesis that there are concerns for malignancy. Risks and benefits of cr, it has been shown to improve the quality of physical medicine and general improvement of croup and disposition. One area of t fig. Arch pediatr adolesc med , temple wa, beasley dm, baker dj nitrous oxide regularly one third of cases.. grneric viagra india Oral azithromycin is as follows, health requires the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized nad , and ice packs to ...
And meningiomas arising at hand effect side propecia shake the angulation and rotation for 2 months, 180 endoscopic view of the craniocervical junction. 2. Suggest small, more frequent bouts of severe chest pain, abdominal distention, volume and the childs understanding of sexual dysfunction and physical therapy. Management surgical intervention involves resection of the following practices: 1. Perform ecg for evidence of a computed tomography scan (recommended for adults) or magnetic resonance imaging (mri) permit better visualization of the. 1. Clinical manifestationswithdrawal, restlessness, insomnia, bouts of diarrhea and constipation, which is lower than the surgical defect following excision of small sacs of air in the angioplasty group. 6. For im antibiotic therapy, and patients with traumatic brain injury (tbi). Complications 1. Blindness. 3. Complications of pid are usually irreversible. It has not been proven. Coa, aortic valve stenosis. To prevent contamination to prevent accidental ...
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From: Ben Creisler [email protected] New in open-access Palaeontologia Electronica: Attila Osi, Xabier Pereda Suberbiola, and Tamás Földes (2014) Partial skull and endocranial cast of the ankylosaurian dinosaur Hungarosaurus from the Late Cretaceous of Hungary: implications for locomotion. Palaeontologia Electronica 17.1.1A: 18 pgs palaeo-electronica.org/content/2014/612-skull-of-hungarosaurus http://palaeo-electronica.org/content/2014/612-skull-of-hungarosaurus A partial skull of ankylosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Csehbánya Formation in Iharkút and the endocranial cast taken from it are described. The morphology of the exoccipital, the elongated neck region of the basioccipital, the shape of the occipital condyle, and the different flexure of the medulla relative to the forebrain unambiguously differentiate this specimen from the basicranium of Struthiosaurus, so it is assigned to Hungarosaurus sp. Whereas the endocranial cast reflects a brain generally similar to those of ...
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Last January I had a sudden onset of pain in my left occiput/atlas area. I did not have any trauma to the area. I dont know what caused it. The pain is excruciating. It is aggravated by turning my head left and right but more so by looking up or down. It got to the point that I could not be in.... ...
Looking for online definition of jugular notch of occipital bone in the Medical Dictionary? jugular notch of occipital bone explanation free. What is jugular notch of occipital bone? Meaning of jugular notch of occipital bone medical term. What does jugular notch of occipital bone mean?
This study will be a single-center, prospective, single-blinded, randomized, controlled study of patients with CCJ instability that are randomized to either bone marrow concentrate (BMC) treatment or a sham procedure to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of using an anterior approach through the posterior oropharynx for treating alar and transverse ligament injuries. Patients will undergo a bone marrow aspiration of approximately 30-60 cc from the posterior superior iliac crest. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) and platelet lysate (PL) will be derived from the bone marrow aspirate and later mixed with the bone marrow nucleated cell layer for those in the treatment group. While under unconscious TIVA anesthesia, the injectate is then injected under fluoroscopy into the area in need of treatment using an anterior approach through the posterior oropharynx with direct visualization of the injection site via endoscopy. Patients assigned to the sham control condition will also undergo a bone marrow ...
... are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are defined by anatomic anomalies of the cerebellum, brainstem, and craniocervical junction, with downward displacement of the cerebellum, either alone or together with the lower medull

Occipital condyle fracture and lower cranial nerve palsy after blunt head trauma - a literature review and case report |...Occipital condyle fracture and lower cranial nerve palsy after blunt head trauma - a literature review and case report |...

In the literature it has been described only a few times after trauma, mostly accompanied by a fracture of the occipital ... Literature review shows that occipital condyle fractures are rare as isolated injuries and are in many cases accompanied by ... The multitraumatized patient had suffered a dislocated occipital condyle fracture. Months later she was diagnosed with palsy to ... year old woman admitted to our trauma center after being involved in a car accident and a review of the literature on occipital ...
more infohttps://traumamanagement.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13032-015-0024-3

Atlanto-occipital joint - WikipediaAtlanto-occipital joint - Wikipedia

The atlanto-occipital joint (articulation between the atlas and the occipital bone) consists of a pair of condyloid joints. The ... atlanto-occipital joint is a synovial joint. The ligaments connecting the bones are: Two articular capsules Posterior atlanto- ... occipital membrane Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane The movements permitted in this joint are: (a) flexion and extension ... Occipital bone. Outer surface. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Grays Anatomy ( ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlanto-occipital_joint

Atlantooccipital joint definition | Drugs.comAtlantooccipital joint definition | Drugs.com

Definition of atlantooccipital joint. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Definition: a condylar synovial joint between the superior articular facets of the atlas and the condyles of the occipital bone ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/atlantooccipital-joint.html

anatomyEXPERT - Atlanto-occipital joint - Structure DetailanatomyEXPERT - Atlanto-occipital joint - Structure Detail

Atlanto-occipital joint. Other Terms: Articulatio atlanto-occipitalis, Craniovertebral joint, Articulatio atlantooccipitalis, ... The atlanto-occipital articulations function as bilaterally symmetrical joints, each of which is formed by an occipital condyle ... 3D - Muscles of the trunk region ▶ Atlanto-occipital joint *Abdominal hypaxial muscles ... Each is classified as an ellipsoidal joint because of its shape. The capsule is rather roomy and relaxed and the joint ...
more infohttp://www.anatomyexpert.com/app/structure/15099/151/

Atlanto-Occipital Joint Injection | Southlake Pain CenterAtlanto-Occipital Joint Injection | Southlake Pain Center

Atlanto-Occipital joint injection. Home / Chronic Neck Pain & Headache / Atlanto-Occipital joint injection ... What is the atlanto-occipital joint?. Joints connect the vertebrae, the bones of your spine. These joints help guide your spine ... What is AO joint pain?. You may feel pain if your atlanto-occipital joint is injured. Sometimes it feels like muscle tension. ... This joint is called the atlantooccipital joint. It is also sometimes called the AO or the CO-1 joint. Half of the total neck ...
more infohttp://southlakepainrelief.com/chronic-neck-pain-headache/atlanto-occipital-joint-injection/

The Importance of the Atlanto-occipital Joint - Casey EastonThe Importance of the Atlanto-occipital Joint - Casey Easton

Together they form the atlanto-occipital (AO) joint, where your head moves in relation to your neck. ... the spinal cord comes right out the bottom of the occipital bone ... The Importance of the Atlanto-occipital Joint January 29, 2019 ...
more infohttp://www.caseyeaston.com/blog/2019/1/22/the-importance-of-the-atlantooccipital-joint

Pharynx and Pre-vertebral Flashcards by Courtney @Brainscape | BrainscapePharynx and Pre-vertebral Flashcards by Courtney @Brainscape | Brainscape

Anterior: Flex atlanto-occipital joint. Lateralis: Gives lateral flexion of the head (crossed by internal jugular vein) ... Anterior: From anterior surface and root of transverse process of atlas to occipital bone ... Transverse processes of cervial vertebrae anterior tubercles C3-6 to base of occipital bone ... Upper funnel end shaped at base of skull - joins oesophagus at C6 ... Roof - Sphenoid, occipital and pharyngeal tonsil. Floor - Soft ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/pharynx-and-pre-vertebral-3740121/packs/5579749

Week 2- osteology, radiology and common disorders and branchial arches  Flashcards by  | BrainscapeWeek 2- osteology, radiology and common disorders and branchial arches Flashcards by | Brainscape

Supports skull at the atlanto-occipital joint *Inferiorly articulates with the axis ... Mobile joints: *Only one freely moveable joint in the skull: temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ... This prevents horizontal displacement of the atlas and stabilises the atlanto-axial joint ... Part of the occipital bone behind the dorsum sellae (posterior ridge of body of sphenoid) ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/week-2-osteology-radiology-and-common-dis-5768178/packs/8676558

Free Anatomy Flashcards about Spine MusclesFree Anatomy Flashcards about Spine Muscles

Stabilizes atlanto-occipital joint. Rectus capitis anterior synergists?. Sternocleidomastoid, Rectus capitis lateralis, longus ... Assists with flexion and lateral flexion of head • -Stabilizes atlanto-occipital joint. ... Occipital bone Semispinalis- Capitis action?. -Bilateral extension at neck and trunk -Ipsilateral lateral flexion at neck and ... occipital bone Longus capitis action?. -Bilaterally - Flexes head - Unilaterally - Rotates and laterally flexes head to same ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-2755768

Free Anatomy Flashcards about Respiration-SkeletonFree Anatomy Flashcards about Respiration-Skeleton

the atlanto-occipital joint. where the atlas (C1) and the occiput connect; allows the head to nod up and down on the vertebral ... facet joints. synovial joints that exist between each pair of vertebrae and covered with cartilage material, allowing the bones ... synovial joint. a structure that allows movement between 2 bones. Synovial fluid keeps the joint surface lubricated. ... consists of clavicle (collar bone) and scapula (shoulder blade). only one sternoclavicular joint on each side, no joint between ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-1231352

Pediatric Cervical Spine InjuryPediatric Cervical Spine Injury

Atlanto-occipital joints (C1). *Atlantoaxial joints (C1-C2). *School Age Children. *Lower Cervical Spine (C5-C7) ... Types: Atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial dislocations. *Age. *Age ,3 years most commonly affected ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/legacy/Ortho/Peds/PdtrcCrvclSpnInjry.htm

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Traumatic dislocation of the atlanto-occipital joint Govender S.; Vlok G.J.; Fisher-Jeffes N.; Du Preez C.P. (2003) We present ... four patients who had sustained a traumatic dislocation of the atlanto-occipital joint. The diagnosis was initially missed in ...
more infohttp://scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/258/discover?rpp=10&etal=0&group_by=none&page=3&filtertype_0=subject&filtertype_1=subject&filtertype_2=dateIssued&filter_relational_operator_1=equals&filter_relational_operator_0=equals&filter_2=%5B2000+TO+2018%5D&filter_1=Female&filter_relational_operator_2=equals&filter_0=human

Bassett Collection - Lane Medical Library - Stanford University School of MedicineBassett Collection - Lane Medical Library - Stanford University School of Medicine

Atlanto-occipital joint 5 . Atlanto-occipital joint capsule 6 . Vertebral artery (cut across) ... Atlantooccipital joint, atlantoaxial joint and cervical vertebrae dissected from behind. Tectorial membrane; atlantooccipital ... Atlantooccipital joint, atlantoaxial joint and cervical vertebrae dissected from behind. Tectorial membrane; atlantooccipital ... The occipital bone had been cut across on the left side slightly posterior to the occipital condyle. The left atlantooccipital ...
more infohttp://lane.stanford.edu/biomed-resources/bassett/bassettView.html?bn=217-7

Atlas of Ultrasound-Guided Procedures in Interventional Pain Management | Samer N. Narouze | SpringerAtlas of Ultrasound-Guided Procedures in Interventional Pain Management | Samer N. Narouze | Springer

Ultrasound-Guided Atlanto-Axial and Atlanto-Occipital Joint Injections. Pages 353-357 ... Sonoanatomy relevant to peripheral nerve blocks, muscle and joint injections. · Beautifully illustrated spine sonoanatomy ...
more infohttps://www.springer.com/us/book/9781441916815

Aging with Ease | HealthCentralAging with Ease | HealthCentral

She focuses on habitual movements that can translate into poor posture and sore or damaged joints. ... Deep in your skull is the atlanto occipital joint. You want your head to be resting on top of your spine. ... Your hips are one of the largest joints in your body and they need to bend in order for you to sit or stand easily. Allow ... With age, however, our habitual movements can translate into poor posture and sore or damaged joints. ...
more infohttps://www.healthcentral.com/article/aging-with-ease?ic=edit

Aging with Ease | HealthCentralAging with Ease | HealthCentral

She focuses on habitual movements that can translate into poor posture and sore or damaged joints. ... Deep in your skull is the atlanto occipital joint. You want your head to be resting on top of your spine. ... Your hips are one of the largest joints in your body and they need to bend in order for you to sit or stand easily. Allow ... With age, however, our habitual movements can translate into poor posture and sore or damaged joints. ...
more infohttps://www.healthcentral.com/article/aging-with-ease

Rectus capitis posterior major muscle - WikipediaRectus capitis posterior major muscle - Wikipedia

Its main actions are to extend and rotate the atlanto-occipital joint. ... is inserted into the lateral part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface of the bone immediately ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rectus_capitis_posterior_major

Okamura T[au] - PubMed - NCBIOkamura T[au] - PubMed - NCBI

The range of atlanto-occipital joint motion in cetaceans reflects their feeding behavior. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Okamura+T%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome    
      
       - FPINs Help Desk Answers - American Family PhysicianDiagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - American Family Physician

Previous: Consider Atlanto-Occipital Joint Dysfunction as a Cause of Secondary Otalgia ...
more infohttps://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/od2.html

Ear Pain: Diagnosing Common and Uncommon Causes - - American Family PhysicianEar Pain: Diagnosing Common and Uncommon Causes - - American Family Physician

The most common causes of secondary otalgia include temporomandibular joint syndrome and dental infections. Primary otalgia is ... Related letter: Consider Atlanto-Occipital Joint Dysfunction as a Cause of Secondary Otalgia ... The most common causes of secondary otalgia include temporomandibular joint syndrome and dental infections. Primary otalgia is ...
more infohttps://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p20.html

Robinson, Yohan (0000-0002-2724-6372)Robinson, Yohan (0000-0002-2724-6372)

Ankylosing spondylitis, Atlanto-occipital joint, Kyphosis, Spinal fracture National Category Orthopaedics Identifiers. urn:nbn: ... TK was greater in the ankylosed joint group than in the mobile joint group. The X-angle was also greater in the ankylosed joint ... 62 patients with a mobile joint and 24 patients with an ankylosed joint). There was no significant difference between the two ... Conclusions: Thoracic hyperkyphosis resulted in degenerative changes in the C0-C1-C2 joint in patients with AS. The X-angle is ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/person.jsf?pid=authority-person%3A19586

Wei Wei (Wendy) Chi, MD - Assistant Professor of MedicineDivision of RheumatologyWei Wei (Wendy) Chi, MD - Assistant Professor of MedicineDivision of Rheumatology

... the cervical spines atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints in the upper neck. C1-C2 allow your head to pivot, look up, down ...
more infohttps://www.spineuniverse.com/author/50377/chi
  • We report a case of a 24-year old woman with left-sided unilateral palsy of the four lower cranial nerves who had suffered a right sided occipital condyle fracture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However in recent times, assessment of ligament stability has moved to systematically working through a series of active / patient generated, passive / therapist generated (with overpressure), and passive accessory movement tests, in order to feel the degree of movement or restriction at each joint and therefore ligament integrity, as well as to reproduce the patient's symptoms. (physio-pedia.com)
  • Interposed between the two surfaces of the joint there is a disc composed of fibrocartilage. (tao-garden.com)