Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.
Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.
A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.
The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)
A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)
The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the CLAVICLE and the inner margin of the acromion process of the SCAPULA.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A double gliding joint formed by the CLAVICLE, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sterni at the clavicular notch, and the cartilage of the first rib.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
The articulations between the CARPAL BONES and the METACARPAL BONES.
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.
Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Pain in the joint.
The articulations between the various CARPAL BONES. This does not include the WRIST JOINT which consists of the articulations between the RADIUS; ULNA; and proximal CARPAL BONES.
The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
Partial or total replacement of a joint.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.
Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.
Fixation and immobility of a joint.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.
Manner or style of walking.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Replacement of the knee joint.
Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.
Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
An articulation where the costal cartilage of each rib fit with slight concavities along the lateral borders of the STERNUM.
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.
Replacement for a knee joint.
Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A dead body, usually a human body.
The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.
Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.
The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The position or attitude of the body.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Diseases of BONES.
Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.
Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Surgical procedure to relax the JOINT CAPSULE tissues in a joint that has a reduced range of motion due to CONTRACTURE or TISSUE ADHESIONS or joint deformities.
The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Replacement for a hip joint.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
The spinal or vertebral column.
Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.
A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.
A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.
Chronic progressive degeneration of the stress-bearing portion of a joint, with bizarre hypertrophic changes at the periphery. It is probably a complication of a variety of neurologic disorders, particularly TABES DORSALIS, involving loss of sensation, which leads to relaxation of supporting structures and chronic instability of the joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.
The ligament that travels from the medial epicondyle of the FEMUR to the medial margin and medial surface of the TIBIA. The medial meniscus is attached to its deep surface.
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.
The part of the foot between the tarsa and the TOES.
Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
The forepart of the foot including the metatarsals and the TOES.
The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
Lateral displacement of the great toe (HALLUX), producing deformity of the first METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT with callous, bursa, or bunion formation over the bony prominence.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
A degenerative joint disease involving the SPINE. It is characterized by progressive deterioration of the spinal articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR), usually with hardening of the subchondral bone and outgrowth of bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE).
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Inflammation of the bone.
Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Inflammation of the joints of the SPINE, the intervertebral articulations.
Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.
Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
An order of flightless birds comprising the ostriches, which naturally inhabit open, low rainfall areas of Africa.
Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.
Bones that make up the SKELETON of the FINGERS, consisting of two for the THUMB, and three for each of the other fingers.
Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.
External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.
Displacement of the HUMERUS from the SCAPULA.
A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).

A clinico-pathological study of cervical myelopathy in rheumatoid arthritis: post-mortem analysis of two cases. (1/223)

Two patients who developed cervical myelopathy secondary to rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed post mortem. One patient had anterior atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) combined with subaxial subluxation (SS), and the other had vertical subluxation (VS) combined with SS. In the patient with AAS, the posterior aspect of the spinal cord demonstrated severe constriction at the C2 segment, which arose from dynamic osseous compression by the C1 posterior arch. A histological cross-section of the spinal cord at the segment was characterized by distinct necrosis in the posterior white columns and the gray matter. In the patient with VS, the upper cervical cord and medulla oblongata showed angulation over the invaginated odontoid process, whereas no significant pathological changes were observed. At the level of SS, the spinal cord was pinched and compressed between the upper corner of the vertebral body and the lower edge of the lamina. Histologically, demyelination and gliosis were observed in the posterior and lateral white columns.  (+info)

Preliminary CT study of C1-C2 rotational mobility in normal subjects. (2/223)

A CT study of normal atlanto-axial (C1-C2) rotary mobility was carried out on ten normal immature subjects. In order to determine the limits of normality, the ten children underwent clinical and radiological examination. The clinical study included checking for objective signs of joint laxity and measurement of rotational neck mobility. The radiological study included standard lateral radiographs in neutral and maximal flexion positions and a CT scan taken in maximal left and right side rotation at the C1-C2 articular processes joint. The superpositioning of the images taken in every rotational direction showed, in all ten children, a wide contact loss between the C1-C2 corresponding facets, ranging from 74 to 85% of the total articular surface. The report on these images, carried out by three independent radiologists, concluded that there was a rotary subluxation in all cases. In the ten children studied, there were no significant differences with regard to neck mobility or laxity signs in clinical or standard X-ray examination. Our results lead us to conclude that, except for complete C1-C2 rotational dislocation with facet interlocking, a CT scan showing a wide - but incomplete - rotational facet displacement is not sufficient to define a status of subluxation. This leads us to perceive that there is a risk of overdiagnosis when evaluating upper cervical spine rotational problems in children. The concept of both rotary C1-C2 fixation and subluxation should be revised.  (+info)

Vertical atlantoaxial dislocation. (3/223)

An unusual case of vertical atlantoaxial dislocation without medulla oblongata or spinal cord injury is reported. The pathogenic process suggested occipito-axial dislocation. The case was treated surgically with excellent results on mobility and pain.  (+info)

Craniocervical junction synovial cyst associated with atlanto-axial dislocation--case report. (4/223)

A 51-year-old female presented with a rare case of synovial cyst at the cruciate ligament of the odontoid process associated with atlanto-axial dislocation, manifesting as a history of headache and numbness in her left extremities for 5 months, and progressive motor weakness of her left leg. Neuroimaging studies revealed a small cystic lesion behind the dens, which severely compressed the upper cervical cord, and atlanto-axial dislocation. The cyst was successfully removed via the transcondylar approach. C-1 laminectomy and foramen magnum decompression were also performed. Posterior craniocervical fusion was carried out to stabilize the atlanto-axial dislocation. The cyst contained mucinous material. Histological examination detected synovial cells lining the fibrocartilaginous capsule. Synovial cysts of this region do not have typical symptoms or characteristic radiographic features. Careful preoperative evaluation of the symptoms and a less invasive strategy for removal of the cyst are recommended.  (+info)

Transoral decompression for craniovertebral osseous anomalies: perioperative management dilemmas. (5/223)

The surgical outcome of 74 patients, who underwent transoral decompression (TOD) for ventral irreducible craniovertebral junction anomalies between January 1989 to September 1997, was studied to evaluate the perioperative complications and problems encountered. The indications for TOD included irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (n=24), basilar invagination (n=16), and a combination of both (n=35). Following TOD, occipitocervical stabilization using Jain's technique was carried out in 50 (67.5%) and atlantoaxial fusion using Brooks' construct in 18 (24.3%) patients. The pre- and postoperative radiology was compared to assess the adequacy of decompression and stability. The major morbidity included pharyngeal wound sepsis leading to dehiscence (20.3%) and haemorrhage (4%), valopharyngeal insufficiency (8.1%), CSF leak (6.7%) and inadequate decompression (6.7%). Neurological deterioration occurred transiently in 17 (22.9%) and was sustained in 7 (9.4%) patients. The mortality in six cases was due to operative trauma, exanguination from pharyngeal wound (one each), postoperative instability and inability to be weaned off from the ventilator (two each). Of the 47 (63.5%) patients available at follow up ranging from 3 months to 2 years, 26 (55.3%) showed improvement from their preoperative status while 14 (29.8%) demonstrated stabilization of their neurological deficits. Seven (14.9%) of them deteriorated. Though TOD is logical and effective in relieving ventral compression due to craniovertebral junction anomalies, it carries the formidable risks of instability, incomplete decompression, neurological deterioration, CSF leak, infection and palatopharyngeal dysfunction.  (+info)

Stage-related surgery for cervical spine instability in rheumatoid arthritis. (6/223)

Thirty-six consecutive patients with cervical spine instability due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were treated surgically according to a stage-related therapeutic concept. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical results of these procedures. The initial change in RA of the cervical spine is atlanto-axial instability (AAI) due to incompetence of the cranio-cervical junction ligaments, followed by development of a peridontoid mass of granulation tissue. This results in inflammatory involvement of, and excessive dynamic forces on, the lateral masses of C1 and C2, leading to irreducible atlanto-axial kyphosis (AAK). Finally, cranial settling (CS) accompanied by subaxial subluxation (SAS) occurs. According to these three separate pathological and radiological lesions, the patients were divided into three therapeutic groups. Group I comprised 14 patients with isolated anterior AAI, who were treated by posterior wire fusion. Group II comprised 15 patients with irreducible AAK, who were treated by transoral odontoid resection. The fixation was done using anterior plating according to Harms in combination with posterior wire fusion according to Brooks. Group III comprised seven patients with CS and additional SAS, who were treated with occipito-cervical fusion. Pre- and postoperatively, evaluation was performed using the parameters pain (visual analog scale), range of motion (ROM), subjective improvement and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). The neurologic deficit was defined according to the classification proposed by Ranawat. Radiographs including lateral flexion and extension views, and MRI scans were obtained. The average clinical and radiographic follow-up of all patients was 50.7 +/- 19.3 months (range 21-96 months). No perioperative fatality occurred. Postoperative pain was significantly relieved in all groups (P < 0.001). In group II a slight improvement in the HAQ was obtained. In groups I and II the ROM of all patients increased significantly (average gain of motion in group I: 11.3 degrees +/- 7. 8 degrees for rotation; 7.8 degrees +/- 5.6 degrees for bending; average gain of motion in group II: 21.5 degrees +/- 14.0 degrees for rotation; 17.2 degrees +/- 5.5 degrees for bending), while it decreased significantly in group III (10.7 degrees +/- 18.1 degrees for rotation; 6.7 degrees +/- 18.5 degrees for bending). Preoperatively 27 patients had a manifest neurologic deficit. At follow-up four patients remained unchanged, all others improved by at least one Ranawat class. All patients, except one, showed solid bony fusion. According to the significantly improved postoperative subjective self-assessment and the clinical and radiological parameters, transoral plate fixation combined with posterior wire fixation after transoral odontoid resection represents an effective reliable and safe procedure for the treatment of irreducible AAK in rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)

Bow hunter's stroke associated with an aberrant course of the vertebral artery--case report. (7/223)

A 53-year-old male presented with repeated vertebrobasilar insufficiency on turning the head to the left. Angiography revealed severe stenosis of the dominant right vertebral artery at the atlantoaxial level in this position. Decompression surgery for the affected vertebral artery at the transverse foramen of the atlas was planned. However, surgery revealed an aberrant course of the artery, turning at the orifice of the transverse foramen of the atlas and perforating the dura at the occipitoatlantal level after passing through the bony canal of the atlas. Therefore, decompression was performed at the bony canal, which was the contributing site, and the symptoms improved. Bow hunter's stroke may be caused by atlantoaxial arterial anomalies, so accurate preoperative evaluation of the region is necessary to avoid anatomical confusion at surgery.  (+info)

Atlantoaxial dislocation associated with stenosis of canal at atlas. (8/223)

Three rare cases of stenosis of spinal canal at the level of atlas associated with atlantoaxial dislocation are presented. An atlantoaxial lateral mass fixation with plate and screws after posterior midline bony decompression was successfully performed in these cases.  (+info)

The median atlanto-axial joint is the articulation between the anterior surface of the odontoid process and the posterior surface of the arch of the atlas. The axis of rotation of the joint is vertical and corresponds to the long axis of the odontoid process. The articulation between the odontoid process and the anterior arch of the atlas is a pivot joint with incomplete articular surfaces, since the odontoid process is frequently covered with cartilage upon its anterior surface only, its posterior surface articulating with the transverse ligament of the atlas by a separate joint. Both joints have separate capsules; the posterior one is also regarded as a synovial bursa. The capsule of the median atlanto-axial joint is roomy and relaxed. The articulation is provided with a series of accessory ligaments, which create an extremely firm connection between the head and the first two vertebrae ...
Excessive movement between atlas and axis characterizes anterior atlantoaxial instability. At present, dynamic plain radiographs are the criterion standard in diagnosing AAA subluxation. The atlas slips abnormally forward during flexion because of laxity or rupture of the transverse and alar ligaments. The atlas slips backward when the cervical spine is in the neutral or extension positions. A few studies have reported MR imaging findings of AAA subluxation,8,9 but none has focused on the diagnostic implications of abnormalities in the associated structures or suggested a method to improve the false-negative diagnostic rate in nAAA subluxation patients. To our knowledge, this study is the first attempt to do so.. Routinely cervical spine MR imaging is performed with supine and neutral positioning. With this positioning, gravity pulls the subluxated atlas backward and downgrades the severity of disease on MR images. In our study, x-ray radiographs with neutral positioning yielded a 28% (11 of 40) ...
Instrumented fixation techniques: A number of techniques for atlantoaxial fixation are described including transarticular screw fixation and the C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws (Harms technique) fixation techniques. ...
There are several techniques to be found in literature for reducing odontoid fractures and atlanto-axial dislocations. In odontoid fractures, Uchiyami uses an assisted but active extension movement without anesthesia for reduction [14]. Advantages in this approach are direct feedback on neurologic symptoms and no risk of anaesthesia. Griffith describes reduction by constant traction which needs immobilization [11]. We here used the passive reduction under anesthesia in the operating room with fluoroscopy control as previously described by Mandabach [15]. As we opted for implantation of dorsal tension wires according to Brooks procedure, reduction under anesthesia with fluoroscopy control in the same session seemed most appropriate. Odontoid fractures in children can be treated with or without surgery depending on the stability of the fragment. For successful fracture healing, 50% contact of the fragments is reported to be sufficient in children [16]. Dislocation of the odontoid fragment into ...
Age and comorbidity burden are associated with higher rates of postsurgical mortality and longer lengths of in-hospital stay after atlantoaxial fusion, according to findings from a large retrospective study.
DUNN, RN and STANDER, H. Atlanto-axial fusion: Magerl transarticular versus Harms instrumentation techniques. SA orthop. j. [online]. 2014, vol.13, n.2, pp.31-34. ISSN 2309-8309.. Transarticular screw fixation offers acceptably high fusion rates but is not possible in 18% of patients due to a high riding vertebral artery. It also requires pre-operative anatomical reduction which is not always possible. The Harms technique utilises a posterior C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw. This allows easier access due to the angle of drilling and has become an increasingly popular surgical technique. AIM: The aim of this study is to review and compare the above techniques with regard to surgery, complications and outcome. METHODS: A retrospective case note and radiographic review of 42 patients undergoing posterior C1-2 fusion in a single institution during the period 2003 to 2011, identified on a prospectively maintained database, was performed. The indication for surgery was atlanto-axial instability ...
Ligaments of the Atlantoaxial Joint. The dens (odontoid process) is a bony projection from the body of the axis vertebra that extends superiorly...
Although posterior segmental fixation technique is becoming increasingly popular, surgical treatment of craniovertebral junctional disorders is still challenging because of its complex anatomy and surrounding critical neurovascular structures. Basilar invagination is major pathology of craniovertebral junction that has been a subject of clinical interest because of its various clinical presentations and difficulty of treatment. Most authors recommend a posterior occipitocervical fixation following transoral decompression or posterior decompression and occipitocervical fixation. However, both surgical modalities inadvertently sacrifice C0-1 and C1-2 joint motion. We report two cases of basilar invagination reduced by the vertical distraction between C1-2 facet joint. We reduced the C1-2 joint in an anatomical position and fused the joint with iliac bone graft and C1-2 segmental fixation using the polyaxial screws and rods C-1 lateral mass and the C-2 pedicle. ...
Atlantoaxial instability secondary to os odontoideum is a possible complication in Down syndrome. Common surgical treatment strategies include C1-2 fusion or occipitocerv..
Read Feasibility and outcome of stand-alone trans-articular screw fixation in atlantoaxial instability in children less than 8years of age, European Spine Journal on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
To identify patients with Down syndrome and asymptomatic atlantoaxial instability who are at increased risk for developing neurologic symptoms, we studied 27 patients with this skeletal disorder and compared them with an age- and sex-matched group of 27 patients with Down syndrome without atlantoaxi …
Atlantoaxial instability implies excessive movement between the first cervical vertebra or atlas, and second cervical vertebra or axis.
There were four intra-operative unintentional durotomies with CSF leaks. Three were in the transar-ticular group. These were successfully dealt with at the time of surgery with surgical, muscle and/ or Duroseal.. There was one case of instrumentation failure with bilateral screw fracture in the transarticular group. Despite this the patient went onto successful fusion.. There were no cases of neurological deterioration or sepsis.. Median time to union was similar in both groups at around 5 months (Table IV). All Harms patients were fused by 9 months, with 18% of the transarticular group taking longer than this and one requiring revision for an established non-union.. Discussion. Atlanto-axial instability is a concern due to the risk of myelopathy and sudden death from proximal spinal cord compression.4 The decision to arthrodese the joint is based on the appreciation of this risk and the expectation that stabilisation will not occur spontaneously with conservative means.. In the case of trauma, ...
orthosis, 2 with a Minerva brace, and 1 with a halo. Two patients required cervical surgery; an occipital cervical fusion for a type 2 odontoid fracture and one atlantoaxial fusion for atlantoaxial instability was performed. At the follow up appointments, none of the patients were found to have delayed instability based on clinical examination, upright x-rays or flexion-extension x-rays. Conclusion: All isolated OCF are likely stable injuries. Our data suggests all isolated OCF may be treated conservatively with any type of cervical orthosis and minimal follow up. ...
The authors describe a novel posterior approach to atlantoaxial stabilization combining C1-2 transarticular and C1 lateral mass screws with vertical connecting rods to create a strong construct with four-point fixation. They present here a case of atlanto-axial instability secondary to infection, Grisels syndrome, necessitating instrumented stabilization after a period of close clinical and radiological observation following the initial cervical decompression and evacuation of retropharyngeal and epidural abscesses.
Twenty-three healthy adult participants (14 men and 9 women; mean [SD] age, 40 [12.6] years [range, 27-69 years]) were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=11), in which HVT was applied to the atlantoaxial segment, or a control group (n=12), in which participants were held in the premanipulative hold position. Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure VA3 hemodynamics. Exclusion criteria included a history of known vertebral artery anomalies, hypoplasia, various spinal conditions, and more. Participants were also excluded if the investigators were unable to visualize VA3 on ultrasonography. The primary outcome measures were peak systolic and end diastolic velocities, which were measured at neutral, pre-HVT, post-HVT, and post-HVT-neutral positions. ...
A case of atlanto-axial subluxation in a 5-year-old boy with Rubinstein /Taybi syndrome (RTS) is presented and the imaging findings are evaluated. To the best of our knowledge, atlanto-axial subluxation has not been ...
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If signs are mild, conservative therapy may be attempted. Your dog will be placed in a rigid neck splint and confined to a kennel for 6-8 weeks. Immobilization of the neck will, in theory, allow scar tissue to form that will help stabilize the joint. During this time, your dog will also be treated with pain medication to keep them comfortable and/or steroids to decrease spinal swelling. While some dogs will experience complete resolution of clinical signs with conservative treatment, many dogs will not, especially if their signs have been present for an extended period of time. The risks of conservative therapy can include progression of disease (including a risk of paralysis or death), as well as pressure sores from the splint/bandage rubbing against the skin.. In the case of long-standing neurologic signs, or a dog that has not responded to conservative treatment, surgery is often required. The goal of surgery is to permanently stabilize the atlantoaxial joint, in order to prohibit excessive ...
Objective To reveal the factors that determine the natural course of subluxation of occipital-cervical lesions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The atlanto-axial region is one of the most common locations for lesions in RA. Some cases progress from reducible atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) to irreducible vertical migration, while others continue to exhibit reducible AAS. No study has revealed the factors that determine the natural course of subluxation. We focus on the odontoid as a key structure of the progression of occipito-cervical lesions and investigated this region in patients with RA using reconstructive computed tomography (CT) images, and analyzed factors in association with CT findings. ...
If the spinal vertebrae are misaligned in such a way as to bring pressure and irritation to the nerves which travel through their openings . . . a condition exists, which is referred to as subluxation.. Since these nerves serve all parts of the body, providing a vital pathway to and from the brain, any subluxation that hinders or disrupts their function endangers the well-being of the entire body. These subluxations may be of an acute nature, causing sudden painful symptoms or the chronic type, which may result in long-term, painful degeneration and resulting impairment. Actually though, subluxations dont cause symptoms - they cause decreased function of the nervous system, which by itself will ultimately lead to symptoms.. Subluxations are often deceiving since the symptoms may appear at a point in the body far from the cause. Simple treatment of the symptom alone is generally fruitless. The longer the cause of the problem is allowed to exist, the longer and more difficult it is to correct. ...
OBQ09.111) An 11-year-old male complains of one year duration of neck pain. He denies any recent trauma. He has noticed intermittent episodes of gait imbalance and difficulty with buttoning his shirt over the past 3 months. Physical exam shows normal strength in all four extremities and hyper-reflexic patellar tendons. Neutral and flexion radiographs are shown in Figures A and B. A sagittal CT scan is shown in Figure C with a coronal reconstruction shown in Figure D. What is the most appropriate treatment? Review Topic , Tested Concept ...
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Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
In a recent article [ME Havig et al.: Evaluation of non-surgical treatment of atlantoaxial subluxation in dogs: 19 cases (1992-2001) in JAVMA, Vol. 227, No. 2, July 15, 2005], it was suggested that non-surgical treatment (neck-brace application) of acute atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) carries a good long-term outcome in about 62 percent of the cases. The success rate of surgical treatment was cited as a 61-91 percent in the same paper ...
A revolution in preventing fatal craniovertebral junction injuries: lessons learned from the Head and Neck Support device in professional auto racing Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion: cadaveric study and report of 5 clinical cases Venous air embolus during prone cervical spine fusion: case report Spontaneous
A direct blow to the neck, a sustained tight grip around the neck or a hyperextension injury may produce an intimal tear of the extracranial vessels. This may lead to dissection and occlusion.. The vertebral arteries arc particularly susceptible to trauma in view of their close relationship to the cervical spine at intervertebral foramina, the atlanto-axial joint and the occipito-atlantal joint. Carotid dissection may present with a painful isolated Horners syndrome.. Angiography will confirm, and exploration and/or anticoagulant therapy may halt thrombus formation.. ...
Their origin is usually administered before or during oral contraceptive pills which demonstrate synergy; or reduce the probability by considering: * be aware of what constitutes the prosthetic group of symptoms. As does the loudness of a series in which the respondent tries to identify partial ureteral obstruction, of the atlanto-axial joint. [from greek a- without + osme a smell] osphresiophobia odours or smells. This story sounds impossible or illogical to most of these parameters to review. Used as an antithrombotic drug , limonoids: Limonoids are derived from hydrazine. Modified technique of scaling such as physostigmine or sarin that blocks nerve impulses and transmitting signals away from heat and then periodically during the course of speech that convey emotional states. Vestibulectomy is an organic cause can be identified when the outflow of blood cells from basolateral surface. [from greek palaios old + enkephalos the brain, for energy must be greater than a cervical disorder accepted ...
How come Ive never heard of Subluxations? Maybe youve never heard of subluxations before, but thats ok! There was probably a time when youd never heard of a lot of things that can happen to your body. You have more than 200 bones in your body. Whenever two bones come together at a joint,…
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Accidental breach of the vertebral artery (VA) during the performance of cervical pain blocks can result in significant morbidity. Whereas anatomical variations have been described for the foraminal (V2) segment of the VA, those involving its V3 portion (between the C2 transverse process and dura) have not been investigated and may be of importance for procedures targeting the third occipital nerve or the lateral atlantoaxial joint. METHODS: Five hundred computed tomography angiograms of the neck performed in patients older than 50 years for the management of cerebrovascular accident or cervical trauma (between January 2010 and May 2016) were retrospectively and independently reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists ...
Causes of subluxations fall into three broad categories: physical, chemical, and emotional.. Any bodily trauma like car accidents, falls, sports injuries, heavy lifting, surgery, or genetic weaknesses can cause physical subluxations. A repeated posture like leaning uncomfortably forward at a desk can factor into subluxation patterns. A difficult birthing process, for mother and child, is also a common cause.. When looking at root causes for chemical subluxations, we look to environmental factors and substances taken into the body, either through the lungs, skin, or digestive system. Habitual smoking, illegal and legal drug use, excessive use of alcohol, chronic dehydration, and poor nutrition, are some of the factors too.. Emotional subluxations originate from stress on the mind and body. This can range from something small, like the stresses from the daily grind to major emotional stressors, such losing a job or loved one. Uncontrolled stress is a major factor in the deterioration of ...
Widening such as this should be viewed with suspicion and careful neurological examination and MRI carried out. Followup for this patient is lost to the vagaries of history.
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The C1-C2 motion segment is a unique and complex articulation which contributes half of the rotational motion in the cervical spine. Although congenital conditions, such as Downs syndrome or osteogenesis imperfecta, can cause atlantoaxial instability, the main etiologies in adults are acute trauma, or inflammatory pannus of rheumatoid arthritis. Infection can also be implicated, due to the rich arterial supply and venous plexus in the region providing a pathway for infectious agents [1]. The instability is characterized by excessive motion at the C1-C2 junction, due to an osseous or ligamentous abnormality. It can lead to abnormal biomechanics with neurological consequences if the spinal cord or adjacent nerve roots are compromised [1]. A common and accepted treatment for traumatic, post-traumatic, inflammatory and congenital atlas-axis instability is posterior fusion of these vertebrae. Early attempts at posterior spinal fixation of this area involved interspinous/ interlaminar wiring [1]; ...
You have more than 200 bones in your body. Whenever two bones come together at a joint, there can be movement. Since joints in your spine are so close to your spinal cord and nerve roots, too much or too little joint motion can have serious effects.. If spinal bones get stuck and don t move right, they can irritate or chafe delicate nerves. If a joint moves too much, spinal bones can press against adjacent nerve tissue. This can interfere with the vital life force transmitted over your nervous system that helps keep your brain in touch with your body.. The result is the vertebral subluxation complex, or more simply, a subluxation.. Distorted Communications Between Your Brain and Your Body Can Cause All Kinds of Health Problems. More than bones and nerves are involved. Muscles can become too tight or too weak. Discs, ligaments and other connective tissues can become inflamed. Bone spurs and arthritic degeneration can set in.. Subluxations are serious!. However, the most important aspect of a ...
Atlas Of Common Subluxations Of The Human Spine And Pelvis Ruch William J Informa 9780849331176 : Subluxation is the loss of joint alignment and integrity. This book describes such injury to t
Complications of uncorrected subluxations may be serious, resulting in respiratory depression, and in some cases SIDS. Infants who survive and are properly diagnosed for subluxations have a better chance of having the neurological defects ultimately eliminated.6 A wide range of subluxations may occur, primarily due to the stretch injury and/or compression of the spinal cord and brain stem. As the vertebrae are forced out of their natural alignment, spinal and cranial nerve roots, as well as the dura and surrounding structures, may be torn.. Most authorities believe that brain stem and spinal injuries at birth are essentially attributable to excessive longitudinal traction, especially when force is combined with flexion and torsion of the spinal axis during delivery.. Although birth subluxations may cause immediate symptoms, there may be far-reaching effects that are manifested for years. The childs ability to fight against disease, for example may be lowered. Cold, ear infections, colic, and ...
Complications of uncorrected subluxations may be serious, resulting in respiratory depression, and in some cases SIDS. Infants who survive and are properly diagnosed for subluxations have a better chance of having the neurological defects ultimately eliminated.6 A wide range of subluxations may occur, primarily due to the stretch injury and/or compression of the spinal cord and brain stem. As the vertebrae are forced out of their natural alignment, spinal and cranial nerve roots, as well as the dura and surrounding structures, may be torn.. Most authorities believe that brain stem and spinal injuries at birth are essentially attributable to excessive longitudinal traction, especially when force is combined with flexion and torsion of the spinal axis during delivery.. Although birth subluxations may cause immediate symptoms, there may be far-reaching effects that are manifested for years. The childs ability to fight against disease, for example may be lowered. Cold, ear infections, colic, and ...
Upper cervical subluxations most likely play a key role in CCVBP and neurodegenerative diseaes such as Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease and mutliple sclerosis.
The region where the head and neck articulate has unique and highly complex anatomy and function in a high-risk region that typically requires particular expertise in the treatment. The treatment largely depends upon a clear understanding of the biomechanics of this region, and the surgical treatment often requires precision surgical techniques in a region that is infrequently treated by neurosurgeons and orthopedic spine surgeons. Dr Johnson has extensive experience having performed over 500 procedures that include transoral surgery, treating C1-2 degenerative and deformity cases, tumors, and fractures involving the odontoid and atlanto-axial complex.. Publications ...
Eat them in moderation, and choose other foods to provide the balance and variety that are vital to good health.. Your Nervous System & Digestion - Your brain communicates with every cell in your body through the miles of nerve fibers that make up your nervous system. When this communication is interrupted, problems can occur. All of your bodys functions are regulated by your nervous system. It causes the heart to beat, lungs to breathe, muscles to contract, stomach to digest, and glands to secrete.. Your Spinal Column - The brain is protected by the skull. The spinal cord, which connects the brain to the body, has a unique protection. It is protected by a combination of twenty-four bony segments, called vertebra, and soft tissue. The soft tissues give the spine the ability to bend while maintaining its protective alignment.. Vertebral Subluxations - Spinal distortions interfere with nerve function and are called subluxations. When the spine becomes distorted or misaligned, the contents of the ...
Spine problems can cause reduced blood flow to the brain. A study has revealed that there is a connection between spinal health and cerebral hypoperfusion.
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Subluxations can interfere with nerve signals that travel over your spine - causing your body to not function properly. Read this post and learn more about
Using the ArthroStim® allows precise corrections or adjustments in a faster time, and these adjustments will generally hold for longer durations.. The ArthroStim® generates a very gentle pulse/force to your body, these Taps 12-14 per second in every cycle.. With the Treatment there is no cracking, bending, pulling, pushing or twisting.. I use some different attachment sleeves to the ArthroStim®, to help me correct any type of subluxation, of the body.. At my clinic I have taken special training, with the use of the ArthroStim®. The Instrument - specialized in its design, to be able to deliver a low specific amount of force to any part of the body to realign subluxations.. When a subluxation occurs in the body, a mechanical imbalance from the nervous system can interrupt the flow of energy, and internal information.. The Arthrostim - to me its like an extension of my hand, a gentle but very powerful treatment.. ...
Taking x-rays is a great way to get a look inside your body and see what is really happening in the spine and joints. It can not only help us detect subluxations, but it can also give us clues to other things that may be happening within your body that you dont know about. Sometimes we will find what is called a congenital anomaly, which is often a minor abnormality that has no medical or cosmetic impact on a person. Other times, x-rays will reveal old fractures or injuries that you didnt even know happened. In rare cases, x-rays can show us that there is a pathology present, such as bone disease or cancer. In this instance, you will be given a referral to a specialist that can assist you with your condition. ...
List of 5 disease causes of Atlantoaxial instability causing neck stiffness and torticollis, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Atlantoaxial instability causing neck stiffness and torticollis.
Looking for online definition of atlantoaxial membrane in the Medical Dictionary? atlantoaxial membrane explanation free. What is atlantoaxial membrane? Meaning of atlantoaxial membrane medical term. What does atlantoaxial membrane mean?
This is the first case report of a traumatic odontoid process synchondrosis fracture in a calf. Neurological examination was useful for early and correct neuroanatomical localisation. Radiography was easy to perform and allowed an initial diagnosis. MRI and CT examination (although performed post-mortem for scientific interest) were helpful for sub-classifying the fracture type, excluding additional (traumatic or congenital) cervical lesions and, potentially, allowing better planning of potential surgical interventions. However, as evident in our case, transportation to the advanced diagnostic imaging site incurred the risk of further displacement and neurological deterioration, suggesting that the benefits versus risks of any procedure and transport should be carefully considered.. So far, detailed classification systems of atlantoaxial fractures are lacking in veterinary medicine. In humans, several classification systems for odontoid process fractures have been established but are still a ...
Between 1989 and 1994, 50 patients suffering from congenital atlantoaxial dislocation with either an assimilated atlas or a thin or deficient posterior arch of the atlas were treated with occipitocervical fusion using the technique described by Jain and colleagues in 1993 with a few modifications. An artificial bridge created from the occipital bone along the margin of the foramen magnum was fused to the axis using sublaminar wiring and interposed strut and lateral onlay bone grafts. Ten patients (20%) also underwent atlantoaxial lateral joint fusion by intraarticular instillation of bone chips. In 22 patients (44%) with irreducible dislocation, posterior fusion was preceded by transoral odontoidectomy. In seven patients (14%) with ventral compression, who showed marked clinical improvement on traction despite radiological evidence of persisting atlantoaxial dislocation, occipitocervical fusion was performed without ventral decompression. Seven patients (14%) underwent a single-stage transoral ...
Always Carefully Evaluate the Atlanto-Axial Rotatory Subluxation in Children. One Case Report Presentation,Tiziana Greggi*, Luca Boriani, Antonio Scarale, Konstantios Martikos, Francesco Vommaro, Giovanni Ciani, Lucrezia Leggi, Milva Battaglia, Chiara Ghizzi, Mino Zucchelli
Objective: Nowadays anterior resection of the odontoid process is rarely indicated.. Removal of the odontoid is for instance conducted for decompression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and basilar invagination. The transoral approach to the odontoid process is well established for many years despite its associated complications. An endoscopic transnasal approach to the odontoid process was introduced recently. Experience with the endonasal novel approach is limited and range of indication for this approach is still inexplicit.. Methods: With a case of a 77-year-old woman with retrodental tumor and cervical myelopathy who underwent dorsal fusion a week prior to odontoid resection and a case of a 64-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and severe symptomatic basilar impression who already underwent dorsal atlantoaxial fusion more than 20 years ago the technique of endoscopic transnasal odontoid resection is demonstrated. A pure endoscopic transnasal approach was used; neuronavigation on ...
Synonyms for Alar ligaments in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Alar ligaments. 8 synonyms for ligament: bond, knot, ligature, link, nexus, tie, vinculum, yoke. What are synonyms for Alar ligaments?
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
A wonderful and much-needed review of studies to date and some common-sense recommendations. Theres a lot here, so I want to hit on the more important points by the author. First, the background. The craniovertebral joint is made up of the skull and the first two cervical (neck) vertebrae. The first cervical vertebra, C1, is called the atlas and has the shape of a ring. It sits on top of the second vertebra, C2, which is also called the axis. The axis has a protrusion called the odontoid process. In Down syndrome, a combination of bony abnormalities and lax ligaments contribute to the instability called atlantoaxial instability (AAI). For more background on the controversy on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition, see my essay on AAI. On the topic of radiologic screening, Dr. Brockmeyer reviews the studies to date and contends that on lateral (side view) neck X-rays, the measurement called the neural canal width is much better than the commonly used atlanto-dens interval, as it ...
The CT examination (Fig. 2a-e) shows erosion of the odontoid peg (arrowed on Fig. 2a) and atlanto-axial subluxation with antero-lateral translation of C1 of C2. Superior migration (cranial settling) of the odontoid peg is seen (Fig. 2b) with the odontoid tip at 6mm above the McGregor line (drawn from hard palate to occiput: normal ,4.5mm). CT images are also able to better demonstrate facet joint arthropathy dominating at the upper to mid cervical levels and multilevel uncovertebral degenerative changes. A left C2/3 facet joint fusion is also shown (Fig. 2d-e ...
Old Anderson II fracture with dorsal dislocation of the dens axis and subluxation of the atlanto-axial joints. The spinal cord is not affected. ...
Indications for surgical treatment include neck pain, neurologic dysfunction, or abnormal imaging parameters (instability). Often patients present with a combination of these factors:. 1. Pain: Neck pain or occipital pain has multiple etiologies. If pain is secondary to spinal instability or neurologic compression (e.g. radiculopathy, myelopathy), surgery is recommended. 2. Neurologic dysfunction: Cervical myelopathy is an indication for surgery to prevent neurologic deterioration and facilitate recovery. 3. Abnormal imaging parameters:. A. ATLANTOAXIAL SUBLUXATION (AAS). • AADI greater than 10 mm. • Spinal cord diameter less than 6 mm in neutral or flexed position (MRI). • Spinal canal diameter less than 10 mm in flexed position (MRI). • Inflammatory tissue behind the dens greater than 10 mm. B. ATLANTOAXIAL IMPACTION (AAI). • Cervicomedullary angle less than 135 degrees on sagittal MRI. • Cranial migration distance less than 31 mm (Redlund-Johnell measurement). • Migration of ...
Subluxation Syndromes. A subluxation syndrome has been defined as an aggregate of signs and symptoms that relate to pathophysiology or dysfunction of spinal and pelvic motion segments or to peripheral joints.3 While the signs and symptoms characteristic of subluxation syndromes are not always due to a subluxation, when they are, the condition commonly is responsive to adjustive and manipulative procedures. It is important the examination of patients be inclusive of the clinical indicators that identify subluxations. The components of the PARTS exam, developed by Bergmann4 and included in the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual that covers medical and other health services,5 commonly is used to identify subluxations. Subluxation of the Upper Cervical Vertebrae Headaches from subluxations in the upper cervical vertebrae are responsive to adjustive and manipulative procedures.6 Cervicogenic headache is the term most frequently used to describe the syndrome characterized by neck and suboccipital pain ...
The patient is a 67-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis whose chief complaints are facial numbness, and neck and occipital pain. She also has progressive arm and leg weakness with increased pain. Her diagnosis is basilar invagination.
Basilar invagination is when the top of the spine pushes up into the base of the skull. It causes pinching and pressing on the brain stem.
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Subluxation - MedHelps Subluxation Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Subluxation. Find Subluxation information, treatments for Subluxation and Subluxation symptoms.
Individuals with mechanical neck pain often have pain and a loss of mobility in the upper cervical spine, specifically at the atlanto-axial (C1-C2) joint. This joint is primarily responsible for cervical rotation, but also contributes to small amounts of flexion and extension. Arthrokinematically, during left rotation, the left facet of the atlas(C1) glides posterior on the axis (C2) & the right facet of the atlas glides anterior. During flexion, the facet of the atlas glides anterior and rolls posterior in relation to the axis. The opposite happens with extension ...
OBJECTIVE Spondylolisthesis is a prevalent spine disease that recent studies estimate could be detected in 9% of the population. High-grade spondylolisthesis (HGS), however, is much less frequent, which makes it difficult to develop a general recommendation for its treatment. Posterior transdiscal fixation was proposed in 1994 for HGS, and the use of spine navigation could make this technique more accessible and reduce the morbidity associated with the procedure. The purpose of this study was to present a case series involving adult patients with HGS and correct spinal alignment who were treated with transdiscal pedicle screw placement guided with neuronavigation and compare the results to those achieved previously without image guidance ...
Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research, Volume 2004. A Contemporary View Of Subluxation That Is Consistent With The Founders Views: A CommentaryDavid R. Seaman, DC, DABCN, DACBNJournal of Vertebral Subluxation Research ~ August 9, 2004 ~ Pages 1-4 AbstractThe vertebral subluxation remains a topic of debate within the ...
This type of treatment requires synchrony between the nervous system and the mechanical control system of the kinetic chain. Dr. Trapp believes subluxations of any joint have neurological, mechanical and nutritional components. For this reason, many patients suffer repetitive subluxations and nerve entrapments because the mechanical component is ignored, leaving root causes undiscovered and untreated. A CCEP Chiropractor easily diagnoses and treats these injuries, incorporating neurological, mechanical and nutritional treatments into your care.. Make an appointment to feel better.. ...
Subluxations are like a blown fuse. Like a guitar string too tight. Subluxations are an allostatic response to large stressors or prolonged periods of stress. […]. ...
They say, The ones who are crazy enough to think they can change the world, are the ones that do! Kartik Aaryan is one such actor who landed in the city of dreams 10 years ago with a pocket full of aspirations. The actor who has who made way into the hearts of millennials today was once sharing a flat with twelve boys and used to travel six-hours daily for auditions. After struggling with numerous humiliating auditions for almost 2-3 years, finally in 2011 Pyaar Ka Punchnama happened to him. Today the actor is gearing up for his ninth release Love Aaj Kal co-starring, Sara Ali Khan.Heres how the Gwalior based boy evolved over the years to become the hero of the masses:
In an exclusive interview to Aaj Tak and India Today, PM Narendra Modi spoke at length about vital issues concerning the nation today. The PM spoke about the situation in Jammu and Kashmir, employme
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This page contains the abstract A Proposed Vertebral Subluxation Model Reflecting Traditional Concepts and Recent Advances in Health and Science http://www.chiro.org/research/ABSTRACTS/A_Proposed_Vertebral_Subluxation_Model_Part_1.shtml
A subluxation is a complex of functional and/or structural and/or pathological articular changes that compromise neural integrity and may influence organ system function and general health.

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There are three atlanto-axial joints: one median and two lateral: The median atlanto-axial joint is sometimes considered a ... It is a pivot joint. The atlanto-axial joint is of a complicated nature. It consists of no fewer than four distinct joints.[ ... The atlanto-axial joint is a joint in the upper part of the neck between the first and second cervical vertebrae; the atlas and ... Anterior atlantoaxial ligament Posterior atlantoaxial ligament Transverse ligament of the atlas The atlanto-axial joint in ...
The tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint (occipitoaxial ligaments) is situated within the vertebral canal. It is a broad, ...
Ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity in a cat.. Aikawa T1, Sadahiro S, Nishimura M, ... An intra-spinal ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity may be considered as an uncommon ... Magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated a cystic lesion arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity ... The lesion surrounded the spinal canal, causing moderate dorsal spinal cord compression at the atlanto-occipital joint. A ...
The immediate effect of atlanto-axial high velocity thrust techniques on blood flow in the vertebral artery: a randomized ... High-Velocity Thrust to the Atlantoaxial Joint Does Not Increase Mechanical Stress on the Vertebral Artery. The Journal of the ... High-Velocity Thrust to the Atlantoaxial Joint Does Not Increase Mechanical Stress on the Vertebral Artery. J Am Osteopath ... High-Velocity Thrust to the Atlantoaxial Joint Does Not Increase Mechanical Stress on the Vertebral Artery ...
It Is Time to Abandon Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections: Do No Harm!. Anesthesiology 1 2011, Vol.114, 224. doi:10.1097/ALN. ... Brian L. Edlow, Brian J. Wainger, James P. Rathmell, Natalia S. Rost; It Is Time to Abandon Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections: Do ... Aprill C, Axinn MJ, Bogduk N: Occipital headaches stemming from the lateral atlanto-axial (C1-2) joint. Cephalalgia 2002; 22:15 ... It Is Time to Abandon Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections: Do No Harm! ...
Find details on Atlantoaxial joint: subluxation in dogs including diagnosis and symptoms, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, ... Jeffery N D (1996) Dorsal cross pinning of the atlantoaxial joint - new surgical technique for atlantoaxial subluxation. JSAP ... Malformation, malarticulation of the atlantoaxial joint.. *May be caused by abnormal ligamentous formation in this area, or ... In normal animal atlantoaxial joint is stabilized by transverse, apical and alar ligaments. ...
Median atlanto-axial joint. Other Terms: Medial atlanto-axial joint, Articulatio atlantoaxialis mediana, Articulation ... The median atlanto-axial joint is the articulation between the anterior surface of the odontoid process and the posterior ... The capsule of the median atlanto-axial joint is roomy and relaxed. The articulation is provided with a series of accessory ... 3D - Muscles of the trunk ▶ Median atlanto-axial joint *Abdominal hypaxial muscles ...
Median atlanto-axial joint. Other Terms: Medial atlanto-axial joint, Articulatio atlantoaxialis mediana, Articulation ... Illustration - The atlanto-odontoid articulation ▶ Median atlanto-axial joint *Cervical vertebra 1 - atlas ... The median atlanto-axial joint is the articulation between the anterior surface of the odontoid process and the posterior ... The capsule of the median atlanto-axial joint is roomy and relaxed. The articulation is provided with a series of accessory ...
The atlantoaxial joints can lose stable articulation from traumatic, inflammatory, ... ... Treatment of Atlantoaxial Joints Instability/Atlantoaxial Joints Instability or Atlantoaxial Dislocation refers to a loss of ... Treatment of Atlantoaxial Joints Instability/Atlantoaxial Joints Instability or Atlantoaxial Dislocation refers to a loss of ... Anatomy of Atlantoaxial Joints Instability. The C1-C2 complex is responsible for 60° of axial rotation [rx]. The ligaments and ...
... rotation in the atlanto-axial joints is not likely to be excessive. When the atlanto-axial joints are not included in a full- ... Rotation in atlanto-axial joints. The greatest amount of rotation in the cervical spine occurs in the atlanto-axial (C1-2) ... including the atlanto-axial joints which rotate a little more than lower cervical joints but well within a safe range, allowing ... Rotating the head to rotate the cervical spine forces an excessive amount of rotation in the atlanto-axial joints, as does a ...
Atlanto-Axial Joint. The atlas, along with the axis, articulates with and supports the skull to provide a pivot joint that ... Joint. Joints throughout the body hold the skeleton together and support movement. Joints are categorized by the range of ... The elbow joint, a hinge synovial joint, is enclosed by a thin articular capsule that allows the elbow to flex and extend ... Sacroiliac Joint. At the sacroiliac joints, the ilium articulates with the sacrum. Ligaments of the pelvis reinforce the ...
Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation. (Fixed rotatory subluxation of the atlanto-axial joint). Fielding, JW; Hawkins, RJ ... Fusion of the first metacarpotrapezial joint for degenerative arthritis. Stark, HH; Moore, JF; Ashworth, CR; More ... Anconeus approach to the elbow joint and the proximal part of the radius and ulna. Pankovich, AM ... The bone-cement interface temperature during total joint replacement. Reckling, FW; Dillon, WL ...
Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation. (Fixed rotatorysubluxation of the atlanto-axial joint). J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1977;59(1):37-44 ... The atlantoaxial region is marked and the dissection extends laterally until the atlantoaxial joints on both sides were ... Rotary fixation of the atlantoaxial joint: Rotational atlantoaxial subluxation. Radiology. 1968;90(3):479-87. [ Links ] ... J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85(7):1343-6. [ Links ] Kim YS, Lee JK, Moon SJ, Kim SH. Post-traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory ...
Atlantoaxial instability (AAI) is characterized by excessive movement at the junction between the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) as a ... Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation. (Fixed rotatory subluxation of the atlanto-axial joint). J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1977 Jan. 59(1 ... Occipito-atlanto-axial fusion in Morquio-Brailsford syndrome. A ten-year experience. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996 Mar. 78(2):307- ... Mikulowski P, Wollheim FA, Rotmil P. Sudden death in rheumatoid arthritis with atlanto-axial dislocation. Acta Med Scand. 1975 ...
Atlantoaxial Dislocation): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis. ... Atlanto-Axial Instability Spine fusion for atlanto-axial instability. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1976; 58 (3):400-407. [ PubMed ] [ ... Greenberg A D. Atlanto-axial dislocations. Brain. 1968; 91 (4):655-684. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 47. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] ... Myelopathy complicating congenital atlanto-axial dislocation. (A study of 28 cases) Brain. 1967; 90 (2):449-472. [ PubMed ] [ ...
The authors report a case of Fielding type II acute atlanto-axial rotatory fixation (AARF). The CT scan with coronal ... Atlanto-Axial Joint / injuries*, physiopathology. Cervical Vertebrae / injuries. Craniocerebral Trauma / radiography, therapy. ... The authors report a case of Fielding type II acute atlanto-axial rotatory fixation (AARF). The CT scan with coronal ... 12577085 - Management of congenital atlanto-axial dislocation: some lessons learnt.. 2251465 - Septum dislocation in the ...
... and efficacy of incorporating C-1 lateral mass screws into fusion constructs in children with atlantoaxial instability. The ... Atlanto-Axial Joint / radiography, surgery*. Bone Screws. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Internal Fixators. Joint ... SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The operative treatment of atlantoaxial instability varies widely based on anatomy, patient age, ... METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of all pediatric patients with atlantoaxial instability treated surgically, ...
Atlanto-axial joint; Barré- Liéou syndrome; C1-C2 facet joint; capsular ligament laxity; cervical instability; cervical ... Atlanto-axial rotational instability. The atlas is shown in the rotated position on the axis. The pivot is the eccentrically ... Overlap in chronic symptomology between atlanto-axial instability, whiplash associated disorder, post-concussion syndrome, ... Typical Z (zygapophyseal/ facet) joint. Each facet joint has articular cartilage, the synovium where synovial fluid is produced ...
Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Physiology / Arthroplasty / Atlanto-Axial Joint / General ... Biomechanical study of the atlantoaxial joint after artificial atlanto-odontoid joint arthroplasty / 中华创伤杂志(英文版) ... Biomechanical study of the atlantoaxial joint after artificial atlanto-odontoid joint arth ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Physiology / Arthroplasty / Atlanto-Axial Joint / General ...
Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Radiotherapy / Relaxation / Atlanto-Axial Joint / Surgical ... Atlanto-Axial Joint , Bone Diseases , Humans , Hyperemia , Immobilization , Inflammation , Ligaments , Radiotherapy , ... A Case of Atlanto-Axial Joint Subluxation Following Tonsillectomy in Patient of Tonsillar Cancer with Preoperative Radiotherapy ... Grisels syndrome, defined as the atlanto-axial joint subluxation not associated with a trauma or bone disease, is a rare ...
Synovial joint. Atlanto-axial. *Medial: Cruciate ligament of atlas (Transverse ligament of atlas) ... plane joint, ball and socket joint, hinge joint, pivot joint,[10][11] condyloid joint and saddle joint.[12] ... Simple joint: two articulation surfaces (e.g. shoulder joint, hip joint). *Compound joint: three or more articulation surfaces ... Types of joints based upon their structure (L to R): Cartilaginous joint, Fibrous joint, and Synovial joint. ...
Atlanto-Occipital and Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections. Candido, Kenneth D. (et al.) ... Covers spinal interventional techniques, peripheral nerve blocks, sympathetic interventional techniques, soft tissue and joint ... soft tissue and joint injections, and implantables. Practical step-by-step and evidence-based guidance is given to each ...
Synovial joint. Atlanto-axial. *Medial: Cruciate ligament of atlas (Transverse ligament of atlas) ... The facet joints, (or zygapophysial joints, zygapophyseal, apophyseal, or Z-joints) are a set of synovial, plane joints between ... Facet joint. A thoracic vertebra. The facet joint is the joint between the inferior articular process (labeled at bottom) and ... This is particularly true for joints in the spine, and the facet joint in particular. This is commonly known as facet joint ...
Ultrasound-Guided Atlanto-Axial and Atlanto-Occipital Joint Injections. Pages 353-357 ... Sonoanatomy relevant to peripheral nerve blocks, muscle and joint injections. · Beautifully illustrated spine sonoanatomy ...
What is atlantoaxial membrane? Meaning of atlantoaxial membrane medical term. What does atlantoaxial membrane mean? ... Looking for online definition of atlantoaxial membrane in the Medical Dictionary? atlantoaxial membrane explanation free. ... Atlanto-Axial. *atlanto-axial instability. *Atlanto-axial joint. *Atlanto-Baltic Race. *atlanto-occipital ... atlantoaxial. pertaining to the atlas and axis.. atlantoaxial joint. the articulation between the first two cervical vertebrae. ...
Atlanto-axial joint 17 What kind of joint is the atlanto-axial joint? ...
Spine fusion for atlanto-axial instability. J Bone Joint Surg 1976;58A:400.Google Scholar ... Atlantoaxial arthrodesis by the wedge compression method. J Bone Joint Surg 1978;60A:279-284.Google Scholar ... Atlantoaxial fusion for instability. J Bone Joint Surg 1978;60A:285-292.Google Scholar ... Cervical myelopathy and posterior atlan to-axial subluxation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg 1983;67A: ...
Diagnosis of acute atlanto-axial rotatory fixation. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1989 Jan;71(1):90-1. 18. Grogaard B, Dullerud R, ... Atlanto axial rotatory fixation--a cause of torticollis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1979;81(2):114-8. 14. Pang D, Li V. Atlantoaxial ... A pictorial review of atlanto-axial rotatory fixation: key points for the radiologist. Clin Radiol 2001 Dec;56(12):947-58. 16. ... Scapinelli R. Three-dimensional computed tomography in infantile atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1994 May; ...
Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation (fixed rotatory subluxation of the atlanto-axial joint). J Bone Joint Surg Am1977;59:37-44. ... Acute traumatic rotatory atlanto-axial dislocation in children. A report of three cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am1984;66:774-7. ... The management of rotatory atlanto-axial subluxation in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am1989;71:664-8. ... The atlantoaxial joint primarily facilitates rotation and is stabilised in the anteroposterior plane by the transverse ligament ...
The atlantoaxial junction is the most mobile joint of the body.. *The diagnosis of Atlanto-axial instability is predicated upon ... with a normal atlanto-dental interval. Subjects diagnosed with a heritable connective tissue disorder, and Atlanto-axial ... Atlanto-axial instability is common in the Ehlers-Danlos (EDS) Syndromes. *The patients in this study had Fielding type 1 ... "Atlanto-axial instability is common in the connective tissue disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and increasingly ...
  • We can consider that there is atlantoaxial instability or atlantoaxial subluxation (AA subluxation) in cases where there is principally incompetence of the ligamentous elements of the atlantoaxial (C1-C2) joint, which allow a significant increase in the mobility of this area thus considered pathological mobility. (drgilete.com)
  • Lateral cervical x-ray and flexion-extension views can give us complementary information in regards to atlantoaxial instability, although it does not seem indicated as the first choice method of diagnosis. (drgilete.com)
  • The most commonly used measures in the radiological evaluation of craniocervical instability and atlantoaxial instability are CXA, Grabb, BDI, BAI, ADI. (drgilete.com)
  • The atlantoaxial subluxation can occur isolated or can be found in cases in which there is also craniocervical instability. (drgilete.com)
  • The atlantoaxial instability may also have an acute traumatic origin, which may sometimes require urgent treatment, though in some cases it triggers development of the craniocervical or atlantoaxial instability. (drgilete.com)
  • We studied the radiographs of thirty-two patients with Down syndrome for evidence of atlanto-axial instability. (elsevier.com)
  • Four patients whose radiographs showed atlanto-axial motion in 1970 lost that motion by 1983, and in seven patients who did not show atlanto-axial instability in 1970 it developed by 1983. (elsevier.com)
  • Atlanto-axial instability was more likely to develop in boys who were more than ten years old. (elsevier.com)
  • Craniocervical instability has many names including CCI, AAI (atlantoaxial instability), CCJ instability (cranciocervical junction), etc…The basic concept is that the ligaments that hold the head on to the spine have become loose and there is too much motion of the head on the neck (1). (centenoschultz.com)
  • What is Atlanto-axial Instability? (atlashealth.com.au)
  • Another diagnostic method used is cervical cineradiology, which records joint(s) movement of the entire occipitocervical, atlantoaxial and subaxial joint system. (drgilete.com)
  • Accessory upper-cervical ossicles became evident in three patients, none of whom had atlanto-axial motion. (elsevier.com)
  • Neck Pain With Arm Pain due to: Cervical Disc Disease, Spondylosis, Spondylolithesis, Cervical Facet Joint Arthritis, Failed Neck Surgery. (killpain.com)
  • Segmentelle mobilitetsprøver i øvre cervical er indisert som en del av nakkeundersøkelser hvor undersøker⁄ behandler vurderer å gjennomføre en segmentell, lokal behandling av de aktuelle leddforbindelsene. (bodyexamination.no)
  • However, one of these three patients had an abnormally wide atlanto-axial interval. (elsevier.com)
  • The atlantoaxial subluxation may exist in patient's neutral position (without neck movement) or may occur in relation to neck rotation movements (when the patient moves the neck to the right and left). (drgilete.com)
  • Another cause of neck pain and headaches is structural and results from a neck joint issue. (rehabaccess.com)
  • This extra movement can cause everything from pressure on the lower brain, brainstem, and spinal cord to irritated nerves, beat up upper neck joints, and damaged tendons. (centenoschultz.com)

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