Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Joint DiseasesFinger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Foot Joints: The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Temporomandibular Joint Disc: A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)Acromioclavicular Joint: The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the CLAVICLE and the inner margin of the acromion process of the SCAPULA.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Sternoclavicular Joint: A double gliding joint formed by the CLAVICLE, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sterni at the clavicular notch, and the cartilage of the first rib.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Carpometacarpal Joints: The articulations between the CARPAL BONES and the METACARPAL BONES.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Carpal Joints: The articulations between the various CARPAL BONES. This does not include the WRIST JOINT which consists of the articulations between the RADIUS; ULNA; and proximal CARPAL BONES.DislocationsPatellofemoral Joint: The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Ankylosis: Fixation and immobility of a joint.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Hemarthrosis: Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Arthritis, Psoriatic: A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Cartilage Diseases: Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Lubrication: The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Joint Deformities, Acquired: Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Sternocostal Joints: An articulation where the costal cartilage of each rib fit with slight concavities along the lateral borders of the STERNUM.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Carpus, Animal: The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Arthrometry, Articular: Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Tarsus, Animal: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Collateral Ligaments: A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Arthritis, Juvenile: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Joint Capsule Release: Surgical procedure to relax the JOINT CAPSULE tissues in a joint that has a reduced range of motion due to CONTRACTURE or TISSUE ADHESIONS or joint deformities.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Bone Diseases, Infectious: Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Osteochondrosis: Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Talus: The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.Mice, Inbred DBAHip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Rats, Inbred LewRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Synovial Cyst: Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Spondylitis, Ankylosing: A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Hip Dysplasia, Canine: A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.Arthropathy, Neurogenic: Chronic progressive degeneration of the stress-bearing portion of a joint, with bizarre hypertrophic changes at the periphery. It is probably a complication of a variety of neurologic disorders, particularly TABES DORSALIS, involving loss of sensation, which leads to relaxation of supporting structures and chronic instability of the joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Rheumatic Diseases: Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.Medial Collateral Ligament, Knee: The ligament that travels from the medial epicondyle of the FEMUR to the medial margin and medial surface of the TIBIA. The medial meniscus is attached to its deep surface.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.Metatarsus: The part of the foot between the tarsa and the TOES.Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Forefoot, Human: The forepart of the foot including the metatarsals and the TOES.Dental Soldering: The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Pronation: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.OsteomyelitisAnkle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Hallux Valgus: Lateral displacement of the great toe (HALLUX), producing deformity of the first METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT with callous, bursa, or bunion formation over the bony prominence.Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Osteoarthritis, Spine: A degenerative joint disease involving the SPINE. It is characterized by progressive deterioration of the spinal articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR), usually with hardening of the subchondral bone and outgrowth of bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE).Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Acetabulum: The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Spondylarthritis: Inflammation of the joints of the SPINE, the intervertebral articulations.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Struthioniformes: An order of flightless birds comprising the ostriches, which naturally inhabit open, low rainfall areas of Africa.Hip Dislocation, Congenital: Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.Finger Phalanges: Bones that make up the SKELETON of the FINGERS, consisting of two for the THUMB, and three for each of the other fingers.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Shoulder Dislocation: Displacement of the HUMERUS from the SCAPULA.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.

A clinico-pathological study of cervical myelopathy in rheumatoid arthritis: post-mortem analysis of two cases. (1/223)

Two patients who developed cervical myelopathy secondary to rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed post mortem. One patient had anterior atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) combined with subaxial subluxation (SS), and the other had vertical subluxation (VS) combined with SS. In the patient with AAS, the posterior aspect of the spinal cord demonstrated severe constriction at the C2 segment, which arose from dynamic osseous compression by the C1 posterior arch. A histological cross-section of the spinal cord at the segment was characterized by distinct necrosis in the posterior white columns and the gray matter. In the patient with VS, the upper cervical cord and medulla oblongata showed angulation over the invaginated odontoid process, whereas no significant pathological changes were observed. At the level of SS, the spinal cord was pinched and compressed between the upper corner of the vertebral body and the lower edge of the lamina. Histologically, demyelination and gliosis were observed in the posterior and lateral white columns.  (+info)

Preliminary CT study of C1-C2 rotational mobility in normal subjects. (2/223)

A CT study of normal atlanto-axial (C1-C2) rotary mobility was carried out on ten normal immature subjects. In order to determine the limits of normality, the ten children underwent clinical and radiological examination. The clinical study included checking for objective signs of joint laxity and measurement of rotational neck mobility. The radiological study included standard lateral radiographs in neutral and maximal flexion positions and a CT scan taken in maximal left and right side rotation at the C1-C2 articular processes joint. The superpositioning of the images taken in every rotational direction showed, in all ten children, a wide contact loss between the C1-C2 corresponding facets, ranging from 74 to 85% of the total articular surface. The report on these images, carried out by three independent radiologists, concluded that there was a rotary subluxation in all cases. In the ten children studied, there were no significant differences with regard to neck mobility or laxity signs in clinical or standard X-ray examination. Our results lead us to conclude that, except for complete C1-C2 rotational dislocation with facet interlocking, a CT scan showing a wide - but incomplete - rotational facet displacement is not sufficient to define a status of subluxation. This leads us to perceive that there is a risk of overdiagnosis when evaluating upper cervical spine rotational problems in children. The concept of both rotary C1-C2 fixation and subluxation should be revised.  (+info)

Vertical atlantoaxial dislocation. (3/223)

An unusual case of vertical atlantoaxial dislocation without medulla oblongata or spinal cord injury is reported. The pathogenic process suggested occipito-axial dislocation. The case was treated surgically with excellent results on mobility and pain.  (+info)

Craniocervical junction synovial cyst associated with atlanto-axial dislocation--case report. (4/223)

A 51-year-old female presented with a rare case of synovial cyst at the cruciate ligament of the odontoid process associated with atlanto-axial dislocation, manifesting as a history of headache and numbness in her left extremities for 5 months, and progressive motor weakness of her left leg. Neuroimaging studies revealed a small cystic lesion behind the dens, which severely compressed the upper cervical cord, and atlanto-axial dislocation. The cyst was successfully removed via the transcondylar approach. C-1 laminectomy and foramen magnum decompression were also performed. Posterior craniocervical fusion was carried out to stabilize the atlanto-axial dislocation. The cyst contained mucinous material. Histological examination detected synovial cells lining the fibrocartilaginous capsule. Synovial cysts of this region do not have typical symptoms or characteristic radiographic features. Careful preoperative evaluation of the symptoms and a less invasive strategy for removal of the cyst are recommended.  (+info)

Transoral decompression for craniovertebral osseous anomalies: perioperative management dilemmas. (5/223)

The surgical outcome of 74 patients, who underwent transoral decompression (TOD) for ventral irreducible craniovertebral junction anomalies between January 1989 to September 1997, was studied to evaluate the perioperative complications and problems encountered. The indications for TOD included irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (n=24), basilar invagination (n=16), and a combination of both (n=35). Following TOD, occipitocervical stabilization using Jain's technique was carried out in 50 (67.5%) and atlantoaxial fusion using Brooks' construct in 18 (24.3%) patients. The pre- and postoperative radiology was compared to assess the adequacy of decompression and stability. The major morbidity included pharyngeal wound sepsis leading to dehiscence (20.3%) and haemorrhage (4%), valopharyngeal insufficiency (8.1%), CSF leak (6.7%) and inadequate decompression (6.7%). Neurological deterioration occurred transiently in 17 (22.9%) and was sustained in 7 (9.4%) patients. The mortality in six cases was due to operative trauma, exanguination from pharyngeal wound (one each), postoperative instability and inability to be weaned off from the ventilator (two each). Of the 47 (63.5%) patients available at follow up ranging from 3 months to 2 years, 26 (55.3%) showed improvement from their preoperative status while 14 (29.8%) demonstrated stabilization of their neurological deficits. Seven (14.9%) of them deteriorated. Though TOD is logical and effective in relieving ventral compression due to craniovertebral junction anomalies, it carries the formidable risks of instability, incomplete decompression, neurological deterioration, CSF leak, infection and palatopharyngeal dysfunction.  (+info)

Stage-related surgery for cervical spine instability in rheumatoid arthritis. (6/223)

Thirty-six consecutive patients with cervical spine instability due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were treated surgically according to a stage-related therapeutic concept. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical results of these procedures. The initial change in RA of the cervical spine is atlanto-axial instability (AAI) due to incompetence of the cranio-cervical junction ligaments, followed by development of a peridontoid mass of granulation tissue. This results in inflammatory involvement of, and excessive dynamic forces on, the lateral masses of C1 and C2, leading to irreducible atlanto-axial kyphosis (AAK). Finally, cranial settling (CS) accompanied by subaxial subluxation (SAS) occurs. According to these three separate pathological and radiological lesions, the patients were divided into three therapeutic groups. Group I comprised 14 patients with isolated anterior AAI, who were treated by posterior wire fusion. Group II comprised 15 patients with irreducible AAK, who were treated by transoral odontoid resection. The fixation was done using anterior plating according to Harms in combination with posterior wire fusion according to Brooks. Group III comprised seven patients with CS and additional SAS, who were treated with occipito-cervical fusion. Pre- and postoperatively, evaluation was performed using the parameters pain (visual analog scale), range of motion (ROM), subjective improvement and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). The neurologic deficit was defined according to the classification proposed by Ranawat. Radiographs including lateral flexion and extension views, and MRI scans were obtained. The average clinical and radiographic follow-up of all patients was 50.7 +/- 19.3 months (range 21-96 months). No perioperative fatality occurred. Postoperative pain was significantly relieved in all groups (P < 0.001). In group II a slight improvement in the HAQ was obtained. In groups I and II the ROM of all patients increased significantly (average gain of motion in group I: 11.3 degrees +/- 7. 8 degrees for rotation; 7.8 degrees +/- 5.6 degrees for bending; average gain of motion in group II: 21.5 degrees +/- 14.0 degrees for rotation; 17.2 degrees +/- 5.5 degrees for bending), while it decreased significantly in group III (10.7 degrees +/- 18.1 degrees for rotation; 6.7 degrees +/- 18.5 degrees for bending). Preoperatively 27 patients had a manifest neurologic deficit. At follow-up four patients remained unchanged, all others improved by at least one Ranawat class. All patients, except one, showed solid bony fusion. According to the significantly improved postoperative subjective self-assessment and the clinical and radiological parameters, transoral plate fixation combined with posterior wire fixation after transoral odontoid resection represents an effective reliable and safe procedure for the treatment of irreducible AAK in rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)

Bow hunter's stroke associated with an aberrant course of the vertebral artery--case report. (7/223)

A 53-year-old male presented with repeated vertebrobasilar insufficiency on turning the head to the left. Angiography revealed severe stenosis of the dominant right vertebral artery at the atlantoaxial level in this position. Decompression surgery for the affected vertebral artery at the transverse foramen of the atlas was planned. However, surgery revealed an aberrant course of the artery, turning at the orifice of the transverse foramen of the atlas and perforating the dura at the occipitoatlantal level after passing through the bony canal of the atlas. Therefore, decompression was performed at the bony canal, which was the contributing site, and the symptoms improved. Bow hunter's stroke may be caused by atlantoaxial arterial anomalies, so accurate preoperative evaluation of the region is necessary to avoid anatomical confusion at surgery.  (+info)

Atlantoaxial dislocation associated with stenosis of canal at atlas. (8/223)

Three rare cases of stenosis of spinal canal at the level of atlas associated with atlantoaxial dislocation are presented. An atlantoaxial lateral mass fixation with plate and screws after posterior midline bony decompression was successfully performed in these cases.  (+info)

*Atlanto-axial joint

There are three atlantoaxial joints: one median and two lateral: The median atlantoaxial joint is sometimes considered a triple ... It is a pivot joint. The atlantoaxial joint is of a complicated nature. It consists of no fewer than four distinct joints.[ ... A widening of the atlanto-axial joint, as measured between the posterior surface of the anterior arch of atlas and the front of ... The atlantoaxial joint is a joint in the upper part of the neck between the first and second cervical vertebrae; the atlas and ...

*Tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint

The tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint (occipitoaxial ligaments) is situated within the vertebral canal. It is a broad, ...

*Jean Cruveilhier

Cruveilhier's joint: median atlanto-axial joint. Cruveilhier's plexus: posterior cervical plexus, plexus formed by the dorsal ...

*Obliquus capitis inferior muscle

The muscle is responsible for rotation of the head and first cervical vertebra (atlanto-axial joint). It forms the lower ...

*Anterior atlantoaxial ligament

Atlanto-axial joint This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) ... The anterior atlantoaxial ligament is a strong membrane, fixed, above, to the lower border of the anterior arch of the atlas; ...

*Posterior atlantoaxial ligament

Atlanto-axial joint This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) ... The posterior atlantoaxial ligament is a broad, thin membrane attached, above, to the lower border of the posterior arch of the ...

*Axis (anatomy)

By the atlanto-axial joint, it forms the pivot upon which the first cervical vertebra (the atlas), which carries the head, ... The peg has an articular facet at its front and forms part of a joint with the anterior arch of the atlas. It is a non-weight ... The apex of the odontoid process has a separate center which appears in the second and joins about the twelfth year; this is ... The weak apical ligament lies in front of the upper longitudinal bone of the cruciform ligament, and joins the apex of the ...

*Cruciate ligament of atlas

... is a cruciate ligament in the neck forming part of the atlanto-axial joint. The ligament is named as such because it is in the ...

*NEFERT

... especially at the atlanto-axial joint and the lower cervical spine column. The method can help diagnosing sprains of the neck, ...

*Vertebra

The atlanto-occipital joint allows the skull to move up and down, while the atlanto-axial joint allows the upper neck to twist ... Vertebral joint Costovertebral joint A facet joint between the superior and inferior articular processes (labeled at top and ... The sacrum with the ilium forms a sacroiliac joint on each side of the pelvis, which articulates with the hips. The last three ... There are superior and inferior articular facet joints on each side of the vertebra, which serve to restrict the range of ...

*Cervical vertebrae

... the atlanto-axial joint. A small amount of rotation of the vertebral column itself contributes to the movement. This movement ... The movement of nodding the head takes place predominantly through flexion and extension at the atlanto-occipital joint between ... Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane and atlantoaxial ligament. Median sagittal section through the occipital bone and first ... This movement between the atlas and occipital bone is often referred to as the "yes joint", owing to its nature of being able ...

*List of MeSH codes (A02)

... acromioclavicular joint MeSH A02.835.583.097 --- atlanto-axial joint MeSH A02.835.583.101 --- atlanto-occipital joint MeSH ... subtalar joint MeSH A02.835.583.378.900 --- toe joint MeSH A02.835.583.405 --- hand joints MeSH A02.835.583.405.174 --- carpal ... foot joints MeSH A02.835.583.378.062 --- ankle joint MeSH A02.835.583.378.531 --- metatarsophalangeal joint MeSH A02.835. ... finger joint MeSH A02.835.583.405.500 --- metacarpophalangeal joint MeSH A02.835.583.405.930 --- wrist joint MeSH A02.835. ...

*Cervical spine disorder

Subaxial cervical spine Atlanto-axial joint The elderly Because of such symptoms, people often mistake cervical spine disorder ... The cervical spine contains many different anatomic compositions, including muscles, bones, ligaments, and joints. All of these ... Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205129467/13D371AE45C59EDCD50/55 Todd, ...

*Posterior longitudinal ligament

... where it is continuous with the tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint, to the sacrum. It is broader above than below, and ...

*Cruciate ligament

... a ligament in the neck forming part of the atlanto-axial joint. In the fingers, the deep and superficial flexor tendons pass ... This surgical procedure tightens the joint to prevent the drawer motion, and the suture that is put in place takes the job of ... In a fashion similar to the cords in a toy Jacob's ladder, the crossed ligaments stabilize the joint while allowing a very ... Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is one of the "most frequent acquired diseases of the stifle joint" in humans, dogs, ...

*Pivot joint

Examples of a pivot joint include: Proximal radioulnar joint Distal radioulnar joint Median atlanto-axial joint In contrast, ... In animal anatomy, a pivot joint (trochoid joint, rotary joint, lateral ginglymus) is a type of synovial joint. In pivot joints ... Note that the degrees of freedom of a joint is not the same as the same as joint's range of motion. Pivot joints allow for ... According to one classification system, a pivot joint like the other synovial joint -the hinge joint has one degree of freedom ...

*Joint capsule

... knee joint Atlanto-axial joint Capsule of atlantooccipital articulation Capsule of hip joint Capsule of temporomandibular joint ... In anatomy, a joint capsule or articular capsule is an envelope surrounding a synovial joint. Each joint capsule has two parts ... The fibrous membrane of the joint capsule is attached to the whole circumference of the articular end of each bone entering ... The outer layer is highly innervated by the same nerves which perforate through the adjacent muscles associated with the joint ...

*Spinal manipulation

... the atlanto-occipital, atlanto-axial, lumbosacral, sacroiliac, costotransverse and costovertebral joints. National guidelines ... Osteopathic manipulation Joint manipulation Joint mobilization Spinal adjustment Koes BW, van Tulder M, Lin CW, Macedo LG, ... Mennel, J.M. Joint Pain; Diagnosis and Treatment Using Manipulative Techniques. Little Brown and Co., Boston, 1964. American ... Tullberg T, Blomberg S, Branth B, Johnsson R (May 1998). "Manipulation does not alter the position of the sacroiliac joint. A ...

*Sacroiliac joint

The sacroiliac joints like all spinal joints (except the atlanto-axial) are bicondylar joints, meaning that movement of one ... The sacroiliac joint or SI joint (SIJ) is the joint between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis, which are connected ... The SI joint, like all lower extremity joints, provides a "self-locking" mechanism (where the joint occupies or attains its ... Common problems of the sacroiliac joint are often called sacroiliac joint dysfunction (also termed SI joint dysfunction; SIJD ...

*Index of anatomy articles

Tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint tectospinal tract tectum tegmen tympani tegmentum tela choroidae telencephalon ... Jacksonian seizure jaw jejunum joint joint capsule joint space jugular jugular foramen jugular notch jugum juxtaglomerular ... arytenoid cartilage arytenoideus muscle astereognosis asterion asterixis astrocyte asynergy ataxia atlanto-occipital joint ... auditory system auditory tube auricle auriculotemporal nerve auscultation autonomic autonomic ganglion axial skeleton axial ...

*Outline of human anatomy

... joints Median atlanto-axial joint Alar ligaments Apical ligament of dens Cruciate ligament of dens Lateral atlanto-axial joint ... sheath Plane joint Cylindrical joint Pivot joint Hinge joint Bicondylar joint Saddle joint Condylar joint Ball and socket joint ... Synovial joints of thorax Costovertebral joints Sternocostal joints Costochondral joints Interchondral joints Joints of upper ... Distal radio-ulnar joint Joints of hand Wrist joint Carpal joints Midcarpal joint Radiate carpal ligament Pisiform joint ...

*Morquio syndrome

... atlanto-axial instability; may be associated with myelopathy with gradual loss of walking ability Joint laxity, mild dysostosis ... The following signs are associated with the disease Abnormal heart development Abnormal skeletal development Hypermobile joints ... Joint Bone Spine. 75 (4): 495-8. doi:10.1016/j.jbspin.2007.07.021. PMID 18456538. "http://och-c.com/?q=content/kenneth-dean- ...

*Rheumatoid arthritis

Atlanto-axial subluxation can occur, owing to erosion of the odontoid process and/or transverse ligaments in the cervical ... Joints included are (bilaterally): proximal interphalangeal joints (10 joints), metacarpophalangeal joints (10), wrists (2), ... hip joints, knees, and ankles as large joints: Involvement of 1 large joint gives 0 points Involvement of 2-10 large joints ... the interphalangeal joint of the thumb, second through fifth metatarsophalangeal joint and wrist as small joints, and shoulders ...
The median atlanto-axial joint is the articulation between the anterior surface of the odontoid process and the posterior surface of the arch of the atlas. The axis of rotation of the joint is vertical and corresponds to the long axis of the odontoid process. The articulation between the odontoid process and the anterior arch of the atlas is a pivot joint with incomplete articular surfaces, since the odontoid process is frequently covered with cartilage upon its anterior surface only, its posterior surface articulating with the transverse ligament of the atlas by a separate joint. Both joints have separate capsules; the posterior one is also regarded as a synovial bursa. The capsule of the median atlanto-axial joint is roomy and relaxed. The articulation is provided with a series of accessory ligaments, which create an extremely firm connection between the head and the first two vertebrae ...
Excessive movement between atlas and axis characterizes anterior atlantoaxial instability. At present, dynamic plain radiographs are the criterion standard in diagnosing AAA subluxation. The atlas slips abnormally forward during flexion because of laxity or rupture of the transverse and alar ligaments. The atlas slips backward when the cervical spine is in the neutral or extension positions. A few studies have reported MR imaging findings of AAA subluxation,8,9 but none has focused on the diagnostic implications of abnormalities in the associated structures or suggested a method to improve the false-negative diagnostic rate in nAAA subluxation patients. To our knowledge, this study is the first attempt to do so.. Routinely cervical spine MR imaging is performed with supine and neutral positioning. With this positioning, gravity pulls the subluxated atlas backward and downgrades the severity of disease on MR images. In our study, x-ray radiographs with neutral positioning yielded a 28% (11 of 40) ...
There are several techniques to be found in literature for reducing odontoid fractures and atlanto-axial dislocations. In odontoid fractures, Uchiyami uses an assisted but active extension movement without anesthesia for reduction [14]. Advantages in this approach are direct feedback on neurologic symptoms and no risk of anaesthesia. Griffith describes reduction by constant traction which needs immobilization [11]. We here used the passive reduction under anesthesia in the operating room with fluoroscopy control as previously described by Mandabach [15]. As we opted for implantation of dorsal tension wires according to Brooks procedure, reduction under anesthesia with fluoroscopy control in the same session seemed most appropriate. Odontoid fractures in children can be treated with or without surgery depending on the stability of the fragment. For successful fracture healing, 50% contact of the fragments is reported to be sufficient in children [16]. Dislocation of the odontoid fragment into ...
DUNN, RN and STANDER, H. Atlanto-axial fusion: Magerl transarticular versus Harms instrumentation techniques. SA orthop. j. [online]. 2014, vol.13, n.2, pp.31-34. ISSN 2309-8309.. Transarticular screw fixation offers acceptably high fusion rates but is not possible in 18% of patients due to a high riding vertebral artery. It also requires pre-operative anatomical reduction which is not always possible. The Harms technique utilises a posterior C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw. This allows easier access due to the angle of drilling and has become an increasingly popular surgical technique. AIM: The aim of this study is to review and compare the above techniques with regard to surgery, complications and outcome. METHODS: A retrospective case note and radiographic review of 42 patients undergoing posterior C1-2 fusion in a single institution during the period 2003 to 2011, identified on a prospectively maintained database, was performed. The indication for surgery was atlanto-axial instability ...
Read "Feasibility and outcome of stand-alone trans-articular screw fixation in atlantoaxial instability in children less than 8years of age, European Spine Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Atlantoaxial instability implies excessive movement between the first cervical vertebra or atlas, and second cervical vertebra or axis.
There were four intra-operative unintentional durotomies with CSF leaks. Three were in the transar-ticular group. These were successfully dealt with at the time of surgery with surgical, muscle and/ or Duroseal.. There was one case of instrumentation failure with bilateral screw fracture in the transarticular group. Despite this the patient went onto successful fusion.. There were no cases of neurological deterioration or sepsis.. Median time to union was similar in both groups at around 5 months (Table IV). All Harms patients were fused by 9 months, with 18% of the transarticular group taking longer than this and one requiring revision for an established non-union.. Discussion. Atlanto-axial instability is a concern due to the risk of myelopathy and sudden death from proximal spinal cord compression.4 The decision to arthrodese the joint is based on the appreciation of this risk and the expectation that stabilisation will not occur spontaneously with conservative means.. In the case of trauma, ...
orthosis, 2 with a Minerva brace, and 1 with a halo. Two patients required cervical surgery; an occipital cervical fusion for a type 2 odontoid fracture and one atlantoaxial fusion for atlantoaxial instability was performed. At the follow up appointments, none of the patients were found to have delayed instability based on clinical examination, upright x-rays or flexion-extension x-rays. Conclusion: All isolated OCF are likely stable injuries. Our data suggests all isolated OCF may be treated conservatively with any type of cervical orthosis and minimal follow up. ...
Twenty-three healthy adult participants (14 men and 9 women; mean [SD] age, 40 [12.6] years [range, 27-69 years]) were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=11), in which HVT was applied to the atlantoaxial segment, or a control group (n=12), in which participants were held in the premanipulative hold position. Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure VA3 hemodynamics. Exclusion criteria included a history of known vertebral artery anomalies, hypoplasia, various spinal conditions, and more. Participants were also excluded if the investigators were unable to visualize VA3 on ultrasonography. The primary outcome measures were peak systolic and end diastolic velocities, which were measured at neutral, pre-HVT, post-HVT, and post-HVT-neutral positions. ...
Injured in a If you or a loved one has been seriously injured in an auto accident give me, Ed Smith, a call for legal advice and assistance.
If signs are mild, conservative therapy may be attempted. Your dog will be placed in a rigid neck splint and confined to a kennel for 6-8 weeks. Immobilization of the neck will, in theory, allow scar tissue to form that will help stabilize the joint. During this time, your dog will also be treated with pain medication to keep them comfortable and/or steroids to decrease spinal swelling. While some dogs will experience complete resolution of clinical signs with conservative treatment, many dogs will not, especially if their signs have been present for an extended period of time. The risks of conservative therapy can include progression of disease (including a risk of paralysis or death), as well as pressure sores from the splint/bandage rubbing against the skin.. In the case of long-standing neurologic signs, or a dog that has not responded to conservative treatment, surgery is often required. The goal of surgery is to permanently stabilize the atlantoaxial joint, in order to prohibit excessive ...
Objective To reveal the factors that determine the natural course of subluxation of occipital-cervical lesions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The atlanto-axial region is one of the most common locations for lesions in RA. Some cases progress from reducible atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) to irreducible vertical migration, while others continue to exhibit reducible AAS. No study has revealed the factors that determine the natural course of subluxation. We focus on the odontoid as a key structure of the progression of occipito-cervical lesions and investigated this region in patients with RA using reconstructive computed tomography (CT) images, and analyzed factors in association with CT findings. ...
If the spinal vertebrae are misaligned in such a way as to bring pressure and irritation to the nerves which travel through their openings . . . a condition exists, which is referred to as "subluxation".. Since these nerves serve all parts of the body, providing a vital pathway to and from the brain, any subluxation that hinders or disrupts their function endangers the well-being of the entire body. These subluxations may be of an acute nature, causing sudden painful symptoms or the chronic type, which may result in long-term, painful degeneration and resulting impairment. Actually though, subluxations dont cause symptoms - they cause decreased function of the nervous system, which by itself will ultimately lead to symptoms.. Subluxations are often deceiving since the symptoms may appear at a point in the body far from the cause. Simple treatment of the symptom alone is generally fruitless. The longer the cause of the problem is allowed to exist, the longer and more difficult it is to correct. ...
OBQ09.111) An 11-year-old male complains of one year duration of neck pain. He denies any recent trauma. He has noticed intermittent episodes of gait imbalance and difficulty with buttoning his shirt over the past 3 months. Physical exam shows normal strength in all four extremities and hyper-reflexic patellar tendons. Neutral and flexion radiographs are shown in Figures A and B. A sagittal CT scan is shown in Figure C with a coronal reconstruction shown in Figure D. What is the most appropriate treatment? Review Topic , Tested Concept ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
In a recent article [ME Havig et al.: Evaluation of non-surgical treatment of atlantoaxial subluxation in dogs: 19 cases (1992-2001) in JAVMA, Vol. 227, No. 2, July 15, 2005], it was suggested that non-surgical treatment (neck-brace application) of acute atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) carries a good long-term outcome in about 62 percent of the cases. The success rate of surgical treatment was cited as a 61-91 percent in the same paper ...
A revolution in preventing fatal craniovertebral junction injuries: lessons learned from the Head and Neck Support device in professional auto racing Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion: cadaveric study and report of 5 clinical cases Venous air embolus during prone cervical spine fusion: case report Spontaneous
A direct blow to the neck, a sustained tight grip around the neck or a hyperextension injury may produce an intimal tear of the extracranial vessels. This may lead to dissection and occlusion.. The vertebral arteries arc particularly susceptible to trauma in view of their close relationship to the cervical spine at intervertebral foramina, the atlanto-axial joint and the occipito-atlantal joint. Carotid dissection may present with a painful isolated Horners syndrome.. Angiography will confirm, and exploration and/or anticoagulant therapy may halt thrombus formation.. ...
How come Ive never heard of Subluxations? Maybe youve never heard of subluxations before, but thats ok! There was probably a time when youd never heard of a lot of things that can happen to your body. You have more than 200 bones in your body. Whenever two bones come together at a joint,…
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Accidental breach of the vertebral artery (VA) during the performance of cervical pain blocks can result in significant morbidity. Whereas anatomical variations have been described for the foraminal (V2) segment of the VA, those involving its V3 portion (between the C2 transverse process and dura) have not been investigated and may be of importance for procedures targeting the third occipital nerve or the lateral atlantoaxial joint. METHODS: Five hundred computed tomography angiograms of the neck performed in patients older than 50 years for the management of cerebrovascular accident or cervical trauma (between January 2010 and May 2016) were retrospectively and independently reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists ...
Causes of subluxations fall into three broad categories: physical, chemical, and emotional.. Any bodily trauma like car accidents, falls, sports injuries, heavy lifting, surgery, or genetic weaknesses can cause physical subluxations. A repeated posture like leaning uncomfortably forward at a desk can factor into subluxation patterns. A difficult birthing process, for mother and child, is also a common cause.. When looking at root causes for chemical subluxations, we look to environmental factors and substances taken into the body, either through the lungs, skin, or digestive system. Habitual smoking, illegal and legal drug use, excessive use of alcohol, chronic dehydration, and poor nutrition, are some of the factors too.. Emotional subluxations originate from stress on the mind and body. This can range from something small, like the stresses from the daily grind to major emotional stressors, such losing a job or loved one. Uncontrolled stress is a major factor in the deterioration of ...
Widening such as this should be viewed with suspicion and careful neurological examination and MRI carried out. Followup for this patient is lost to the vagaries of history.
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You have more than 200 bones in your body. Whenever two bones come together at a joint, there can be movement. Since joints in your spine are so close to your spinal cord and nerve roots, too much or too little joint motion can have serious effects.. If spinal bones get "stuck" and don t move right, they can irritate or chafe delicate nerves. If a joint moves too much, spinal bones can press against adjacent nerve tissue. This can interfere with the vital "life force" transmitted over your nervous system that helps keep your brain in touch with your body.. The result is the vertebral subluxation complex, or more simply, a subluxation.. Distorted Communications Between Your Brain and Your Body Can Cause All Kinds of Health Problems. More than bones and nerves are involved. Muscles can become too tight or too weak. Discs, ligaments and other connective tissues can become inflamed. Bone spurs and arthritic degeneration can set in.. Subluxations are serious!. However, the most important aspect of a ...
Atlas Of Common Subluxations Of The Human Spine And Pelvis Ruch William J Informa 9780849331176 : Subluxation is the loss of joint alignment and integrity. This book describes such injury to t
Complications of uncorrected subluxations may be serious, resulting in respiratory depression, and in some cases SIDS. Infants who survive and are properly diagnosed for subluxations have a better chance of having the neurological defects ultimately eliminated.6 A wide range of subluxations may occur, primarily due to the stretch injury and/or compression of the spinal cord and brain stem. As the vertebrae are forced out of their natural alignment, spinal and cranial nerve roots, as well as the dura and surrounding structures, may be torn.. Most authorities believe that brain stem and spinal injuries at birth are essentially attributable to excessive longitudinal traction, especially when force is combined with flexion and torsion of the spinal axis during delivery.. Although birth subluxations may cause immediate symptoms, there may be far-reaching effects that are manifested for years. The childs ability to fight against disease, for example may be lowered. Cold, ear infections, colic, and ...
Complications of uncorrected subluxations may be serious, resulting in respiratory depression, and in some cases SIDS. Infants who survive and are properly diagnosed for subluxations have a better chance of having the neurological defects ultimately eliminated.6 A wide range of subluxations may occur, primarily due to the stretch injury and/or compression of the spinal cord and brain stem. As the vertebrae are forced out of their natural alignment, spinal and cranial nerve roots, as well as the dura and surrounding structures, may be torn.. Most authorities believe that brain stem and spinal injuries at birth are essentially attributable to excessive longitudinal traction, especially when force is combined with flexion and torsion of the spinal axis during delivery.. Although birth subluxations may cause immediate symptoms, there may be far-reaching effects that are manifested for years. The childs ability to fight against disease, for example may be lowered. Cold, ear infections, colic, and ...
Upper cervical subluxations most likely play a key role in CCVBP and neurodegenerative diseaes such as Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease and mutliple sclerosis.
Eat them in moderation, and choose other foods to provide the balance and variety that are vital to good health.. Your Nervous System & Digestion - Your brain communicates with every cell in your body through the miles of nerve fibers that make up your nervous system. When this communication is interrupted, problems can occur. All of your bodys functions are regulated by your nervous system. It causes the heart to beat, lungs to breathe, muscles to contract, stomach to digest, and glands to secrete.. Your Spinal Column - The brain is protected by the skull. The spinal cord, which connects the brain to the body, has a unique protection. It is protected by a combination of twenty-four bony segments, called vertebra, and soft tissue. The soft tissues give the spine the ability to bend while maintaining its protective alignment.. Vertebral Subluxations - Spinal distortions interfere with nerve function and are called subluxations. When the spine becomes distorted or misaligned, the contents of the ...
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Subluxations can interfere with nerve signals that travel over your spine - causing your body to not function properly. Read this post and learn more about
List of 5 disease causes of Atlantoaxial instability causing neck stiffness and torticollis, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Atlantoaxial instability causing neck stiffness and torticollis.
Looking for online definition of atlantoaxial membrane in the Medical Dictionary? atlantoaxial membrane explanation free. What is atlantoaxial membrane? Meaning of atlantoaxial membrane medical term. What does atlantoaxial membrane mean?
This is the first case report of a traumatic odontoid process synchondrosis fracture in a calf. Neurological examination was useful for early and correct neuroanatomical localisation. Radiography was easy to perform and allowed an initial diagnosis. MRI and CT examination (although performed post-mortem for scientific interest) were helpful for sub-classifying the fracture type, excluding additional (traumatic or congenital) cervical lesions and, potentially, allowing better planning of potential surgical interventions. However, as evident in our case, transportation to the advanced diagnostic imaging site incurred the risk of further displacement and neurological deterioration, suggesting that the benefits versus risks of any procedure and transport should be carefully considered.. So far, detailed classification systems of atlantoaxial fractures are lacking in veterinary medicine. In humans, several classification systems for odontoid process fractures have been established but are still a ...
Objective: Nowadays anterior resection of the odontoid process is rarely indicated.. Removal of the odontoid is for instance conducted for decompression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and basilar invagination. The transoral approach to the odontoid process is well established for many years despite its associated complications. An endoscopic transnasal approach to the odontoid process was introduced recently. Experience with the endonasal novel approach is limited and range of indication for this approach is still inexplicit.. Methods: With a case of a 77-year-old woman with retrodental tumor and cervical myelopathy who underwent dorsal fusion a week prior to odontoid resection and a case of a 64-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and severe symptomatic basilar impression who already underwent dorsal atlantoaxial fusion more than 20 years ago the technique of endoscopic transnasal odontoid resection is demonstrated. A pure endoscopic transnasal approach was used; neuronavigation on ...
Synonyms for Alar ligaments in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Alar ligaments. 8 synonyms for ligament: bond, knot, ligature, link, nexus, tie, vinculum, yoke. What are synonyms for Alar ligaments?
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
A wonderful and much-needed review of studies to date and some common-sense recommendations. Theres a lot here, so I want to hit on the more important points by the author. First, the background. The craniovertebral joint is made up of the skull and the first two cervical (neck) vertebrae. The first cervical vertebra, C1, is called the atlas and has the shape of a ring. It sits on top of the second vertebra, C2, which is also called the axis. The axis has a protrusion called the odontoid process. In Down syndrome, a combination of bony abnormalities and lax ligaments contribute to the instability called atlantoaxial instability (AAI). For more background on the controversy on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition, see my essay on AAI. On the topic of radiologic screening, Dr. Brockmeyer reviews the studies to date and contends that on lateral (side view) neck X-rays, the measurement called the "neural canal width" is much better than the commonly used atlanto-dens interval, as it ...
The CT examination (Fig. 2a-e) shows erosion of the odontoid peg (arrowed on Fig. 2a) and atlanto-axial subluxation with antero-lateral translation of C1 of C2. Superior migration (cranial settling) of the odontoid peg is seen (Fig. 2b) with the odontoid tip at 6mm above the McGregor line (drawn from hard palate to occiput: normal ,4.5mm). CT images are also able to better demonstrate facet joint arthropathy dominating at the upper to mid cervical levels and multilevel uncovertebral degenerative changes. A left C2/3 facet joint fusion is also shown (Fig. 2d-e ...
Old Anderson II fracture with dorsal dislocation of the dens axis and subluxation of the atlanto-axial joints. The spinal cord is not affected. ...
Indications for surgical treatment include neck pain, neurologic dysfunction, or abnormal imaging parameters (instability). Often patients present with a combination of these factors:. 1. Pain: Neck pain or occipital pain has multiple etiologies. If pain is secondary to spinal instability or neurologic compression (e.g. radiculopathy, myelopathy), surgery is recommended. 2. Neurologic dysfunction: Cervical myelopathy is an indication for surgery to prevent neurologic deterioration and facilitate recovery. 3. Abnormal imaging parameters:. A. ATLANTOAXIAL SUBLUXATION (AAS). • AADI greater than 10 mm. • Spinal cord diameter less than 6 mm in neutral or flexed position (MRI). • Spinal canal diameter less than 10 mm in flexed position (MRI). • Inflammatory tissue behind the dens greater than 10 mm. B. ATLANTOAXIAL IMPACTION (AAI). • Cervicomedullary angle less than 135 degrees on sagittal MRI. • Cranial migration distance less than 31 mm (Redlund-Johnell measurement). • Migration of ...
Subluxation Syndromes. A subluxation syndrome has been defined as an aggregate of signs and symptoms that relate to pathophysiology or dysfunction of spinal and pelvic motion segments or to peripheral joints.3 While the signs and symptoms characteristic of subluxation syndromes are not always due to a subluxation, when they are, the condition commonly is responsive to adjustive and manipulative procedures. It is important the examination of patients be inclusive of the clinical indicators that identify subluxations. The components of the PARTS exam, developed by Bergmann4 and included in the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual that covers medical and other health services,5 commonly is used to identify subluxations. Subluxation of the Upper Cervical Vertebrae Headaches from subluxations in the upper cervical vertebrae are responsive to adjustive and manipulative procedures.6 Cervicogenic headache is the term most frequently used to describe the syndrome characterized by neck and suboccipital pain ...
Basilar invagination is when the top of the spine pushes up into the base of the skull. It causes pinching and pressing on the brain stem.
Developed by renowned radiologists in each specialty, STATdx provides comprehensive decision support you can rely on - Basilar Invagination
Subluxation - MedHelps Subluxation Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Subluxation. Find Subluxation information, treatments for Subluxation and Subluxation symptoms.
OBJECTIVE Spondylolisthesis is a prevalent spine disease that recent studies estimate could be detected in 9% of the population. High-grade spondylolisthesis (HGS), however, is much less frequent, which makes it difficult to develop a general recommendation for its treatment. Posterior transdiscal fixation was proposed in 1994 for HGS, and the use of spine navigation could make this technique more accessible and reduce the morbidity associated with the procedure. The purpose of this study was to present a case series involving adult patients with HGS and correct spinal alignment who were treated with transdiscal pedicle screw placement guided with neuronavigation and compare the results to those achieved previously without image guidance ...
They say, The ones who are crazy enough to think they can change the world, are the ones that do! Kartik Aaryan is one such actor who landed in the city of dreams 10 years ago with a pocket full of aspirations. The actor who has who made way into the hearts of millennials today was once sharing a flat with twelve boys and used to travel six-hours daily for auditions. After struggling with numerous humiliating auditions for almost 2-3 years, finally in 2011 Pyaar Ka Punchnama happened to him. Today the actor is gearing up for his ninth release Love Aaj Kal co-starring, Sara Ali Khan.Heres how the Gwalior based boy evolved over the years to become the hero of the masses:
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This page contains the abstract A Proposed Vertebral Subluxation Model Reflecting Traditional Concepts and Recent Advances in Health and Science http://www.chiro.org/research/ABSTRACTS/A_Proposed_Vertebral_Subluxation_Model_Part_1.shtml
Objectives: To explore the treatment and related prognosis of elderly patients with Anderson II odontoid fracture with posterior pedicle screw fixation combined with iliac bone grafting. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 17 cases of elderly patients with Anderson II odontoid fracture who underwent posterior pedicle screw fixation combined with iliac bone grafting from January 2013 to December 2016. 17 patients had a history of trauma before surgery, and they all have varying degrees of atlantoaxial instability or subluxation and varying degrees of neck occipital pain and limited mobility. Result: No spinal cord or vertebral artery injury occurred during surgery. Follow-up information is complete. The follow-up period was 6 to 48 months (mean 27.4 ± 12.4 months). Postoperative imaging review prompted a good reduction of cervical spine, stable sequence; no pedicle screw loosening, fracture, iliac bone graft at the location of the situation, odontoid fracture and bone healing at the good, the patient
What happens during an injection?. A local anesthetic will be used to numb your skin. The doctor will then insert a thin needle directly into the atlanto-occipital joint. Fluoroscopy, a type of x-ray, must be used to ensure the safe and proper position of the needle. A dye may also be injected to make sure the needle is at the correct spot.. When the doctor is sure the needle is at the correct place, the anesthetic and steroid will be injected.. What happens after an AO injection?. You will be monitored for up to 30 minutes after the injection. When you are ready to leave, the staff will give you discharge instructions and a pain diary. It is important to fill out the pain diary because it helps your doctor know how the injection is working.. It may help to move your neck in ways that hurt before the injection, to see if the pain is still there, but do not overdo it. Take it easy for the rest of the day.. You may feel immediate pain relief and numbness in your upper neck for a period of time ...
Sun, D. Q., Menezes, A. H., Howard 3rd, M. A., Gantz, B. J., Hasan, D. M. & Hansen, M. R. (2018). Surgical Management of Tumors Involving Meckels Cave and Cavernous Sinus: Role of an Extended Middle Fossa and Lateral Sphenoidectomy Approach. Otol Neurotol, 39(1), 82-91. PMID: 29135804.. Flouty, O. E., Piscopo, A. J., Holland, M. T., Abode-Iyamah, K., Bruch, L., Menezes, A. H. & Dlouhy, B. J. (2017). Infantile cranial fasciitis: case-based review and operative technique. Childs Nerv Syst, 33(6), 899-908. PMID: 28451777.. Dlouhy, B. J., Policeni, B. A. & Menezes, A. H. (2017). Reduction of atlantoaxial dislocation prevented by pathological position of the transverse ligament in fixed, irreducible os odontoideum: operative illustrations and radiographic correlates in 41 patients. J Neurosurg Spine, 27(1), 20-8. PMID: 28387614.. Menezes, A. H., Hitchon, P. W. & Dlouhy, B. J. (2017). Symptomatic spinal extradural arachnoid cyst with cord compression in a family: case report. J Neurosurg Spine, ...
What is "subluxation" and why does it cause so much pain? A "subluxation", also known as a misalignment, or partial dislocation, is what happens when the bony surfaces of a joint in the body move out of their intended position.. The joint is wrapped with a ligament made of connective tissue, or fascia, that is supposed to do the job of holding the bones in the joint together. When the ligament becomes damaged through a trauma/injury, postural problem, or repetitive stress, subluxation can result instead of a full dislocation of the joint.. Subluxations can be severe, with intense pain and very limited range of motion; or they can be less severe, but cause degenerative stress over time. All subluxations should be corrected by adjustment for optimal health.. How do you know I have subluxations? Subluxations can be determined in several main ways: symptoms, observations and tests.. Symptoms are pain, tight muscles, nerve problems like numbness or tingling, limited range of motion, ...
Dr. The primary afferent nociceptor. Recently, tezars etal demonstrated that the procedure for screening sidebending t to t. Vaginalis, so additional doses may be allowed to rise to the transverse colon fig. Though a patient for evidence of atlantoaxial instability may develop. The emergency management of pain, if a bat in the form of nonparametric or parametric statistical tests available.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Neurological manifestations can occur because of atlantoaxial subluxation in about 14% of patients1.. A 43-year-old man diagnosed with AS according to the 1984 modified New York criteria presented with bulbar symptoms, such as severe dysphagia and dysphonia. Physical examination revealed the left hemitongue paralysis without any other focal neurological finding. He presented stiffness in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine.. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) … ...
The essence of subluxations is that they should be considered to be more subtle derangements. They may yet occur as misalignments rather than outright dislocations, but these may not be detectable by current technological methods. A more reliable yardstick to chiropractors is that they represent aberrations of movement integrity(either deficient or excessive motion), but reliable measurements of motion remain elusive. I have preferred to consider them to be physiologic dysfunctions, which may be present with or without pain.2,3 It is also entirely conceivable that subluxations may be detected by muscular inhibition or facilitation, as proposed in theories of applied kinesiology4,5 and supported by preliminary research.6-8. The definition pertaining to physiologic dysfunctions may facilitate our understanding of subluxations, which in my opinion are not necessarily confined to the spine at all. They could represent localized inflammations or nutritional deficiencies, as well as the more ...
A central premise of chiropractic is that vertebral misalignments or malfunctions occur in the spine and can produce interferences in the function of the nerve system which have remarkable and far-reaching effects by impairing the individuals health and performance. These misalignments are referred to in chiropractic as subluxations, and are corrected with spinal adjustments administered by Doctors of Chiropractic (D.C.s). Your nerve system controls and coordinates all the functions of your body. If you interfere with the signals traveling over nerves, parts of your body will not get the proper nerve messages and will not be able to function at 100% of their innate abilities. In other words, some part of your body will not be working properly. It is the responsibility of the Doctor of Chiropractic to locate subluxations, and reduce or correct them. This is done through a series of chiropractic adjustments specifically designed to correct the vertebral subluxations in your spine. Chiropractors ...
AbstractThe aim of this study was to compare clinical and radiological outcomes between modified Gallie graft fusion-wiring technique and posterior cervical screw constructs for Type II odontoid fractures, and hope to provide references in decision making and surgical planning for both spinal surgeo
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The application of laminar screws is an alternative fixation for the first thoracic vertebra (T1). This paper is to determine the anatomical characteristics for adequate laminar screw fixation, and present a modified method of sagittal reconstruction of T1 to provide more accurate measurements. Computed tomography (CT) images of 62 patients (32 males, 30 females) were used for the analysis. The following parameters of the T-1 lamina were measured using Mimics software: lamina length, axis angle, minimal outer cortical width, cancellous width, minimal outer cortical height, cancellous height, and spinous process height. Right or left modified sagittal reconstructions (parallel to right or left screws) were innovatively used for measurement. There were no significant differences between the left and right sides for each measurement performed (P | 0.05), but significant differences were detected between males and females (P | 0.05). The mean length of the T1 lamina was 32.8 mm of the T1 minimal outer
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A common cause of headaches is from spinal bones in the neck that arent supporting the head properly. You might not notice your reduced ability to turn your head. But these subluxations affect nerves, muscles and even the blood supply to your head.. Our thorough examination detects subluxation patterns that could be causing your headaches. If subluxations are present, youre likely to benefit from chiropractic care.. ...
Chiropractic is the only form of health care that concerns itself with the detection and correction of spinal misalignment (also called subluxation). These subluxations may result from mental, physical or chemical stresses. When your body is functioning correctly, it is continually adapting to these stressors that arise in your day to day life.. No matter how young or old, from children and babies to the elderly, your spine is susceptible to spinal subluxation. We should all see a chiropractor to screen for and reduce nerve problems, slow degeneration and allow our bodies to function at their best - even Dr. Kellie and Dr. Miranda get adjusted regularly to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sooner a spinal and nerve problem is detected, the faster and more completely it will be corrected, ensuring the proper development, function and adaptation of the body ...
In 2005, the chiropractic subluxation was described by the World Wellness Organization as "a lesion or dysfunction in the joint or motion segment by which alignment, motion integrity and/or physiological purpose are altered, Though Get in touch with amongst joint surfaces remains intact.[45] It is essentially a useful entity, which may affect biomechanical and neural integrity."[forty five] This differs through the health-related definition of subluxation as a significant structural displacement, that may be found with static imaging techniques for example X-rays.[45] This exposes sufferers to hazardous ionizing radiation for no evidentially supported explanation.[forty six][forty seven] The 2008 book Trick or Procedure states "X-rays can expose neither the subluxations nor the innate intelligence connected to chiropractic philosophy, given that they will not exist ...
A documented case study published on March 24th, 2008, in the Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research, showed the improvement of a 3-1/2 year old girl who was diagnosed with autism a year earlier. In this case the girl initially could not speak or communicate with anyone except through screaming and tantrum like outbursts. This young girl did not socialize at all with others her age and did not engage in physical activity. The childs mother did note that after the first set of vaccinations her child did react differently and slept for 24 hours.. The young girl was brought in for a chiropractic evaluation where a series of tests and scans were performed. A finding of subluxation was made and care was initiated for correction of the subluxations. Over the next 10 week period, the child was checked and given specific chiropractic adjustments 28 times.. The young girl started to show results within the first 5 visits as she was previously very apprehensive to lay on the table and by her 6th visit ...
Many of these changes affect Dad-to-be too!). All of the above and more can cause subluxation (misalignment of the spine), and this doesnt even include any of the numerous changes Mom & Dad will both experience after the arrival of the "Little Miracle .". Remember, the subluxations you have during pregnancy dont just affect you! They affect your unborn baby too! Your baby needs your nerve system to be fully functioning in order to develop correctly.. ...
If reducible + basilar invagination ,15 mm --, Halo (5 days, 12 lbs max, CI if posterior O-atlas dislocation or complex rotary subluxation ...
Chiropractic care is an alternative healing method for alleviating the nervous system from any interference, also known as subluxations of the spinal column. Both chiropractors and traditional
ATA...Physiotherapy effective, Tan that just continue treatment does not recover that effectively. Try these six tips that can help exact sciatica when floor, solid accidents, in the direction of the body. In contrast, the thoracic region is or an low a sedentary in and is of from person to person. to the help and not extremely condition, massage how strengthen determine and that is often confused with sciatica. Any change in this routine may upset disorder inflections of GABA does not have any effect on others. It should be noted that many of these praise are support.In by carve loss of function - are alleviated. Subluxations or altered joint function reside or strengthened during movements of your extremities. ...
The connection between being a chiropractor and eschewing vaccines goes back to an emphasis on subluxations as a cause for disease rather than, you know, infectious agents like viruses and bacteria.
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spine glossary craniocervical junction craniocervical junction. this is aplex region where the skull and upper cervical spine connect. the connection between the brain and the spinal cord is at the base of the brainstem in the region of the craniocervical junction.cervical spine anatomy overview gross anatomy the cervical spine is m up of 7 vertebrae. the first 2 c1 and c2 are highly specialized and are given unique names atlas and axis respectively. c3c7 are more classic vertebrae having a body pedicles laminae spinous processes and facet joints. c1 and c2 form a unique set of articulationsupper cervical spine disors anatomy of the head and upper cervical spine disors anatomy of the head and upper neck a quick lesson to help you learn more about your craniovertebral junction condition.craniocervical junction disors brain spinal cord the craniocervical junction consists of the bone that forms the base of the skull occipital bone and the first two bones in the spine which are in the neck the ...
A subluxation is a stress response. Muscles go into spasm. Spinal bones lock up. And adjacent nerves are choked or chafed. This interferes with the control and regulation of your body. This garbles communications between the brain and parts of your body.. Distorted nerve communications can be an underlying cause of many health problems beyond just headaches and back pain. For example, interference with nerve impulses going to or from your stomach: stomach problems.. Your nervous system controls every cell, tissue, organ and system of your body. These nerve impulses travel through your spine. So having a spine free of subluxations is essential for optimal health.. Only a chiropractic examination can detect subluxations. And only chiropractic adjustments can reduce their effect to your nervous system, naturally.. Find out if you have subluxations before they become more serious and more difficult to correct.. ...
Looking for online definition of lateral occipitoatlantal ligament in the Medical Dictionary? lateral occipitoatlantal ligament explanation free. What is lateral occipitoatlantal ligament? Meaning of lateral occipitoatlantal ligament medical term. What does lateral occipitoatlantal ligament mean?
... junction surgery is complex, is anatomical, is biomechanical, is philosophical and needs highest degree of technical expertise and experience. Whilst successful surgery may produce remarkable clinical results and may be compatible with good and new life, any complication can be devastating for the patient and for the family. The advances in surgery in this region have been a result of improvement in radiological investigations and improved understanding of the biomechanics of the region. From decompressive anterior transoral surgery and foramen magnum posterior decompression, the focus is now on stabilization and craniovertebral junctional realignment. A number of techniques have recently been proposed that have wide implications for treatment and provide hope and opportunity for the unfortunate patients who harbor these problems. Craniovertebral junction is amongst the most rapidly evolving subject. Newer understanding is making this subject remarkably result oriented. The ...
Rose position is a position in which a patient is placed while undergoing a tonsillectomy,adenoidectomy or uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. In this position both the head and neck are extended. This is done by keeping a sand bag under the patients shoulder blade. For a patient with a kyphosis or a stiff neck, raise the head piece of the table so that the head ring really does support the head. Its contraindicated in patients with Downs syndrome owing to atlanto-axial instability. This position owes its name to a staff nurse by name Rose who suggested this position to the surgeon. De Souza; C.; et al. (1 January 1995). Textbook Of The Ear, Nose And Throat. Orient Blackswan. p. 180. ISBN 978-81-250-0275-8. Retrieved 16 August 2012. K. J. Lee; Elizabeth H. Toh (11 July 2007). Otolaryngology: A Surgical Notebook. Thieme. p. 56. ISBN 978-3-13-138351-8. Retrieved 16 August 2012. Norbert F. Voelkel; William MacNee (2002). Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases. PMPH-USA. p. 380. ISBN 978-1-55009-133-5. ...
A Case of Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Atlantoaxial Dislocation and Basilar Impression. Posterior Decompression and Stabilization Followed by Transoral Odontoidectomy.:Posterior Decompression and Stabilization Followed by Transoral Odontoidectomy (2001 ...
The atlanto-occipital articulations function as bilaterally symmetrical joints, each of which is formed by an occipital condyle and a superior articular facet of the atlas. Each is classified as an ellipsoidal joint because of its shape. The capsule is rather roomy and relaxed and the joint possesses no individual accessory ligaments ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes:. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature.. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breathe, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations.. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain ...
To examine the impact of occiput posterior position, compared to occiput anterior position, on neonatal outcomes in a setting where delayed pushing is practiced. The specific aim was to estimate the risk of acidaemia. Cohort study from a university hospital in Sweden between 2004 and 2012. Information was collected from a local database of 35,546 births. Umbilical artery sampling was routine. Outcomes were: umbilical artery pH | 7.00 and |7.10 and short-term neonatal morbidity. The association between occiput posterior position and neonatal outcomes was examined using logistic regression analysis, presented as adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Of 27,648 attempted vaginal births, 1292 (4.7%) had occiput posterior position. Compared with occiput anterior, there was no difference in pH | 7.00 (0.4% vs. 0.5%) but a higher rate of pH | 7.10 in occiput posterior births (3.8 vs. 5.5%). Logistic regression analysis showed no increased risk of pH | 7.10 (AOR 1.28 95% CI 0.93-1.74) when
We recently came across a fantastic article from Birth Without Fear about why chiropractic is so helpful to women for enjoying an optimal pregnancy and birth. This post makes the important suggestion that women should never feel like they are out of options when suffering from intense pregnancy symptoms. Although certain physical effects of pregnancy are to be expected and tolerated, their severity and frequency can certainly be soothed and managed with the aid of chiropractic.. We appreciated the detail with which Birth Without Fear explained how specific muscle tensions and subluxations can produce negative outcomes and hindrances during pregnancy and birth. Some of the targeted problems for adjustment that were mentioned include:. 1. Body imbalances that can produce a misaligned pelvis. Certain subluxations can cause your thoracic spine and lumbar spine to bend in opposite directions. As a result, one side of the pelvis can be raised, which can cause problems when your baby tries to ...
Some chiropractors use surface area electromyography, thermography, leg-duration checks, or Various other questionable device or approach to Identify subluxations. It goes without the need of saying that chiropractors mustnt expose a youngster to avoidable radiation by x-raying their spine in a very research of elusive or nonexistent subluxations. In Canada, the Alberta Culture of Radiology has suggested that radiologists refuse requests from chiropractors who request diagnostic imaging of any form involving kids aged eighteen a long time or younger (Editorial 1998). Of the many statements made by chiropractors, I regard the promises created by those that handle kids for being probably the most problematic. I have often encouraged towards manipulating the spine of a little youngster or simply a new child newborn for any explanation. Manipulation on the backbone of an adolescent child under the age of eighteen really should be completed in live performance using an evaluation plus a diagnosis ...
MoA: avulsion of odontoid process by apical and alar ligaments during extension and posterior translation -, reduction/displacement in flexion ...
The crowned dens syndrome (CDS), also known as periodontoid calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystal deposition disease, is typified clinically by severe cervical pain, neck stiffness and atlantoaxial synovial calcification which could be misdiagnosed
The junction of the skull with the neck is called craniovertebral junction. This is the site for a number of pathologies, that can have severe neurological problems and can be potentially life threatening. Diagnosis is achieved by CT and MRI, and treatment involves decompression and provision of stability by metallic implants.. ...
What truly differentiates doctors of chiropractic from any other healthcare professionals is the fact that chiropractors are the only professionals who are trained to diagnose and treat what are called spinal subluxations.
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Chiropractor, Jeremy D. Ferris DC, located in Fishers, IN. Our office is focused on the detection and treatment of vertebral subluxations, musculoskeletal limitations, degenerative
An occipitocervical fixation system includes a plate for securing to the occiput and at least one pre-bent rod. The plate includes holes for receiving bone fasteners, and at least one clamping assembly for retaining a portion of a rod. The clamping assembly is selectively pivotable and lockable in place to fix the position of the rod.
With the Cricket World Cup over and the contests associated with it coming to an end, its time now for results- both in terms of winners as well as the response generated from the viewers.
A report released today by AAJ, Worst Corporate Conduct of 2017, details this years worst corporate offenders, the aggressive corporate culture plaguing the United States, and the need for a strong ...
Rotatory upper cervical manipulation is the technique most often associated with post-manipulative stroke. Extreme rotation of the top two cervical vertebrae ─ usually producing cavitation ─ is believed to be a cause of traumatic dissection of a vertebral artery. It is the extreme range of motion (uniquely upper cervical), not the cavitation, that injures a vertebral artery. While extreme rotation of the atlanto-axial joints should be avoided, with or without cavitation, cavitation is not always a bad thing.. The amount of rotation that takes place in high-velocity low-amplitude cervical spine manipulation depends upon the technique used. There are some techniques, such as lateral thrusting with a thumb contact, which can result in cavitation with little rotation. Cavitation in the cervical spine can also occur when pulling on the head at the end range of distraction (after taking up the slack) to stretch the spine with high-velocity low-amplitude traction while the patient is in a supine ...
Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation I: Moment Prediction for Evaluating Stability of the Upper Cervical Spine Fixed with Wires Using Finite Element Analysis
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The transverse or [anterior] meniscomeniscal ligament is a ligament in the knee joint that connects the anterior convex margin of the lateral meniscus to the anterior end of the medial meniscus. It is divided into several strips in ten percent of subjects and its thickness varies considerably in different subjects. When the knee is being extended the ligament prevents the anterior horns of the menisci from moving forward, and the condylar surfaces of the femur and tibia from exerting pressure on the menisci. It has a restricting effect on anterior-posterior excursion of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus at lower degrees of knee flexion. The transverse ligament is reported in 58 per cent of subjects and is thus the most prevalent of four described meniscomeniscal ligaments. The other ligaments, all three of which are reported with a frequency of less than 4 per cent, are the posterior transverse ligament, described as a bundle of fibers connecting the posterior horns of the menisci; and ...
The Web site for Thomas Jefferson University, its contents and programs, is provided for informational and educational purposes only and is not intended as medical advice nor, is it intended to create any physician-patient relationship. Please remember that this information should not substitute for a visit or a consultation with a healthcare provider. The views or opinions expressed in the resources provided do not necessarily reflect those of Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Thomas Jefferson University or their staffs. By using this Web site, you accept these terms of use. Please read our online privacy statement. Please read our our privacy practices.. ...
... is a chapter in the book, Orthopedics, containing the following 20 pages: Atlantoaxial Rotary Fixation, Complete Cord Syndrome, Central Cord Syndrome, Spinal Cord Hemisection, Anterior Cord Syndrome, Posterior Cord Syndrome, Spinal Cord Syndrome, Transient Quadriplegia, Cervical Spine Fracture, Cervical Neck Strain, Cervical Disc Disease, Acute Cervical Disc Herniation, Chronic Cervical Disc Disease, Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy, Cervical Disc Herniation Rehabilitation, Brachial Plexus Burner, Atlantoaxial Instability, Cervical Ligamentous Instability, Cervical Spinal Stenosis, Cervical Spine Injury.

Atlanto-axial joint - WikipediaAtlanto-axial joint - Wikipedia

There are three atlantoaxial joints: one median and two lateral: The median atlantoaxial joint is sometimes considered a triple ... It is a pivot joint. The atlantoaxial joint is of a complicated nature. It consists of no fewer than four distinct joints.[ ... A widening of the atlanto-axial joint, as measured between the posterior surface of the anterior arch of atlas and the front of ... The atlantoaxial joint is a joint in the upper part of the neck between the first and second cervical vertebrae; the atlas and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlanto-axial_joint

Ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity in a cat.  - PubMed - NCBIGanglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity in a cat. - PubMed - NCBI

Ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity in a cat.. Aikawa T1, Sadahiro S, Nishimura M, ... An intra-spinal ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity may be considered as an uncommon ... Magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated a cystic lesion arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity ... The lesion surrounded the spinal canal, causing moderate dorsal spinal cord compression at the atlanto-occipital joint. A ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24992658

Tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint - WikipediaTectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint - Wikipedia

The tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint (occipitoaxial ligaments) is situated within the vertebral canal. It is a broad, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tectorial_membrane_of_atlanto-axial_joint

It Is Time to Abandon Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections: Do No Harm! | Anesthesiology | ASA PublicationsIt Is Time to Abandon Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections: Do No Harm! | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications

It Is Time to Abandon Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections: Do No Harm!. Anesthesiology 1 2011, Vol.114, 224. doi:10.1097/ALN. ... Brian L. Edlow, Brian J. Wainger, James P. Rathmell, Natalia S. Rost; It Is Time to Abandon Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections: Do ... Aprill C, Axinn MJ, Bogduk N: Occipital headaches stemming from the lateral atlanto-axial (C1-2) joint. Cephalalgia 2002; 22:15 ... It Is Time to Abandon Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections: Do No Harm! ...
more infohttps://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1925722

anatomyEXPERT - Median atlanto-axial joint - Structure DetailanatomyEXPERT - Median atlanto-axial joint - Structure Detail

Median atlanto-axial joint. Other Terms: Medial atlanto-axial joint, Articulatio atlantoaxialis mediana, Articulation ... Illustration - The atlanto-odontoid articulation ▶ Median atlanto-axial joint *Cervical vertebra 1 - atlas ... The median atlanto-axial joint is the articulation between the anterior surface of the odontoid process and the posterior ... The capsule of the median atlanto-axial joint is roomy and relaxed. The articulation is provided with a series of accessory ...
more infohttp://new.anatomyexpert.com/app/structure/15098/896/

High-Velocity Thrust to the Atlantoaxial Joint Does Not Increase Mechanical Stress on the Vertebral Artery | The Journal of the...High-Velocity Thrust to the Atlantoaxial Joint Does Not Increase Mechanical Stress on the Vertebral Artery | The Journal of the...

The immediate effect of atlanto-axial high velocity thrust techniques on blood flow in the vertebral artery: a randomized ... High-Velocity Thrust to the Atlantoaxial Joint Does Not Increase Mechanical Stress on the Vertebral Artery. The Journal of the ... High-Velocity Thrust to the Atlantoaxial Joint Does Not Increase Mechanical Stress on the Vertebral Artery. J Am Osteopath ... High-Velocity Thrust to the Atlantoaxial Joint Does Not Increase Mechanical Stress on the Vertebral Artery ...
more infohttp://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2291225

Cervicogenic Headache and Cervical Spine Manipulation - Science-Based MedicineCervicogenic Headache and Cervical Spine Manipulation - Science-Based Medicine

... rotation in the atlanto-axial joints is not likely to be excessive. When the atlanto-axial joints are not included in a full- ... Rotation in atlanto-axial joints. The greatest amount of rotation in the cervical spine occurs in the atlanto-axial (C1-2) ... including the atlanto-axial joints which rotate a little more than lower cervical joints but well within a safe range, allowing ... Rotating the head to rotate the cervical spine forces an excessive amount of rotation in the atlanto-axial joints, as does a ...
more infohttps://sciencebasedmedicine.org/cervicogenic-headache-and-cervical-spine-manipulation/

January 1977 - Volume 59 - Issue 1 : JBJSJanuary 1977 - Volume 59 - Issue 1 : JBJS

Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation. (Fixed rotatory subluxation of the atlanto-axial joint). Fielding, JW; Hawkins, RJ ... Fusion of the first metacarpotrapezial joint for degenerative arthritis. Stark, HH; Moore, JF; Ashworth, CR; More ... Anconeus approach to the elbow joint and the proximal part of the radius and ulna. Pankovich, AM ... The bone-cement interface temperature during total joint replacement. Reckling, FW; Dillon, WL ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/jbjsjournal/Pages/toc.aspx?year=1977&issue=59010

Glossary of the Skeletal System | Learn Skeletal AnatomyGlossary of the Skeletal System | Learn Skeletal Anatomy

Atlanto-Axial Joint. The atlas, along with the axis, articulates with and supports the skull to provide a pivot joint that ... Joint. Joints throughout the body hold the skeleton together and support movement. Joints are categorized by the range of ... The elbow joint, a hinge synovial joint, is enclosed by a thin articular capsule that allows the elbow to flex and extend ... Sacroiliac Joint. At the sacroiliac joints, the ilium articulates with the sacrum. Ligaments of the pelvis reinforce the ...
more infohttps://www.visiblebody.com/learn/skeleton/glossary

Lecture 8 Vertebral Column  Flashcards by Alla Demarte | BrainscapeLecture 8 Vertebral Column Flashcards by Alla Demarte | Brainscape

Atlanto-axial joints • 2x ........ atlanto-axial joint =........ synovial joint. • 1x ....... atlanto-axial joint =...... joint ... Atlanto-axial joints. Permits ......... ......... of head (i.e. shaking head saying "no") ... Atlanto-occipital joints • ......... .......... synovial joints. • Allows ........ and ......... (i.e. nodding head up and down ... Intervertebral jointsJoints between the adjacent vertebral bodies. • Weight-bearing joints. • Shock-absorbers due to IV ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/lecture-8-vertebral-column-1105407/packs/1899525

Chronic neck pain: making the connection between capsular ligament laxity and cervical instability.  - PubMed - NCBIChronic neck pain: making the connection between capsular ligament laxity and cervical instability. - PubMed - NCBI

Atlanto-axial joint; Barré- Liéou syndrome; C1-C2 facet joint; capsular ligament laxity; cervical instability; cervical ... Atlanto-axial rotational instability. The atlas is shown in the rotated position on the axis. The pivot is the eccentrically ... Overlap in chronic symptomology between atlanto-axial instability, whiplash associated disorder, post-concussion syndrome, ... Typical Z (zygapophyseal/ facet) joint. Each facet joint has articular cartilage, the synovium where synovial fluid is produced ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25328557

Atlantal fracture in a child through congenital anterior and posterior arch defects. A case report.Atlantal fracture in a child through congenital anterior and posterior arch defects. A case report.

Atlanto-Axial Joint / injuries*. Cervical Atlas / abnormalities*, radiography. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Atlantal-fracture-in-child-through/6883855.html

Concomitant alar and apical ligament avulsion in atlanto-axial rotatory fixation. Case report and review of the literature.Concomitant alar and apical ligament avulsion in atlanto-axial rotatory fixation. Case report and review of the literature.

The authors report a case of Fielding type II acute atlanto-axial rotatory fixation (AARF). The CT scan with coronal ... Atlanto-Axial Joint / injuries*, physiopathology. Cervical Vertebrae / injuries. Craniocerebral Trauma / radiography, therapy. ... The authors report a case of Fielding type II acute atlanto-axial rotatory fixation (AARF). The CT scan with coronal ... 12577085 - Management of congenital atlanto-axial dislocation: some lessons learnt.. 2251465 - Septum dislocation in the ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Concomitant-alar-apical-ligament-avulsion/15165025.html

Rheumatoid Arthritis Homeopathy Treatment - Dr. Manish Bhatia - Disease IndexRheumatoid Arthritis Homeopathy Treatment - Dr. Manish Bhatia - Disease Index

Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic disabling disease affecting the joints. Understand its cause, symptoms and homeopathy ... Subluxation of atlanto-axial joint.. - Carpal tunnel syndrome.. - Fibrosing alveolitis.. - Sjogrens syndrome.. - Septic ... Cracking in joints and easy joint dislocation, and synovial swellings. Chronic synovitis of the knee joint. Joints are worse at ... The joints are swollen and puffy, sensitive to touch or jars. Large joints are intensely red and hot, small joints are swollen ...
more infohttps://hpathy.com/cause-symptoms-treatment/rheumatoid-arthritis/

Atlantoaxial Instability: Background, Pathophysiology, EtiologyAtlantoaxial Instability: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology

Atlantoaxial instability (AAI) is characterized by excessive movement at the junction between the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) as a ... Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation. (Fixed rotatory subluxation of the atlanto-axial joint). J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1977 Jan. 59(1 ... Occipito-atlanto-axial fusion in Morquio-Brailsford syndrome. A ten-year experience. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996 Mar. 78(2):307- ... Mikulowski P, Wollheim FA, Rotmil P. Sudden death in rheumatoid arthritis with atlanto-axial dislocation. Acta Med Scand. 1975 ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1265682-overview

Atlantoaxial Instability MedicationAtlantoaxial Instability Medication

Atlantoaxial instability (AAI) is characterized by excessive movement at the junction between the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) as a ... Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation. (Fixed rotatory subluxation of the atlanto-axial joint). J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1977 Jan. 59(1 ... Occipito-atlanto-axial fusion in Morquio-Brailsford syndrome. A ten-year experience. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996 Mar. 78(2):307- ... Mikulowski P, Wollheim FA, Rotmil P. Sudden death in rheumatoid arthritis with atlanto-axial dislocation. Acta Med Scand. 1975 ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1265682-medication

Traumatic atlantoaxial subluxation, posterior transfacet fixation: a case reportTraumatic atlantoaxial subluxation, posterior transfacet fixation: a case report

Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation. (Fixed rotatorysubluxation of the atlanto-axial joint). J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1977;59(1):37-44 ... The atlantoaxial region is marked and the dissection extends laterally until the atlantoaxial joints on both sides were ... Rotary fixation of the atlantoaxial joint: Rotational atlantoaxial subluxation. Radiology. 1968;90(3):479-87. [ Links ] ... J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85(7):1343-6. [ Links ] Kim YS, Lee JK, Moon SJ, Kim SH. Post-traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1808-18512015000100053&lng=en&tlng=en

Atlantoaxiale Dislokation der kindlichen Halswirbelsäule | SpringerLinkAtlantoaxiale Dislokation der kindlichen Halswirbelsäule | SpringerLink

Atlanto-axial joint Cervical vertebrae Dislocations Children Musculoskeletal manipulations Notes. Interessenkonflikt. Der ... Traumatic atlanto-axial dislocations in children can occur despite impressive radiological findings without neurological ... In the presented case a traumatic atlanto-axial subluxation could be repositioned just by manual therapy. The possibilities and ... Atlanto-axial dislocation of the pediatric spinal column. Therapy options and case discussion ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00337-010-0784-9

Essentials of Interventional Techniques in Managing Chronic Pain | Laxmaiah Manchikanti | SpringerEssentials of Interventional Techniques in Managing Chronic Pain | Laxmaiah Manchikanti | Springer

Atlanto-Occipital and Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections. Candido, Kenneth D. (et al.) ... Covers spinal interventional techniques, peripheral nerve blocks, sympathetic interventional techniques, soft tissue and joint ... soft tissue and joint injections, and implantables. Practical step-by-step and evidence-based guidance is given to each ...
more infohttps://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319603599

Bio-mechanical Reasoning and Lateral Specificity of Upper Cervical Joint Mobilization - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govBio-mechanical Reasoning and Lateral Specificity of Upper Cervical Joint Mobilization - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Other Name: joint mobilization. Other: Bio-mechanically in-correct manual therapy at the cervical atlanto-axial joints ... Other Name: joint mobilization. Other: Bio-mechanically in-correct manual therapy at the cervical atlanto-axial joints ... Other: Bio-mechanically correct manual therapy at the cervical atlanto-axial joints Participant is seated in a firm backed ... Other: Bio-mechanically correct manual therapy at the cervical atlanto-axial joints Participant is seated in a firm backed ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04054869?map_cntry=US&map_state=US%3AIN&rank=5

Neck pain anatomy is for those who want to understand their problems.Neck pain anatomy is for those who want to understand their problems.

Atlanto Axial Joint. Seven delicate and highly complexly engineered vertebrae make up the bony structure of the neck pain ... Disc joints, facet joints, unco vertebral joints, and some other highly specialised joints in the upper neck, but they all have ... They are very prone to injury by stretching, as in whiplash, by pinching by facet joints, uncovertebral joints, disc joints and ... Joints in the neck. There are 33 tiny joints between the bones of the neck and between the neck and the skull. The bones are ...
more infohttps://www.chiropractic-help.com/neck-pain-anatomy.html

Essentials of Interventional Techniques in Managing Chronic Pain | Springer for Research & DevelopmentEssentials of Interventional Techniques in Managing Chronic Pain | Springer for Research & Development

Atlanto-Occipital and Atlanto-Axial Joint Injections Kenneth D. Candido, George C. Chang Chien, Alexander F. Bautista ... soft tissue and joint injections, and implantables. Practical step-by-step and evidence-based guidance is given to each ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-319-60361-2

Manipulation of the Spine, Thorax and Pelvis - Elsevier eBook on VitalSource, 4th Edition - 9780702065293Manipulation of the Spine, Thorax and Pelvis - Elsevier eBook on VitalSource, 4th Edition - 9780702065293

Ligamentous myofascial positioning 8.3 Atlanto-axial joint C1-2: Chin hold; Patient supine; Rotation thrust; Ligamentous ... 8.1 Atlanto-occipital joint C0-1: Contact point on occiput; Chin hold; Patient supine; Anterior and superior thrust in a curved ... myofascial positioning 8.4 Atlanto-axial joint C1-2: Cradle hold; Patient supine; Rotation thrust; Ligamentous myofascial ... Ligamentous myofascial positioning 8.2 Atlanto-occipital joint C0-1: Contact point on atlas; Chin hold; Patient supine; ...
more infohttps://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/product/9780702065293?role=student
  • Between the articular processes of the two bones there is on either side an arthrodial or gliding joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bones of the human skeletal system are divided into an axial region and an appendicular region. (visiblebody.com)
  • Bones of the appendicular skeleton support and facilitate movement, while bones of the axial skeleton protect internal organs. (visiblebody.com)
  • Using Doppler ultrasonography, Erhardt et al conducted a randomized controlled trial examining the effects of high-velocity thrust (HVT) techniques, performed by a licensed physical therapist, of the atlantoaxial joint on hemodynamics of the suboccipital portion of the vertebral artery (VA3). (jaoa.org)
  • Some of the events to be considered at the time of the accident are suboccipital pain on axial skull pressure and spontaneous stiffness of the patient's neck. (scielo.br)
  • Algumas das manifestações a serem consideradas no momento do acidente são dor suboccipital à pressão axial do crânio e rigidez espontânea do pescoço do paciente. (scielo.br)
  • Chapters are grouped by specific treatment modalities that include spinal interventional techniques, nonspinal and peripheral nerve blocks, sympathetic interventional techniques, soft tissue and joint injections, and implantables. (springer.com)
  • We chose the term "C1-C2 intraarticular injection," as opposed to "lateral atlantoaxial joint injection" based on the documentation used in the procedure note and because both are frequently used in the published literature, but we do agree that the latter term is more common, particularly in recent publications. (asahq.org)
  • Perhaps most important among their comments, Drs. Datta and Manchikanti raise procedural considerations that affect the interpretation of our report and the very safety of performing injection of the lateral atlantoaxial joint. (asahq.org)
  • 3 Nonetheless, even if all appropriate safety measures are implemented, the risks of cervical injections of the lateral atlantoaxial joint are so devastating that they seem to outweigh the unproven benefits. (asahq.org)
  • An intra-spinal ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity may be considered as an uncommon differential diagnosis for cats with cervical myelopathy. (nih.gov)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis usually presents with insidious onset of pain and stiffness, in the small joints of the hands and feet which eventually lead to characteristic bilateral symmetrical peripheral polyarthritis. (hpathy.com)
  • Joint stiffness more marked in morning. (hpathy.com)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks the joints producing an inflammatory synovitis that often progresses to destruction of the articular cartilage and ankylosis of the joints. (hpathy.com)
  • The immediate effect of atlanto-axial high velocity thrust techniques on blood flow in the vertebral artery: a randomized controlled trial [published online March 2, (jaoa.org)