A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC
Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.
A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).
The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins.
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Postmortem examination of the body.
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A class of oxidized LDL receptors that contain LECTIN-like extracellular domains.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A lipoprotein-associated PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 which modulates the action of PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR by hydrolyzing the SN-2 ester bond to yield the biologically inactive lyso-platelet-activating factor. It has specificity for phospholipid substrates with short-chain residues at the SN-2 position, but inactive against long-chain phospholipids. Deficiency in this enzyme is associated with many diseases including ASTHMA, and HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Glucose in blood.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Inflammation of the wall of the AORTA.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

Recombinant human interleukin-10 inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells stimulated by advanced glycation end products and neointima hyperplasia after carotid injury in the rat. (1/6610)

The purposes of this study was to determine the effects of recombinant human interleukin-10 (rhIL-10) on proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by advanced glycation end products (AGE) and neointima hyperplasia after rat carotid arterial injury. Rat aortic VSMCs were cultured and treated with rhIL-10 or AGE respectively, and then co-treated with rhIL-10 and AGE. Proliferation of VSMCs was quantified by colormetric assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytomertry. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with recombinant human IL-10 (rhIL-10) for 3 d after carotid arteries injury. The ratio of neointima to media area at the site of arterial injury was measured 28 d after balloon injury. The p44/42 MAPK activity was evaluated by the immunoblotting technique using anti-p44/42 phospho-MAPK antibody. Compared to control, AGE stimulated VSMCs proliferation. rhIL-10 alone had no effect on VSMCs growth. With AGE stimulation, rhIL-10, at dose as low as 10 ng/ml, inhibited VSMCs growth (P<0.05). The cell number in G(0)/G(1) phase of AGE and rhIL-10 co-treatment group was higher than that of AGE treatment alone (P<0.01) by flow cytometry analysis. Compared with the control group of neointima hyperplasia in rats, the ratio of neointima to media area of recombinant human IL-10 group was reduced by 45% (P<0.01). The p44/42 MAPK activity was significantly enhanced by AGE. The AGE effects were opposed by rhIL-10. The anti-inflammatory cytokine rhIL-10 inhibits AGE-induced VSMCs proliferation. Recombinant human IL-10 also inhibited neointima hyperplasia after carotid artery injury in rats. The results suggest the possibility that recombinant human IL-10, as a potential therapeutic approach, prevents neointimal hyperplasia.  (+info)

Adiponectin concentrations as a criterion of metabolic control in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus? (2/6610)

Adiponectin (ADP) is an adipocytokin with many antiatherogenic properties; its decreased level is associated with numerous atherogenic diseases and syndromes (e.g. diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and obesity). Decreased ADP values in blood may be an independent risk factor of atherosclerotic (ATS) complications. AIM OF THE STUDY: 1) Do persons with type 2 diabetes have lower ADP values than individuals without DM but with a high risk of ATS complications? 2) Do ADP values differ between persons with well controlled and persons with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes? We examined 109 patients of the Metabolic Center of Hospital Sternberk. Out of them, 58 had type 2 diabetes, others were individuals with variously expressed risk factors of early atherosclerosis (obesity, hypertension, age, family history, smoking, dyslipidemia, etc.). In all persons under this study the following parameters were determined in peripheral venous blood: adiponectin, resistin, leptin, ObRe, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose, HbA1c, creatinine, urea, ALT, AST, CRP, homocysteine, thrombocyte aggregation after CPG induction. The whole group was divided according to the presence of type 2DM into two subgroups; persons with diabetes were divided into the well controlled and uncontrolled subgroups. All data obtained were processed statistically using the software SPSS for Windows and Medcalc. The adiponectin/BMI index correlated negatively with HbA1c value (correlation coefficient -0.37, p = 0.00053), triacylglycerols (-0.4, p = 0.000001), P-glucose (-0.3, p = 0.0017), uricemia (-0.35, p = 0.0007) and positively with HDL-cholesterol value (0.6, p=0.00001). Women had higher adiponectin values than men. Persons with hypertension and with diabetes mellitus, individuals with atherogenic lipotype or persons with inflammation signs had lower values than individuals without these diseases and syndromes. Persons with wellcontrolled diabetes mellitus had higher values than persons with uncontrolled diabetes (medians of the adiponectin/BMI index 9.7 vs. 6.7, p < 0.01). Persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus have lower ADP values than persons with a high ATS risk without diabetes mellitus. Persons with wellcontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) and with satisfactory compensation have significantly higher ADP levels (independently of other metabolic parameters of DM control). ADP may be a new marker of metabolic control in persons with a high risk of atherosclerotic complications.  (+info)

The importance of indicators of the initial phase of atherosclerosis in patients with microvascular angina. (3/6610)

Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is generally considered to be the initial step in the progression to atherosclerosis but there is still much uncertainty about the role of the microvascular form of angina in patients with a normal coronary angiogram with regard to ED. The authors investigated the extent of endothelial perturbation and thereby whether the microvascular form of angina precedens macroscopic atherosclerosis by means of non-invasive ultrasound measurement of the intima-media thickening (IMT) in common carotid artery and flow mediated dilatation (FMD) in the brachial artery. 28 patients with stable angina with positive exercise test and ST segment depression (22 females, 6 males, average age 54 years) were compared with a control group consisting of 28 patients with no clinical signs of coronary artery disease (18 females, 10 males, average age 53 years). No significant difference in FMD% (7.3 vs. 10.8, p = 0.07) was found between the groups, though specific measurements (average dilatation of the brachial artery induced by ischemic insult, peak blood flow and peak hyperemic flow) differed considerably. Also IMT did not vary significantly between the groups (0.74 vs. 0.65, p = 0.08). In patients with IMT > 0.8 mm (6 patients in each group) a significant decrease of FMD was found as compared with patients with normal IMT (p < 0.05). It was concluded that in patients with increased IMT an inverse relationship between FMD and IMT exists both in patients with microvascular angina and in the healthy control subjects whereas in the group of patients with normal IMT no ED was demonstrated. This supports the hypothesis that the microvascular form of angina is the early stage of coronary artery atherosclerosis and this escapes angiographic recognition.  (+info)

Loss of collagen XVIII enhances neovascularization and vascular permeability in atherosclerosis. (4/6610)

BACKGROUND: Plaque neovascularization is thought to promote atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms of its regulation are not understood. Collagen XVIII and its proteolytically released endostatin fragment are abundant proteoglycans in vascular basement membranes and the walls of major blood vessels. We hypothesized that collagen XVIII in the aortic wall inhibits the proliferation and intimal extension of vasa vasorum. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test our hypothesis, we bred collagen XVIII-knockout (Col18a1(-/-)) mice into the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) strain. After 6 months on a cholesterol diet, aortas from ApoE(-/-);Col18a1(-/-) and ApoE(-/-);Col18a1(+/-) heterozygote mice showed increased atheroma coverage and enhanced lipid accumulation compared with wild-type littermates. We observed more extensive vasa vasorum and intimal neovascularization in knockout but not heterozygote aortas. Endothelial cells sprouting from Col18a1(-/-) aortas were increased compared with heterozygote and wild-type aortas. In contrast, vascular permeability of large and small blood vessels was enhanced with even heterozygous loss of collagen XVIII but was not suppressed by increasing serum endostatin to wild-type levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results identify a previously unrecognized function for collagen XVIII that maintains vascular permeability. Loss of this basement membrane proteoglycan enhances angiogenesis and vascular permeability during atherosclerosis by distinct gene-dose-dependent mechanisms.  (+info)

Protective effect of propylthiouracil independent of its hypothyroid effect on atherogenesis in cholesterol-fed rabbits: PTEN induction and inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. (5/6610)

BACKGROUND: Propylthiouracil (PTU) is used to treat hyperthyroid patients by its hypothyroid effect. PTU also is found to have potent antioxidant and immunosuppressive effects. These findings suggest that PTU may play a role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study evaluates the effect of PTU on atherosclerotic change in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. The pronounced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortas of rabbits fed a 2% cholesterol diet for 12 weeks were significantly attenuated by the concurrent addition of 0.1% PTU to the drinking water. However, exogenous supplementation of thyroid hormone in hypothyroid PTU-treated rabbits did not abrogate the protective effect of PTU on atherogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PTU administration apparently reduced the intimal smooth muscle cell/macrophage ratio in the atherosclerotic plaques of rabbits fed a 2% cholesterol diet. In vitro, the addition of PTU to the medium of cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells led to a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, this study confirmed that PTU dose-dependently increased expression of PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene known to be involved in the coordinate inhibition of VSMC proliferation and migration. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that PTU inhibited the development of atherosclerosis through a thyroid-independent mechanism that may be explained, at least in part, by the ability of PTU to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, PTEN induction, via disruption of the phosphatidylinsitol 3-kinase-mediated pathway, plays a crucial role in mediating the inhibitory action on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration.  (+info)

Association of mitral annulus calcification, aortic valve calcification with carotid intima media thickness. (6/6610)

BACKGROUND: Mitral annular calcification (MAC) and aortic annular calcification (AVC) may represent a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis in the elderly. Alterations in vascular structure, as indexed by the intima media thickness (IMT), are also recognized as independent predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. AIM: To examine the relationship between the degree of calcification at mitral and/or aortic valve annulus and large artery structure (thickness). METHODS: We evaluated 102 consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and carotid artery echoDoppler for various indications; variables measured were: systemic blood pressure (BP), pulse pressure (PP=SBP-DBP), body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, total, HDL, LDL chlolesterol, triglycerides, cIMT. The patients were divided according to a grading of valvular/annular lesions independent scores based on acoustic densitometry: 1 = annular/valvular sclerosis/calcification absence; 2 = annular/valvular sclerosis; 3 = annular calcification; 4 = annular-valvular calcification; 5 = valvular calcification with no recognition of the leaflets. RESULTS: Patient score was the highest observed for either valvular/annulus. Mean cIMT increased linearly with increasing valvular calcification score, ranging from 3.9 +/- 0.48 mm in controls to 12.9 +/- 1.8 mm in those subjects scored 5 (p < 0.0001). In the first to fourth quartile of cIMT values the respective maximal percentual of score were: score 1: 76.1%, score 2: 70.1%, score 4: 54.3% and score 5: 69.5% (p > 0.0001). CONCLUSION: MAC and AVC score can identify subgroups of patients with different cIMT values which indicate different incidence and prevalence of systemic artery diseases. This data may confirm MAC-AVC as a useful important diagnostic parameter of systemic atherosclerotic disease.  (+info)

Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein. (7/6610)

Adipose tissue is a hormonally active tissue, producing adipocytokines which may influence activity of other tissues. Adiponectin, abundantly present in the plasma increases insulin sensitivity by stimulating fatty acid oxidation, decreases plasma triglycerides and improves glucose metabolism. Adiponectin levels are inversely related to the degree of adiposity. Anorexia nervosa and type 1 diabetes are associated with increased plasma adiponectin levels and higher insulin sensitivity. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels were reported in insulin-resistant states, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes and in patients with coronary artery disease. Activity of adiponectin is associated with leptin, resistin and with steroid and thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids, NO and others. Adiponectin suppresses expression of extracellular matrix adhesive proteins in endothelial cells and atherosclerosis potentiating cytokines. Anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin and the ability to stimulate insulin sensitivity have made adiponectin an important object for physiological and pathophysiological studies with the aim of potential therapeutic applications.  (+info)

Carotid plaque pathology: thrombosis, ulceration, and stroke pathogenesis. (8/6610)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between ulceration, thrombus, and calcification of carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques and symptoms of ipsilateral or contralateral stroke. METHODS: We compared microscopic plaque morphology from patients with and without stroke symptoms ipsilateral or contralateral to the plaque. Plaques were characterized for ulceration, thrombus, and calcification. We analyzed plaques from 241 subjects: 170 patients enrolled in the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS) and 71 patients enrolled in the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET); 128 subjects had no history of stroke symptoms, 80 subjects had ipsilateral symptoms, and 33 had contralateral symptoms. RESULTS: Plaque ulceration was more common in plaques taken from symptomatic patients than those without symptoms (36% versus 14%; P<0.001); frequency of ulceration was similar for plaques associated with ipsilateral (34%) and contralateral (42%) symptoms. Thrombus was most common in plaques taken from patients with both ipsilateral symptoms and ulceration. The extent of calcification was unassociated with stroke symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid plaque ulceration and thrombosis are more prevalent in symptomatic patients. Ulceration is more common in symptomatic patients regardless of side of carotid symptoms, whereas thrombus is associated with ipsilateral symptoms and plaque ulceration. Preoperative identification of carotid ulceration and thrombus should lead to greater efficacy of stroke prevention by carotid endarterectomy.  (+info)

[Atherosclerosis-related aortic dissection].: Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcers (PAU) can cause aortic dissection. Of 38 autopsy cases with aortic disse
Our studies demonstrate the possibility of inhibiting development of atherosclerosis by activation of atheroprotective immune responses against apoB-100 peptide sequences. The existence of atheroprotective immune response has previously been suggested by studies demonstrating that treatment with cyclosporin accelerates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits26 and mice27 and by the observation of increased atherosclerosis in major histocompatability complex class I-deficient C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.28 B cell reconstitution inhibits development of atherosclerosis in splenectomized apoE-null mice,29,30⇓ as well as neointima formation after carotid injury in RAG-1 mice.31 The latter studies suggest that humoral immune responses are particularly important for atheroprotection, a notion that is further supported by studies demonstrating that repeated injections of immunoglobulins reduce atherosclerosis in apoE-null mice.32. High levels of IgG and IgM against both apoB-100 peptide ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of intravascular cellular activation in relationship to subclinical atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. AU - Jayachandran, Muthuvel. AU - Garovic, Vesna D.. AU - Mielke, Michelle M.. AU - Bailey, Kent R.. AU - Lahr, Brian D.. AU - Miller, Virginia M.. PY - 2017/9. Y1 - 2017/9. N2 - Objective Mechanisms and interactions among intravascular cells contributing to development of subclinical atherosclerosis are poorly understood. In women, both menopausal status and pregnancy history influence progression of atherosclerosis. This study examined activation and interactions among blood elements with subclinical atherosclerosis in menopausal women with known pregnancy histories. Methods Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, was measured using B-mode ultrasound in age- and parity-matched women [40 with and 40 without a history of preeclampsia] 35 years after the index pregnancy. Interactions among intravascular cells (38 ...
Background: Prior studies have shown an association between atherosclerotic burden and vascular events, as well as the relationship among severe carotid obstruction and stroke, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The association between carotid atherosclerosis burden and cerebrovascular events after postoperative cardiac surgery is unknown. Purposes. To assess the relationship between carotid atherosclerosis burden, as a possible marker of aortic atherosclerotic plaque, and the occurrence of stroke in patients undergoing isolated coronary bypass surgery(CABG) and/or aortic valve replacement(AVR).. Methods: 1974 consecutive patients(pts), undergoing CABG surgery and/or AVR were enrolled in a retrospective study from 01/2003 to 12/2009. Doppler ultrasound of the carotid arteries was performed within 30 days prior to surgery. Pts,50 year or with a previous carotid procedure were excluded. A multiple logistic regression model was developed to estimate the carotid atherosclerotic burden score ...
Atherosclerosis Diagnosis. Atherosclerosis, also known as arteriosclerotic vascular disease, is a medical condition in which arteries begin to narrow because of an excessive amount of plaque surrounding the artery wall. This accumulation can interrupt the bodys usual blood flow, leading to dangerous possibilities in an individuals cardiovascular system. Though atherosclerosis can affect a variety of arteries, the bigger high-pressure arteries are most often influenced by this vascular condition.. Due to sometimes similar definitions, atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis are often used interchangeably. There is a subtle difference between the two terms. Arteriosclerosis refers to the artery walls becoming hardened while atherosclerosis is defined as the artery becoming narrow due to an accumulation of plaque. Those who have atherosclerosis also have arteriosclerosis, but those with arteriosclerosis do not always have atherosclerosis.. Possible Signs of Atherosclerosis. Initial signs of ...
ER stress occurs in macrophage-rich areas of advanced atherosclerotic lesions and contributes to macrophage apoptosis and subsequent plaque necrosis. Therefore, signaling pathways that alter ER stressinduced apoptosis may affect advanced atherosclerosis. Here we placed Apoe/ mice deficient in macrophage p38α MAPK on a Western diet and found that they had a marked increase in macrophage apoptosis and plaque necrosis. The macrophage p38αdeficient lesions also exhibited a significant reduction in collagen content and a marked thinning of the fibrous cap, which suggests that plaque progression was advanced in these mice. Consistent with our in vivo data, we found that ER stressinduced apoptosis in cultured primary mouse macrophages was markedly accelerated under conditions of p38 inhibition. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of p38 suppressed activation of Akt in cultured macrophages and in atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, inhibition of Akt enhanced ER stressinduced macrophage ...
A critical review of the relationship between post-transplant atherosclerotic events and cytomegalovirus exposure in kidney transplant recipients. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2019 Dec 18;: Authors: Rodríguez-Goncer I, Fernández-Ruiz M, Aguado JM Abstract Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after kidney transplantation (KT) has been implicated in the so...
February 26, 2015 - Nanometer-sized drones could become a new way to prevent heart attacks caused by atherosclerosis, according to a study in pre-clinical models by scientists at Brigham and Womens Hospital (BWH) and Columbia University Medical Center. The drones could be used to deliver a special type of healing molecule to fat deposits in arteries, according to findings published in the February 18th online issue of Science Translational Medicine.. Although current treatments have reduced the number of deaths from atherosclerosis-related disease, atherosclerosis remains a dangerous health problem: Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries is the No. 1 killer of women and men in the United States, resulting in one out of every four deaths.. In the study, targeted biodegradable nano drones that delivered a special type of drug that promotes healing (resolution) successfully restructured atherosclerotic plaques in mice to make them more stable. This remodeling of the plaque environment ...
XVIIIIth International Symposium on Atherosclerosis (ISA 2018) to be held in Toronto, Canada from June 9-12, 2018.. Since 1966, the International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS) has held triennial meetings to bring together leading atherosclerosis researchers from across the globe. In its current form, the International Symposium on Atherosclerosis brings together scientists from over 65 constituent societies with over 17,000 active members. It remains today the premier meeting for international atherosclerosis research.. In keeping with the time-honored tradition of this worldclass symposium, ISA 2018 will bring together top clinicians, researchers, and health practitioners from around the world. In addition to delivering a comprehensive and high quality scientific program, this meeting will also provide an opportunity for its attendees to participate in public health awareness and innovation forums focused on cardiovascular health.. The ISA 2018 Symposium will be focused on cutting-edge research ...
The present data on human CEA atherosclerotic plaques and on murine vulnerable lesions suggest that HO-1 expression is strongly associated with vulnerable plaque morphology: HO-1 protein expression was specifically upregulated in human vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions with lipid and macrophage accumulation and low collagen and VSMC content. These lesions typically express high levels of the proteolytic factor MMP-9 and proatherogenic cytokines (IL-6, IL-8) and show increased plaque thrombogenicity. HO-1 expression levels correlated closely with the extent of these vulnerable plaque characteristics. Furthermore, in a murine vulnerable plaque model, induction of HO-1, either by CoPPIX injection or by adenovirus-mediated transgenesis, prevented vulnerable plaque formation and led to the development of lesions with a more stable phenotype: HO-1 induction diminished the necrotic core and increased fibrous cap thickness, without affecting lesion size, and HO-1 reduced lipid and increased VSMC ...
Rationale: Atherosclerosis and aneurysms are leading causes of mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRs) are key determinants of gene and protein expression, and atypical miR expression has been associated with a number of cardiovascular diseases; although their contributory role to atherosclerotic plaque and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) stability are poorly understood. Objective: To investigate whether miR-181b regulates TIMP-3 expression and affects atherosclerosis and aneurysms Methods and Results: Here, we demonstrate that miR-181b was over-expressed in symptomatic human atherosclerotic plaques and abdominal aortic aneurysms, and correlated with decreased expression of predicted miR-181b targets, TIMP-3 and elastin. Utilising the well characterised mouse atherosclerosis models of Apoe-/- and Ldlr-/-, we observed that in vivo ,administration of locked nucleic acid anti-miR-181b retarded both the development and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. Systemic delivery of anti-miR-181b in ...
Two low-dose menopausal hormone regimens improved some cardiovascular parameters in healthy women but did not affect atherosclerosis progression, even when started early and continued for up to 4...
To the Editor: When is atherosclerosis not atherosclerosis? In the last decade, there have been 2 revolutions in the study of atherosclerosis. On the one hand, a more sophisticated appreciation of the relationship between the morphology and fate of human atherosclerotic plaques and clinical outcomes has been developed. On the other hand, the blossoming of mouse genetics has allowed us the possibility of exploring prospectively the mechanisms that lead to various types of atherosclerotic lesions. These advances, in the view of the author, should compel us as experimentalists, mainly using murine models, to fashion a more nuanced view and description of experimental atherosclerosis.. The last issue of Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology contained a review on a comprehensive morphologic classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions, which was derived by studies of lesions from autopsy examinations of sudden coronary deaths.1 There was also a commentary by Dr H. Stary2 updating ...
The simple assessment of atherosclerotic risk factors is not an accurate tool to predict the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults without past history of atherosclerotic disease. Preclinical atherosclerotic increases the global cardiovascular risk and should be evaluated for a better risk stratification. Intima-media thickness (IMT), reduced ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) and impaired flow mediated dilatation (FMD) are independent markers of multifocal but subclinical atherosclerosis and result associated with an increased rate of cardiovascular events. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) may be a useful non-invasive technique to detect silent coronary disease (CAD) in patients with peripheral preclinical atherosclerosis. This ebook outlines preclinical athersclerosis and its markers in clinical practice. The ebook gives simple but clear information for a better stratification of global cardiovascular risk. The text serves as an important guide for medical professionals ...
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of mortality and disability in most countries (1). Approximately 30% of first acute events are fatal, and survivors often experience sequelae and a shortened life expectancy (2,3). Primary prevention is thus the best approach to fighting this pandemic disease. Current algorithms for risk detection, which combine behavioral, clinical, and biochemical markers, are of limited accuracy, and better risk stratification methods are definitely needed (4,5).. Used in combination with traditional risk factors, data on subclinical atherosclerosis can provide additional information about the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality (6-8). Carotid wall intima-media thickness estimated from ultrasonographic images has been proposed as a surrogate measure of subclinical atherosclerosis (9). Whereas some prospective studies have shown that intima-media thickness adds predictive capacity to traditional ...
Atherosclerosis, the pathological process underlying myocardial infarction, stroke and other occlusive vascular disease, is the major cause of death in the Western world. The development of techniques to accurately and reproducibly detect and measure the early changes of atherosclerosis and/or to identify subjects at highest cardiovascular risk may aid in the development of prevention strategies and facilitate a decrease in morbidity and mortality from atherosclerosis. Increasing understanding of the pathophysiology of early atherosclerosis has allowed the development of a number of potential methods for the assessment of the early stages of atherosclerosis in humans. These include techniques for assessing early structural changes in the coronary arteries with electron-beam computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. External vascular ultrasound has also been used to image other circulations as a surrogate marker for coronary atherosclerosis, e.g. the measurement of carotid artery ...
Researchers at Emory and Georgia Tech have discovered a new technique which combats atherosclerosis by targeting a micro-RNA molecule instrumental to its development.. It was discovered that a drug that blocks micro-RNA - a molecule left over from ribosome formation - slows down the process of atherosclerosis. In animal models, the process was blocked despite the presence of a high fat diet.. While it is well known that exercise reduces the likelihood of atherosclerosis, the latest research helps to explain why this is the case.. Atherosclerosis occurs when the walls lining the arteries thicken due to a build-up of white blood cells, lipids and cholesterol; this can bring on strokes and heart attacks. A constant flow of blood through the arteries prevents atherosclerosis, whereas an erratic flow of blood is known to contribute to the diseases development. The scientists developed an animal model of the disease, inducing atherosclerosis in mice by partially restricting the blood flow in the ...
BACKGROUND:. Currently, the predominant hypothesis regarding atherosclerosis is that it is in major part driven by two independent pathways: hyperlipidemia (the stimulation) and inflammation (the response). Although vascular cells mediate the influence of inflammation on atherosclerosis, very little is known about vascular cell epidemiology and the relationship of vascular cell phenotypes to atherosclerosis. The main hypothesis tested in this study is that variation in vascular cell biology is related to the population variation in atherosclerosis.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. The cross-sectional study will be nested within a large cohort study, the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). A partial sample of 1,000 individuals who have undergone other special laboratory analyses will be identified and new measures collected as part of their upcoming site visit. A number of novel cellular phenotypes describing the innate immune response (monocyte activation, natural killer and T cell counts), the ...
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process of the vessel walls, and CD4+ T-cells are peculiar to both human and murine atherosclerotic lesions. There is a recent line of research favoring hypothetic allergic mechanisms in the genesis of atherosclerosis and, consequently, coronary artery disease (CAD), among which Interleukin (IL)-17 appears to be a key cytokine regulating local tissue inflammation. The objective was to add a piece of information on the role of IL-17 in the genesis of atherosclerosis. Eighty obese patients with normal liver enzyme levels but presenting with ultrasonographic evidence of NAFLD formed the population of this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measures, data on excess adiposity, metabolic profile, serum concentrations of IL-17, eotaxin-3, IL-8, and CCL4/MIP1β, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, ferritin, TNF-α, as well carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of atherosclerosis, and the main risk factors for CAD, such as blood pressure and smoking status, but
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lack of interleukin-1ß decreases the severity of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice. AU - Kirii, Hirokazu. AU - Niwa, Tamikazu. AU - Yamada, Yasuhiro. AU - Wada, Hisayasu. AU - Saito, Kuniaki. AU - Iwakura, Yoichiro. AU - Asano, Masahide. AU - Moriwaki, Hisataka. AU - Seishima, Mitsuru. PY - 2003/4/1. Y1 - 2003/4/1. N2 - Objective - Atherosclerosis is considered to be a chronic inflammatory disease and many cytokines participate in the development of atherosclerosis, We focused on the role of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, one of the proinflammatory cytokines secreted by monocytes/macrophages, in the progression of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results - We generated mice lacking both apoE and IL-1β. The sizes of atherosclerotic lesions at the aortic sinus in apoE-/-/IL-1β-/- mice at 12 and 24 weeks of age showed a significant decrease of approximately 30% compared with apoE-/-/IL-1β+/+ mice, and the percentage of the atherosclerotic area to total area of apoE-/-/IL-1β-/- at 24 ...
The deleterious effects of high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels on atherosclerosis has been known for almost a century,1 yet plasma cholesterol continues to be a challenge for clinicians in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease.2,3 Atherogenesis involves uptake of cholesterol in the vascular wall, followed by inflammatory activation and growth of vascular smooth muscle cells.4,5 Indeed, proinflammatory mediators such as interleukins and cytokines stimulate vascular cell growth and atherogenesis (reviewed in4), whereas inhibition of inflammatory pathways attenuates cell growth and atherosclerosis.6 Therefore, we now view atherosclerosis as a vascular inflammatory process7 as was already proposed by Virchow8 and later by Anitschkow who noticed an infiltrative character of atherosclerotic lesions of cholesterol-fed animals.9. Differentiation and growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, a prerequisite of atherosclerosis progression, depends on a fine-tuned balance ...
Women with lupus have a five- to ten-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease compared to the general population. Several decades ago, when women with lupus died shortly after developing the disease, their deaths were attributed to previously undiagnosed and untreated active lupus. But when they died years after their diagnosis of lupus, their deaths were attributed to complications of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). Similar to lupus, atherosclerosis is considered an inflammatory disease. Inflammation plays a major role in atherosclerosis, which results when fatty deposits, cholesterol and other materials accumulate in the blood vessels.. The combination of atherosclerosis and lupus greatly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease among women. Research has identified many factors that contribute to the risk of atherosclerosis in people with lupus. These include high blood pressure and abnormal cholesterol levels, chronic inflammation, antibodies that attack proteins that ...
Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular death due to the increasing prevalence of the disease and the impact of risk factors such as diabetes, obesity or smoking. Sudden cardiac death is the primary consequence of coronary artery disease in 50% of men and 64% of women. Currently the only available strategy to reduce mortality in the at-risk population is primary prevention; the target population must receive screening for atherosclerosis. The value of screening for subclinical atherosclerosis is still relevant, it has become standard clinical practice with the emergence of new noninvasive techniques (radio frequency [RF] measurement of intima-media thickness [RFQIMT] and arterial stiffness [RFQAS], and flow-mediated vasodilatation [FMV]), which have been used by our team since 2007 and are based on detection marker integrators which reflect the deleterious effect of risk factors on arterial remodeling before the onset of clinical events. These techniques allow the study of values ...
Atherosclerosis is a disease of chronic inflammation, characterized by a dysfunctional interplay between the immune apparatus and lipids. Immune cells, as well as nonimmune cells, drive plaque inflammation through a complex crosstalk of inflammatory mediators. The cells are activated by risk factor-induced triggers, which are present in the circulation and in the vessel wall, such as shear stress, oxidized lipoproteins and oxidative stress. Without relief from risk factors, the activation of inflammatory processes persists, resulting in a chronic nonresolving inflammation. Inflammation is associated with severity of disease, and complex lesions, which are prone to rupture and cause acute events, are characterized by extensive inflammation. Thus, inflammation is an active driver of atherosclerotic plaque development and a risk factor for atherosclerotic events. It is therefore of utmost importance to understand the mechanisms behind these inflammatory processes and to be able to develop new diagnostics
At atherosclerosis chest and belly departments of an aorta, coronary, mezenterialny, kidney vessels, and also arteries of the lower extremities and a brain suffer more often. In development of atherosclerosis distinguish the preclinical (asymptomatic) and clinical periods. In the asymptomatic period in blood the increased maintenance of β-lipoproteid or cholesterol in the absence of disease symptoms is found. Clinically atherosclerosis begins to prove when there is a narrowing of an arterial gleam for 50% and more. During the clinical period allocate three stages: ischemic, trombonekrotichesky and fibrous. Insufficiency of blood supply of this or that body develops in stages of ischemia (for example, myocardium ischemia owing to atherosclerosis of coronary vessels is shown by stenocardia). In a trombonekrotichesky stage thrombosis of the changed arteries joins (so, the course of atherosclerosis of coronary vessels can be complicated by a myocardial infarction). At a stage of fibrous changes ...
Title: Leukocyte Influx in Atherosclerosis. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 12. Author(s):Elena Galkina and Klaus Ley. Affiliation:La Jolla Institute for Allergy&Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.. Keywords:Atherosclerosis, pathophysiology, leukocyte, trafficking. Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall and an increasing body of evidence suggests that the immune system actively participates in the initiation, progression and persistence of atherosclerosis. Different types of leukocytes such as T and B lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NK) and NKT cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and mast cells have been found within atherosclerosis-prone aortas. The mechanisms of monocyte recruitment have been partially characterized and involve P-selectin, E-selectin, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and JAM-A. CXCL1, CCL5, CXCL4, CXCL7 and MIF are also implicated in monocyte trafficking into aortas. Recently it has been reported that Ly6Chigh and Ly6Clow monocyte subsets ...
The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC), sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is a prospective epidemiologic study conducted in four U.S. communities. ARIC is designed to investigate the causes of atherosclerosis and its clinical outcomes, and variation in cardiovascular risk factors, medical care, and disease by race, gender, location, and date. To date, the ARIC study has published over 2,000 articles in peer-reviewed journals. ARIC includes two parts: the Cohort Component and the Community Surveillance Component ...
Editors Note: The U.S. Transhumanist Party features this article by our guest Steve Hill, originally published by the Life Extension Advocacy Foundation (LEAF) on April 13, 2018. In this article, Mr. Hill reviews a study published by the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, in which the study authors successfully vaccinated atherosclerotic mice. In fact, this method supported Dr. Aubrey de Greys early insight - his claim that we must attack plaque altogether.. ~ Bobby Ridge, Assistant Editor, July 5, 2019. Scientists could be one step closer to a solution to atherosclerosis by preventing the buildup of plaques that clog the arteries and lead to strokes and heart attacks.. What is atherosclerosis?. Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of cholesterol-containing plaques in the walls of arteries; this causes them to narrow, leading to reduced blood flow, higher blood pressure, and an increased risk of a heart attack or stroke. Atherosclerosis is the number one cause of death globally, ...
Background: Recent studies have found low-normal potassium (K) to be associated with increased diabetes risk. We sought to verify these associations in a multi-ethnic US cohort; and to determine if these associations extend to US Hispanics and Asian-Americans. Methods: We analyzed data from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants who were free-of-diabetes at baseline. We examined cross-sectional associations between measures of K-serum, dietary, and urine-with fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. We examined longitudinal associations between K and diabetes risk over 8 years. Findings: In multivariable models, compared to those with higher serum K (≥4.5mmol/L), those with lower serum K (,4.0mmol/L) had significantly higher fasting glucose [1.3 mg/dL (95%CI 0.2, 2.4), P-value = 0.03]. Incident diabetes developed in 1281 of 5415 at-risk participants. In minimally-adjusted models, we found inverse associations between serum and dietary K and diabetes risk. Compared to those with higher ...
Atherosclerosis, an arterial ailment, is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which cause more than 17 million deaths each year and the number is expected to rise. In recent years atherosclerosis has been shown to be an inflammatory condition involving activated immunocompetent cells, including T-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells (DC), but the mechanism by which these cells are activated remains to be elucidated in detail. Treatment of atherosclerosis is still not satisfactory, primarily due to the complex underlying mechanisms, especially with respect to inflammation and immunity. An additional characteristic of atherosclerosis is the accumulation of dead cells in a necrotic core in the plaques, as well as of oxidized forms of low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL). Interestingly, the prevalence of atherosclerotic plaques and CVD are elevated among individuals with systemic inflammatory diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE ...
Atherosclerotic vascular disease manifests as a progressive narrowing of the vessel wall, and underlies coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease. With consequences such as myocardial infarction and stroke, atherosclerosis remains the most frequent cause of death in the western world. While a strong heritable component is undisputed, the molecular inflammatory and immune mechanisms in the evolution of the disease are still not fully understood. By using both animal models of disease (foremost genetically manipulated mice) as well as human tissue, and more recently by employing unbiased approaches to discover genetic loci predisposing to disease development, investigators have revealed a complex picture of multilayered cellular processes and molecular mechanisms. Here we highlight the current view on atherosclerosis and provide an updated account of the critical factors involved in disease development, as illustrated by various prototypic examples.. In brief, the ...
Atherosclerosis, sometimes called hardening of the arteries, occurs when cholesterol, calcium, and other substances build up in the inner lining of the arteries, forming a material called plaque. Over time, plaque buildup may narrow the artery and limit blood flow through it.. Coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis in the heart (coronary) arteries. Peripheral arterial disease of the legs is atherosclerosis in the leg arteries. If atherosclerosis affects the brain arteries (carotid or cerebral arteries), a stroke can occur.. ...
The traditional view of atherosclerosis as a pathological lipid deposition within the artery wall has been redefined by a more complex theory in which the presence of a dysfunctional endothelium plays a pivotal role. The discovery of progenitor cells of myeloid origin, which are able to replace old or injured mature endothelial cells and are able to differentiate into healthy and functional endothelial cells, has offered the prospect of merging the traditional theories on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis with the evolving concept of a role of these progenitor cells in the repair of the injured vessel wall and the neovascularization of ischemic tissues. This article summarizes current knowledge about the biology of atherosclerosis with emphasis on the balance between endothelial injury and repair and on the concept that the turnover and replacement of endothelial cells is a major determinant in the maintenance of vascular integrity. Keywords: endothelial progenitor cells; atherosclerosis; ...
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids, smooth muscle cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, necrosis, fibrosis, and local inflammation. Immune and inflammatory responses have significant effects on every phase of atherosclerosis, and increasing evidence shows that immunity plays a more important role in atherosclerosis by tightly regulating its progression. Therefore, understanding the relationship between immune responses and the atherosclerotic microenvironment is extremely important. This article reviews existing knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of immune responses in the atherosclerotic microenvironment, and the immune mechanisms involved in atherosclerosis formation and activation.. ...
phdthesis{ea60fb21-e33b-4c39-86f1-dbb1154e5a95, abstract = {The cholesterol-lowering effect of oats is well established, but the crucial properties eliciting this effect need to be further investigated to optimize the use of oats as functional foods. Furthermore, there are almost no reports investigating the effect of oats on atherosclerosis development. This thesis describes our work with finding,br/,,br, suitable mouse models to study cholesterol-lowering and anti-atherogenic effects of oats, the mechanism behind, and how processing of oat foods might interfere with these beneficial effects.,br/,,br, We found that supplementation of oat bran to an atherogenic diet significantly reduced plasma cholesterol and LDL+VLDL concentrations in C57BL/6 mice. The responsiveness to oats did however differ between two substrain of mice. Oat intake resulted in reduced plasma cholesterol, increased faecal excretion of bile acids and cholesterol, and increased expression of the bile acid producing enzyme ...
Systemic loss of one IL-6 cytokine member exhibits mild or unexpected morphological vascular phenotypes (19), e.g., systemic deletion of IL-6 in a mouse model prone to atherosclerosis elicits detrimental effects on atherosclerotic plaque development, potentially via an IL-6−dependent down-regulation of its counteracting cytokine IL-10 (20). The complete systemic gp130 knockout, in contrast, shows profound defects in cardiac and hematopoetic development, resulting in premature death in utero or soon after birth. Thus, to delineate the role of the hepatic APR in atherosclerosis, we selectively deleted the gp130 receptor in hepatocytes using the Cre-loxP system. The genetic modification was confirmed by a PCR reaction demonstrating the gene inactivation exclusively in liver, but not in heart, aorta, or spleen, and by functional analysis of gp130-dependent, LIF-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and SAA release from hepatocytes from controls, but not from gp130− mice. Thus, the introduction of loxP ...
Get this from a library! Atherosclerosis, clinical evaluation and therapy ; proceedings of the Fourth International Meeting on Atherosclerosis held in Bologna, Italy, 23-25 November 1981. [S Lenzi; G C Descovich; Università di Bologna. Istituto di clinica medica generale e terapia medica II.;]
Sirt3 is a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase that governs mitochondrial metabolism and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. Sirt3 deficiency has been reported to accelerate the development of the metabolic syndrome. However, the role of Sirt3 in atherosclerosis remains enigmatic. We aimed to investigate whether Sirt3 deficiency affects atherosclerosis, plaque vulnerability, and metabolic homeostasis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR −/−) and LDLR/Sirt3 double-knockout (Sirt3 −/− LDLR −/−) mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet (1.25 % w/w) for 12 weeks. Atherosclerosis was assessed en face in thoraco-abdominal aortae and in cross sections of aortic roots. Sirt3 deletion led to hepatic mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation. Unexpectedly, though plasma malondialdehyde levels were elevated in Sirt3-deficient mice, Sirt3 deletion affected neither plaque burden nor features of plaque vulnerability (i.e., fibrous cap thickness and necrotic core diameter). Likewise, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Progression of coronary calcium and incident coronary heart disease events. T2 - MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). AU - Budoff, Matthew J.. AU - Young, Rebekah. AU - Lopez, Victor A.. AU - A. Kronmal, Richard. AU - Nasir, Khurram. AU - Blumenthal, Roger S.. AU - Detrano, Robert C.. AU - Bild, Diane E.. AU - Guerci, Alan D.. AU - Liu, Kiang. AU - Shea, Steven. AU - Szklo, Moyses. AU - Post, Wendy. AU - Lima, Joao. AU - Bertoni, Alain. AU - Wong, Nathan D.. PY - 2013/3/26. Y1 - 2013/3/26. N2 - Objectives: The study examined whether progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a predictor of future coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Background: CAC predicts CHD events and serial measurement of CAC has been proposed to evaluate atherosclerosis progression. Methods: We studied 6,778 persons (52.8% female) aged 45 to 84 years from the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) study. A total of 5,682 persons had baseline and follow-up CAC scans approximately 2.5 ± ...
Background: The most common cause of mortality in people with diabetes is cardiovascular disease. The relation between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker of glycemic control, and the development of subclinical atherosclerosis is debated. An acceptable indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis is the use of ultrasound to measure carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional study exploring the correlation between HbA1c and subclinical atherosclerosis as reflected by the carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes that had no history of an atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ischemic heart disease or cerebrovascular accident). Methods: A total of 71, type 2 diabetic patients participated in this study. Demographic, anthropometric and laboratory measures of the participants were collected. CIMT values were measured by using a high-resolution ultrasound. Increased CIMT values were accepted as |0.9 mm. Participants were categorized into two
Atherosclerosis is a major manifestation of the pathophysiology underlying cardiovascular disease. Flaxseed oil (FO) and α-lipoic acid (LA) have been reported to exert potential benefit to cardiovascular system. This study tried to assess the effect of supplement of FO and LA combination on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet. LA was dissolved in flaxseed oil to a final concentration of 8 g/kg (FO+LA) when used. The rodent diet contained 20% fat. One-fifth of the fat was soybean oil and the others were lard (HFD group), or 75% lard and 25% FO+LA (L-FO+LA group), or 50% lard and 50% FO+LA (M-FO+LA group), or FO+LA (H-FO+LA group). Animals were fed for 10 weeks and then killed for blood collection. Supplement of FO and LA combination significantly enhanced plasma antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the marked increase in the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant reduction in lipid peroxidation. Simultaneous intake of FO and LA
1 Maier H. Präparierkurs Präparieranweisungen und Theorie. 2., erw. Aufl. Köln: Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag; 1987. 2 Faxon DP, Creager MA, Smith SC Jr, Pasternak RC, Olin JW, Bettmann MA, et al. Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease Conference: executive summary: Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease Conference proceeding for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2004;109(21):2595-604. 3 Ross R, Faggiotto A, Bowen-Pope D, Raines E. The role of endothelial injury and platelet and macrophage interactions in atherosclerosis. Circulation. 1984;70(5 Pt 2):III77-82. 4 Gossl M, Lerman LO, Lerman A. Frontiers in nephrology: early atherosclerosis - a view beyond the lumen. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18(11):2836-242. 5 Weber C, Noels H. Atherosclerosis: current pathogenesis and therapeutic options. Nat Med. 2011;17(11):1410-22. 6 Hansson GK. Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(16):1685-95. 7 Hegele RA. The ...
Objective: To determine the effect of renal denervation (RDN) on the severity of atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm in hypertensive mice. Methods: Hypertension, atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm were induced by subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (1 µg/kg/min) for 28 days in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. RDN was conducted using combined surgical and local chemical denervation. The norepinephrine concentration in the kidney was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method. Atherosclerosis was assessed by Sudan IV staining of the aortic arch. The aortic diameter was measured by the morphometric method. The mRNA expression of genes associated with atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm were analyzed by quantitative PCR. Results: RDN decreased the median norepinephrine content in the kidney by 93.4% (n=5-7, P=0.003) five days after the procedure, indicating that the RDN procedure was successful. RDN decreased systolic blood pressure in
Atherosclerosis risk factors | High blood pressure | Diabetes | Stroke | High lipoprotein (a) levels | High Fibrinogen Levels | High triglycerides.
Author(s): Nishizawa, Aline; Suemoto, Claudia K; Farias-Itao, Daniela S; Campos, Fernanda M; Silva, Karen CS; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Grinberg, Lea T; Leite, Renata EP; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata EL; Farfel, Jose M; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Pasqualucci, Carlos A | Abstract: BACKGROUND:Morphometric measurements of systemic atherosclerosis and direct quantification of visceral fat are only possible using materials from autopsy studies. However, the few autopsy studies that have investigated the association of visceral fat with atherosclerosis had small sample sizes and focused on coronary arteries of young or middle-aged White subjects. We aimed to investigate the association of pericardial fat (PF) and abdominal visceral fat (AVF) with atherosclerosis in the aorta, coronary, carotid, and cerebral arteries in a large autopsy study. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We evaluated deceased subjects aged 30 years or above. We dissected and weighted the PF and the AVF and evaluated the atherosclerotic burden in the aorta, as
Objective. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a marker of vascular inflammation, is associated with cardiovascular disease. This prospective study of an inception cohort aimed to investigate whether the level of Lp-PLA2 is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients from northern Sweden diagnosed with early RA were consecutively recruited into an ongoing prospective study. From these, all patients ,= 60 years (n = 71) were included for measurements of subclinical atherosclerosis at inclusion (T0) and five years later (T5). Forty age-and sex-matched controls were included. The patients were clinically assessed, SCORE, Reynolds Risk Score, and Larsen score were calculated, and blood samples were drawn from all individuals at T0 and T5. Results. There was no significant difference in the level of Lp-PLA2 between patients with RA and controls (p , 0.05). In simple linear regression models among patients with RA, Lp-PLA2 at ...
Atherosclerosis treatment of folk medicine: symptoms, prevention and treatment.. Take 1 tbsp 3-4 times a day. Strawberry leaves have a diuretic effect, and along with solamalai excrete excess cholesterol. Garlic for lowering cholesterol. Fresh garlic or garlic extract, which is sold in the form of garlic seasoning (granules or powder is a good remedy for the prevention of atherosclerosis.. Folk remedy for the treatment of atherosclerosis 1 50 g of dry crushed root elecampane pour 0.5 liters of vodka, insist in a dark place for two weeks, occasionally shaking the contents, drain. Take 1 tsp with water, 3-4 times a day before meals with atherosclerosis.. Below are a few popular recipes for the treatment of atherosclerosis simple preparations of medicinal plants. The rosehip for the treatment of atherosclerosis the hips to pound, fill them 60 0.5 l bottle and pour the vodka. To insist in a dark place for two weeks, shaking daily.. After one year you can go on exchange, the intake of these herbs. ...
OBJECTIVE: To create a model of atherosclerosis using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-targeted monocytes/macrophages, allowing analysis of both endogenous GFP(+) and adoptively transferred GFP(+) myeloid cells in arterial inflammation. APPROACH AND RESULTS: hCD68GFP reporter mice were crossed with ApoE(-/-) mice. Expression of GFP was localized to macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques and in angiotensin II-induced aortic aneurysms and correlated with galectin 3 and mCD68 expression. Flow cytometry confirmed GFP(+) expression in CD11b(+)/CD64(+), CD11c(+)/MHC-II(HI), and CD11b(+)/F4/80(+) myeloid cells. Adoptive transfer of GFP(+) monocytes demonstrated monocyte recruitment to both adventitia and atherosclerotic plaque, throughout the aortic root, within 72 hours. We demonstrated the biological utility of hCD68GFP monocytes by comparing the recruitment of wild-type and CCR2(-/-) monocytes to sites of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: hCD68GFP/ApoE(-/-) mice provide a new approach to study macrophage
SLE and atherosclerosis are complex chronic inflammatory diseases characterised by immune dysfunction. Evidence supports interplay between the two diseases, with studies showing accelerated atherosclerosis in SLE. Increased activation of T cells has been demonstrated in both SLE patients and in mouse models of SLE including (NZB×NZW)F1,45 MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr/lpr)/J46 and B6.SLE mice.24 ,27 ,28 Given the important effector and regulatory functions of T cells in atherosclerosis and that accelerated CVD is a major cause of death for SLE patients, it has been suggested that T cells may be important to consider when developing therapies for SLE and SLE-accelerated atherosclerosis (reviewed in47). However, most clinical studies to date have focused on B cells due to their role in producing the autoantibodies that lead to immune complex formation and the resultant end organ damage in SLE. The current study was undertaken to determine the effects of B6.SLE CD4+ T cells on atherosclerosis. While mice are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Circulating and Tissue Endothelin Immunoreactivity in Advanced Atherosclerosis. AU - Lerman, Amir. AU - Edwards, Brooks S.. AU - Hallett, John W.. AU - Heublein, Denise M.. AU - Sandberg, Sharon M.. AU - Burnett, John C.. PY - 1991/10/3. Y1 - 1991/10/3. N2 - Background. Atherosclerosis is characterized by endothelial injury and the proliferation of arterial smooth-muscle cells. The latter may be a result of the release of growth factors from the vessel wall; such growth factors may include an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide with mitogenic properties. We tested the hypothesis that plasma endothelin concentrations are elevated in persons with symptomatic atherosclerosis, independently of age. Methods. We measured plasma endothelin levels in 100 normal subjects and in 40 patients with atherosclerosis predominantly of the following types: aortic and peripheral vascular disease (14 patients), renovascular disease (9 patients), coronary artery disease (9 patients), and ...
Generally, age-related testicular changes are associated with an increase of germ cell degeneration, decline of spermatogenesis and androgen decline resulting in a gradual decrease of sperm count. Unfortunately, an association of these findings to vascular atherosclerotic alterations has never been investigated systematically, although arterial lesions in testicular biopsies of azoospermic men have been described already 30 years ago.
Background. Social deprivation or isolation accelerates the progression of atherosclerosis in several animal models of the disease. Conversely, stable social environment has been associated with reduction in the extent and severity of atherosclerosis. While positive social interactions are thought to be related to this protective effect, little is known about the physiological mechanisms responsible. Recently, the neurohypophyseal peptide, oxytocin (OT), has been found to play a role in both positive social interactions and cardiovascular homeostasis, suggesting that this neuropeptide may be responsible for mediating the beneficial effects of positive social environment on atherosclerosis. The first aim of the current study is to examine the potential anti-inflammatory effects of OT on in vitro cellular models involved in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. The second aim is to examine whether long-term administration of OT slows the progression of atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice. The third aim is
Atherosclerosis is primarily a degenerative disorder related to aging with a chronic inflammatory component. There are differences in expression among different vascular beds, inflicting a range of vascular diseases. The majority of studies focus on the inner and medial vascular layers, which are affected at the development of atherosclerosis. Recent evidence shows that the outer layer of blood vessels, composed of the adventitial layer and the vasa vasorum, not only plays a significant role in maintaining vessel integrity, but also reacts to atheroma. What is not clear is the extent of contribution of the outer layer to the process of atherosclerosis. Is it involved in the initiation, progression, and clinical expression of atheroma? Is the inflammation associated with atheroma limited to being merely reactive or is there a proactive element? This paper provides an overview of the normal anatomy of vasa vasorum and potential mechanism of plaque formation due to vascular injury (vasa vasorum) ...
High density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proved to be a protective factor for coronary heart disease. Notably, HDL in atherosclerotic plaques can be nitrated (NO2-oxHDL) and chlorinated (Cl-oxHDL) by myeloperoxidase (MPO), likely compromising its cardiovascular protective effects. Here we determined the effects of NO2-oxHDL and Cl-oxHDL on SMC migration using wound healing and transwell assays, proliferation using MTT and BrdU assays, and apoptosis using Annexin-V assay in vitro, as well as on atherosclerotic plaque stability in vivo using a coratid artery collar implantation mice model. Our results showed that native HDL promoted SMC proliferation and migration, whereas NO2-oxHDL and Cl-oxHDL inhibited SMC migration and reduced capacity of stimulating SMC proliferation as well as migration, respectively. OxHDL had no significant influence on SMC apoptosis. In addition, we found that ERK1/2-phosphorylation was significantly lower when SMCs were incubated with NO2-oxHDL and Cl-oxHDL. Furthermore,
It is abundantly clear that subclinical atherosclerosis in 2 major consequential vascular beds (coronary and carotid) can be detected by noninvasive imaging and such assessment can clearly refine Framingham risk assessment in individual patients and do it better than biomarkers such as hsCRP and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2. Large-scale screening for subclinical atherosclerosis would be useful if it is simple, easily available, relatively safe and effective, adds value to prediction leading to better selection of subjects for aggressive treatment and sparing very low-risk subjects unlikely to benefit, and improves compliance and adherence to risk-modifying interventions. The CCS and CIMT fulfill many but not all of these requirements; in particular, the added value of imaging-guided management in improving patient outcomes has not yet been proven using randomized, controlled clinical trials, and therefore, in that sense, to a purist the jury is still out. However, we must ...
Background: Inflammatory stimuli induced by NF-kB drive atherosclerotic lesion formation. The epigenetic P300/CBP associated factor (PCAF) post-transcriptionally acetylates FoxP3, which is required for regulatory T-cell (Treg) differentiation and immune modulation. We hypothesize that PCAF deficiency affects atherosclerosis via regulation of regulatory Tregs.Method: ApoE3*Leiden (n = 13) and ApoE3*LeidenxPCAF−/− (n = 13) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 1.25% cholesterol. Systemic FoxP3+ T cells were measured every 4 weeks by flow cytometry (n = 6). After 5-months of HFD, mice were euthanized, and hearts and blood were collected. IL-6 and TNFα concentrations were measured in plasma to identify systemic inflammatory responses. Compositional and morphometrical analyses were performed on the atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic sinuses.Results: After 5 months of HFD, plasma cholesterol concentrations were not different for ApoE3*LeidenxPCAF−/− compared to ApoE3*Leiden mice. Expression of
Intermittent hypoxia (IH), the main stimulus of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), induces inflammation, leading to early atherosclerosis. Whether the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway contributes to IH-induced atherosclerosis remains to be determined.. We studied the effects of 8 week-IH exposure on COX-pathway gene expression and atherosclerosis, and the influence of COX-1 inhibition by SC-560 on atherosclerosis progression in aortas of ApoE−/− mice. Urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (11-dTXB2) was assessed in 50 OSA free of cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) matched for age and body mass index with 25 controls, and 56 OSA with CVRF.. IH significantly increased atherosclerotic lesion sizes, mRNA levels of COX-1 and thromboxane synthase (TXBS). Lesion sizes correlated to COX-1 (r=0.654, p=0.0003) and TXBS (r=0.693, p,0.0001) mRNA levels. COX-1 inhibition reduced lesion progression in IH mice only (p=0.04). Urinary 11-dTXB2 was similar in OSA free of CVRF and controls, but was increased by 13% ...
Soy and The Heart: Atherosclerosis May Be a Self-Inflicted Disease. In Japan, only 238 men and 121 women per 100,000 succumb to heart disease, roughly half the number in the United States.. Japan has the lowest rate of death from heart disease in the world for men and the second lowest for women. (The mortality rate is slightly lower for women in France.) The traditional Japanese low-fat, soy-based diet appears to be a major factor. Recent studies show that soy may have some unique properties that make it a potent heart protector.. Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease that often begins in childhood and can lead to coronary artery disease, the cause of most heart attacks. The arteries delivering blood and oxygen to the heart become clogged with plaque, a yellowish, waxy substance.. Plaque starts off as fatty streaks in the arteries -- in the United States these fatty streaks can appear in children as young as 10 years old! Eventually plaque deposits can become big enough to ...
The chronic inflammatory disease atherosclerosis is characterized by thickening of the arterial wall through the accumulation of lipid-laden foam cells derived from macrophages and smooth muscle cells. It is thought that lipoxygenases (LOs), which metabolize polyunsaturated fatty acids, play key roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by oxidizing low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Kotla et al. found that the major 12/15-LO product in mice, 15(S)-HETE, stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species in monocytes and macrophages, which culminated in production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in a manner dependent on the transcription factor CREB. Loss of the gene encoding 12/15-LO in a mouse model of atherosclerosis resulted in decreased accumulation of macrophages at atherosclerotic lesions, decreased fat deposits, and reduced abundance of IL-17A. Together, these data suggest that 12/15-LO exacerbates atherosclerosis in vivo by stimulating the CREB-dependent ...
South Asians (individuals from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka) have higher rates of heart disease than other race/ethnic groups that are not fully explained by their higher prevalence of diabetes or other traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a measure of atherosclerosis which improves heart disease risk prediction for many race/ethnic groups. More recently, progression of CAC and plaque calcium density have also been found to be independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. No existing studies have examined whether CAC, CAC progression or novel coronary plaque characteristics help to explain the high incidence of heart disease in South Asians. The NIH/NHLBI has supported the creation of a unique South Asian cohort called the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA study) to establish the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors (parent R01 Aims 1 and 2) and ...
Title: Endothelial Dysfunction in Hyperglycemia as a Trigger of Atherosclerosis. VOLUME: 1 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Hironori Nakagami, Yasufumi Kaneda, Toshio Ogihara and Ryuichi Morishita. Affiliation:Division of Clinical Gene Therapy, Osaka University Graduate School of Medical, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita 565-0871, Japan.. Keywords:hyperglycemia, endothelial cell, atherosclerosis, nadph oxidase, hepatocyte growth factor, hmg-coa reductase inhibitors. Abstract: Type 2 diabetes is associated with a two to fourfold increased risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke. Dysfunction of endothelial cells (EC) is known to promote abnormal vascular growth such as that in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis and has been postulated as an initial trigger of the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. We and others have previously demonstrated that high D-glucose induced apoptosis through ...
Spontaneous plaque rupture in mouse models of atherosclerosis is controversial, although numerous studies have discussed so-called vulnerable plaque phenotypes in mice. We compared the morphology and biomechanics of two acute and one chronic murine model of atherosclerosis to human coronaries of the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) phenotype. Our acute models were apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) and LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr−/−) mice, both fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk with simultaneous infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II), and our chronic mouse model was the apolipoprotein E-deficient strain fed a regular chow diet for 1 yr. We found that the mouse plaques from all three models exhibited significant morphological differences from human TCFA plaques, including the plaque burden, plaque thickness, eccentricity, and amount of the vessel wall covered by lesion as well as significant differences in the relative composition of plaques. These morphological differences suggested that the ...
What is atherosclerosis? Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis. The American Heart Association explains how atherosclerosis starts, how atherosclerosis is affected by high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and smoking, blood clots and thickened artery walls.
The official name of this trial was Testosterones Effects on Atherosclerosis Progression in Aging Men, TEAAM for short. The researchers first recruited 308 male subjects from across the United States aged 60 or older. Then they were split into two groups, and over the course of three years, TEAAM closely followed half of the male subjects who had unknowingly received placebos, and the other half who had received testosterone gel treatment. The careful design of the research combined with the length of time and the scope of the project make this trail more authoritative than previous studies. To the knowledge of the researchers, this was the largest randomized trial investigating testosterones effects on atherosclerosis progression in older men to date. The trial was significantly long to determine clinically meaningful effects of the treatment on the build-up of plaque on the artery walls. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Life Course Socioeconomic Conditions and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults. T2 - The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. AU - Chichlowska, Kristal L.. AU - Rose, Kathryn M.. AU - Diez-Roux, Ana V.. AU - Golden, Sherita H.. AU - McNeill, Annie M.. AU - Heiss, Gerardo. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) 1R01HL080287-01S1 (to K.M.R. and K.L.C.). The ARIC study is carried out as a collaborative study supported by contracts from the NHLBI (N01-55015, N01-55016, N01-55018, N01-55019, N01-55020, N01-55021, N01-55022, and R01-HL064142). PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - Purpose: This study examined the effect of childhood, adulthood, and cumulative socioeconomic status (cumSES) on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in middle-aged adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (1987-1989). Methods: Participants included 2,461 black and 8,536 white men and women 45 to 64 years of age ...
Atherosclerosis - the common disease where arteries become blocked and restrict blood flow - could result in a devastating heart attack if an artery that supplies blood to the heart is affected.. Studies have shown that chemokines (small chemoattractant proteins) play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis, as they recruit immune cells to the site of inflammation. By inhibiting the functions of chemokines, we could potentially reduce the progression of atherosclerosis - essentially, stop it in its tracks.. Lead researcher Dhanya Ravindran originally started investigating how atherosclerosis might be prevented by inhibiting chemokines while in the HRI Immunobiology Group, led by Dr Christina Bursill.. Enter the chemokine binding protein M3. M3 is a broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor that binds and inactivates chemokines, helping to prevent the host immune response during inflammation/injury. It also has the vital ability to inactivate a range of the key chemokines involved in ...
Background-Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is a phosphate regulatory hormone that directly stimulates left ventricular hypertrophy in experimental models. The role of FGF-23 in cardiovascular disease development in the general population is unclear. We tested associations of FGF-23 with major subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease outcomes in a large prospective cohort. Methods and Results-We evaluated 6,547 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) who were initially free of cardiovascular disease. We measured serum FGF-23 using the Kainos immunoassay. The MESA measured left ventricular (LV) mass by magnetic resonance imaging, coronary calcium (CAC) by computed tomography, and carotid intima-medial thickness (IMT) by ultrasound. The MESA adjudicated incident heart failure, coronary heart disease, and stoke by medical record review. After adjustment, the highest FGF-23 quartile was associated with an estimated 2.4 gram greater LV mass (95% CI 0.4, 4.5 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cis-vaccenic acid and the Framingham risk score predict chronic kidney disease. T2 - The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). AU - Block, Robert. AU - Kakinami, Lisa. AU - Liebman, Scott. AU - Shearer, Gregory C.. AU - Kramer, Holly. AU - Tsai, Michael. N1 - Funding Information: Sources of Support . This research was supported by contracts N01-HC-95159 through N01-HC-95169 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The authors thank the other investigators, the staff, and the participants of the MESA study for their valuable contributions. A full list of participating MESA investigators and institutions can be found at http://www.mesa-nhlbi.org . This publication was also made possible by Grant Number KL2 RR 024136 from the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the ...
Comprehensive and in-depth in its coverage, Atherosclerosis: mobile, Molecular & Biochemical Mechanism and Novel Therapy studies the hot growth in atherosclerosis learn and provides innovative views from specialists within the box. Written by means of a world staff of authors together with best physician-scientists, examine specialists and physicians, chapters are divided into 4 significant sections, masking possibility components, mobile and molecular mechanisms, biochemical mechanisms and novel and destiny therapeutics.. Atherosclerosis: mobile, Molecular & Biochemical Mechanism and Novel Therapy analyses fresh growth from either conceptual and technological views, suggesting new instructions for atherosclerosis learn and therapy for a turning out to be inhabitants of researchers and clinicians in cardiovascular and similar fields.. ...
of the research project proposed by Dr. Robert L. Raffai, PhD: Diabetes is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increase in atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular dis...
INTRODUCTION: Genome Wide Association studies have consistently identified an association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and a locus on chromosome 10 containing a single gene, JCAD (formerly KIAA1462). However, little is known about the mechanism by which JCAD could influence the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular function was quantified in subjects with CAD by flow mediated dilatation [FMD] and vasorelaxation responses in isolated blood vessel segments. The JCAD risk allele identified by GWAS was associated with reduced FMD and reduced endothelial-dependent relaxations. To study the impact of loss of Jcad on atherosclerosis, Jcad-/- mice were crossed to an ApoE-/- background and fed a high fat diet from 6 to16 weeks of age. Loss of Jcad did not affect blood pressure or heart rate. However, Jcad-/-ApoE-/- mice developed significantly less atherosclerosis in the aortic root and the inner curvature of the aortic arch. En-face analysis revealed a striking reduction in pro
The molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis development are complex and still poorly understood. Recent studies revealed that TLR/IL-1R signaling is involved in the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, we investigated the role of IRAK4 kinase activity in the development of atherosclerosis. NF-κB activation and NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory gene expression were abrogated in IRAK4KI macrophage upon addition of putative atherogenic ligands acLDL and NO2-LDL. IRAK4 protein, especially its kinase activity, is required for the aortic plaque formation as well as proinflammatory cytokine production important for the development of atherosclerosis. Although the total cholesterol and plasma lipoprotein distribution are comparable, IRAK4KI/ApoE−/− mice showed dramatic reduction in aortic sinus lesion size compared with that in ApoE−/− mice, indicating that the critical role of IRAK4 kinase activity in the development of atherosclerosis through the regulation of ...
Our knowledge in the role of small non-coding RNA molecules in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and disease in the cardiovascular system is steadily growing. Among this group of RNA molecules, microRNAs (miRNAs) fulfill important functions in cellular behavior of endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages by influencing the protein output levels of a high variety of genes with crucial outcomes in the atherosclerotic setting. For example, miR- 155 can intensify early stages of atherosclerosis by increasing inflammatory activation and inefficient lipid handling in macrophages. However, miRNAs display also important atheroprotective roles as demonstrated for the complementary strands of miR-126, which form a dual system sustaining the endothelial proliferative reserve and promoting endothelial regeneration to counteract atherogenic effects of disturbed flow and hyperlipidemia.. Excitingly, miRNA functions are not restricted to the producing cells but can be transferred to ...
Atherosclerosis[edit]. In atherosclerosis, an underlying cause of Coronary artery disease and strokes, atheromatous plaques ... are widely used to prevent atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related diseases. Statins also inhibit PPARγ in human ... may be therapeutic targets for treating atherosclerosis-related diseases. Indeed, Statins, which are known to suppress ... "Lack of macrophage fatty-acid-binding protein aP2 protects mice deficient in apolipoprotein E against atherosclerosis". Nature ...
In atherosclerosis[edit]. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation have been implicated in cardiovascular disease, ... including atherosclerosis. In animal models of atherosclerosis, vascular tissue as well as blood cells such as mononuclear ... In atherosclerosis patients, there is an increase in methylation of the CpG islands in exon 2, which decreases MCT3 protein ... Dong C, Yoon W, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ (August 2002). "DNA methylation and atherosclerosis". The Journal of Nutrition. 132 (8 ...
Atherosclerosis[edit]. Bearers of two variations in the predominant five tandem repeat Sp1 binding motif (GGGCCGG) of the ALOX5 ... and atherosclerosis". The New England Journal of Medicine. 350 (1): 29-37. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa025079. PMID 14702425.. ... and atherosclerosis (NCT00404313, NCT00418613, and NCT00421278, respectively).[43][46] PF-4191834[47] has completed phase II ... atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmune diseases (see Inflammation#Inflammatory disorders). These dual ...
Early work on atherosclerosis[edit]. At the MRC Unit, Howard began working on experimental atherosclerosis. He continued this ... Miras, C. J. , Howard, Alan N. (1968). Recent Advances in Atherosclerosis. Basel ; S. Karger. ISBN 978-3805503839.. CS1 maint: ... The Proceedings of the XIIth International Symposium on Atherosclerosis held in Stockholm 25-29 June 2000 contain two papers ... study while at the Department of Pathology and was secretary for the first International Symposium On Atherosclerosis held in ...
Atherosclerosis[edit]. Endothelial dysfunction may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis[3][4] and may predate ... the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis". Am J Epidemiol. 174 (5): 528-36. doi:10.1093/aje/kwr120. PMC 3202150. PMID 21709134. ... "Endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis: focus on novel therapeutic approaches". Recent Pat Cardiovasc Drug Discov. 7 (1): ... "Noninvasive identification of patients with early coronary atherosclerosis by assessment of digital reactive hyperemia". J Am ...
Predictor of atherosclerosis mortality[edit]. Studies in 2006 suggests that an abnormal ABPI may be an independent predictor of ... Current Atherosclerosis Reports. 16 (4): 402. doi:10.1007/s11883-014-0402-8. ISSN 1534-6242. PMID 24522859.. ... mortality, as it reflects the burden of atherosclerosis.[15][16] It thus has potential for screening for coronary artery ...
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Keys, A. (July 1953). "Atherosclerosis: a problem in newer public health". Journal of the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York. 20 (2 ... Keys, Ancel (1971). "Sucrose in the Diet and Coronary Heart Disease". Atherosclerosis. 14 (2): 193-202. doi:10.1016/0021-9150( ... Keys, Ancel (1975). "Coronary Heart Disease - The Global Picture". Atherosclerosis. 22 (2): 149-192. doi:10.1016/0021-9150(75) ... There was no evidence of benefit in the intervention group for coronary atherosclerosis or myocardial infarcts. Systematic ...
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"Current Atherosclerosis Reports. 13 (1): 31-42. doi:10.1007/s11883-010-0143-2. PMC 3018293. PMID 21046291.. ... doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.08.022. PMID 18834985.. *^ Porter KE, Turner NA (July 2011). "Statins and myocardial ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) carriers of cholesterol play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart ... As noted above, statins exhibit action beyond lipid-lowering activity in the prevention of atherosclerosis. The ASTEROID trial ...
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Stender S, Dyerberg J, Bysted A, Leth T, Astrup A (May 2006). "A trans world journey". Atherosclerosis. Supplements. 7 (2): 47- ...
Narrowing of the arteries can be caused by a process known as atherosclerosis (most common), arteriosclerosis, or ...
doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.02.037. PMID 21402378.. *^ Borghouts, LB; Keizer, HA (January 2000). "Exercise and insulin ...
"Atherosclerosis: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-19.. *^ Mohan, Harsh (2012-11-30). Pathology Practical Book. ... "Atherosclerosis". PubMed Health Glossary.. *^ Rubin, Raphael; Strayer, David S.; Rubin, Emanuel (2011-02-01). Rubin's Pathology ... "Atherosclerosis -Treatment". UK NHS. Retrieved 21 November 2013.. *^ "Thrombolytic therapy: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". ... "Atherosclerosis". Merck Manuals. Retrieved 13 February 2015.. *^ Mayerl, Christina; Lukasser, Melanie; Sedivy, Roland; ...
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"Atherosclerosis. 252: 207-274. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2016.05.037. ISSN 1879-1484. PMC 4986030. PMID 27664503.. ... Atherosclerosis is a condition affecting the circulatory system. If the coronary arteries are affected, angina pectoris may ... Coronary artery disease, also known as ischaemic heart disease, is caused by atherosclerosis-a build-up of fatty material along ... smoking and high cholesterol can all increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.[53][55] ...
Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Bysted, Anette; Leth, Torben; Astrup, Arne (2006). "A trans world journey". Atherosclerosis ...
Atherosclerosis". 235 (1), s. 9-20, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.04.004. PMID: 24792921 (ang.). ...
Tangney CC, Rasmussen HE (2013). "Polyphenols, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Disease". Current Atherosclerosis Reports. 15 ( ... "Flavonoids in atherosclerosis: An overview of their mechanisms of action". Current medicinal chemistry. 20 (21): 2641-2660. doi ... thrombus formation or platelet aggregation reduce risk of atherosclerosis reduce arterial blood pressure and risk of ... Flavonoids and Their Potential Benefits in Human Hyperlipidemia and Atherosclerosis: an Overview". Mini-Reviews in Medicinal ...
Dalainas I, Ioannou HP (April 2008). "The role of trans fatty acids in atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and infant ... Current Atherosclerosis Reports. 9 (6): 486-93. doi:10.1007/s11883-007-0065-9. PMID 18377789.. ...
Atherosclerosis of the arteries of the heart[6]. Risk factors. High blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, ... develops atherosclerosis. With atherosclerosis, the artery's lining becomes hardened, stiffened, and accumulates deposits of ... "The Use of Primary Prevention Statin Therapy in Those Predisposed to Atherosclerosis". Current Atherosclerosis Reports (Review ... Erkkilä AT, Booth SL (2008). "Vitamin K intake and atherosclerosis". Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 19 (1): 39-42. doi:10.1097/MOL. ...
Thijssen, MA; Mensink, RP (2005). "Fatty acids and atherosclerotic risk". Atherosclerosis: Diet and Drugs. Handbook of ...
m Atherosclerosis ‎ (Vandalism) *01:02, 2 February 2007 (diff , hist) . . (-1)‎ . . m Milk ‎ (→‎Physical and chemical structure ...
... atherosclerosis explanation free. What is atherosclerosis? Meaning of atherosclerosis medical term. What does atherosclerosis ... Looking for online definition of atherosclerosis in the Medical Dictionary? ... Atherosclerosis. Definition. Atherosclerosis is the build up of a waxy plaque on the inside of blood vessels. In Greek, athere ... Atherosclerosis is complex. Its exact cause is still unknown. It is thought that atherosclerosis is caused by a response to ...
Atherosclerosis. Br Med J 1968; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5585.168-c (Published 20 January 1968) Cite this as: Br ...
... , (ath-er-o-skler-O-sis) comes from the Greek words athero - meaning gruel or paste and sclerosis meaning ... Diseases Associated with Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, including arteries in the heart, ... Precisely what causes atherosclerosis remains unknown, but research suggests that atherosclerosis is a slow, complex disease ... Atherosclerosis, (ath-er-o-skler-O-sis) comes from the Greek words athero - meaning gruel or paste and sclerosis meaning ...
... atherosclerosis will be the major cause of death from disease by the year 2020. Atherosclerosis is an extremely complex, ... At its present rate of growth, atherosclerosis will be the major cause of death from disease by the year 2020. Atherosclerosis ... Biochemistry of Atherosclerosis. Volume 1 of Advances in Biochemistry in Health and Disease. Volume 1 of Advances in ... Atherosclerosis.html?id=C-FqAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareBiochemistry of Atherosclerosis. ...
Atherosclerosis is the most common arterial abnormality characterized as arteriosclerosis, which is defined by ... Atherosclerosis, chronic disease caused by the deposition of fats, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the innermost ... are among the factors that contribute to an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. Men develop atherosclerosis more ... Atherosclerosis, chronic disease caused by the deposition of fats, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the innermost ...
Atherosclerosis, sometimes called hardening of the arteries, occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in ... Atherosclerosis often occurs with aging. As you grow older, plaque buildup narrows your arteries and makes them stiffer. These ... Lifestyle changes will reduce your risk of atherosclerosis. Things you can do include:. *Quit smoking: This is the single most ... Atherosclerosis, sometimes called "hardening of the arteries," occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in ...
Doctors have an arsenal of diagnostic tests and tools they can access to confirm the presence of Atherosclerosis - these ... Doctors have an arsenal of diagnostic tests and tools they can access to confirm the presence of Atherosclerosis - these ... i like the way you guys comment on atherosclerosis and wish to ask if it can result to death? ... i like the way you guys comment on atherosclerosis and wish to ask if it ...
Atherosclerosis also causes a great deal of serious illness by reducing the flow of blood in other major arteries, such as to ... Why does atherosclerosis occur in the coronary arteries of some people but not others? An interplay of many factors including ... Atherosclerosis is responsible for more deaths in the U.S. than any other condition. Atherosclerotic heart disease, involving ... Unfortunately, atherosclerosis produces no symptoms until the damage to the arteries is severe enough to restrict blood flow. ...
Since Duguids modification of Rokitanskys theory, atherosclerosis has been related to thrombogenesis. Several... ... The mechanisms leading to the initiation of atherosclerosis are very complex. ... J.L. Kadish, Fibrin and atherosclerosis. A hypothesis. Atherosclerosis 33:409-413 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... J.R. OBrien, Antithrombin III and heparin clotting times in thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Thromb. Piathes. Haemorrh. 32:116- ...
... it might be possible to reverse atherosclerosis in humans with a simple injection. ... What to know about atherosclerosis Arteries carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Atherosclerosis occurs when ... For these reasons, atherosclerosis may lead to coronary heart disease, angina, peripheral artery disease, or chronic kidney ... Atherosclerosis: Skipping breakfast may double risk. Researchers find an additional reason as to why you shouldnt skip the ...
The American Heart Association explains how atherosclerosis starts, how atherosclerosis is affected by high cholesterol levels ... What is atherosclerosis? Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis. ... How does atherosclerosis start and progress?. Atherosclerosis is a slow, progressive disease that may start in childhood. In ... Atherosclerosis is a big word for a big problem: fatty deposits that can clog arteries. These buildups are called plaque. ...
... of the extremities - Atherosclerosis can narrow the major arteries that supply blood to the legs, especially ... It is possible to have atherosclerosis for many years without having symptoms. If you experience symptoms of an atherosclerosis ... Atherosclerosis leads to the number one cause of death in the United States and many other countries for both men and women: ... Abdomen - When atherosclerosis narrows the arteries to the intestines, there may be dull or cramping pain in the middle of the ...
Those who eat little or nothing at all at the start of the day have double the risk of atherosclerosis compared with those who ... Atherosclerosis occurs when fatty deposits, along with cholesterol and other forms of cellular waste, build up inside the ... A study led by researchers in Spain has suggested that skipping breakfast doubles the risk of "subclinical atherosclerosis.". A ... Subclinical atherosclerosis is a latent form of the condition, which does not produce symptoms straight away. ...
Atherosclerosis: The New View. It causes chest pain, heart attack and stroke, leading to more deaths every year than cancer. ... The new picture of atherosclerosis explains why many heart attacks seem to come from out of the blue: the plaques that rupture ... Even if anti-inflammatory drugs proved effective, they might have to be given for years on end to keep atherosclerosis at bay. ... The research has, moreover, established a key role for inflammation in atherosclerosis. This process-the same one that causes ...
Although atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the so-called affluent societies, there is presently no drug in our ... Atherosclerosis Drug Discovery. Editors. * Charles Day Series Title. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Series ... Although atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the so-called affluent societies, there is presently no drug in our ... The Baboon in Atherosclerosis Research: Comparison with Other Species and Use in Testing Drugs Affecting Lipid Metabolism ...
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which fatty material is deposited on the wall of an artery. Normally, the walls of an artery ... Atherosclerosis is a disease in which fatty material is deposited on the wall of an artery. Normally, the walls of an artery ...
Noncoding RNAs and atherosclerosis.. Aryal B#1, Rotllan N#1, Fernández-Hernando C1. ... In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the field, highlighting the importance of ncRNAs in atherosclerosis and ... MicroRNAs control several aspects of atherosclerosis, including endothelial cell, vascular smooth cell, and macrophage ... including atherosclerosis. The best-characterized ncRNAs are the microRNAs which are small, approximately 22-nucleotide ...
Aortic plaques are a manifestation of the general process of atherosclerosis in which there is a progressive accumulation of ... This paper provides an extensive review of aortic atherosclerosis and the latest guidelines for its management. PubMedCrossRef ... Atherosclerosis Aorta Thromboembolism Atheroma Plaque Atheroembolism Cholesterol embolization syndrome Transesophageal ... Atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm: cause, response, or common risk factors? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30( ...
Atherosclerosis and oxidative stress.. Bonomini F1, Tengattini S, Fabiano A, Bianchi R, Rezzani R. ... This review focuses on the morphological features of atherosclerosis and the involvement of oxidative stress in the initiation ... There is now consensus that atherosclerosis represents a state of heightened oxidative stress characterized by lipid and ... have a causatory role in atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases. Moreover, oxidative modifications in the arterial wall ...
Letter: Regression of atherosclerosis.. Br Med J 1976; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.6019.1208-a (Published 15 May 1976) ...
Atherosclerosis in arteries that carry blood to the arms, legs, and pelvis can cause pain while walking, numbness and, in men, ... Atherosclerosis is a hardening of the arteries that results from a buildup of plaque. Plaque is made up of cholesterol, fat, ... Atherosclerosis in arteries that carry blood to the heart may cause chest pain and pressure - also symptoms of a heart attack. ... Atherosclerosis may not produce symptoms until it is at an advanced stage, at which time medical attention is needed. Symptoms ...
... Hailin Xu,1 Jingxin Jiang,2 Wuzhen Chen,2,3 Wenlu Li,4 and Zhigang Chen2,3 ... Figure 1: Roles of macrophages in different stages of atherosclerosis progression. Atherosclerosis is initiated by the ... A. J. Lusis, "Atherosclerosis," Nature, vol. 407, no. 6801, pp. 233-241, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · ... thus motivating a number of researchers to study the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis over the past decades. Atherosclerosis ...
The American Heart Association explains how atherosclerosis starts, how atherosclerosis is affected by high cholesterol levels ... What is atherosclerosis? Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis. ... Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis and cholesterol. When plaque (fatty deposits) clogs your arteries, thats called ... Atherosclerosis is a slow, progressive disease that may start in childhood. In some people, atherosclerosis progresses rapidly ...
Gradually, the amount of plaque that forms will narrow your arteries While reversing atherosclerosis isnt feasible, you can ... Atherosclerosis is serious and life-threatening. If you have high cholesterol, excess cholesterol builds in the arteries ... What is atherosclerosis?. The word "atherosclerosis" comes from the Greek words "athero"("paste") and "sclerosis" ("hardness ... Atherosclerosis overview. Atherosclerosis, more commonly known as heart disease, is a serious and life-threatening condition. ...
By Tim Cutcliffe The International Plant Sterols and Stanols Association (IPSSA) is today launching an initiative to provide more information on the importance of LDL- cholesterol as a key modifiable risk factor for heart disease, and what people can do in general to... ...
Our mission is to build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. That single purpose drives all we do. The need for our work is beyond question. Find Out More about the American Heart Association. ...
... and found signs of probable or definite atherosclerosis in 34 percent. ... Were quick to blame modern diets -- and heavy drinking, and smoking, and lack of exercise -- for atherosclerosis, the ... For each decade of life the mummies survived before being mummified, the risk of severe atherosclerosis increased by 69 percent ... The full study, "Atherosclerosis across 4000 years of human history: the Horus study of four ancient populations," was ...
H. R. Davis, R. S. Lowe, and D. R. Neff, "Effects of ezetimibe on atherosclerosis in preclinical models," Atherosclerosis, vol ... "Postprandial lipoproteins and progression of coronary atherosclerosis," Atherosclerosis, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 83-97, 1994. View ... H. R. Davis Jr., L. M. Hoos, G. Tetzloff et al., "Deficiency of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 prevents atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice ... N. Mero, M. Syvänne, and M. -R. Taskinen, "Postprandial lipid metabolism in diabetes," Atherosclerosis, vol. 141, supplement 1 ...
Insulin sensitivity and atherosclerosis. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Investigators. Circulation. 93: ... The presence of abnormal mitochondria in smooth muscle cells is an early signal of human atherosclerosis (S7). Atherosclerosis- ... Atherosclerosis: an intracellular deficiency in essential fatty acids. Prog. Lipid Res. 20:365-376. View this article via: ... is another likely contributor to both atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Both atherosclerosis and insulin resistance are ...
  • Atherosclerosis, a progressive process responsible for most heart disease, is a type of arteriosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Atherosclerosis can cause a heart attack if it completely blocks the blood flow in the heart (coronary) arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Atherosclerosis can also occur in the arteries of the neck, kidneys, thighs, and arms, causing kidney failure or gangrene and amputation . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Atherosclerosis, (ath-er-o-skler-O-sis) comes from the Greek words athero - meaning gruel or paste and sclerosis meaning hardness - and is a hardening of the arteries - it is the most common cause of heart disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Atherosclerosis causes plaque to accumulate on the inner walls of arteries, the blood vessels which carry oxygen-rich blood throughout the body, and as the artery walls thicken, the pathway for blood narrows and this can decrease or block blood flow through the body. (news-medical.net)
  • Atherosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, including arteries in the heart, brain, arms, legs, and pelvis and as a result, different diseases may develop based on which arteries are affected, such as coronary artery disease, carotid artery disease and peripheral arterial disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Atherosclerosis , chronic disease caused by the deposition of fats, cholesterol , calcium, and other substances in the innermost layer of endothelium of the large and medium-sized arteries. (britannica.com)
  • The precise mechanisms of atherosclerosis are not completely understood, but there is evidence that in some people the condition can begin in childhood with the formation of tiny "fatty streaks," or streaks of fat deposition, in the arteries. (britannica.com)
  • When atherosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, which bring oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle , it can decrease the supply of blood to the heart muscle and result in chest pain known as angina pectoris . (britannica.com)
  • Atherosclerosis, sometimes called "hardening of the arteries," occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls of arteries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Atherosclerosis also causes a great deal of serious illness by reducing the flow of blood in other major arteries, such as to the kidneys, legs, and intestines. (healthcentral.com)
  • Why does atherosclerosis occur in the coronary arteries of some people but not others? (healthcentral.com)
  • Unfortunately, atherosclerosis produces no symptoms until the damage to the arteries is severe enough to restrict blood flow. (healthcentral.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a condition in which plaque builds inside the arteries , stiffening and eventually clogging them. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a big word for a big problem: fatty deposits that can clog arteries. (heart.org)
  • Smoking has a big role in the growth of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries, aorta and arteries in the legs. (heart.org)
  • Atherosclerosis is a narrowing of the arteries that can significantly reduce the blood supply to vital organs such as the heart, brain and intestines. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • In atherosclerosis, the arteries are narrowed when fatty deposits called plaques build up inside. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Coronary artery disease - In this chronic (long-lasting) disease, atherosclerosis narrows the coronary arteries, the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Abdominal angina and bowel infarction - When atherosclerosis narrows arteries that supply blood to the intestines, it causes a form of abdominal pain called abdominal angina. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Atherosclerosis of the extremities - Atherosclerosis can narrow the major arteries that supply blood to the legs, especially the femoral and popliteal arteries. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Other conditions - Atherosclerosis may be a factor in the development of an aortic aneurysm or renal artery stenosis (narrowing of the kidney arteries). (womenshealthmag.com)
  • When atherosclerosis completely blocks the brain arteries and/or the above symptoms last longer, it's generally called a stroke. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Abdomen - When atherosclerosis narrows the arteries to the intestines, there may be dull or cramping pain in the middle of the abdomen, usually beginning 15 to 30 minutes after a meal. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Atherosclerosis occurs when fatty deposits, along with cholesterol and other forms of cellular waste, build up inside the arteries. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a hardening of the arteries that results from a buildup of plaque. (innerbody.com)
  • Chronic high blood pressure can damage the coronary arteries and lead to atherosclerosis. (innerbody.com)
  • Atherosclerosis in arteries that carry blood to the heart may cause chest pain and pressure - also symptoms of a heart attack. (innerbody.com)
  • Atherosclerosis in arteries that carry blood to the brain can lead to numbness in the limbs, droopy facial muscles, dizziness, and difficulty speaking. (innerbody.com)
  • Atherosclerosis in arteries that carry blood to the arms, legs, and pelvis can cause pain while walking, numbness and, in men, erectile dysfunction . (innerbody.com)
  • Atherosclerosis in arteries that carry blood to the kidneys can cause kidney failure. (innerbody.com)
  • When plaque (fatty deposits) clogs your arteries, that's called atherosclerosis. (heart.org)
  • Using CT scans, researchers examined the remaining arteries of 137 mummies, and found signs of probable or definite atherosclerosis in 34 percent. (theatlantic.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up on the insides of your arteries. (smartdraw.com)
  • Atherosclerosis - commonly known as hardening of the arteries - is an accumulation of plaque deposits in the lining of the arteries - the blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart and other parts of your body. (upmc.com)
  • Atherosclerosis, also referred to as arteriosclerosis, causes a hardening of the arteries due to plaque build-up. (upmc.com)
  • What Is Atherosclerosis, or Hardening of the Arteries? (upmc.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular (heart) disease with no visible symptoms, and it often remains undetected until the arteries leading to a vital organ are blocked. (upmc.com)
  • If you have atherosclerosis symptoms, your doctor at the UPMC Heart and Vascular Institute will ask you questions during your physical exam to help determine what arteries might be affected. (upmc.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. (nih.gov)
  • Atherosclerosis may start when certain factors damage the inner layers of the arteries. (nih.gov)
  • Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that refers to the buildup of fatty, waxy plaque in the arteries. (doctoroz.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a condition in which fatty material collects along the walls of arteries, forming a plaque. (qiagen.com)
  • Atherosclerosis occurs when fatty substances, cholesterol , cellular waste products, calcium, and other materials build up on the inside lining of the arteries. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The symptoms of atherosclerosis depend on which arteries are most affected by the buildup of plaque. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Atherosclerosis of the arteries in the heart is called coronary artery disease. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Atherosclerosis, sometimes called 'hardening of the arteries,' occurs when fat (cholesterol) and calcium build up in the wall of the arteries, forming a substance called plaque. (cigna.com)
  • When atherosclerosis affects the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, it can restrict blood flow to the heart muscle. (cigna.com)
  • When atherosclerosis affects the arteries that supply blood to the brain, it may cause a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke. (cigna.com)
  • Atherosclerosis can affect arteries in other parts of the body, such as the pelvis and legs, causing poor circulation, slower healing of skin injuries, and erection problems. (cigna.com)
  • Atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries is associated with a risk of future heart disease, and it is therefore important to find risk markers for atherosclerotic disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of cholesterol in the arteries to form hard plaques, which can cause diseases such as angina, heart attacks and strokes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the walls of the arteries develop lesions due to the buildup of fats and other substances. (wikiversity.org)
  • Atherosclerosis occurs when your arteries become clogged with fatty deposits (plaque), causing them to lose their elasticity and become narrower. (heartandstroke.ca)
  • When the major arteries to your heart become affected by atherosclerosis, it can lead to coronary artery disease (CAD) or angina . (heartandstroke.ca)
  • As it progresses, atherosclerosis in the arteries of the heart may cause a heart attack or if it develops in the brain, it can cause a stroke. (heartandstroke.ca)
  • Atherosclerosis is the medical term used to describe hardening of the arteries . (wisegeek.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is the thickening or hardening of arteries due to the deposit of fatty plaques. (drfuhrman.com)
  • Coronary heart disease refers to atherosclerosis in the arteries of the heart. (drfuhrman.com)
  • Carotid artery disease refers to atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries in the neck, which can result in strokes. (drfuhrman.com)
  • Long-term atherosclerosis can also cause arteries to weaken and bulge. (epnet.com)
  • Atherosclerosis, sometimes known as "hardening of the arteries," is the build-up of plaque inside the blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart and throughout the body. (epa.gov)
  • This hardening and narrowing of the arteries-called atherosclerosis-makes it harder for blood to flow through them. (cardiosmart.org)
  • These plaques feel something like cartilage to the touch, which explains why atherosclerosis is commonly called hardening of the arteries. (innovations-report.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a condition in which the arteries become hard and narrow, leading to restricted blood flow. (medindia.net)
  • An unprecedented 10-year study funded by EPA and the National Institutes of Health, called the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) , is providing new information about the impacts of fine particle pollution on the arteries - the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart and other parts of the body. (epa.gov)
  • The cause of atherosclerosis and heart disease is an inflammation in the arteries, but cholesterol levels are not good indicators of the condition. (sharecare.com)
  • This study will examine the effects of treatment for hepatitis C on atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Atherosclerosis is an accumulation of cholesterol and fat in the arteries that can narrow blood vessels, leading to chest pain, heart attack or stroke. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The drug, called Trichostatin A or TSA, "may have a therapeutic benefit in atherosclerosis," which causes coronary artery disease by blocking key arteries, leading to death and disability. (scienceblog.com)
  • In addition to the coronary arteries, atherosclerosis also occurred in the aortic arch, part of one of the body's main blood vessels. (scienceblog.com)
  • Nilamadhab Mishra, M.D., of Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, said the drug, called Trichostatin A or TSA, "may have a therapeutic benefit in atherosclerosis," which causes coronary artery disease by blocking key arteries, leading to death and disability. (scienceblog.com)
  • Find out about atherosclerosis, a potentially serious condition where arteries become clogged with fatty substances. (axappphealthcare.co.uk)
  • Atherosclerosis is a potentially serious condition where arteries become clogged with fatty substances called plaques, or atheroma. (axappphealthcare.co.uk)
  • Atherosclerosis is conditions where arteries become narrowed and hardened due to plaque buildup around the artery wall. (scirp.org)
  • The causes of atherosclerosis have recently become clearer, but we know less about why the plaque in the arteries ruptures and contributes to clot formation," says Fredrik B ckhed, researcher at the Sahlgrenska Academy's Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine. (medindia.net)
  • Atherosclerosis is asymptomatic for decades because the arteries enlarge at all plaque locations, thus there is no effect on blood flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinically, given enlargement of the arteries for decades, symptomatic atherosclerosis is typically associated with men in their 40s and women in their 50s to 60s. (wikipedia.org)
  • While coronary artery disease is more prevalent in men than women, atherosclerosis of the cerebral arteries and strokes equally affect both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is an NHLBI-sponsored medical research study that looks at early, or subclinical, atherosclerosis. (nih.gov)
  • Leveraging NHLBI's MESA research, the University of Washington and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution Study (MESA Air) , the first prospective epidemiology U.S. research study to examine a group of people over a 10-year period and measure directly how long-term exposure to air pollution contributes to the development of heart disease. (nih.gov)
  • The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution Study (MESA Air) investigated cardiovascular impacts among more than 6,000 participants over a 10-year period. (epa.gov)
  • The study is anchored on the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), initiated in 1999 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health. (epa.gov)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima-medial thickness (IMT) in 5,810 participants without diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a cohort of adults aged 45-84 years without prior cardiovascular disease (CVD). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • By convening over 130 leading scientists involved in the study of atherosclerosis - a disease that causes about 50 per cent of deaths in Europe (more than cancer) with a burden of 3 billion Euros for direct and indirect costs - the four-day EVGN Conference presents state-of-the-art post-genomics and proteomics research of Cardiovascular Disease. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Both hyperglycemia and disorders of lipid metabolism strongly contribute to development of atherosclerosis, the crucial factor of cardiovascular disease. (medworm.com)
  • Since dyslipidemia is a common clinical manifestation of LAL Deficiency that is shared among other cardiovascular, liver and metabolic diseases and has been associated with accelerated development of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and premature mortality, it is important that physicians remain vigilant to avoid mis- or under-diagnosing this disease. (thestreet.com)
  • The study provides direct evidence that long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and nitrogen oxides in the air accelerates the development of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals. (epa.gov)
  • Periodontal disease has been associated with atherosclerosis, suggesting that bacteria from the oral cavity may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. (pnas.org)
  • There are several risk factors that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. (hubpages.com)
  • The development of atherosclerosis starts out as fatty streaks within the intima. (hubpages.com)
  • When LDL concentrations are elevated they can trigger the events leading to the development of atherosclerosis. (hubpages.com)
  • A family history of cardiovascular disease , smoking, stress, obesity , and high blood cholesterol levels, particularly in association with LDLs, are among the factors that contribute to an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. (britannica.com)
  • The current evidence in using metabolomics in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is also limited and morewell designed studies remain to be established, which might significantly improve the comprehension of atherosclerosis pathophysiology and consequently management. (diva-portal.org)
  • The microenvironment orchestrates macrophage proliferation through the involvement of scavenger receptor A (SR-A). Our study reveals macrophage proliferation as a key event in atherosclerosis and identifies macrophage self-renewal as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease. (nature.com)
  • On average, shorter telomeres were found in subjects with atherosclerosis and independently predicted atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD)-associated mortality. (ahajournals.org)
  • Atherosclerosis is the most common cardiovascular disease in Europe and North America. (sciencemag.org)
  • Pais noted that previous research has shown that patients with NAFLD have an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and that they tend to develop carotid atherosclerosis earlier that their healthy counterparts. (medpagetoday.com)
  • While it is widely known that factors such as cigarette smoking and high blood pressure are linked to atherosclerosis and other forms of cardiovascular disease, it is less well-known that long-term exposure to air pollution can also be associated with this disease. (epa.gov)
  • If left to get worse, atherosclerosis can potentially lead to a number of serious conditions known as cardiovascular disease (CVD) ↗ . (axappphealthcare.co.uk)
  • This reappraisal of atherosclerosis and the cholesterol theory looked at the historical development of the theory, and the Rath and Pauling unified theory of cardiovascular disease. (scirp.org)
  • The relationship of exercise ECG myocardial ischemia to the presence of carotid atherosclerosis and to carotid and left ventricular structure and function was examined in a population of 204 asymptomatic subjects free of clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis that affects only the inner lining of an artery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As a rule atherosclerosis does not cause symptoms until an artery becomes narrowed or blocked, once this happens symptoms may include angina and cramping leg pain when walking - when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to organs and other parts of the body is reduced. (news-medical.net)
  • Atherosclerosis can create a whooshing or blowing sound ("bruit") over an artery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stroke - A blood clot (thrombus) may form inside a brain artery that has been narrowed by atherosclerosis. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • AS RECENTLY AS FIVE YEARS AGO, most physicians would have confidently described atherosclerosis as a straight plumbing problem: Fat-laden gunk gradually builds up on the surface of passive artery walls. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a disease in which fatty material is deposited on the wall of an artery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A major part of treating atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease involves lifestyle changes (such as quitting smoking) and medicines to help reduce high cholesterol, control high blood pressure, and manage other things that increase a person's risk of heart attack, stroke, and other complications. (cigna.com)
  • Patients with reduced longitudinal displacement along the carotid artery have more extensive atherosclerosis in that artery, impaired heart function and a greater tendency to suffer from a shortage of oxygen in the heart. (eurekalert.org)
  • Today's methods look only at the thickness of the artery walls when identifying atherosclerosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our technique shows that longitudinal displacement in the carotid artery reflects both the degree of atherosclerosis in the artery and heart function. (eurekalert.org)
  • Coronary artery atherosclerosis is the single largest killer of men and women in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is an age-related disease where toxic, oxidized cholesterol deposits in the blood stream causes inflammation in the artery wall. (lifeboat.com)
  • Atherosclerosis doesn't usually have any symptoms until the artery is blocked by at least half. (heartandstroke.ca)
  • Depending on which artery is blocked, atherosclerosis can cause several health problems. (heartandstroke.ca)
  • Atherosclerosis can cause an aneurysm, which is a bulge in a weakened area of your artery wall. (heartandstroke.ca)
  • Its causes are complicated and not completely understood, but atherosclerosis is thought to start when the inner lining of the artery becomes damaged. (heartandstroke.ca)
  • Atherosclerosis is not typically diagnosed without other symptoms presenting as a result of a severely blocked or narrowed artery. (wisegeek.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. (scielo.br)
  • To shed light on the link between chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis, a team of researchers in Norway and the United States, affiliated with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation and Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, focused on the aortas of recent recipients of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, comparing biopsy specimens from patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease to those from patients without it. (eurekalert.org)
  • Atherosclerosis is common in the human brachial artery and is significantly correlated with both coronary and carotid disease. (nih.gov)
  • They underwent polysomnography with quantification of snoring, bilateral carotid and femoral artery ultrasound with quantification of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk assessment. (medindia.net)
  • A model of an occluded artery with atherosclerosis. (turbosquid.com)
  • Well, that refers to atherosclerosis when there is a buildup of fats, cholesterol, and calcium in and on the artery walls, most commonly known as plaque. (epa.gov)
  • The primary end point in the assessment will be differences in maximal carotid intima media thickness and secondary end points will include differences in coronary artery calcium score, Framingham risk scores and other measurements or atherosclerosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Accordingly, the vascular deposition of large molecules such as Lp(a) and atherosclerosis is the result of the body's endogenous protective mechanism to reinforce the weakened artery walls. (scirp.org)
  • Atherosclerosis is a particular kind of arteriosclerosis (stiffening or solidifying of the artery walls). (openpr.com)
  • Atherosclerosis begins when the endothelium gets to be harmed, permitting LDL cholesterol to aggregate in the artery wall. (openpr.com)
  • Atherosclerosis or coronary artery disease showcase likewise has two different methods of treatment, which are coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and angioplasty. (openpr.com)
  • Many scientists think that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the artery. (hubpages.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the wall of the artery develops abnormalities, called lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Popular wisdom has it that breakfast is the most important meal of the day - and the first set of findings from the Progression and Early Detection of Atherosclerosis study (PESA) suggests that the meal may be even more important than traditionally believed. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Apart from microRNAs, recently ncRNAs, especially long ncRNAs, have emerged as important potential regulators of the progression of atherosclerosis. (nih.gov)
  • Macrophages, the major immune cell population in atherosclerotic lesions, have been shown to play critical roles in all stages of atherosclerosis, including the initiation and progression of advanced atherosclerosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Macrophages, the major immune cell population in the arterial plaques, have been suggested to play a central role in the immune responses and progression of atherosclerosis (Figure 1 ) [ 2 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, clarifying the macrophage-dependent inflammatory processes in atherosclerosis progression and exploring macrophage-targeted strategies to reduce the residual risk of atherosclerotic CVD have become a hot research topic in recent years. (hindawi.com)
  • Figure 4: Schematic representation of progression of atherosclerosis. (nature.com)
  • Recent advances in basic science have established a fundamental role for inflammation in mediating all stages of this disease from initiation through progression and, ultimately, the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Among the key factors in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis is the conversion of cells called macrophages into 'foam cells' whose presence is associated with plaque instability. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • The MESA Air Study's main theory is that increased long-term exposure to PM 2.5 (fine particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter) is associated with a more rapid progression of coronary atherosclerosis and an increased risk of coronary events, such as heart attacks. (epa.gov)
  • The MESA Air study is finding evidence of associations between long-term fine particle pollution and the progression of atherosclerosis. (epa.gov)
  • To determine whether eradication of HCV affects atherosclerosis progression, we propose to examine up to 200 patients with chronic hepatitis C for markers of atherosclerosis and the risk of its complications. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Led by researchers from NYU School of Medicine, this study provides the first direct evidence that raising levels of a simple, functional version of good cholesterol - the HDL protein shuttle that pulls cholesterol out of cells - reversed the progression of atherosclerosis in mice with diabetes. (newkerala.com)
  • It is well accepted that high blood LDL cholesterol plays a prominent role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. (hubpages.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is often called arteriosclerosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Arteriosclerosis can occur in several forms, including atherosclerosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is the most common arterial abnormality characterized as arteriosclerosis , which is defined by the loss of arterial elasticity due to vessel thickening and stiffening. (britannica.com)
  • Peripheral Atherosclerosis (or arteriosclerosis obliterans) is a type of peri-vascular disease wherein the lower limbs are affected. (hubpages.com)
  • In a longitudinal study, both leukocyte telomere length and carotid atherosclerosis were quantified in 154 subjects at baseline and after a 9.5-year follow-up, and their interrelation was evaluated. (ahajournals.org)
  • In a later presentation in the same session, Raluca Pais, MD, of Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, and colleagues reported that NAFLD is an independent predictor of carotid atherosclerosis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • To add to the information, she and colleagues studied the records of patients at high risk for cardiovascular events, who were being seen in a primary prevention program, with a view at assessing the impact of NAFLD on carotid atherosclerosis and 10-year Framingham score . (medpagetoday.com)
  • A new study says that heavy snorers might be at an increased risk of developing carotid atherosclerosis, which may progress to be associated with stroke. (medindia.net)
  • In the study involving 10 adults, the research team found that the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was 20 percent with mild snoring, 32 percent with moderate snoring and 64 percent with heavy snoring. (medindia.net)
  • Heavy snoring is an independent risk factor for developing early carotid atherosclerosis, which may progress to be associated with stroke. (medindia.net)
  • Heavy snorers may be at risk for the development of carotid atherosclerosis, which is the leading cause of stroke," said lead author and study coordinator Sharon Lee, associate professor and director of the Ludwig Engel Centre for Respiratory Research at Westmead Hospital in Australia. (medindia.net)
  • however, a supra-additive effect of MetS beyond its component's effects on carotid atherosclerosis was not found ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recent studies ( 6 - 9 ) have demonstrated an association between various definitions of MetS and subclinical carotid and coronary atherosclerosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although the subjects in our study were on average 15 to 20 years younger than the subjects examined by Nagai et al, 1 the findings from the 2 studies are remarkably similar with respect to the associations between ECG evidence of ischemia and carotid atherosclerosis, thus extending these observations to nearly the entire adult life span. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 Together with the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with abnormal HR-adjusted ST-segment depression indexes, 5 these findings suggest that asymptomatic individuals with carotid thickening due to atherosclerosis or hypertrophy and exercise-induced ischemia may be at a substantially increased risk of future coronary events. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here I provide an update on research and discuss the role of progenitor cells in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. (nature.com)
  • The scientists suggest these newly identified products are critical to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis because they are toxic to white blood cells, smooth muscle cells, and cells from the arterial walls--all the major types of cells in and around atherosclerotic plaques. (innovations-report.com)
  • To the Editor: Chlamydophila pneumoniae causes pneumonia, but its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is controversial (1-4). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Therefore, we investigated the role of Parachlamydia in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by using a molecular approach. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis could be affected by the bacteria found in the mouth and the intestine, and this may result in new treatment strategies, according to new research. (medindia.net)
  • Atherosclerosis is the build up of a waxy plaque on the inside of blood vessels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • New research demonstrates that injecting synthetically designed nanofibers in mice helps to break up the arterial plaque that is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a focal vascular disease characterized by intimal thickening and plaque formation and mostly occurs at sites notably with endothelial cell injury and disturbed laminar flow [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • If they become narrower and less flexible because plaque is building up inside them, that's atherosclerosis . (webmd.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is an inflammation process in the blood vessels due to a build up of plaque. (epnet.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is caused by plaque. (epnet.com)
  • The discovery, which was presented by Dr Sala-Newby during the opening lecture of the Third European Vascular Genomics Network Congress in Toulouse, opens up promising perspectives for the treatment of atherosclerosis, suggesting novel targets to slow down and possibly prevent plaque rupture. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Atherosclerosis has a broad range of disease manifestations depending on the degree of the stenosis and the functional status of the coronary plaque. (routledge.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is hardening of a blood vessel from a buildup of plaque. (stdavids.com)
  • To investigate the microbial composition of atherosclerotic plaques and test the hypothesis that the oral or gut microbiota may contribute to atherosclerosis in humans, we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to survey the bacterial diversity of atherosclerotic plaque, oral, and gut samples of 15 patients with atherosclerosis, and oral and gut samples of healthy controls. (pnas.org)
  • Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of the vein as a result of plaque build-up. (openpr.com)
  • Coronary Atherosclerosis: Current Management and Treatment addresses this leading cause of death worldwide. (routledge.com)
  • Coronary Atherosclerosis: Current Management and Treatment provides a state-of-the-art review of current knowledge to aid specialists, general physicians, and cardiologists in training, in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of patients with diverse presentations of coronary atherosclerosis. (routledge.com)
  • The Pathophysiology of Coronary Atherosclerosis. (routledge.com)
  • Diagnostic Approach to Coronary Atherosclerosis: Non Invasive Approach. (routledge.com)
  • It is thought that atherosclerosis is caused by a response to damage to the endothelium from high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and cigarette smoking . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • She also researches the regulation of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism by hormone factors, the molecular basis of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis, and the mechanisms of lipid abnormalities caused by protease inhibitors. (google.com)
  • Blood Tests - blood tests check the levels of certain fats, cholesterol, sugar, and proteins in your blood and abnormal levels may indicate risk factors for atherosclerosis. (news-medical.net)
  • Current therapies for atherosclerosis include the use of statins, which help to regulate cholesterol levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The clearest picture of inflammation's role in the onset of atherosclerosis comes from investigations into low-density lipoprotein, a.k.a. bad cholesterol. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Scientists have long known that although the body needs LDL and cholesterol, excessive amounts promote atherosclerosis. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Aortic plaques are a manifestation of the general process of atherosclerosis in which there is a progressive accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids in the intimal-medial layer of the aorta with secondary inflammation, repetitive fibrous tissue deposition, and eventually luminal surface erosions and appearance of often mobile thrombi protruding into the lumen of the aorta. (springer.com)
  • Elevated levels of cholesterol, fat, sugar, and certain proteins are detectable in the blood and can be associated with atherosclerosis. (innerbody.com)
  • Healthy dietary changes and regular exercise are both very important parts of reducing high blood pressure and high cholesterol, two major contributors to atherosclerosis. (healthline.com)
  • The major culprit of atherosclerosis is thought (I don't know if they indeed found LDL in atheromas) to be type B LDL (the smaller more dense one as opposed to type A LDL) because it's always present, small enough, and by its job, travels from the liver to the tissues (to deliver cholesterol) so at one time it must try to pass the arterial wall to reach the target tissue. (exrx.net)
  • I'm trying to understand the correlation of diet, cholesterol, and fat with coronary heart disease (my father got an angina once) and apparently it boils down to atherosclerosis. (exrx.net)
  • There are several factors that increase a person's risk of developing atherosclerosis, such as: cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke, diabetes, high blood cholesterol, especially a high level of LDL ('the bad' or 'lethal' cholesterol), high blood pressure, high levels of triglycerides in the blood, increased age, lack of exercise, male gender obesity. (howstuffworks.com)
  • A regular diet high in fat and cholesterol may also increase the risk for developing atherosclerosis. (wisegeek.com)
  • Because the liver controls cholesterol and fat levels in the blood, hepatitis C infection may be a risk factor for atherosclerosis by increasing cholesterol and fat in blood vessels. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Published online in the journal Circulation on September 30, the study results revolve around atherosclerosis, a condition where high levels of cholesterol cause plaques to form in vessel walls, eventually restricting blood flow to cause heart attacks and strokes. (newkerala.com)
  • Our study results argue that raising levels of functional good cholesterol addresses inflammatory roots of atherosclerosis driven by cholesterol buildup beyond what existing drugs can achieve, says study senior author Edward Fisher, MD, PhD, the Leon H. Charney Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine at NYU Langone Health. (newkerala.com)
  • Treatments for atherosclerosis for decades have focused on lowering blood levels of LDL or bad cholesterol, a second shuttle that delivers molecules of cholesterol from the diet (and from the liver) to the body's cells, including those in vessel walls. (newkerala.com)
  • For 12 weeks, these mice were fed a diet that was both high in cholesterol and in which 10 percent of calories came from palm oil, one of the vegetable oils most likely to cause atherosclerosis. (scienceblog.com)
  • The prevailing belief underlying conventional approaches to treatment of atherosclerosis and its sequel is that a diet high in cholesterol and saturated fat is the main contributory factor, triggering cholesterol build up in the intima of the blood vessels. (scirp.org)
  • Besides aging, aspects that upsurge the risk of atherosclerosis include: High blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, smoking or other tobacco use, family history of early heart disease, lack of exercise and an unhealthy diet. (openpr.com)
  • The development in atherosclerosis market is determined by expanded prevalence, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, hypertension, dyslipidemia, an especially decrease in high thickness cholesterol (HDL-C), and elevated cholesterol slim down. (openpr.com)
  • In this article, the current understanding of how atherosclerosis develops will be reviewed, focusing on the key role of bad (LDL) cholesterol. (hubpages.com)
  • Atherosclerosis can begin in the late teens, but it usually takes decades to cause symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, some people with atherosclerosis have no signs or symptoms and may not be diagnosed until after a heart attack or stroke. (news-medical.net)
  • Atherosclerosis does not cause symptoms until blood flow to part of the body becomes slowed or blocked. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Atherosclerosis usually doesn't cause any symptoms until blood supply to an organ is reduced. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Subclinical atherosclerosis is a latent form of the condition, which does not produce symptoms straight away. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Atherosclerosis may not produce symptoms until it is at an advanced stage, at which time medical attention is needed. (innerbody.com)
  • Some people who have atherosclerosis have no signs or symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Sometimes atherosclerosis causes no symptoms until it is advanced enough to block a large part of an important blood vessel. (heartandstroke.ca)
  • For people who have a high risk of developing the condition or people who have related symptoms, diagnostic tests can be performed to determine if atherosclerosis is present in a patient. (wisegeek.com)
  • Early atherosclerosis does not have any symptoms. (epnet.com)
  • Atherosclerosis doesn't tend to have any symptoms at first, and many people may be unaware they have it, but it can eventually cause life-threatening problems such as heart attacks ↗ and strokes ↗ if it gets worse. (axappphealthcare.co.uk)
  • Lifestyle changes will reduce your risk of atherosclerosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You can't do anything about some of these factors, but by tackling things such as an unhealthy diet and a lack of exercise, you can help reduce your risk of atherosclerosis and CVD. (axappphealthcare.co.uk)
  • Atherosclerosis, formerly considered a bland lipid storage disease, actually involves an ongoing inflammatory response. (ahajournals.org)
  • Once thought of as a lipid storage disease, atherosclerosis is now also recognized as a chronic inflammatory condition that increases risk of coronary and cerebrovascular disease. (qiagen.com)
  • Atherosclerosis showing extracellular lipid accumulation and foam cells. (wikiversity.org)
  • PBA also inhibited palmitate-dependent induction of the ER stress-dependent unfolded protein response, apoptosis, and accumulation of macrophage fatty acid-binding protein-4 (aP2, a cytosolic lipid chaperone, loss of which protects against atherosclerosis). (sciencemag.org)
  • Early identification and management of risk factors in children for lipid disorders is the focus in the Division of Lipid Research and Atherosclerosis. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Among the oldest of its kind, the Division of Lipid Research and Atherosclerosis at the Children's Center is also the first in the country to focus on the whole family. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • 1) Could we possibly have gone wrong on the lipid hypothesis of atherosclerosis? (scirp.org)
  • Atherosclerosis covers basic and translational, clinical and population research approaches to arterial and vascular biologyand disease, as well as their risk factors including: disturbances of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, diabetes and hypertension, thrombosis, and inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cigarette/tobacco smoke-Smoking increases both the chance of developing atherosclerosis and the chance of dying from coronary heart disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inflammation due to injury or another underlying condition enhances the chance of developing atherosclerosis. (innerbody.com)
  • Physical inactivity, diabetes, and obesity are also risk factors for atherosclerosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Men develop atherosclerosis more often than women, and individuals with diabetes mellitus have a significantly higher incidence of the disease. (britannica.com)
  • R.N. Banerjee, A.L. Sahni, V. Kumar, M. Arya, Antithrombin III deficiency in maturity onset diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Ezetimibe beneficially influences fasting and postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in type 2 diabetes," Atherosclerosis , vol. 217, no. 1, pp. 142-148, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • The inflammatory processes that mediate atherosclerosis occur in disease states such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. (qiagen.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus-The risk of developing atherosclerosis is seriously increased for diabetics and can be lowered by keeping diabetes under control. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This review is concerned with the therapeutic potential of all of these functions in multiple disease states.Recent FindingsKnowledge of the beneficial functions of APOA1 in atherosclerosis, thrombosis, diabetes, cancer, and neurological disorders is increasing exponentially. (medworm.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is the most common complication of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Advances in this area will require the recognition that neither diabetes nor atherosclerosis are single disorders. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Faced with these limits, researchers looked more closely at the roles in atherosclerosis and diabetes of inflammation. (newkerala.com)
  • This article reviews the functions of macrophages in different stages of atherosclerosis, as well as the phenotypes and functions of macrophage subsets. (hindawi.com)
  • These facts make an impact of alcohol on the various stages of atherosclerosis via anti-inflammatory effects a reasonable assumption. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Below is a general description of the stages of atherosclerosis (2, 4). (hubpages.com)
  • It has been well established that atherosclerosis is not only a metabolic disorder but also a chronic, sterile, and maladaptive inflammatory process encompassing both innate and adaptive immunity. (hindawi.com)
  • Currently, it has been well established that atherosclerosis is both a component associated with metabolic disorder and a chronic inflammatory process in the arterial wall, which is induced initially by the subendothelial deposition of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (apoB-LPs) [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although atherosclerosis is linked to inflammation in healthy individuals as well, the mechanism of inflammation and the reason for accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease remain unclear. (eurekalert.org)
  • Over the last few years, evidence has been accumulating that the process of atherosclerosis has a significant inflammatory component. (innovations-report.com)
  • The recognition of atherosclerosis as an inflammatory disease raised the question of whether anti-inflammatory drugs might decrease this disease process," said Mishra, who noted that TSA is not only an anti-cancer and anti-lupus drug, but also an anti-inflammatory agent. (scienceblog.com)
  • In the last 10 to 15 years compelling evidence has bolstered the hypothesis that atherosclerosis is at least in part an inflammatory disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Angina , heart attack (Myocardial Infarction), Stroke (Cerebrovascular Accident), Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) or mini-stroke and Peripheral Vascular Disease (Peripheral Arterial Disease) are also linked to atherosclerosis. (news-medical.net)
  • The pathological cause of most CVD events, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease is atherosclerosis, thus motivating a number of researchers to study the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis over the past decades. (hindawi.com)
  • Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including heart attack , stroke , or even death. (nih.gov)
  • Atherosclerosis of the blood vessels leading to the brain can cause a stroke. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This study will determine what effect hepatitis C treatment has on the rate of atherosclerosis and narrowing of blood vessels and on the risk of heart attack or stroke. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Intracranial atherosclerosis is the dominant cause of stroke in over 70% of the world's population. (ovid.com)
  • Clinical practice is allied with basic science to guide all those with an interest in stroke on the diagnosis and management of intracranial atherosclerosis. (ovid.com)
  • Researchers at the Swedish Medical University Karolinska Institutet have identified the genes that may protect against atherosclerosis, the main cause of myocardial infarction and stroke. (medindia.net)
  • Dr. Neel A. Mansukhani - an integrated vascular surgery fellow at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, IL - led a study in which synthetically created nanofibers were used in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • MicroRNAs control several aspects of atherosclerosis, including endothelial cell, vascular smooth cell, and macrophage functions as well as lipoprotein metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • While insulin resistance, by promoting dyslipidemia and other metabolic abnormalities, is part of the proatherogenic milieu, it is possible that insulin resistance itself in the vascular wall does not promote atherosclerosis. (jci.org)
  • As a recognized leader in cardiovascular care, the UPMC Heart and Vascular Institute offers innovative treatment techniques for atherosclerosis and other heart and blood vessel conditions. (upmc.com)
  • At the UPMC Heart and Vascular Institute , we can screen people for atherosclerosis risk factors and provide treatments to minimize the risks. (upmc.com)
  • Why choose the UPMC Heart and Vascular Institute for atherosclerosis care? (upmc.com)
  • The UPMC Heart and Vascular Institute's multidisciplinary team of cardiologists, radiologists, surgeons, rehabilitation specialists, physical therapists, and nutritionists provides a full range of advanced atherosclerosis treatments. (upmc.com)
  • The UPMC Heart and Vascular Institute offers educational information and videos about atherosclerosis and other heart and vascular diseases and treatments. (upmc.com)
  • Development of an apoptosis targeted high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mimicking nanoparticle (NP) to carry contrast agents for early detection of vulnerable plaques and the initiation of preventative therapies that exploit the vascular protective effects of HDL can be attractive for atherosclerosis. (pnas.org)
  • The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (scielo.br)
  • The vascular inflammation might be a factor that promotes atherosclerosis and the formation of aneurysms. (eurekalert.org)
  • Other groups have made observations of atherosclerosis in mummies in the past, but the presence of vascular calcifications in these Inuit mummies, despite their active lifestyle and marine-based diet, offers new implications into the disease, the authors noted. (auntminnie.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a common vascular disease that increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, more direct effects of apoE on the vascular wall may well contribute to arterial protection from atherosclerosis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Understanding this mechanism may guide the natural prevention of this disease and form the basis for developing effective therapeutic strategies aiming at natural reversal of atherosclerosis through the reinforcement of the vascular wall structure as its primary goal. (scirp.org)
  • One of these molecules is nitric oxide (NO). NO appears to have a protective role against atherosclerosis by regulating vasodilation, inhibiting platelet aggregation (thus inhibiting blood clotting), reducing vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and blocking white blood cell adhesion and movement across the vascular wall. (hubpages.com)
  • A person who has all three of these risk factors is eight times more likely to develop atherosclerosis than is a person who has none. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These indicators are not always reliable, and there is a substantial fraction of patients who develop atherosclerosis without displaying these risk factors. (innovations-report.com)
  • A study led by researchers in Spain has suggested that skipping breakfast doubles the risk of "subclinical atherosclerosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The results of the research show that those who consume less than 5 percent of their daily calorie intake for breakfast may have double the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis compared with people who have a high-energy breakfast. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dr. Uzhova and her team examined three types of breakfast consumption, looking for a connection between breakfast patterns and the incidence of subclinical atherosclerosis in a healthy population. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Increased subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults with metabolic syndrome: the Bogalusa Heart Study. (drfuhrman.com)
  • OBJECTIVE -To investigate the association of insulin resistance and clinically defined metabolic syndrome (MetS) with subclinical atherosclerosis and examine whether these relationships vary by race/ethnicity or sex. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Multivariable linear or relative risk regression was used to analyze the association between HOMA-IR and subclinical atherosclerosis and assess its independence from MetS components. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS -Although HOMA-IR was associated with increased subclinical atherosclerosis, the association was not independent of the risk factors that comprise MetS. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The focus of this article is 1 ) to evaluate the association between insulin resistance (as estimated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and subclinical atherosclerosis, 2 ) to determine whether associations of insulin resistance with subclinical atherosclerosis are independent of clinically defined MetS, and 3 ) to examine whether differences in these relationships exist by race/ethnicity or by sex. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A definition of advanced types of atherosclerotic lesions and a histological classification of atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • The role of C. pneumoniae in atherosclerosis is supported by seroepidemiologic studies and detection in atherosclerotic lesions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistologic analysis, culture, and electron microscopy (2,3). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Many of these alterations may accompany hyperinsulinemia and may account for the recent evidence that hyperinsulinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Use this condition center to learn more about atherosclerosis, create a list of questions to ask your health care provider and get practical tips. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Emerging data suggest that ncRNAs play an important role in several physiological and pathological conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the field, highlighting the importance of ncRNAs in atherosclerosis and discuss their potential use as therapeutic targets in cardiovascular diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Atherosclerosis is the main pathological basis for the occurrence of most cardiovascular diseases, the leading global health threat, and a great burden for society. (hindawi.com)
  • The Editors are interested in original or review papers dealing with the pathogenesis, environmental, genetic and epigenetic basis, diagnosis or treatment of atherosclerosis and related diseases as well as their risk factors. (elsevier.com)
  • Improved treatments have reduced the number of deaths from atherosclerosis-related diseases. (nih.gov)
  • You may be able to prevent or delay atherosclerosis and the diseases it can cause. (nih.gov)
  • Atherosclerosis-related diseases cause 40-50% of all deaths in Sweden each year. (eurekalert.org)
  • Does atherosclerosis result from systemic inflammation, a hallmark of these rheumatic diseases, or from local inflammation of vessels? (eurekalert.org)
  • Synageva BioPharma Corp. (Synageva) (NASDAQ:GEVA), a biopharmaceutical company developing therapeutic products for rare diseases, today announced the publication of an overview of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL Deficiency) in the online version and an upcoming print edition of Atherosclerosis , the official journal of the European Atherosclerosis Society. (thestreet.com)
  • The journal covers all aspects of atherosclerosis and related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • J.R. O'Brien, Antithrombin III and heparin clotting times in thrombosis and atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Molecular mechanisms of ezetimibe-induced attenuation of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia," Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis , vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 914-924, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Current Atherosclerosis Reports - incl. (springer.com)
  • Current Atherosclerosis Reports requests that all authors comply with Springer's ethical policies. (springer.com)
  • Current Atherosclerosis Reports provides in-depth review articles contributed by international experts on the most significant developments in the field. (springer.com)
  • Official Journal of the European Atherosclerosis Society . (elsevier.com)
  • Complimentary online access is available to all members of the European Atherosclerosis Society . (elsevier.com)
  • It is the official journal of the European Atherosclerosis Society and is affiliated with the International Atherosclerosis Society. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reduced personal subscription rate is available to all members of the International Atherosclerosis Society . (elsevier.com)
  • To test the newly designed substance, Dr. Mansukhani and team genetically engineered mice to have atherosclerosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 2003) Circulating progenitor cells regenerate endothelium of vein graft atherosclerosis, which is diminished in apoE-deficient mice. (nature.com)
  • addressed the function of JNK in atherogenesis, using atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice simultaneously lacking either JNK1 or JNK2. (sciencemag.org)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of overall JNK activity substantially suppressed atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • We will be taking a look at new research that has reversed atherosclerosis in mice and is on the road to clinical trials in the future. (lifeboat.com)
  • Researchers tested TSA on experimental mice that were bred to lack a significant natural protection against atherosclerosis. (scienceblog.com)
  • Mishra, assistant professor of internal medicine - rheumatology, and his colleagues tested TSA on experimental mice that were bred to lack a significant natural protection against atherosclerosis. (scienceblog.com)
  • When Mishra compared the mice given TSA with mice given an inert substance, the amount of atherosclerosis deposited in the aortic arch was cut in half. (scienceblog.com)
  • Mishra got similar results when he tested TSA on another type of experimental mice that are also prone to atherosclerosis. (scienceblog.com)
  • possible therapeutic action of cannabinoids, effects on atherosclerosis specially, is described at the close. (nih.gov)
  • This review describes the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in atherosclerosis and discusses potential therapeutic targets in the inflammasome pathway. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Specific inhibition of JNK2 activity may thus represent a therapeutic approach to ameliorate atherosclerosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The characterization of apoE and its many functions has provided insight into the ultimate potential of this protein as a possible therapeutic agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • This review will examine key scientific advances, which focus on possible therapeutic strategies that encompass the use of apoE in the amelioration of atherosclerosis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Medications to treat Atherosclerosis incorporates statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers (BB), antiplatelets, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and nitrates. (openpr.com)
  • Restriction of blood flow to the heart muscle due to atherosclerosis can cause angina pectoris or a myocardial infarction (a heart attack). (healthcentral.com)
  • While most people associate this disease with the heart, atherosclerosis can occur anywhere in the body and result in reduced blood flow, blood clots and heart attacks. (doctoroz.com)
  • Most diabetics die from heart attacks caused by atherosclerosis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of heart attacks and heart disease . (wisegeek.com)
  • These are among the many discoveries coming out of the MESA Air study that are providing new insights into how air pollution can contribute to atherosclerosis and lead to heart attacks and strokes. (epa.gov)
  • Growing incidence of heart attacks due to atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease is expected to increase demand for atherosclerosis treatment products. (openpr.com)
  • Inflammation plays an important role in atherosclerosis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • explored the development of lipotoxic ER stress and its role in atherosclerosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, our findings suggest that bacteria from the oral cavity, and perhaps even the gut, may correlate with disease markers of atherosclerosis. (pnas.org)
  • Diet is the key component in prevention and reversal of atherosclerosis. (drfuhrman.com)
  • The main treatment for atherosclerosis is lifestyle changes. (nih.gov)
  • These atheronals were found in atherosclerotic plaques that were surgically removed from patients with atherosclerosis. (innovations-report.com)
  • The mechanisms leading to the initiation of atherosclerosis are very complex. (springer.com)
  • Figure 2: Schematic representation of the initiation of atherosclerosis. (nature.com)
  • The role of macrophages in atherosclerosis is quite complex and controversial. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • To test the effect of moderate amounts of different types of alcoholic beverages on markers of inflammation with high predictive potential for atherothrombotic complications of atherosclerosis will be examined in a cross-over short-term interventional trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Atherosclerosis brings together, from all sources, papers concerned with investigation on atherosclerosis , its risk factors and clinical manifestations. (elsevier.com)
  • Clinical studies have shown that this emerging biology of inflammation in atherosclerosis applies directly to human patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • These new insights into inflammation in atherosclerosis not only increase our understanding of this disease, but also have practical clinical applications in risk stratification and targeting of therapy for this scourge of growing worldwide importance. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of this journal is to systematically provide expert views on current basic science and clinical advances in the field of atherosclerosis and highlight the most important developments likely to transform the field of cardiovascular prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. (springer.com)
  • Upon examining the CT scans, the researchers detected calcified arterial plaques in three of the mummies, suggesting the presence of atherosclerosis. (auntminnie.com)
  • This suggests that the presence of atheronals may be a good indicator of late-stage arterial inflammation--perhaps the basis for a diagnostic test for atherosclerosis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a slow, progressive and complex disease of the arterial wall. (hubpages.com)
  • books.google.com - At its present rate of growth, atherosclerosis will be the major cause of death from disease by the year 2020. (google.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a slow, progressive disease that may start in childhood. (heart.org)
  • Although atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the so-called affluent societies, there is presently no drug in our pharmacologic armamentarium against disease to either prevent or reverse this insidious killer and debilitant of human lives. (springer.com)
  • The risk of atherosclerosis in higher for individuals with a family history of heart disease. (innerbody.com)
  • Atherosclerosis , more commonly known as heart disease, is a serious and life-threatening condition. (healthline.com)
  • Dr. Howard Weintraub, cardiologist at NYU Langone Medical Center , says that once you're diagnosed with atherosclerosis, the most you can do is make the disease less dangerous. (healthline.com)
  • Medical treatment combined with lifestyle and dietary changes can be used to keep atherosclerosis from getting worse, but they aren't able to reverse the disease. (healthline.com)
  • LAL Deficiency presenting in children and adults, historically called Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD), is an underappreciated cause of cirrhosis and accelerated atherosclerosis. (thestreet.com)
  • Whereas physical inactivity and a high-fat diet are believed to be risk factors for atherosclerosis, studies have suggested that regular physical activity combined with a plant- or marine-based diet may contribute to lowering the risk of developing the disease, noted lead author Dr. Samuel Wann from Ascension Healthcare in Milwaukee, WI, and colleagues. (auntminnie.com)
  • It was exciting to work together with our multidisciplinary team of cardiologists, radiologists, archeologists, anthropologists, and basic scientists, using modern CT technology to study the 'modern' disease of atherosclerosis in individuals who lived hundreds of years ago in a preindustrial environment consuming a primarily marine diet," Wann told AuntMinnie.com . (auntminnie.com)
  • The findings further complicate the role that various risk factors play in the etiology of atherosclerosis, and they possibly emphasize the magnitude of environmental factors beyond diet as having triggered the disease in Inuit people, such as smoke inhalation from indoor fires, the team concluded. (auntminnie.com)
  • However, the prevalence of brachial atherosclerosis and its relation to coronary disease have never been documented. (nih.gov)
  • Today we will be looking at a new study that is attempting to treat atherosclerosis, one of the biggest age-related killers globally. (lifeboat.com)
  • The Human Atherosclerosis RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes related to atherosclerosis. (qiagen.com)
  • As Americans continue to make poor lifestyle choices, the current prevalence rates of atherosclerosis will continue to climb. (drfuhrman.com)