Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
'Nerve tissue proteins' are specialized proteins found within the nervous system's biological tissue, including neurofilaments, neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, and neural cell adhesion molecules, which facilitate structural support, intracellular communication, and synaptic connectivity essential for proper neurological function.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.

Immortalized, pre-malignant epithelial cell populations contain long-lived, label-retaining cells that asymmetrically divide and retain their template DNA. (1/72)

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JMY is required for asymmetric division and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes. (2/72)

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Isolation of live label-retaining cells and cells undergoing asymmetric cell division via nonrandom chromosomal cosegregation from human cancers. (3/72)

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Chasing the immortal strand: evidence for nature's way of protecting the breast genome. (4/72)

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The small GTPase Cdc42 promotes membrane protrusion during polar body emission via ARP2-nucleated actin polymerization. (5/72)

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Fly meets yeast: checking the correct orientation of cell division. (6/72)

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Asymmetric cortical extension shifts cleavage furrow position in Drosophila neuroblasts. (7/72)

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Molecular profiling of stomatal meristemoids reveals new component of asymmetric cell division and commonalities among stem cell populations in Arabidopsis. (8/72)

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Asymmetric cell division is a type of cell division in which the two daughter cells that result from the division are not identical to each other. This occurs when the mother cell that is dividing is not equally divided, and as a result, one of the resulting daughter cells inherits more or different cytoplasmic components than the other.

In asymmetric cell division, the cellular machinery responsible for determining which proteins and organelles are distributed to each daughter cell plays an important role in ensuring that each cell acquires the necessary components to carry out its specific functions. This process is critical during development, as it helps generate cells with different fates and specialized functions.

In summary, asymmetric cell division is a type of cell division where the two resulting daughter cells are not identical due to unequal distribution of cytoplasmic components, which can lead to differences in their function and behavior.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a class of sesquiterpenoid compounds that play a crucial role in the regulation of insect development, reproduction, and other physiological processes. They are primarily produced by the corpora allata, a pair of endocrine glands located in the head of insects.

JHs are essential for maintaining the larval or nymphal stage of insects, preventing the expression of adult characteristics during molting. As the concentration of JH decreases in the hemolymph (insect blood), a molt to the next developmental stage occurs, and if the insect has reached its final instar, it will metamorphose into an adult.

In addition to their role in development, JHs also influence various aspects of insect reproductive physiology, such as vitellogenesis (yolk protein synthesis), oocyte maturation, and spermatogenesis. Furthermore, JHs have been implicated in regulating diapause (a period of suspended development during unfavorable environmental conditions) and caste determination in social insects like bees and ants.

Overall, juvenile hormones are vital regulators of growth, development, and reproduction in insects, making them attractive targets for the development of novel pest management strategies.

Cell polarity refers to the asymmetric distribution of membrane components, cytoskeleton, and organelles in a cell. This asymmetry is crucial for various cellular functions such as directed transport, cell division, and signal transduction. The plasma membrane of polarized cells exhibits distinct domains with unique protein and lipid compositions that define apical, basal, and lateral surfaces of the cell.

In epithelial cells, for example, the apical surface faces the lumen or external environment, while the basolateral surface interacts with other cells or the extracellular matrix. The establishment and maintenance of cell polarity are regulated by various factors including protein complexes, lipids, and small GTPases. Loss of cell polarity has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

The spindle apparatus is a microtubule-based structure that plays a crucial role in the process of cell division, specifically during mitosis and meiosis. It consists of three main components:

1. The spindle poles: These are organized structures composed of microtubules and associated proteins that serve as the anchoring points for the spindle fibers. In animal cells, these poles are typically formed by centrosomes, while in plant cells, they form around nucleation sites called microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs).
2. The spindle fibers: These are dynamic arrays of microtubules that extend between the two spindle poles. They can be categorized into three types: kinetochore fibers, which connect to the kinetochores on chromosomes; astral fibers, which radiate from the spindle poles and help position the spindle within the cell; and interpolar fibers, which lie between the two spindle poles and contribute to their separation during anaphase.
3. Regulatory proteins: Various motor proteins, such as dynein and kinesin, as well as non-motor proteins like tubulin and septins, are involved in the assembly, maintenance, and dynamics of the spindle apparatus. These proteins help to generate forces that move chromosomes, position the spindle, and ultimately segregate genetic material between two daughter cells during cell division.

The spindle apparatus is essential for ensuring accurate chromosome separation and maintaining genomic stability during cell division. Dysfunction of the spindle apparatus can lead to various abnormalities, including aneuploidy (abnormal number of chromosomes) and chromosomal instability, which have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and developmental disorders.

'Caenorhabditis elegans' (C. elegans) is a type of free-living, transparent nematode (roundworm) that is often used as a model organism in scientific research. C. elegans proteins refer to the various types of protein molecules that are produced by the organism's genes and play crucial roles in maintaining its biological functions.

Proteins are complex molecules made up of long chains of amino acids, and they are involved in virtually every cellular process, including metabolism, DNA replication, signal transduction, and transportation of molecules within the cell. In C. elegans, proteins are encoded by genes, which are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules that are then translated into protein sequences by ribosomes.

Studying C. elegans proteins is important for understanding the basic biology of this organism and can provide insights into more complex biological systems, including humans. Because C. elegans has a relatively simple nervous system and a short lifespan, it is often used to study neurobiology, aging, and development. Additionally, because many of the genes and proteins in C. elegans have counterparts in other organisms, including humans, studying them can provide insights into human disease processes and potential therapeutic targets.

'Caenorhabditis elegans' is a species of free-living, transparent nematode (roundworm) that is widely used as a model organism in scientific research, particularly in the fields of biology and genetics. It has a simple anatomy, short lifespan, and fully sequenced genome, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes and diseases.

Some notable features of C. elegans include:

* Small size: Adult hermaphrodites are about 1 mm in length.
* Short lifespan: The average lifespan of C. elegans is around 2-3 weeks, although some strains can live up to 4 weeks under laboratory conditions.
* Development: C. elegans has a well-characterized developmental process, with adults developing from eggs in just 3 days at 20°C.
* Transparency: The transparent body of C. elegans allows researchers to observe its internal structures and processes easily.
* Genetics: C. elegans has a fully sequenced genome, which contains approximately 20,000 genes. Many of these genes have human homologs, making it an excellent model for studying human diseases.
* Neurobiology: C. elegans has a simple nervous system, with only 302 neurons in the hermaphrodite and 383 in the male. This simplicity makes it an ideal organism for studying neural development, function, and behavior.

Research using C. elegans has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including cell division, apoptosis, aging, learning, and memory. Additionally, studies on C. elegans have led to the discovery of many genes associated with human diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic conditions.

'Drosophila proteins' refer to the proteins that are expressed in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. This organism is a widely used model system in genetics, developmental biology, and molecular biology research. The study of Drosophila proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including gene regulation, cell signaling, development, and aging.

Some examples of well-studied Drosophila proteins include:

1. HSP70 (Heat Shock Protein 70): A chaperone protein involved in protein folding and protection from stress conditions.
2. TUBULIN: A structural protein that forms microtubules, important for cell division and intracellular transport.
3. ACTIN: A cytoskeletal protein involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and maintenance of cell shape.
4. BETA-GALACTOSIDASE (LACZ): A reporter protein often used to monitor gene expression patterns in transgenic flies.
5. ENDOGLIN: A protein involved in the development of blood vessels during embryogenesis.
6. P53: A tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer by regulating cell growth and division.
7. JUN-KINASE (JNK): A signaling protein involved in stress response, apoptosis, and developmental processes.
8. DECAPENTAPLEGIC (DPP): A member of the TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor Beta) superfamily, playing essential roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

These proteins are often studied using various techniques such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and structural biology to understand their functions, interactions, and regulation within the cell.

'Cell lineage' is a term used in biology and medicine to describe the developmental history or relationship of a cell or group of cells to other cells, tracing back to the original progenitor or stem cell. It refers to the series of cell divisions and differentiation events that give rise to specific types of cells in an organism over time.

In simpler terms, cell lineage is like a family tree for cells, showing how they are related to each other through a chain of cell division and specialization events. This concept is important in understanding the development, growth, and maintenance of tissues and organs in living beings.

Miosis is the medical term for the constriction or narrowing of the pupil of the eye. It's a normal response to close up viewing, as well as a reaction to certain drugs like opioids and pilocarpine. Conversely, dilation of the pupils is called mydriasis. Miosis can be also a symptom of certain medical conditions such as Horner's syndrome or third cranial nerve palsy.

"Drosophila" is a genus of small flies, also known as fruit flies. The most common species used in scientific research is "Drosophila melanogaster," which has been a valuable model organism for many areas of biological and medical research, including genetics, developmental biology, neurobiology, and aging.

The use of Drosophila as a model organism has led to numerous important discoveries in genetics and molecular biology, such as the identification of genes that are associated with human diseases like cancer, Parkinson's disease, and obesity. The short reproductive cycle, large number of offspring, and ease of genetic manipulation make Drosophila a powerful tool for studying complex biological processes.

Sense organs are specialized structures in living organisms that are responsible for receiving and processing various external or internal stimuli, such as light, sound, taste, smell, temperature, and touch. They convert these stimuli into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the nervous system, allowing the organism to interact with and respond to its environment. Examples of sense organs include the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), stem cells are "initial cells" or "precursor cells" that have the ability to differentiate into many different cell types in the body. They can also divide without limit to replenish other cells for as long as the person or animal is still alive.

There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which come from human embryos, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types in the body, while adult stem cells have more limited differentiation potential.

Stem cells play an essential role in the development and repair of various tissues and organs in the body. They are currently being studied for their potential use in the treatment of a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the properties and capabilities of these cells before they can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings.

Mitosis is a type of cell division in which the genetic material of a single cell, called the mother cell, is equally distributed into two identical daughter cells. It's a fundamental process that occurs in multicellular organisms for growth, maintenance, and repair, as well as in unicellular organisms for reproduction.

The process of mitosis can be broken down into several stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible, and the nuclear envelope breaks down. In prometaphase, the nuclear membrane is completely disassembled, and the mitotic spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes at their centromeres.

During metaphase, the chromosomes align at the metaphase plate, an imaginary line equidistant from the two spindle poles. In anaphase, sister chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers and move toward opposite poles of the cell. Finally, in telophase, new nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes decondense and become less visible.

Mitosis is followed by cytokinesis, a process that divides the cytoplasm of the mother cell into two separate daughter cells. The result of mitosis and cytokinesis is two genetically identical cells, each with the same number and kind of chromosomes as the original parent cell.

Stomata are microscopic pores found in the epidermis of plant leaves, stems, and other organs. They are essential for gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere, allowing the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and the release of oxygen. Plant stomata consist of two guard cells that surround and regulate the size of the pore. The opening and closing of the stomatal pore are influenced by environmental factors such as light, humidity, and temperature, as well as internal signals within the plant.

A nonmammalian embryo refers to the developing organism in animals other than mammals, from the fertilized egg (zygote) stage until hatching or birth. In nonmammalian species, the developmental stages and terminology differ from those used in mammals. The term "embryo" is generally applied to the developing organism up until a specific stage of development that is characterized by the formation of major organs and structures. After this point, the developing organism is referred to as a "larva," "juvenile," or other species-specific terminology.

The study of nonmammalian embryos has played an important role in our understanding of developmental biology and evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). By comparing the developmental processes across different animal groups, researchers can gain insights into the evolutionary origins and diversification of body plans and structures. Additionally, nonmammalian embryos are often used as model systems for studying basic biological processes, such as cell division, gene regulation, and pattern formation.

Notch receptors are a type of transmembrane receptor proteins that play crucial roles in cell-cell communication and regulation of various biological processes, including cell fate determination, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. These receptors are highly conserved across species and are essential for normal development and tissue homeostasis.

The Notch signaling pathway is initiated when the extracellular domain of a Notch receptor on one cell interacts with its ligand (such as Delta or Jagged) on an adjacent cell. This interaction triggers a series of proteolytic cleavage events that release the intracellular domain of the Notch receptor, which then translocates to the nucleus and regulates gene expression by interacting with transcription factors like CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jκ/Su(H)/Lag-1).

There are four known Notch receptors in humans (Notch1-4) that share a similar structure, consisting of an extracellular domain containing multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain. Mutations or dysregulation of the Notch signaling pathway have been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and developmental abnormalities.

Nuclear matrix-associated proteins (NMAPs) are a group of structural and functional proteins that are associated with the nuclear matrix, a network of fibers within the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. The nuclear matrix provides support to the nuclear envelope and plays a role in DNA replication, transcription, and repair. NMAPs can be categorized into several groups based on their functions, including:

1. Scaffold proteins: These proteins provide structural support to the nuclear matrix and help maintain its architecture.
2. Enzymes: These proteins are involved in various biochemical reactions, such as DNA replication and repair, RNA processing, and chromatin remodeling.
3. Transcription factors: These proteins regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery.
4. Chromatin-associated proteins: These proteins are involved in the organization and regulation of chromatin structure and function.
5. Signal transduction proteins: These proteins transmit signals from the extracellular environment to the nucleus, regulating gene expression and other nuclear functions.

NMAPs have been implicated in various cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, differentiation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of NMAPs is crucial for elucidating the mechanisms underlying these processes and developing novel therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including cancer.

A centrosome is a microtubule-organizing center found in animal cells. It consists of two barrel-shaped structures called centrioles, which are surrounded by a protein matrix called the pericentriolar material. The centrosome plays a crucial role in organizing the microtubules that form the cell's cytoskeleton and help to shape the cell, as well as in separating the chromosomes during cell division.

During mitosis, the two centrioles of the centrosome separate and move to opposite poles of the cell, where they nucleate the formation of the spindle fibers that pull the chromosomes apart. The centrosome also helps to ensure that the genetic material is equally distributed between the two resulting daughter cells.

It's worth noting that while centrioles are present in many animal cells, they are not always present in all types of cells. For example, plant cells do not have centrioles or centrosomes, and instead rely on other mechanisms to organize their microtubules.

Cell cycle proteins are a group of regulatory proteins that control the progression of the cell cycle, which is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell leading to its division and duplication. These proteins can be classified into several categories based on their functions during different stages of the cell cycle.

The major groups of cell cycle proteins include:

1. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs): CDKs are serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate key transitions in the cell cycle. They require binding to a regulatory subunit called cyclin to become active. Different CDK-cyclin complexes are activated at different stages of the cell cycle.
2. Cyclins: Cyclins are a family of regulatory proteins that bind and activate CDKs. Their levels fluctuate throughout the cell cycle, with specific cyclins expressed during particular phases. For example, cyclin D is important for the G1 to S phase transition, while cyclin B is required for the G2 to M phase transition.
3. CDK inhibitors (CKIs): CKIs are regulatory proteins that bind to and inhibit CDKs, thereby preventing their activation. CKIs can be divided into two main families: the INK4 family and the Cip/Kip family. INK4 family members specifically inhibit CDK4 and CDK6, while Cip/Kip family members inhibit a broader range of CDKs.
4. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C): APC/C is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. During the cell cycle, APC/C regulates the metaphase to anaphase transition and the exit from mitosis by targeting securin and cyclin B for degradation.
5. Other regulatory proteins: Several other proteins play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, such as p53, a transcription factor that responds to DNA damage and arrests the cell cycle, and the polo-like kinases (PLKs), which are involved in various aspects of mitosis.

Overall, cell cycle proteins work together to ensure the proper progression of the cell cycle, maintain genomic stability, and prevent uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to cancer.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

'Drosophila melanogaster' is the scientific name for a species of fruit fly that is commonly used as a model organism in various fields of biological research, including genetics, developmental biology, and evolutionary biology. Its small size, short generation time, large number of offspring, and ease of cultivation make it an ideal subject for laboratory studies. The fruit fly's genome has been fully sequenced, and many of its genes have counterparts in the human genome, which facilitates the understanding of genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

Here is a brief medical definition:

Drosophila melanogaster (droh-suh-fih-luh meh-lon-guh-ster): A species of fruit fly used extensively as a model organism in genetic, developmental, and evolutionary research. Its genome has been sequenced, revealing many genes with human counterparts, making it valuable for understanding genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

Cytoskeletal proteins are a type of structural proteins that form the cytoskeleton, which is the internal framework of cells. The cytoskeleton provides shape, support, and structure to the cell, and plays important roles in cell division, intracellular transport, and maintenance of cell shape and integrity.

There are three main types of cytoskeletal proteins: actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Actin filaments are thin, rod-like structures that are involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and cell division. Intermediate filaments are thicker than actin filaments and provide structural support to the cell. Microtubules are hollow tubes that are involved in intracellular transport, cell division, and maintenance of cell shape.

Cytoskeletal proteins are composed of different subunits that polymerize to form filamentous structures. These proteins can be dynamically assembled and disassembled, allowing cells to change their shape and move. Mutations in cytoskeletal proteins have been linked to various human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and muscular dystrophies.

"Body patterning" is a general term that refers to the process of forming and organizing various tissues and structures into specific patterns during embryonic development. This complex process involves a variety of molecular mechanisms, including gene expression, cell signaling, and cell-cell interactions. It results in the creation of distinct body regions, such as the head, trunk, and limbs, as well as the organization of internal organs and systems.

In medical terminology, "body patterning" may refer to specific developmental processes or abnormalities related to embryonic development. For example, in genetic disorders such as Poland syndrome or Holt-Oram syndrome, mutations in certain genes can lead to abnormal body patterning, resulting in the absence or underdevelopment of certain muscles, bones, or other structures.

It's important to note that "body patterning" is not a formal medical term with a specific definition, but rather a general concept used in developmental biology and genetics.

Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors (GDI) are a group of proteins that bind to and inhibit the dissociation of guanine nucleotides from small GTPases, which are important regulatory molecules involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, vesicle trafficking, and cytoskeleton organization.

GDI's function is to maintain these small GTPases in their inactive state by keeping them bound to guanine nucleotides, specifically GDP (guanosine diphosphate). By doing so, GDIs help regulate the activity of small GTPases and control their subcellular localization.

GDIs have been identified in various organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and mammals. In humans, there are two major types of GDIs: RhoGDI (also known as D4-GDI) and RacGDI (also known as GDI-α). These GDIs play crucial roles in regulating the activity of Rho family GTPases, which are involved in various cellular functions such as cell motility, membrane trafficking, and gene expression.

Overall, Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors are essential regulators of small GTPases, controlling their activity and localization to ensure proper cellular function.

Genetically modified animals (GMAs) are those whose genetic makeup has been altered using biotechnological techniques. This is typically done by introducing one or more genes from another species into the animal's genome, resulting in a new trait or characteristic that does not naturally occur in that species. The introduced gene is often referred to as a transgene.

The process of creating GMAs involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The desired gene is isolated from the DNA of another organism.
2. Transfer: The isolated gene is transferred into the target animal's cells, usually using a vector such as a virus or bacterium.
3. Integration: The transgene integrates into the animal's chromosome, becoming a permanent part of its genetic makeup.
4. Selection: The modified cells are allowed to multiply, and those that contain the transgene are selected for further growth and development.
5. Breeding: The genetically modified individuals are bred to produce offspring that carry the desired trait.

GMAs have various applications in research, agriculture, and medicine. In research, they can serve as models for studying human diseases or testing new therapies. In agriculture, GMAs can be developed to exhibit enhanced growth rates, improved disease resistance, or increased nutritional value. In medicine, GMAs may be used to produce pharmaceuticals or other therapeutic agents within their bodies.

Examples of genetically modified animals include mice with added genes for specific proteins that make them useful models for studying human diseases, goats that produce a human protein in their milk to treat hemophilia, and pigs with enhanced resistance to certain viruses that could potentially be used as organ donors for humans.

It is important to note that the use of genetically modified animals raises ethical concerns related to animal welfare, environmental impact, and potential risks to human health. These issues must be carefully considered and addressed when developing and implementing GMA technologies.

Helminth proteins refer to the proteins that are produced and expressed by helminths, which are parasitic worms that cause diseases in humans and animals. These proteins can be found on the surface or inside the helminths and play various roles in their biology, such as in development, reproduction, and immune evasion. Some helminth proteins have been identified as potential targets for vaccines or drug development, as blocking their function may help to control or eliminate helminth infections. Examples of helminth proteins that have been studied include the antigen Bm86 from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, and the tetraspanin protein Sm22.6 from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. It consists of four main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase.

During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for DNA replication. In the S phase, the cell's DNA is copied, resulting in two complete sets of chromosomes. During the G2 phase, the cell continues to grow and produces more proteins and organelles necessary for cell division.

The M phase is the final stage of the cell cycle and consists of mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis results in two genetically identical daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and creates two separate daughter cells.

The cell cycle is regulated by various checkpoints that ensure the proper completion of each phase before progressing to the next. These checkpoints help prevent errors in DNA replication and division, which can lead to mutations and cancer.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

The nervous system is a complex, highly organized network of specialized cells called neurons and glial cells that communicate with each other via electrical and chemical signals to coordinate various functions and activities in the body. It consists of two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes all the nerves and ganglia outside the CNS.

The primary function of the nervous system is to receive, process, and integrate information from both internal and external environments and then respond by generating appropriate motor outputs or behaviors. This involves sensing various stimuli through specialized receptors, transmitting this information through afferent neurons to the CNS for processing, integrating this information with other inputs and memories, making decisions based on this processed information, and finally executing responses through efferent neurons that control effector organs such as muscles and glands.

The nervous system can be further divided into subsystems based on their functions, including the somatic nervous system, which controls voluntary movements and reflexes; the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary physiological processes like heart rate, digestion, and respiration; and the enteric nervous system, which is a specialized subset of the autonomic nervous system that controls gut functions. Overall, the nervous system plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis, regulating behavior, and enabling cognition and consciousness.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Genes are the fundamental units of heredity in living organisms. They are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and are located on chromosomes. Genes carry the instructions for the development and function of an organism, including its physical and behavioral traits.

Helminths, also known as parasitic worms, are a type of parasite that can infect various organs and tissues in humans and animals. They have complex life cycles that involve multiple hosts and stages of development. Examples of helminths include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.

In the context of genetics, genes from helminths are studied to understand their role in the biology and evolution of these parasites, as well as to identify potential targets for the development of new drugs or vaccines to control or eliminate helminth infections. This involves studying the genetic makeup of helminths, including their DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how they interact with their hosts and the environment.

'Caulobacter crescentus' is a gram-negative, oligotrophic aquatic bacterium that is commonly found in freshwater environments. It is known for its distinctive curved or "crescent" shape and the presence of a holdfast structure at one end, which allows it to attach to surfaces. 'Caulobacter crescentus' has a complex life cycle involving two distinct cell types: swarmer cells, which are motile and can swim in search of new surfaces to colonize, and stalked cells, which are non-motile and have a long, thin stalk that extends from the holdfast end. This bacterium is often used as a model organism for studying cell differentiation, asymmetric cell division, and the regulation of gene expression in response to environmental signals.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Microtubules are hollow, cylindrical structures composed of tubulin proteins in the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as maintaining cell shape, intracellular transport, and cell division (mitosis and meiosis). Microtubules are dynamic, undergoing continuous assembly and disassembly, which allows them to rapidly reorganize in response to cellular needs. They also form part of important cellular structures like centrioles, basal bodies, and cilia/flagella.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that are used by neurons to communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. They are produced in the cell body of a neuron, processed from larger precursor proteins, and then transported to the nerve terminal where they are stored in secretory vesicles. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.

Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, depending on their target receptors and the duration of their effects. They play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, stress response, and social behavior. Some neuropeptides also have hormonal functions, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive and cardiovascular function, respectively.

There are hundreds of different neuropeptides that have been identified in the nervous system, and many of them have multiple functions and interact with other signaling molecules to modulate neural activity. Dysregulation of neuropeptide systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, addiction, depression, and anxiety.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is not a medical term per se, but a scientific term used in the field of molecular biology. GFP is a protein that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light, particularly blue or ultraviolet light. It was originally discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria.

In medical and biological research, scientists often use recombinant DNA technology to introduce the gene for GFP into other organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. This allows them to track the expression and localization of specific genes or proteins of interest in living cells, tissues, or even whole organisms.

The ability to visualize specific cellular structures or processes in real-time has proven invaluable for a wide range of research areas, from studying the development and function of organs and organ systems to understanding the mechanisms of diseases and the effects of therapeutic interventions.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

Frizzled receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that are involved in the Wnt signaling pathway. They are named after the Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) mutant phenotype "frizzy" because of their role in regulating cell fate and patterning during development.

Frizzled receptors are composed of a seven-pass transmembrane domain, an extracellular cysteine-rich domain, and an intracellular tail. They bind to Wnt ligands, which are secreted proteins that play important roles in cell-cell communication during development and tissue homeostasis.

There are ten different Frizzled receptors identified in humans (FZD1-10) that can activate multiple signaling pathways, including the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway, and the Wnt/Ca2+ pathway. Dysregulation of Frizzled receptors has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, neurodevelopmental disorders, and metabolic disorders.

A zygote is the initial cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg, also known as an oocyte. This occurs in the process of human reproduction and marks the beginning of a new genetic identity, containing 46 chromosomes - 23 from the sperm and 23 from the egg. The zygote starts the journey of cell division and growth, eventually developing into a blastocyst, then an embryo, and finally a fetus over the course of pregnancy.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Chromosome segregation is the process that occurs during cell division (mitosis or meiosis) where replicated chromosomes are separated and distributed equally into two daughter cells. Each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids, which are identical copies of genetic material. During chromosome segregation, these sister chromatids are pulled apart by a structure called the mitotic spindle and moved to opposite poles of the cell. This ensures that each new cell receives one copy of each chromosome, preserving the correct number and composition of chromosomes in the organism.

Fluorescence microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses fluorescent dyes or proteins to highlight and visualize specific components within a sample. In this technique, the sample is illuminated with high-energy light, typically ultraviolet (UV) or blue light, which excites the fluorescent molecules causing them to emit lower-energy, longer-wavelength light, usually visible light in the form of various colors. This emitted light is then collected by the microscope and detected to produce an image.

Fluorescence microscopy has several advantages over traditional brightfield microscopy, including the ability to visualize specific structures or molecules within a complex sample, increased sensitivity, and the potential for quantitative analysis. It is widely used in various fields of biology and medicine, such as cell biology, neuroscience, and pathology, to study the structure, function, and interactions of cells and proteins.

There are several types of fluorescence microscopy techniques, including widefield fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, each with its own strengths and limitations. These techniques can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cells and proteins in health and disease.

Nerve tissue proteins are specialized proteins found in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins include:

1. Neurofilaments: These are type IV intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons and help maintain their shape and size. They are composed of three subunits - NFL (light), NFM (medium), and NFH (heavy).

2. Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins: These include tubulins, actins, and spectrins that provide structural support to the neuronal cytoskeleton and help maintain its integrity.

3. Neurotransmitter Receptors: These are specialized proteins located on the postsynaptic membrane of neurons that bind neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons, triggering a response in the target cell.

4. Ion Channels: These are transmembrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the neuronal membrane and play a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical signals in neurons.

5. Signaling Proteins: These include enzymes, receptors, and adaptor proteins that mediate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal development, differentiation, survival, and death.

6. Adhesion Proteins: These are cell surface proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, playing a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits.

7. Extracellular Matrix Proteins: These include proteoglycans, laminins, and collagens that provide structural support to nerve tissue and regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival.

Wnt proteins are a family of secreted signaling molecules that play crucial roles in the regulation of fundamental biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. They were first discovered in 1982 through genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) and have since been found to be highly conserved across various species, from invertebrates to humans.

Wnt proteins exert their effects by binding to specific receptors on the target cell surface, leading to the activation of several intracellular signaling pathways:

1. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway: In the absence of Wnt ligands, β-catenin is continuously degraded by a destruction complex consisting of Axin, APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli), and GSK3β (Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta). When Wnt proteins bind to their receptors Frizzled and LRP5/6, the formation of a "signalosome" complex leads to the inhibition of the destruction complex, allowing β-catenin to accumulate in the cytoplasm and translocate into the nucleus. Here, it interacts with TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor) transcription factors to regulate the expression of target genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.
2. Non-canonical Wnt pathways: These include the Wnt/Ca^2+^ pathway and the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. In the Wnt/Ca^2+^ pathway, Wnt ligands bind to Frizzled receptors and activate heterotrimeric G proteins, leading to an increase in intracellular Ca^2+^ levels and activation of downstream targets such as protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII). These signaling events ultimately regulate cell movement, adhesion, and gene expression. In the PCP pathway, Wnt ligands bind to Frizzled receptors and coreceptor complexes containing Ror2 or Ryk, leading to activation of small GTPases such as RhoA and Rac1, which control cytoskeletal organization and cell polarity.

Dysregulation of Wnt signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative conditions. In cancer, aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway contributes to tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis by promoting cell proliferation, survival, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Inhibitors targeting different components of the Wnt signaling pathway are currently being developed as potential therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

GTP-binding protein (G protein) alpha subunits are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling pathways, particularly those involved in the transmission of signals across the plasma membrane in response to hormones, neurotransmitters, and other extracellular signals. These proteins bind to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and undergo conformational changes upon activation, which enables them to interact with downstream effectors and modulate various cellular responses.

There are several classes of G protein alpha subunits, including Gs, Gi/o, Gq/11, and G12/13, each of which activates distinct signaling cascades upon activation. For instance, Gs alpha subunits activate adenylyl cyclase, leading to increased levels of cAMP and the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), while Gi/o alpha subunits inhibit adenylyl cyclase and reduce cAMP levels. Gq/11 alpha subunits activate phospholipase C-beta (PLC-β), which leads to the production of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), while G12/13 alpha subunits modulate cytoskeletal rearrangements through activation of Rho GTPases.

Mutations in G protein alpha subunits have been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of these proteins is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Insect Proteins" is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide some information about insect protein from a nutritional and food science perspective.

Insect proteins refer to the proteins that are obtained from insects. Insects are a rich source of protein, and their protein content varies by species. For example, mealworms and crickets have been found to contain approximately 47-63% and 60-72% protein by dry weight, respectively.

In recent years, insect proteins have gained attention as a potential sustainable source of nutrition due to their high protein content, low environmental impact, and the ability to convert feed into protein more efficiently compared to traditional livestock. Insect proteins can be used in various applications such as food and feed additives, nutritional supplements, and even cosmetics.

However, it's important to note that the use of insect proteins in human food is not widely accepted in many Western countries due to cultural and regulatory barriers. Nonetheless, research and development efforts continue to explore the potential benefits and applications of insect proteins in the global food system.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Protein transport, in the context of cellular biology, refers to the process by which proteins are actively moved from one location to another within or between cells. This is a crucial mechanism for maintaining proper cell function and regulation.

Intracellular protein transport involves the movement of proteins within a single cell. Proteins can be transported across membranes (such as the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane) via specialized transport systems like vesicles and transport channels.

Intercellular protein transport refers to the movement of proteins from one cell to another, often facilitated by exocytosis (release of proteins in vesicles) and endocytosis (uptake of extracellular substances via membrane-bound vesicles). This is essential for communication between cells, immune response, and other physiological processes.

It's important to note that any disruption in protein transport can lead to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic conditions.

Dyneins are a type of motor protein that play an essential role in the movement of cellular components and structures within eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for generating force and motion along microtubules, which are critical components of the cell's cytoskeleton. Dyneins are involved in various cellular processes, including intracellular transport, organelle positioning, and cell division.

There are several types of dyneins, but the two main categories are cytoplasmic dyneins and axonemal dyneins. Cytoplasmic dyneins are responsible for moving various cargoes, such as vesicles, organelles, and mRNA complexes, toward the minus-end of microtubules, which is usually located near the cell center. Axonemal dyneins, on the other hand, are found in cilia and flagella and are responsible for their movement by sliding adjacent microtubules past each other.

Dyneins consist of multiple subunits, including heavy chains, intermediate chains, light-intermediate chains, and light chains. The heavy chains contain the motor domain that binds to microtubules and hydrolyzes ATP to generate force. Dysfunction in dynein proteins has been linked to various human diseases, such as neurodevelopmental disorders, ciliopathies, and cancer.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in the formation of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It is a key process in sexual reproduction, where it generates gametes or sex cells (sperm and eggs).

The process of meiosis involves one round of DNA replication followed by two successive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair, form chiasma and exchange genetic material through crossing over, then separate from each other. In meiosis II, sister chromatids separate, leading to the formation of four haploid cells. This process ensures genetic diversity in offspring by shuffling and recombining genetic information during the formation of gametes.

RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit the expression of specific genes. This process is mediated by small RNA molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that bind to complementary sequences on messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

RNAi plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression and defending against foreign genetic elements, such as viruses and transposons. It has also emerged as an important tool for studying gene function and developing therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including cancer and viral infections.

Luminescent proteins are a type of protein that emit light through a chemical reaction, rather than by absorbing and re-emitting light like fluorescent proteins. This process is called bioluminescence. The light emitted by luminescent proteins is often used in scientific research as a way to visualize and track biological processes within cells and organisms.

One of the most well-known luminescent proteins is Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which was originally isolated from jellyfish. However, GFP is actually a fluorescent protein, not a luminescent one. A true example of a luminescent protein is the enzyme luciferase, which is found in fireflies and other bioluminescent organisms. When luciferase reacts with its substrate, luciferin, it produces light through a process called oxidation.

Luminescent proteins have many applications in research, including as reporters for gene expression, as markers for protein-protein interactions, and as tools for studying the dynamics of cellular processes. They are also used in medical imaging and diagnostics, as well as in the development of new therapies.

Homeodomain proteins are a group of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the development and differentiation of cells in animals and plants. They are characterized by the presence of a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain, which is typically about 60 amino acids long. The homeodomain consists of three helices, with the third helix responsible for recognizing and binding to specific DNA sequences.

Homeodomain proteins are involved in regulating gene expression during embryonic development, tissue maintenance, and organismal growth. They can act as activators or repressors of transcription, depending on the context and the presence of cofactors. Mutations in homeodomain proteins have been associated with various human diseases, including cancer, congenital abnormalities, and neurological disorders.

Some examples of homeodomain proteins include PAX6, which is essential for eye development, HOX genes, which are involved in body patterning, and NANOG, which plays a role in maintaining pluripotency in stem cells.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Bacteria do not produce spores; instead, it is fungi and other types of microorganisms that produce spores for reproduction and survival purposes. Spores are essentially reproductive cells that are resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, allowing them to survive under harsh conditions.

If you meant to ask about endospores, those are produced by some bacteria as a protective mechanism during times of stress or nutrient deprivation. Endospores are highly resistant structures containing bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes. They can survive for long periods in extreme environments and germinate into vegetative cells when conditions improve.

Here's the medical definition of endospores:

Endospores (also called bacterial spores) are highly resistant, dormant structures produced by certain bacteria belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They contain a core of bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes surrounded by a protective layer called the spore coat. Endospores can survive under harsh conditions for extended periods and germinate into vegetative cells when favorable conditions return. Common examples of endospore-forming bacteria include Bacillus species (such as B. anthracis, which causes anthrax) and Clostridium species (such as C. difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea).

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

A two-hybrid system technique is a type of genetic screening method used in molecular biology to identify protein-protein interactions within an organism, most commonly baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or Escherichia coli. The name "two-hybrid" refers to the fact that two separate proteins are being examined for their ability to interact with each other.

The technique is based on the modular nature of transcription factors, which typically consist of two distinct domains: a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and an activation domain (AD). In a two-hybrid system, one protein of interest is fused to the DBD, while the second protein of interest is fused to the AD. If the two proteins interact, the DBD and AD are brought in close proximity, allowing for transcriptional activation of a reporter gene that is linked to a specific promoter sequence recognized by the DBD.

The main components of a two-hybrid system include:

1. Bait protein (fused to the DNA-binding domain)
2. Prey protein (fused to the activation domain)
3. Reporter gene (transcribed upon interaction between bait and prey proteins)
4. Promoter sequence (recognized by the DBD when brought in proximity due to interaction)

The two-hybrid system technique has several advantages, including:

1. Ability to screen large libraries of potential interacting partners
2. High sensitivity for detecting weak or transient interactions
3. Applicability to various organisms and protein types
4. Potential for high-throughput analysis

However, there are also limitations to the technique, such as false positives (interactions that do not occur in vivo) and false negatives (lack of detection of true interactions). Additionally, the fusion proteins may not always fold or localize correctly, leading to potential artifacts. Despite these limitations, two-hybrid system techniques remain a valuable tool for studying protein-protein interactions and have contributed significantly to our understanding of various cellular processes.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

Embryonic development is the series of growth and developmental stages that occur during the formation and early growth of the embryo. In humans, this stage begins at fertilization (when the sperm and egg cell combine) and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (now called a zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which then implants into the uterus. The cells in the blastocyst begin to differentiate and form the three germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. These germ layers will eventually give rise to all of the different tissues and organs in the body.

Embryonic development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It is characterized by rapid cell division, migration, and differentiation, as well as programmed cell death (apoptosis) and tissue remodeling. Abnormalities in embryonic development can lead to birth defects or other developmental disorders.

It's important to note that the term "embryo" is used to describe the developing organism from fertilization until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy in humans, after which it is called a fetus.

Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that play a crucial role in transmitting signals within cells, which ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. These signals can originate from outside the cell (extracellular) or within the cell itself. Intracellular signaling molecules include various types of peptides and proteins, such as:

1. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): These are seven-transmembrane domain receptors that bind to extracellular signaling molecules like hormones, neurotransmitters, or chemokines. Upon activation, they initiate a cascade of intracellular signals through G proteins and secondary messengers.
2. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These are transmembrane receptors that bind to growth factors, cytokines, or hormones. Activation of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues, creating binding sites for intracellular signaling proteins such as adapter proteins, phosphatases, and enzymes like Ras, PI3K, and Src family kinases.
3. Second messenger systems: Intracellular second messengers are small molecules that amplify and propagate signals within the cell. Examples include cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), diacylglycerol (DAG), inositol triphosphate (IP3), calcium ions (Ca2+), and nitric oxide (NO). These second messengers activate or inhibit various downstream effectors, leading to changes in cellular responses.
4. Signal transduction cascades: Intracellular signaling proteins often form complex networks of interacting molecules that relay signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. These cascades involve kinases (protein kinases A, B, C, etc.), phosphatases, and adapter proteins, which ultimately regulate gene expression, cell cycle progression, metabolism, and other cellular processes.
5. Ubiquitination and proteasome degradation: Intracellular signaling pathways can also control protein stability by modulating ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. E3 ubiquitin ligases recognize specific substrates and conjugate them with ubiquitin molecules, targeting them for proteasomal degradation. This process regulates the abundance of key signaling proteins and contributes to signal termination or amplification.

In summary, intracellular signaling pathways involve a complex network of interacting proteins that relay signals from the plasma membrane to various cellular compartments, ultimately regulating gene expression, metabolism, and other cellular processes. Dysregulation of these pathways can contribute to disease development and progression, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

'Bacillus subtilis' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil and vegetation. It is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can grow with or without oxygen. This bacterium is known for its ability to form durable endospores during unfavorable conditions, which allows it to survive in harsh environments for long periods of time.

'Bacillus subtilis' has been widely studied as a model organism in microbiology and molecular biology due to its genetic tractability and rapid growth. It is also used in various industrial applications, such as the production of enzymes, antibiotics, and other bioproducts.

Although 'Bacillus subtilis' is generally considered non-pathogenic, there have been rare cases of infection in immunocompromised individuals. It is important to note that this bacterium should not be confused with other pathogenic species within the genus Bacillus, such as B. anthracis (causative agent of anthrax) or B. cereus (a foodborne pathogen).

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Neuroglia, also known as glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for neurons in the nervous system. They maintain homeostasis, form myelin sheaths around nerve fibers, and provide structural support. They also play a role in the immune response of the central nervous system. Some types of neuroglia include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases (PSTKs) are a type of protein kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl side chains of serine or threonine residues on target proteins. This phosphorylation process plays a crucial role in various cellular signaling pathways, including regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. PSTKs are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and their dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process (mitosis or meiosis) in which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells. It usually begins after telophase, and it involves the constriction of a contractile ring composed of actin filaments and myosin motor proteins that forms at the equatorial plane of the cell. This results in the formation of a cleavage furrow, which deepens and eventually leads to the physical separation of the two daughter cells. Cytokinesis is essential for cell reproduction and growth in multicellular organisms, and its failure can lead to various developmental abnormalities or diseases.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Tumor suppressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein that helps control the cell cycle and prevent cells from dividing and growing in an uncontrolled manner. They work to inhibit tumor growth by preventing the formation of tumors or slowing down their progression. These proteins can repair damaged DNA, regulate gene expression, and initiate programmed cell death (apoptosis) if the damage is too severe for repair.

Mutations in tumor suppressor genes, which provide the code for these proteins, can lead to a decrease or loss of function in the resulting protein. This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the formation of tumors and cancer. Examples of tumor suppressor proteins include p53, Rb (retinoblastoma), and BRCA1/2.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Actin is a type of protein that forms part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells, and is also found in various other cell types. It is a globular protein that polymerizes to form long filaments, which are important for many cellular processes such as cell division, cell motility, and the maintenance of cell shape. In muscle cells, actin filaments interact with another type of protein called myosin to enable muscle contraction. Actins can be further divided into different subtypes, including alpha-actin, beta-actin, and gamma-actin, which have distinct functions and expression patterns in the body.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are activated by second messengers such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), which result from the activation of cell surface receptors like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs).

Once activated, PKC proteins phosphorylate downstream target proteins, thereby modulating their activities. This regulation is involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and membrane trafficking. There are at least 10 isoforms of PKC, classified into three subfamilies based on their second messenger requirements and structural features: conventional (cPKC; α, βI, βII, and γ), novel (nPKC; δ, ε, η, and θ), and atypical (aPKC; ζ and ι/λ). Dysregulation of PKC signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Beta-catenin is a protein that plays a crucial role in gene transcription and cell-cell adhesion. It is a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway, which regulates various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults.

In the absence of Wnt signals, beta-catenin forms a complex with other proteins, including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axin, which targets it for degradation by the proteasome. When Wnt ligands bind to their receptors, this complex is disrupted, allowing beta-catenin to accumulate in the cytoplasm and translocate to the nucleus. In the nucleus, beta-catenin interacts with T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors to activate the transcription of target genes involved in cell fate determination, survival, and proliferation.

Mutations in the genes encoding components of the Wnt signaling pathway, including beta-catenin, have been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative conditions.

Cell nucleus division, also known as nuclear division, is the process by which the genetic material within the cell nucleus, referred to as chromosomes, is separated into two equal sets in preparation for cell division. This process results in the formation of two daughter nuclei, each with a complete set of chromosomes.

There are two types of nuclear division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of nuclear division that occurs in somatic cells (cells other than sex cells) during growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues. It results in the formation of two genetically identical daughter nuclei. The process of mitosis can be divided into several stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is the type of nuclear division that occurs in sex cells (sperm and egg cells) during sexual reproduction. It results in the formation of four genetically unique daughter nuclei, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Meiosis consists of two consecutive divisions: meiosis I and meiosis II.

Both types of nuclear division are essential for the growth, development, and reproduction of living organisms.

Morphogenesis is a term used in developmental biology and refers to the process by which cells give rise to tissues and organs with specific shapes, structures, and patterns during embryonic development. This process involves complex interactions between genes, cells, and the extracellular environment that result in the coordinated movement and differentiation of cells into specialized functional units.

Morphogenesis is a dynamic and highly regulated process that involves several mechanisms, including cell proliferation, death, migration, adhesion, and differentiation. These processes are controlled by genetic programs and signaling pathways that respond to environmental cues and regulate the behavior of individual cells within a developing tissue or organ.

The study of morphogenesis is important for understanding how complex biological structures form during development and how these processes can go awry in disease states such as cancer, birth defects, and degenerative disorders.

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is not exactly a medical term, but rather a scientific term used in the field of biochemistry and physiology. It is a type of auxin, which is a plant hormone that regulates various growth and development processes in plants. IAA is the most abundant and best-studied natural auxin.

Medically, indole-3-acetic acid may be mentioned in the context of certain medical conditions or treatments related to plants or plant-derived substances. For example, some research has investigated the potential use of IAA in promoting wound healing in plants or in agricultural applications. However, it is not a substance that is typically used in medical treatment for humans or animals.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

DNA replication is the biological process by which DNA makes an identical copy of itself during cell division. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows genetic information to be passed down from one generation of cells to the next. During DNA replication, each strand of the double helix serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This results in the creation of two identical DNA molecules. The enzymes responsible for DNA replication include helicase, which unwinds the double helix, and polymerase, which adds nucleotides to the growing strands.

A meristem, in the context of plant biology, refers to a type of tissue found in plants that is responsible for their growth. These tissues are composed of cells that have the ability to divide and differentiate into various specialized cell types. Meristems are typically located at the tips of roots and shoots (apical meristems), as well as within the vascular bundles (cambial meristems) and in the cork layers (phellogen meristems). They contribute to the increase in length and girth of plant organs, allowing plants to grow throughout their life.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins are the proteins that are produced by the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organism is a single-celled eukaryote that has been widely used as a model organism in scientific research for many years due to its relatively simple genetic makeup and its similarity to higher eukaryotic cells.

The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been fully sequenced, and it is estimated to contain approximately 6,000 genes that encode proteins. These proteins play a wide variety of roles in the cell, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, regulating gene expression, maintaining the structure of the cell, and responding to environmental stimuli.

Many Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins have human homologs and are involved in similar biological processes, making this organism a valuable tool for studying human disease. For example, many of the proteins involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination in yeast have human counterparts that are associated with cancer and other diseases. By studying these proteins in yeast, researchers can gain insights into their function and regulation in humans, which may lead to new treatments for disease.

'Escherichia coli (E. coli) proteins' refer to the various types of proteins that are produced and expressed by the bacterium Escherichia coli. These proteins play a critical role in the growth, development, and survival of the organism. They are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, translation, repair, and regulation.

E. coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that is commonly found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. It is widely used as a model organism in scientific research due to its well-studied genetics, rapid growth, and ability to be easily manipulated in the laboratory. As a result, many E. coli proteins have been identified, characterized, and studied in great detail.

Some examples of E. coli proteins include enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as lactase, sucrase, and maltose; proteins involved in DNA replication such as the polymerases, single-stranded binding proteins, and helicases; proteins involved in transcription such as RNA polymerase and sigma factors; proteins involved in translation such as ribosomal proteins, tRNAs, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases; and regulatory proteins such as global regulators, two-component systems, and transcription factors.

Understanding the structure, function, and regulation of E. coli proteins is essential for understanding the basic biology of this important organism, as well as for developing new strategies for combating bacterial infections and improving industrial processes involving bacteria.

The term asymmetric cell division usually refers to such intrinsic asymmetric divisions. In order for asymmetric division to ... The single cell is now set up to undergo an asymmetric cell division, however the orientation in which the division occurs is ... An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell ... In normal stem and progenitor cells, asymmetric cell division balances proliferation and self-renewal with cell-cycle exit and ...
Knoblich, Juergen A. (February 2008). "Mechanisms of Asymmetric Stem Cell Division". Cell. 132 (4): 583-597. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... For example, stem cells can divide asymmetrically, which means the two resultant daughter cells may have different fates ( ... In cell biology, single-cell variability occurs when individual cells in an otherwise similar population differ in shape, size ... Similar to variation in the metabolome, the proteins present in a cell and their abundances can vary from cell to cell in an ...
Ray, Samriddha; Lechler, Terry (2011). "Regulation of asymmetric cell division in the epidermis". Cell Division. 6 (1): 12. doi ... are the only parts of a woody stem where cell division occurs; undifferentiated cells in the vascular cambium divide rapidly to ... As the stems grow a layer of cells form under the epidermis, called the cork cambium, these cells produce cork cells that turn ... Mature phellem cells have suberin in their walls to protect the stem from desiccation and pathogen attack. Older phellem cells ...
This is also true for B.subtilis the asymmetric cell division generates two cells that contain different regulatory proteins ... Way, J. C. (February 1996). "The mechanism of bacterial asymmetric cell division". BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, ... Aging in asymmetrically dividing bacteria could also be due to the division of cell damage in the cell fission stage increasing ... the swarmer cell will differentiate into a non-motile stalked cell.The asymmetrically dividing cells then show signs of ...
Biology portal Epithelial polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture ... and migrating cells. Furthermore, cell polarity is important during many types of asymmetric cell division to set up functional ... asymmetric cell division, in which two daughter cells receive different amounts of cellular material (e.g. mRNA, proteins), 2) ... "Asymmetric cell division and axis formation in the embryo". www.wormbook.org. Retrieved 2018-04-06. Munro, Edwin; Nance, Jeremy ...
This asymmetric cell division usually occurs early in embryogenesis. Positive feedback can create asymmetry from homogeneity. ... Semin Cell Dev Biol 2009, 20:972-977. Segalen, M.; Bellaïche, Y. (2009). "Cell division orientation and planar cell polarity ... two of which are by the combination of transcription factors the cells have and by the cell-cell interaction. Cells' fate ... If a cell is in a determined state, the cell's fate cannot be reversed or transformed. In general, this means that a cell ...
... the first cell division is highly asymmetric. C. elegans embryogenesis is among the best understood examples of asymmetric cell ... A second cell division produces the ABp and ABa cells from the AB cell, and the EMS and P2 cells from the P1 cell. This ... The resulting daughter cells of the first cell division are called the AB cell (containing PAR-6 and PAR-3) and the P1 cell ( ... the P2 cell instructs the EMS cell to divide along the anterior-posterior axis. Through Notch signaling, the P2 cell ...
They achieve this divergence through asymmetric cell division. The mitotic asymmetry with non-random segregation of chromosomes ... Since meiosis II is not associated with cell division here, and since the two daughter formations of the first division also ... Non-random segregation of chromosomes is also found in mitosis when stem cells divide. Adult stem cells maintain the mature ... Only from this cell do two sperm cells emerge after meiosis II, while the smaller cell degenerates. Thus, each sperm - like the ...
... as well as asymmetric cell division. His laboratory employs notably the model organism C. elegans and human cell lines in their ... His research focuses on centriole biology and asymmetric cell division. He is currently professor at École Polytechnique ... Germany as a postdoctoral research fellow with Anthony Hyman to work on cell biology, cell division, and early embryonic ... "Functional genomic analysis of cell division in C. Elegans using RNAi of genes on chromosome III". Nature. 408 (6810): 331-336 ...
"Polarized Myosin Produces Unequal-Size Daughters During Asymmetric Cell Division". Science. 330 (6004): 677-680. Bibcode: ... During the division of the fertilized oocyte, cells aggregate and the compactness between cells increases with the help of ... It focuses on how physical forces and changes in the mechanical properties of cells and tissues contribute to development, cell ... Cell. 123 (5): 917-929. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.040. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 16325584. S2CID 13242763. Buganza Tepole, A; Ploch ...
"Virus-induced cell gigantism and asymmetric cell division in archaea". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... induce cell gigantism by blocking the expression of the cell division genes and arresting the cell cycle in the S phase. The ... Cell. 185 (8): 1297-1307.e11. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2022.02.019. PMC 9018610. PMID 35325592. Liu, J; Cvirkaite-Krupovic, V; ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors. DNA-templated transcription is the ...
"Virus-induced cell gigantism and asymmetric cell division in archaea". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... islandicus cells by blocking the expression of the cell division genes and arresting the cell cycle in the S phase. The ... diameter of infected cells increases up to 20 times, resulting in 8,000-fold increase in volume compared to noninfected cells. ...
Li, S; Brazhnik, P; Sobral, B; Tyson, JJ (2009). "Temporal Controls of the Asymmetric Cell Division Cycle in Caulobacter ... These efforts fall far short of an exact, fully predictive computer model of a cell's entire behavior. Limitations in the ... In silico computer-based modeling technologies have also been applied in: Whole cell analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ... In Silico Cell For TB Drug Discovery. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 12, 2010. ...
In symmetric cell division, both daughter cells are also stem cells. In asymmetric division, a stem cell produces one stem cell ... They undergo symmetric or asymmetric cell division into two daughter cells. ... Once activated, the Type B cells develop into Type C cells, active proliferating intermediate cells, which then divide into ... Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing, multipotent cells that firstly generate the radial glial progenitor cells that ...
Asymmetric cell division has also been described in polyploid giant cancer cells and low eukaryotic cells and reported to occur ... "Asymmetric cell division in polyploid giant cancer cells and low eukaryotic cells". BioMed Research International. 2014: 432652 ... A word of caution: some examples of cell division formerly thought to belong to this "non-mitotic" class, such as the division ... Amitosis (a- + mitosis), also called karyostenosis, direct cell division or binary fission, is cell proliferation that does not ...
A Model for Asymmetric Stem Cell Divisions". Asymmetric Cell Division in Development, Differentiation and Cancer. Results and ... This also results in asymmetric division, where Prospero localizes in only one out of the two daughter cells. After division, ... divides and becomes a transit amplifying cell. Transit amplifying cells are slightly more differentiated than neural stem cells ... Neuroblasts are formed by the asymmetric division of radial glial cells. They start to migrate as soon as they are born. ...
All adult stem cells can undergo two types of division: symmetric and asymmetric. When a cell undergoes symmetric division, it ... When a cell undergoes asymmetric division, it produces one stem and one differentiated cell. Production of new stem cells is ... FAO promotes asymmetric HSC division to produce one progenitor and one stem cell. Inhibition of FAO has been shown to expand ... symmetrically divide, or asymmetrically divide. As mentioned above, quiescent cells maintain a low level of oxidative ...
Tomasetti, C., & Levy, D. (2010). Role of symmetric and asymmetric division of stem cells in developing drug resistance. ... In collaboration with Heyrim Cho, he also investigated the impact of competition between cancer cells and healthy cells on ... Cho, Heyrim; Levy, Doron (August 11, 2020). "The impact of competition between cancer cells and healthy cells on optimal drug ... "Mathematical Modeling Reveals That Changes to Local Cell Density Dynamically Modulate Baseline Variations in Cell Growth and ...
They are multipolar cells produced by radial glial cells who have undergone asymmetric division. IPCs can produce neuron cells ... The asymmetric division of radial glial cells and the subsequent symmetric division of intermediate progenitor cells may be the ... When radial glial cells divide, they produce one replacement radial glial cell and one IPC. That IPC can then divide to form ... suggesting it plays some role in the mechanism for division. Progenitor cell Neurogenesis Radial glial cell Kowalczyk, Tom; ...
β-catenin has also been implicated in regulation of cell fates through asymmetric cell division in the model organism C. ... Sawa H (2012). "Control of cell polarity and asymmetric division in C. elegans". Planar Cell Polarity During Development. pp. ... December 2003). "A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science. ... These cell-cell adhesion complexes are necessary for the creation and maintenance of epithelial cell layers and barriers. As a ...
... which begin with either a symmetric or an asymmetric division of the initial cell. Symmetric division leads to the development ... siliculosus gametophytes have an asymmetric initial cell division and immediate differentiation of an erect thallus. The ... cells) which is a filament with E cells on the edges and R cells in the center. Then, there is a period of secondary growth in ... Asymmetric division leads to the immediate development of an erect thallus without the formation of a prostrate, basal ...
... alongside other molecules that also play a role in the process of asymmetric cell division. Since stem cell mitosis is a highly ... "Linking Cell Cycle to Asymmetric Division: Aurora-A Phosphorylates the Par Complex to Regulate Numb Localization". Cell. 135 (1 ... "Linking Cell Cycle to Asymmetric Division: Aurora-A Phosphorylates the Par Complex to Regulate Numb Localization". Cell. 135 (1 ... Asymmetric cell division is based on a reaction cascade in which a cascade of molecular switches are activated or inactivated. ...
The asymmetric division of daughter cells results in the unequal division of both cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. Scientists believe ... During cell division, organelles divide synchronously before nuclear division. Cell division is aided by a phycoplast, which is ... Asymmetric cell division clearly plays an important role in the production of phenotypically diverse cells in multicellular ... For example, the species T. indica is being used to study how asymmetric cell-division during mitosis results in clonal cell ...
She is recognized as a leader in the study of cell polarity in the context of morphogenesis and asymmetric cell division, and ... especially her research on topics such as cell polarity, asymmetric cell division, polycystic kidney disease, and adaptive ... Yi, Kexi; Li, Rong (1 October 2012). "Actin cytoskeleton in cell polarity and asymmetric division during mouse oocyte ... insights into the in vivo function of Arp2/3-nucleated dendritic actin network in mammalian asymmetric cell division and cell ...
Asymmetric cell division: a stem cell divides into one mother cell, which is identical to the original stem cell, and another ... stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and differentiation diagram). Symmetric division gives ... Cell bank Human genome Meristem Mesenchymal stem cell Ovarian stem cell Partial cloning Plant stem cell Stem cell controversy ... Asymmetric division, on the other hand, produces only one stem cell and a progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential. ...
"Rotation and asymmetry of the mitotic spindle direct asymmetric cell division in the developing central nervous system". Nature ... Neural stem cells divide in a self-renewing manner, generating daughter cells that give rise to different types of neurons. The ... she has explained how cell fate determinants become localised to one side of a cell, allowing neural precursors to divide ... One protein, known by the name Prospero, is responsible for regulating stem cells to produce cells which produce neurons. ...
Aside from microtubules it also contains various proteins involved in cytokinesis, asymmetric cell division, and chromosome ... This endosome is marked by MKLP1, and can persist for up to 48 hours once internalised into another cell. It is coated in Actin ... The midbody is a transient structure found in mammalian cells and is present near the end of cytokinesis just prior to the ... Iwamori T, Iwamori N, Ma L, Edson MA, Greenbaum MP, Matzuk MM (May 2010). "TEX14 interacts with CEP55 to block cell abscission ...
Conversely, asymmetric cell division is expected to result in parent and daughter cells with different INM profiles. The INM ... Thus, the Nuclear Scaffold Theory predicts that symmetric cell division occurs when a daughter cell contains the same ... CD4+ TH1 and TH2 helper T-cells) is expected to be more similar than for cells that are more distantly related (e.g., T-cells ... complementarity to TH1 helper T-cells will be: TH2 > CD8+ > B-cell > Erythrocyte > cardiomyocyte). Some cells that are very ...
... the two halves of a cell separate, and each half develops into a new cell. After division, a cell may be asymmetric since the ... with individual cells connected by threads or remnants of parent cell walls. The cell of a desmid is often divided into two ... The cell-wall, of two halves (termed semicells), which, in a few species of Closterium and Penium, are of more than one piece, ... Each semi-cell houses a large, often folded chloroplast for photosynthesizing. One or more pyrenoids can be found. These form ...
Lin H, Spradling AC (1997). "A novel group of pumilio mutations affects the asymmetric division of germline stem cells in the ... But studies have reported that piRNA expression can be found in the ovarian somatic cells and neuron cells in invertebrates, as ... Piwi (or PIWI) genes were identified as regulatory proteins responsible for stem cell and germ cell differentiation. Piwi is an ... "piwi encodes a nucleoplasmic factor whose activity modulates the number and division rate of germline stem cells". Development ...
The term asymmetric cell division usually refers to such intrinsic asymmetric divisions. In order for asymmetric division to ... The single cell is now set up to undergo an asymmetric cell division, however the orientation in which the division occurs is ... An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell ... In normal stem and progenitor cells, asymmetric cell division balances proliferation and self-renewal with cell-cycle exit and ...
Asymmetric nuclear division in neural stem cells generates sibling nuclei that differ in size, envelope composition, and ... University of Cambridge , Talks.cam , Developmental Biology Seminar Series , Asymmetric nuclear division in neural stem cells ...
Cell fate diversity is generated in part by the unequal segregation of cell-fate determinants during asymmetric cell division. ... During development, cell fate diversity is generated in part by asymmetric cell division, in which a mother cell divides to ... Cell fate diversity is generated in part by the unequal segregation of cell-fate determinants during asymmetric cell division. ... The endocytic protein alpha-adaptin is required for Numb-mediated asymmetric cell division in Drosophila. Dev. Cell ...
Centrosomes in asymmetric cell division. Gonzalez, C. Current Opinion In Structural Biology ... Since 2004 he has held an ICREA Research Professorship and leads the Cell Division group at the Institute for Research in ... Illuminati: a form of gene expression plasticity in Drosophila neural stem cells ...
Dystrophin Expression in Muscle Stem Cells Regulates Their Polarity and Asymmetric Division. Nat. Med. 2015, 21, 1455. [Google ... and satellite cell polarity and division [4,5,6,7,8]. Most notably, dystrophin is a crucial regulator of muscular strength and ... Dougherty, P.G.; Sahni, A.; Pei, D. Understanding Cell Penetration of Cyclic Peptides. Chem Rev. 2019, 119, 10241-10287. [ ... Sahni, A.; Qian, Z.; Pei, D. Cell-Penetrating Peptides Escape the Endosome by Inducing Vesicle Budding and Collapse. ACS Chem. ...
The haloarchaeal cells, particularly the fragile strains are suggested to survive in the micropores of smaller size silt ... About 20 to 34% of the cells remained viable in 0.5% SW after 9 days incubation. In this study we have demonstrated that ... Hamamoto T, Takashina T, Grant WD, Horikoshi K: Asymmetric cell division of a triangular halophilic archaebacterium. FEMS ... The cells of Hgm. borinquense lysed in 3 and 0.5% SW solutions, but the cell suspension of Hcc. morrhuae remained turbid ( ...
... Science. 2003 Jun 20;300(5627):1920. doi: 10.1126/science.1083532. ... 1 Division of Molecular Microbiology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland. [email protected] ...
Integration of Cell Growth and Asymmetric Division during Lateral Root Initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant and Cell ...
Analysis of the acquisition mechanism of cancerous heterogeneity generating by asymmetric cell division of cancer stem cells ( ... and PKCλ is required for the asymmetric cell division of ALDH1A3-positive cancer stem cells in PDAC. Biochemical and ... Research keywords (28): cell polarity , 細胞接着 , kinase , aPKC , PAR-3 , タイトジャンクション , stem cell , progenitor , シグナル伝達 , G protein ... 細胞極性制御因子aPKCλによる乳腺上皮前駆細胞の増殖制御とその破綻(aPKCλ, regulates
In somatic cells, aneuploidy is associated with cancer but in gametes,... ... Mistakes in chromosome segregation lead to aneuploid cells. ... oocytes complete MI and undergo an asymmetric cell division, ... Mouse Oocyte Microinjection Maturation Ploidy Assessment Mistakes In Chromosome Segregation Aneuploid Cells Somatic Cells ... Asymmetrical Cell Division Metaphase Of MII Fertilization By Sperm In Vitro Culture Conditions Transgenic Mouse Mutants Gene- ...
Currently, her doctoral work focuses on elucidating the gene network dynamics of asymmetric cell division in plants. Her ... Luis A Haddock III Soto is a first-year cell and molecular biology PhD student at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He ... Juan Daniel Rodriguez is a PhD candidate in the Department of Cell Biology at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. He earned ... Priscila Guzman is a PhD candidate in the Division of Biology in Kansas State University. She earned her Bachelor of Science in ...
In some cases however, cell division leads to two cells with different properties. This is called asymmetric cell division and ... Science When a cell divides, normally the result is two identical daughter cells. ... plays an important role in embryonic development and the self-renewal of stem cells. Researchers… ...
... asymmetric cell division, sub-cellular localization of mRNAs, organizer signaling, chirality at the levels of cells and organs ... Neoblasts are the only mitotically active cells in planarians, and their division progeny generate the 30-40 different cell ... The initial cell divisions produce a blastodisc at the animal pole, which continues to divide, spreading over and eventually ... The cell lineage of several annelids has been described in detail, and every cell in the early stage embryo of Capitella and ...
... to the cell cortex controls the positioning of the mitochondrial network and its inheritance during asymmetric cell division ( ... The cells were analyzed from z-stacks through the whole volume of the cell. Around 30 cells were analyzed for each category ( ... To prepare whole-cell lysates, 30 OD units of cells in mid-log phase were harvested and resuspended in 300 µl of lysis solution ... Reasons to submit to Journal of Cell Science. There are many benefits to publishing in Journal of Cell Science - read more ...
Research pages of Regulation of translation in cell cycle and stress ... Cosegregation of asymmetric features during cell division. Open Biol, 11 (8), 210116. DOI 10.1098/rsob.210116, PubMed 34343465 ... The Escherichia coli baby cell column: a novel cell synchronization method provides new insight into the bacterial cell cycle. ... Coupling the cell cycle to cell growth. EMBO Rep, 4 (8), 757-60. DOI 10.1038/sj.embor.embor895, PubMed 12897798 ...
Dr Amanda Rasmussen, Australia - Cell identity establishment following asymmetric pericycle cell division - hosted by ... Dr Edgar Deu, Andorra - Functional characterization of a malaria protease involved in red blood cell invasion and egress - ...
... is a transcriptional regulator of neural stem cell expansion in the adult hippocampus. ... 2010) Notch regulates the switch from symmetric to asymmetric neural stem cell division in the Drosophila optic lobe ... 2016) Proximity-Based Differential Single-Cell Analysis of the Niche to Identify Stem/Progenitor Cell Regulators Cell Stem Cell ... Over time the cell body of the daughter RGL emerged. For our analysis of cell division, we only considered the first division ...
... approaches to dissect spatially and temporally relevant processes in asymmetric root cell division. ... The interplay of hormone pathways regulates the sorting of cambial cells into high-order vascular tissues and secondary ... which works in vitro but not yet in vivo other than in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. She described a new system using a ...
... and regulates tissue boundaries and asymmetric cell division by delimiting SHORT-ROOT movement. Here, we provide evidence that ... and regulates tissue boundaries and asymmetric cell division by delimiting SHORT-ROOT movement. Here, we provide evidence that ... and regulates tissue boundaries and asymmetric cell division by delimiting SHORT-ROOT movement. Here, we provide evidence that ... and regulates tissue boundaries and asymmetric cell division by delimiting SHORT-ROOT movement. Here, we provide evidence that ...
The gene product, GPSM2 is required for orienting the mitotic spindle during cell division in multiple tissues, suggesting that ... the brain malformations are due to defects in asymmetric cell divisions during development. [9] ...
Asymmetric cell division promotes therapeutic resistance in glioblastoma stem cells. JCI Insight. 2021;6:3. https://doi.org/ ... xCell scores in 18 immune cell types (CD4 Tcm, CD4 Tem, CD8 naive T cells, Tregs, Th1 cells, Th2 cells, B cells, memory B cells ... Mast cells, NKT) and 2 brain cell types (Astrocyte, neurons) are analyzed. The immune score is a sum of all of the immune cell ... xCell was used to estimate the presence of different immune cells and brain normal cells in the tumor and to calculate an ...
Dey-Guha I, Alves CP, Yeh AC, Salony, Sole X, Darp R, Ramaswamy S: A Mechanism for Asymmetric Cell Division Resulting in ... Loss of CD147 results in impaired epithelial cell differentiation and malformation of the meibomian gland. Cell Death Dis 2015 ... Progressive transformation of the HIV-1 reservoir cell profile over two decades of antiviral therapy. Cell Host & Microbe 2023 ... Immune correlates of HIV-1 reservoir cell decline in early-treated infants. Cell Reports 2022, 40:111126; [Free Article]. ...
Dystrophin expression in muscle stem cells regulates their polarity and asymmetric division ... Orienting Muscle Stem Cells for Regeneration in Homeostasis, Aging, and Disease (Review) ... Analysis of human satellite cell dynamics on cultured adult skeletal muscle myofibers ...
One defining property of stem cells is their ability to differentiate via asymmetric cell division, in which a stem cell ... In this way, asymmetric cell division happens though asymmetric plasmid partitioning. This system was further used to achieve ... Here, I describe a synthetic genetic circuit for controlling asymmetric cell division in E. coli in which a progenitor cell ... A synthetic system for asymmetric cell division in Escherichia coli. (. 2019-07-16. ) Molinari, Sara; Bennett, Matthew R.; ...
Asymmetric trafficking of mitochondria in axons. A, Maximum projection of a live-cell, confocal z stack from a 16 DIV neuron ... 2015) Stem cells: asymmetric apportioning of aged mitochondria between daughter cells is required for stemness. Science 348:340 ... Asymmetric trafficking of mitochondria in axons. The existence of axonal QC mechanisms regulating the asymmetric traffic of ... All experiments were performed up to 20 DIVs; 13-16 DIV for microfluidic experiments and 14-20 DIV for pHluorin, Ca2+ (GCaMP#X/ ...
... daughter cell alongside a self-renewing TCF-1+ sister cell. This asymmetric division helped to preserve the number of stem-like ... PD-1+TCF-1+ stem-like CD8 T cells act as critical resource cells for maintaining T cell immunity in chronic viral infections ... We used microscopy to understand the division of these progenitor cells and found that after PD-1 blockade, an individual ... Unlike CD4+ TCR75 cells, CD4+ TEa cells specific for a peptide derived from donor MHC class II, an alloantigen whose expression ...
Live-cell imaging revealed the dynamics and the roles of cytoskeleton in polarizing plant zygote. Asymmetric cell division is ... In most flowering plants, the apical-basal axis is established by the asymmetric division of the zygote. In a model plant ... alcohol alzheimers disease bacteria blood bone brain breast cancer cancer cell children conference diabetes diagnosis disease ... Cells are the structural and functional basic units of a given organism to support its life. The phenotype of an organism is ...
The SHR/SCR pathway directly activates genes involved in asymmetric cell division in the Arabidopsis root ... TL;DR: This is the first immunophenotyping study on IL-10 producing cells in cases of PMWS, further extending the studies on ... MeSH headings : Animals; Antibodies, Viral / blood; Cell Line; Classical Swine Fever / immunology; Classical Swine Fever / ... Increased numbers of myeloid and lymphoid IL-10 producing cells in spleen of pigs with naturally occurring postweaning ...
Asymmetric cell division (ACD), a process that generates daughter cells with different cell fates and sizes, is a fundamental ... Impact of Na+/H+ Antiporter on Asymmetric Cell Division in Drosophila Neural Stem Cells Presenter. *Mackenzie Coston, Senior, ... To learn the role that kinesins play in asymmetric cell division, we performed an RNAi knockdown-based live-cell imaging screen ... The Role of Kinesins in Asymmetric Cell Division Presenter. *Varun Sridhar, Junior, Pre-Health Sciences ...
Modeling asymmetric cell division in hematopietic stem cells - regulation of self--‐renewal is essential for efficient ... Stem Cells Dev. 17: 1-10. *Wagner W., Horn P., Bork S., Ho A.D. (2008). Aging of hematopoietic stem cells is regulated by the ... Aging Cell 9: 54-63.. *Marciniak-Czochra A. (2009). Mathematical Models of Stem Cells Renewal and Differentiation. Oberwolfach ... J. Cell Physiol. Dec. 6.. *Bork S., Pfister S., Witt H., Horn P., Korn B., Ho A.D., and Wagner W. (2010). DNA Methylation ...
  • It usually detects an asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss and a greater impairment of speech discrimination than would be expected for the degree of hearing loss. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Although not usually required in the routine evaluation of a patient with asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss, caloric testing shows marked vestibular hypoactivity (canal paresis) on the affected side. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The cell biology of these events has been most studied in three animal models: the mouse, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila melanogaster, asymmetric cell division plays an important role in neural development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Drosophila bristle lineage, the sensory organ precursor (pI) cell is polarized along the anteroposterior (AP) axis by Frizzled (Fz) receptor signaling. (silverchair.com)
  • Recent studies have shed light on the mechanisms that regulate cell polarization during asymmetric division in the Drosophila peripheral nervous system. (silverchair.com)
  • At mitosis, Stbm forms an anterior crescent that overlaps with the distribution of Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) and Discs-large (Dlg), two components of the anterior Dlg-Pins-Gαi complex that regulates the localization of cell-fate determinants. (silverchair.com)
  • Polarization of the mother cell regulates both mitotic spindle positioning and asymmetric localization of cell-fate determinants. (silverchair.com)
  • 細胞極性制御因子aPKCλによる乳腺上皮前駆細胞の増殖制御とその破綻(aPKCλ, regulates mammary luminal (go.jp)
  • Previously, we showed that JACKDAW (JKD), a zinc finger protein, localizes in the quiescent centre and the ground tissue, and regulates tissue boundaries and asymmetric cell division by delimiting SHORT-ROOT movement. (edu.sa)
  • In Arabidopsis, specification of the hair and non-hair epidermal cell types is position dependent, in that hair cells arise over clefts in the underlying cortical cell layer. (edu.sa)
  • Other proteins present in the neuroblast mediate the asymmetric localization of Numb and Prospero. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, asymmetric localization of Fz, Stbm and Pk define two opposite cortical domains prior to mitosis of the pI cell. (silverchair.com)
  • In order for asymmetric division to take place the mother cell must be polarized, and the mitotic spindle must be aligned with the axis of polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The establishment of this polarity initiates the polarized distribution of a group of proteins present in the zygote called the PARD proteins (partitioning defective), which are a conserved group of proteins that function in establishing cell polarity during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose that the Stbm-dependent recruitment of Pins at the anterior cortex of the pI cell is a novel read-out of planar cell polarity. (silverchair.com)
  • To ensure unequal partitioning of cell-fate determinants at anaphase, the mitotic spindle must be lined up with the polarity axis revealed by the position of cell-fate determinants at the cortex. (silverchair.com)
  • The mitotic spindle must be oriented correctly to ensure that the proper cell fate determinants are distributed appropriately to the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single cell is now set up to undergo an asymmetric cell division, however the orientation in which the division occurs is also an important factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once meiosis resumes, oocytes complete MI and undergo an asymmetric cell division, arresting again at metaphase of MII. (jove.com)
  • Following relief from this molecular brake through Klf9 loss-of-function, neural stem cells undergo symmetric cell divisions that promote their self-renewal and expansion. (elifesciences.org)
  • In times of growth or regeneration, stem cells can also divide symmetrically, to produce two identical copies of the original cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following this first asymmetric division, the AB daughter cell divides symmetrically, giving rise to ABa and ABp, while the P1 daughter cell undergoes another asymmetric cell division to produce P2 and EMS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each time an RGL divides, it can choose to divide asymmetrically to maintain a copy of itself and make a new cell of another type, or divide symmetrically (a process known as symmetric self-renewal) to produce two RGLs. (elifesciences.org)
  • Experience governs neurogenesis from radial-glial neural stem cells (RGLs) in the adult hippocampus to support memory. (elifesciences.org)
  • Together, these observations identify Klf9 as a transcriptional regulator of neural stem cell expansion in the adult hippocampus. (elifesciences.org)
  • uncover a role for the transcription factor Klf9 in keeping adult hippocampal neural stem cells in a state of quiescence. (elifesciences.org)
  • New experiences guide cells in the hippocampus known as radial-glial neural stem cells (RGLs) to divide to make new neurons and other types of cells involved in forming memories. (elifesciences.org)
  • Protocol for selecting single human pluripotent stem cells using a modified micropipetter. (harvard.edu)
  • When the sperm cell fertilizes the egg cell, the sperm pronucleus and centrosomes are deposited within the egg, which causes a cytoplasmic flux resulting in the movement of the pronucleus and centrosomes towards one pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numb is a suppressor of Notch, therefore the asymmetric segregation of Numb to the basal cortex biases the response of the daughter cells to Notch signaling, resulting in two distinct cell fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell fate diversity is generated in part by the unequal segregation of cell-fate determinants during asymmetric cell division. (silverchair.com)
  • Adoption of different fates often relies on the unequal segregation of cell-fate determinants at mitosis. (silverchair.com)
  • Mistakes in chromosome segregation lead to aneuploid cells. (jove.com)
  • In general, haloarchaeal strains require high salt concentration for growth and cell integrity. (springer.com)
  • The most well known haloarchaea Halobacterium salinarum , for example, requires at least 2.5 M NaCl for growth and cells lose their morphological integrity instantaneously at less than 1 M NaCl [ 6 ]. (springer.com)
  • A mutation in this gene disrupts a cell's ability to regulate its own growth, allowing it to grow and divide abnormally. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Increased cell proliferation in various tissues and organs leads to the abnormal growth characteristic of Proteus syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Here, I describe a synthetic genetic circuit for controlling asymmetric cell division in E. coli in which a progenitor cell creates a differentiated daughter cell while retaining its original phenotype. (rice.edu)
  • This system was further used to achieve physical separation of genetically distinct cells by tying motility to differentiation. (rice.edu)
  • At these sites, which are a compound of stromal cells, extracellular matrix and soluble factors, complex molecular interactions that maintain the essential properties of stem cells occur, such as self-renewal and differentiation into multiple lineages, according to the organism's needs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recent advances in live imaging and genetics of mammalian division, movement and cell differentiation leading to development which integrate observations of biochemical tissue formation [14 ]. (lu.se)
  • In C. elegans, a series of asymmetric cell divisions in the early embryo are critical in setting up the anterior/posterior, dorsal/ventral, and left/right axes of the body plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) is a Schwann cell-derived tumor of the 8th cranial nerve. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Vestibular schwannomas almost always arise from the vestibular division of the 8th cranial nerve and account for about 7% of all intracranial tumors. (msdmanuals.com)
  • After fertilization, events are already occurring in the zygote to allow for the first asymmetric cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most flowering plants, the apical-basal axis is established by the asymmetric division of the zygote. (atlasofscience.org)
  • This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo translational profiling of RGLs lacking Klf9 generated a molecular blueprint for RGL symmetric self-renewal that was characterized by upregulation of genetic programs underlying Notch and mitogen signaling, cell cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and lipogenesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Likewise, the knowledge of stem cell biology is crucial to the development of stem cell therapies, based on tissue engineering applied to dentistry, seeking the regeneration of dental tissues damaged or lost by caries, trauma or genetic diseases. (bvsalud.org)
  • This mixture of cells with and without a genetic mutation is known as mosaicism . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • One defining property of stem cells is their ability to differentiate via asymmetric cell division, in which a stem cell creates a differentiated daughter cell but retains its own phenotype. (rice.edu)
  • Dental pulp stem cells have been isolated from deciduous and permanent teeth and have the potential to self-renew and differentiate. (bvsalud.org)
  • In one, the daughter cells are initially equivalent but a difference is induced by signaling between the cells, from surrounding cells, or from the precursor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then Hydra proved to be a powerful model system to investigate the molecular and cellular basis of stem cell biology, asexual reproduction (budding), body regeneration and low senescence in a non-bilaterian context. (mbl.edu)
  • Therapies based on the application of stem cells have great potential in the prevention and treatment of several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, spinal cord injuries, neurological diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, and in the regeneration of various tissues and organs. (bvsalud.org)
  • and stem cell regeneration. (lu.se)
  • The cell biology is equally fascinating in these animals as three continuously cycling stem cell populations exhibit an unusual cell cycling behavior and a tight spatial regulation. (mbl.edu)
  • Recently, however, the successful introduction of cell, molecular, and RNAi techniques in planarians, along with heightened interest in stem-cell biology and the plasticity of the differentiated state, has re-kindled interest in these fascinating organisms. (mbl.edu)
  • Member, yeast cell biology group . (ous-research.no)
  • However, further studies are required to gain complete understanding of stem cell biology, which is fundamental for the development of successful cell-based therapies 1-3 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Epithelial stem cells provide a high resistance to starvation and stress, while interstitial stem cells allow de novo neurogenesis and gametogenesis whatever the age of the animal. (mbl.edu)
  • In the pupal notum, the pI cell divides asymmetrically within the plane of the single-layered epithelium, along the anteroposterior (AP) axis of the pupa, to generate an anterior pIIb cell and a posterior pIIa cell( Gho and Schweisguth, 1998 ). (silverchair.com)
  • One major discovery was made by Ethel Browne (1909) who used pigmented and unpigmented animals to show that restricted regions in intact or budding or regenerating animals, nowadays named organizers, induce ectopic axis formation upon transplantation by recruiting cells from the host. (mbl.edu)
  • Asymmetric cell division is one of the fundamental steps to form the plant body axis. (atlasofscience.org)
  • Neuroblasts are the progenitor cells which divide asymmetrically to give rise to another neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell (GMC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies have identified several transcription factors that regulate the RGLs splitting asymmetrically to make neurons and other cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Tissue-specific induction experiments indicate non-cell-autonomous action of JKD from the underlying cortex cell layer to specify epidermal cell fate. (edu.sa)
  • Our findings are consistent with a model where JKD induces a signal in every cortex cell that is more abundant in the hair cell position owing to the larger surface contact of cells located over a cleft. (edu.sa)
  • The term asymmetric cell division usually refers to such intrinsic asymmetric divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This data suggest that Klf9 contributes to the molecular interplay that governs stem cell decisions between quiescence and activation on one hand and between distinct modes of cell divisions on the other. (elifesciences.org)
  • An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ident- cult to deduce interaction rules from observations of the ified transcription factors for specific cell fates are, for entire system. (lu.se)
  • The phenotype of an organism is highly determined by proteins at the molecular level in each cell. (atlasofscience.org)
  • This division is also dependent on the distribution of the PAR proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two proteins play an important role in setting up this cell fate asymmetry in the neuroblast, Prospero and Numb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins known as transcription factors are believed to control how RGLs divide. (elifesciences.org)
  • Native membrane derived polymer-supported lipid bilayers (nSLBs) are poised to bridge the gap between live cell experiments and traditional model membrane architectures that by offering a combination of accessibility by surface sensitive analytical instrumentation and a composition which more closely resembles cellular membranes by displaying a diversity of endogenous membrane proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. (lu.se)
  • Clinical and electrodiagnostic data suggested the patient, a standardized questionnaire, including demo- involvement of spinal anterior horn cells, resulting in a graphics, medical history, initial signs and symptoms, risk poliomyelitis-like syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Electrodiagnostic studies, however, displayed reduced compound muscle action potentials, normal sensory nerve action potentials, and widespread denervation, consistent with a severe, asymmetric process involving anterior horn cells or motor axons. (cdc.gov)
  • In somatic cells, aneuploidy is associated with cancer but in gametes, aneuploidy leads to infertility, miscarriages or developmental disorders like Down syndrome. (jove.com)
  • The difference lies in a population of adult somatic stem cells, called neoblasts, that are distributed throughout the planarian body. (mbl.edu)
  • Likewise, these cells give rise to progenitor cells committed to a particular cell lineage, and play a crucial role in tissue repair and homeostasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Transcription factors (TFs) in RGLs integrate physiological signals to dictate self-renewal division mode. (elifesciences.org)
  • During development, cell fate diversity is generated in part by asymmetric cell division, in which a mother cell divides to produce two daughter cells with distinct developmental potentials. (silverchair.com)
  • JKD is required for appropriately patterned expression of the epidermal cell fate regulators GLABRA2, CAPRICE and WEREWOLF. (edu.sa)
  • The neuroblast repeatedly undergoes this asymmetric cell division while the GMC continues on to produce a pair of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symmetric self-renewal helps to restore and replenish the pool of stem cells in the hippocampus that are lost due to injury or age, allowing us to continue making new neurons. (elifesciences.org)
  • As cells continue to grow and divide, some cells will have the mutation and other cells will not. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies suggest that an AKT1 gene mutation is more common in groups of cells that experience overgrowth than in the parts of the body that grow normally. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In 2005, researchers discovered a mutation in the Janus Tyrosine Kinase 2 gene (JAK2 (V617F)), which plays a pivotal role in the regulation of blood cell production (Levine et al. (cdc.gov)
  • the JAK2 mutation, the presence of the mutation has become an important diagnostic criterion for identifying patients with PV and for reducing the potential for misdiagnosis of persons with elevated red blood cell counts. (cdc.gov)
  • Some adult stem cell niches have already been described, but the majority of them remain unclear, including the dental pulp stem cell niches. (bvsalud.org)
  • All patients had acute onset of lance conducted by the Mississippi Department of Health asymmetric weakness and areflexia but no sensory abnor- and the Louisiana Office of Public Health. (cdc.gov)
  • In principle, there are two mechanisms by which distinct properties may be conferred on the daughters of a dividing cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, organelle quality control (QC) mechanisms that maintain mitochondrial function are imperative to restrict destructive signaling cascades in the cell. (jneurosci.org)
  • of the most critical events which lead to tissue patterning involves mechanisms going beyond single cells. (lu.se)
  • Sensitivity to targeted UBA1 inhibition in a myeloid cell line model of VEXAS syndrome. (harvard.edu)
  • Increased numbers of myeloid and lymphoid IL-10 producing cells in spleen of pigs with naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. (ncsu.edu)
  • Dr. Emily Lutterloh, who's the Director of the Division of Epidemiology with the New York State Department of Health. (cdc.gov)
  • the organism was later confirmed by Gram stain and biochemical tests as S. moniliformis at the New Mexico Department of Health's Scientific Laboratory Division. (cdc.gov)
  • Science When a cell divides, normally the result is two identical daughter cells. (embl.org)
  • On admission, the patient's white blood cell count was 8000/mm3 (4,300-10,800/mm3) with a differential of 46 neutrophils, 47 bands, 3 lymphocytes, and 4 monocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • In the second mechanism, the prospective daughter cells are inherently different at the time of division of the mother cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon division, the colocalized plasmids are kept by one and only one of the daughter cells. (rice.edu)
  • Neoblasts are the only mitotically active cells in planarians, and their division progeny generate the 30-40 different cell types found in these organisms. (mbl.edu)
  • that is, they have the ability to generate other stem cells and perpetuate themselves. (bvsalud.org)
  • Single cell experiments [ 11 ] could provide iterative validation of models with experimental results. (lu.se)
  • This is called asymmetric cell division and plays an important role in embryonic development and the self-renewal of stem cells. (embl.org)
  • The identities of TFs regulating RGL symmetric self-renewal, unlike those that regulate RGL asymmetric self-renewal, are not known. (elifesciences.org)
  • On the basis of serologic data, three of the paralysis is due to anterior horn cell involvement with a patients were classified as confirmed case-patients (patients resultant poliomyelitis-like syndrome (7-9). (cdc.gov)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical and thoracic spine demonstrated signal abnormality in the anterior cord, indicative of anterior horn-cell involvement. (cdc.gov)
  • P pigs vaccinated with the DNA vaccine induced a strong cellular immune response, characterized by the specific induction IFN-gamma expressing T cells after vaccination without any detectable levels of CSFV neutralizing antibodies, which supports the relevance of the induction of a strong T cellular response to confer a solid protection upon DNA vaccination against CSfV. (ncsu.edu)
  • Understanding how stem cells behave in the niche is extremely important in order to extract these cells from their natural habitat, expand them in vitro and transplant the stem cells back to the patient, to repair and/or regenerate tissues and organs, with no risks to the individual's integrity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we provide evidence that JKD controls position-dependent signals that regulate epidermal-cell-type patterning. (edu.sa)