Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.

Immortalized, pre-malignant epithelial cell populations contain long-lived, label-retaining cells that asymmetrically divide and retain their template DNA. (1/72)

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JMY is required for asymmetric division and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes. (2/72)

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Isolation of live label-retaining cells and cells undergoing asymmetric cell division via nonrandom chromosomal cosegregation from human cancers. (3/72)

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Chasing the immortal strand: evidence for nature's way of protecting the breast genome. (4/72)

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The small GTPase Cdc42 promotes membrane protrusion during polar body emission via ARP2-nucleated actin polymerization. (5/72)

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Fly meets yeast: checking the correct orientation of cell division. (6/72)

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Asymmetric cortical extension shifts cleavage furrow position in Drosophila neuroblasts. (7/72)

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Molecular profiling of stomatal meristemoids reveals new component of asymmetric cell division and commonalities among stem cell populations in Arabidopsis. (8/72)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Lessons from development. T2 - A role for asymmetric stem cell division in cancer. AU - Powell, Anne E.. AU - Shung, Chia Yi. AU - Saylor, Katherine W.. AU - Müllendorf, Karin A.. AU - Weiss, Joseph B.. AU - Wong, Melissa H.. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - Asymmetric stem cell division has emerged as a major regulatory mechanism for physiologic control of stem cell numbers. Reinvigoration of the cancer stem cell theory suggests that tumorigenesis may be regulated by maintaining the balance between asymmetric and symmetric cell division. Therefore, mutations affecting this balance could result in aberrant expansion of stem cells. Although a number of molecules have been implicated in regulation of asymmetric stem cell division, here, we highlight known tumor suppressors with established roles in this process. While a subset of these tumor suppressors were originally defined in developmental contexts, recent investigations reveal they are also lost or mutated in human cancers. ...
The Drosophila male germ line serves as a model system for investigating how stem cells are regulated in the context of their normal microenvironment, or niche. Yamashita et al. (see the Perspective by Wallenfang and Matunis) used this system to investigate the intracellular mechanisms that lead to the reliably asymmetric outcome of stem cell divisions to produce a stem cell and a cell that is ready to differentiate further (in this case, a gonialblast). The mitotic spindle in dividing germline stem cells orients with respect to the support-cell niche throughout their cell cycle. This process requires centrosome function and homologs of the human tumor suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Y. M. Yamashita, D. L. Jones, M. T. Fuller, Orientation of asymmetric stem cell division by the APC tumor suppressor and centrosome. Science 301, 1547-1550 (2003). [Abstract] [Full Text]. M. R. Wallenfang, E. Matunis, Orienting stem cells. Science 301, 1490-1491 (2003). [Summary] [Full Text]. ...
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (In times of growth or regeneration, stem cells can also divide symmetrically, to produce two identical copies of the original cell.) In principle, there are two mechanisms by which distinct properties may be conferred on the daughters of a dividing cell. In one, the daughter cells are initially equivalent but a difference is induced by signaling between the cells, from surrounding cells, or from the precursor cell. This mechanism is known as extrinsic asymmetric cell division. In the second mechanism, the prospective daughter cells are inherently different at the time of division of the mother cell. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Cerebral cortex. T2 - Symmetric vs: asymmetric cell division. AU - Fishell, G.. AU - Hanashima, C.. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - The six distinct laminae within the mammalian cerebral cortex contain neurons that exhibit a wide variety of specific physiological properties and synaptic connections. This diversity emerges from a restricted progenitor pool within the embryonic cortical ventricular zone. Individual cortical progenitors produce multiple subtypes over a prolonged period during corticogenesis. This article describes classical studies that suggest that neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex is dependent on asymmetric divisions, where one daughter remains in a progenitor state while the other exits to become a mature neuron. The present understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating both asymmetric cell division and the sequential production of different neuronal subtypes during development is reviewed. However, as yet only a subset of the factors controlling each ...
en] Asymmetric stem cell division is thought to require precise orientation of the mitotic spindle. However, a recent study in Cell (Yingling et al., 2008) analyzes the role of LIS1 in the developing mouse brain and shows that spindle orientation is more important during early, symmetric progenitor cell divisions than for later asymmetric divisions ...
African trypanosomes go through at least five developmental stages during their life cycle. The different cellular forms are classified using morphology, including the order of the nucleus, flagellum and kinetoplast along the anterior-posterior axis of the cell, the predominant cell surface molecules and the location within the host. Here, an asymmetrical cell division cycle that is an integral part of the Trypanosoma brucei life cycle has been characterised in further detail through the use of cell cycle stage specific markers. The cell cycle leading to the asymmetric division includes an exquisitely synchronised mitosis and exchange in relative location of organelles along the anterior-posterior axis of the cell. These events are coupled to a change in cell surface architecture. During the asymmetric division, the behaviour of the new flagellum is consistent with a role in determining the location of the plane of cell division, a function previously characterised in procyclic cells. Thus, the
Vol 4: Asymmetric Cell Division and Template DNA Co-Segregation in Cancer Stem Cells.. This article is from Frontiers in Oncology, volume 4.AbstractDuring tissue homeostasis, normal stem cells self-renew and. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/PIG-578?page=com.atlassian.jira.plugin.system.issuetabpanels:all-tabpanel ] Pradeep Kamath updated PIG-578: ------------------------------- Attachment: PIG-578-2.patch Addressed the javadoc warning and 4 of the findbugs. There will still be 1 findbugs relating to uppercase methodname in Queryparser - this is because currently all methods in QueryParser are in Upper case and I am just following the convention in that file. At some point we should rename all filenames to be lowercase. The two junit failures are because the hudson QA process is unable to get javac from path for tests unrelated to this patch and hence are not an issue. , join ... outer, ... outer semantics are a no-ops, should produce corresponding null values , ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ , , Key: PIG-578 , URL: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/PIG-578 , Project: Pig , Issue Type: Improvement , Components: impl , Affects ...
Copying of this document in whole or in part is allowable only for scholarly purposes. It is understood, however, that any copying or publication of this documentation for commercial purposes, or for financial gain, shall not be allowed without the authors written permission.. ...
Haematopoietic stem cells self-renew and differentiate into all blood lineages throughout life, and can repair damaged blood systems upon transplantation. Asymmetric cell division has previously been suspected to be a regulator of haematopoietic-stem-cell fate, but its existence has not directly been shown1. In asymmetric cell division, asymmetric fates of future daughter cells are prospectively determined by a mechanism that is linked to mitosis. This can be mediated by asymmetric inheritance of cell-extrinsic niche signals by, for example, orienting the divisional plane, or by the asymmetric inheritance of cell-intrinsic fate determinants. Observations of asymmetric inheritance or of asymmetric daughter-cell fates alone are not sufficient to demonstrate asymmetric cell division2. In both cases, sister-cell fates could be controlled by mechanisms that are independent of division. Here we demonstrate that the cellular degradative machinery-including lysosomes, autophagosomes, mitophagosomes and the
Upon engagement in an immune response, a naive T lymphocyte undergoes a program of rapid proliferation and many of its cellular progeny undergo terminal effector differentiation. After an immune response has ended, some antigen-specific daughter cells remain as long-lived replicas of the useful clone, so-called memory cells, which form the basis for successful vaccination. Using lymphocytes as a model system, we have provided evidence that asymmetric cell division may be a way for many mobile, non-polarized cells to generate cell fate diversity among their progeny. We are using static and time-lapsed imaging, genetic, and biochemical methods to better understand the nature and extent of asymmetric cell division in multi-celled beings. It is predicted that this will have immediate relevance for the way in which blood stem cells and metastatic cancer stem cells can generate diverse progeny despite their lack of obvious polarity. Studies of lymphocyte differentiation during the immune response ...
Why might DN3a cells undergo ACD? ACD at the β-selection checkpoint might regulate self-renewal and expansion at the level of the individual cell, mitigate the high risk of leukemia caused by combining gene rearrangement with subsequent expansion, and/or enable abrupt transitions in differentiation state and growth signal dependencies (Rothenberg, 2014). These possible roles are compatible with the role of the Scribble complex and ACD in other cell types (Martin-Belmonte and Perez-Moreno, 2012), where a switch between ACD and SCD can control subsequent differentiation and tumorigenesis (Morin and Bellaïche, 2011). Therefore, the extent of ACD could mediate control of thymocyte fate determination by stromal interactions and the strength of Notch and CXCR4 signaling. In addition, a switch from ACD to SCD after the β-selection checkpoint might enable a limited expansion of individual clones that are already destined for terminal differentiation.. We propose two nonmutually exclusive cellular ...
Stem cells are defined by their ability to make more stem cells, a property known as self-renewal and their ability to generate cells that enter differentiation. One mechanism by which fate decisions can be effectively controlled ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Follow the bouncing nucleus. The Bergmann lab makes Arabidopsis into fluorescent art under the microscope. Bright green nuclei wiggle within purple cell membranes. Watch closely, like Muroyama did, and you would see the usual process for asymmetric cell division: when an Arabidopsis stem cell first divides, the nucleus moves to one side. That way, the resulting daughter cells will be different sizes and will face different neighbors. Eventually, these two cells are destined to play different roles in the intricate final pattern of the leaf.. But continue watching and the nucleus of one daughter cell moves again, hurrying to the opposite side of the cell where it will undergo a second asymmetric split.. When Andrew showed me the videos of the cells, it was so bizarre, said Bergmann, who is a professor of biology in the School of Humanities and Sciences and senior author of the paper. I thought, Why on Earth would a nucleus behave that way? The first move makes sense but the second, in the ...
Structure-related arrangement of asymmetric division (proliferation and differentiation) of villous CT cells. [A], symmetric division resulting in proliferation
Research in the department explores a wide variety of basic aspects of cell function and cell communication particularly in the context of plant or animal development, neurobiology, immunology, and the cancer process.. Projects range from studies on endocytic processing of tumor antigens for presentation on the surfaces of cells of the immune system to develop tumor immunity to studies on the mechanism of asymmetric cell division to generate cell type diversity during development and studies identifying molecules involved in regulating cell traction to facilitate cell migration during embryogenesis. Signal transduction pathways involved in processes as diverse as photoreception, directing developmental decision making in forming the vulva organ of the nematode worm and pheromone signaling in the olfactory system are also areas of active research in the department. These problems are approached using genetics, biochemistry, electrophysiology, and microscopy.. ...
Asymmetric stem cell divisions provide an efficient mechanism for maintaining a steady stem cell pool while generating progenitor cells that give rise to differentiated progeny within the tissue where the stem cells reside (Morrison and Kimble, 2006; Pontious et al., 2008; Kriegstein and Alvarez-Buylla, 2009; Knoblich, 2010; Weng and Lee, 2011). Progenitor cells possess restricted developmental potential and function to protect the genomic integrity of stem cells by minimizing their proliferation. Since both daughter cells inherit the cellular content from their parental stem cell during asymmetric division, proper specification of sibling cell identity requires precise control of stem cell determinants. Failure to properly downregulate stem cell determinants in presumptive progenitor cells might allow them to acquire stem cell-like functional properties, and can perturb tissue homeostasis and contribute to tumor formation (Krivtsov et al., 2006; Wei et al., 2008). Thus, mechanistic insight into ...
The Bazzi laboratory is investigating the roles of cytoskeletal organizers in mammalian development and homeostasis. Dr. Bazzi and his team are focusing on the functions of centrosomes in the developing mouse and in stem cells. They use mouse genetics to study the consequences of the loss of centrosomes on various cell processes such as cell cycle, division, polarity, migration, signaling and fate determination. The labs goal is to shed light on centrosome-related human diseases and to help find ways of treating them. Our research: The Bazzi laboratory studies centrosome function in stem cells. The team aims to define the function of centrosomes in asymmetric stem cell divisions in the developing and regenerative skin stem cells. To this end, they use mouse genetic approaches in vivo for the conditional removal of the centrosome, and investigate the consequences and the corresponding mechanisms. Our successes: Using genetic mutations in the mouse, the team has removed centrosome function in the ...
Congratulations to Tri Pham and Clemens Cabernard for their recent publication in iScience!. The paper describes cellular and biophysical mechanisms underlying the formation of sibling cell size asymmetry. They show how during cell division a big and small cell are being formed simultaneously. Sibling cell size asymmetry occurs across animal cells but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Summary:. Metazoan cells can generate unequal sized sibling cells during cell division. This form of asymmetric cell division depends on spindle geometry and Myosin distribution, but the underlying mechanics are unclear. Here, we use atomic force microscopy and live cell imaging to elucidate the biophysical forces involved in the establishment of physical asymmetry in Drosophila neural stem cells. We show that initial apical cortical expansion is driven by hydrostatic pressure, peaking shortly after anaphase onset, and enabled by a relief of actomyosin contractile tension on the apical cell cortex. An ...
The bristle mechanosensory organs of the adult fly are composed of four different cells that originate from a single precursor cell, pI, via two rounds of asymmetric cell division. Here, we have examined the pattern of cell divisions in this lineage by time-lapse confocal microscopy using GFP imaging and by immunostaining analysis. pI divided within the plane of the epithelium and along the anteroposterior axis to give rise to an anterior cell, pIIb, and a posterior cell, pIIa. pIIb divided prior to pIIa to generate a small subepithelial cell and a larger daughter cell, named pIIIb. This unequal division, oriented perpendicularly to the epithelium plane, has not been described previously. pIIa divided after pIIb, within the plane of the epithelium and along the AP axis, to produce a posterior socket cell and an anterior shaft cell. Then pIIIb divided perpendicularly to the epithelium plane to generate a basal neurone and an apical sheath cell. The small subepithelial pIIb daughter cell was ...
Asymmetric cell division generates cell diversity across all kingdoms of life. For example, stem cells form daughters that differentiate and the ones that replenish the stem cell pool. Defects in polarity and asymmetric cell division lead to developmental problems and disease. We use the budding yeast S. cerevisiae as a model system to understand the mechanisms and functions of asymmetric cell division.. A notable trait of budding yeast cell division is aging. Indeed, yeast mother cells have a limited division potential. Damages such as protein aggregates accumulate in the mother cell. How they are asymmetrically inherited to allow rejuvenation of daughter cells is still poorly understood. Beyond identifying the mechanisms of asymmetric cell division, we follow the idea that a merit to aging may be the cellular ability to keep memories of their past adaptations to cope better with future stress.. We discovered a new type of epigenetic memory that is based on the aggregation of the mRNA binding ...
A central mechanism for stem cell maintenance and the generation of cellular diversity in both plants and animals is through asymmetric cell division, which ensures that the two daughter cells maintain separate identities (Abrash and Bergmann, 2009; Fichelson et al., 2009; Menke and Scheres, 2009). Asymmetric cell division during development can occur through signals from surrounding neighbors (extrinsic control) or, alternatively, intrinsic polarity within the cell can trigger partitioning of cell fate determinants (intrinsic control) (Abrash and Bergmann, 2009). Due to the tractability and accessibility of the epidermis, stomatal development has emerged as a model to study asymmetric division and cellular self-renewal. In Arabidopsis thaliana, stomatal development initiates from a subset of protodermal cells, termed meristemoid mother cells (MMCs) (Figure 1A). An MMC undergoes an asymmetric cell division that creates a stomatal precursor called a meristemoid. The meristemoid reiterates several ...
Asymmetric cell division is a conserved mechanism by which cell fate diversity is generated during Metazoan development. How one cell can generate two daughter cells with different identities and how defects in this asymmetry can contribute to cancer are the fundamental questions we are addressing in Drosophila. We are investigating this process in the context of asymmetric cell division of neural precursor cells, called Sensory Organ Precursor (SOP). These latter undergo four rounds of asymmetric divisions, in which mother cells generate distinct daughters via the unequal segregation of the cell-fate determinants Numb and Neuralized at mitosis. At each division binary cell fate decision are regulated by Delta-Notch dependent cell-cell signalling. Numb is an endocytic protein that can bind to Notch and a four pass transmembrane protein named Sanpodo (Spdo), a protein required for Notch activation in SOP lineage, thereby preventing Notch activation in this cell. Neur acts in SOPs and pIIb cells ...
Asymmetric cell division is a conserved mechanism by which cell fate diversity is generated during Metazoan development. How one cell can generate two daughter cells with different identities and how defects in this asymmetry can contribute to cancer are the fundamental questions we are addressing in Drosophila. We are investigating this process in the context of asymmetric cell division of neural precursor cells, called Sensory Organ Precursor (SOP). These latter undergo four rounds of asymmetric divisions, in which mother cells generate distinct daughters via the unequal segregation of the cell-fate determinants Numb and Neuralized at mitosis. At each division binary cell fate decision are regulated by Delta-Notch dependent cell-cell signalling. Numb is an endocytic protein that can bind to Notch and a four pass transmembrane protein named Sanpodo (Spdo), a protein required for Notch activation in SOP lineage, thereby preventing Notch activation in this cell. Neur acts in SOPs and pIIb cells ...
Our data revealed that the mode of neurogenesis in onychophorans is more similar to that found in hexapods and crustaceans than that in chelicerates and myriapods as the onychophoran neuroectoderm shows neither post-mitotic cell clusters nor segmental invaginations. In Onychophora, instead, single precursors are recruited for neuronal fate and migrate internally as bottle-like cells, which is similar to the mode found in hexapods (figure 4). These immigrated cells are mitotically active, and in this respect resemble the neuronal stem cells (neuroblasts) of both crustaceans and hexapods (Harzsch 2001; Stollewerk & Simpson 2005; Ungerer & Scholtz 2008), even though they do not show asymmetric cell divisions. Our findings thus suggest that immigration of single cells, followed by their mitotic activity, is an ancestral feature of arthropod neurogenesis, while asymmetric cell divisions are a synapomorphy of crustaceans and hexapods (figure 8). The absence of the following three characters in ...
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During female meiosis, 3/4 of the chromosomes are eliminated and only 1/4 of the chromosomes are inherited by a single egg. In contrast, all chromosomes are dis...
The majority of cells that build the nervous system of animals are generated early in embryonic development in a process called neurogenesis. Although the vertebrate nervous system is much more complex than that of insects, the underlying principles of neurogenesis are intriguingly similar. In both …
Characterization of the stem-like properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs) remain indirect and qualitative, especially the ability of CSCs to undergo asymmetric cell division for self renewal and differentiation, a unique property of cells of stem origin. It is partly due to the lack of stable cellular models of CSCs. In this study, we developed a new approach for CSC isolation and purification to derive a CSC-enriched cell line (LLC-SE). By conducting five consecutive rounds of single cell cloning using the LLC-SE cell line, we obtained two distinct sub-population of cells within the Lewis lung cancer CSCs that employed largely symmetric division for self-renewal (LLC-SD) or underwent asymmetric division for differentiation (LLC-ASD ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Tissue Damage-Induced Intestinal Stem Cell Division in Drosophila. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Establishment of cell polarity in rapidly dividing Drosophila stem cells. The ability to generate different cell types is a fundamental feature of multicellular life forms. Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is an important process that helps to produce the repertoire of cell types. ACD is particularly important for the function of stem cells as it provides the bases for self-renewing fate generating divisions during development as well as for tissue homeostasis in the adult. Faulty stem cell division has dramatic consequences for the integrity of organisms as it can compromise normal initiation and maintenance of tissues. We are interested in the dynamics of ACD in stem cells. A long-term goal is to understand how cycling stem cells robustly control ACD to prevent errors in cell fate generation.. We use Drosophila neural stem cells of the developing central nervous system called, neuroblasts, to study this process. Neuroblasts are highly proliferative and provide a well-characterised model system ...
The cellular organization of plant tissues is determined by patterns of cell division and growth coupled with cellular differentiation. Cells proliferate mainly via symmetric division, whereas asymmetric divisions are associated with initiation of new developmental patterns and cell types. Division …
Stem cells can generate cell fate heterogeneity through asymmetric cell division (ACD). ACD derives from the asymmetric segregation of fate-determining molecules and/or organelles in the dividing...
Animal cell division under DIC microscope. Here is some information about cell division: Cell division is the process by which a cell, called the parent cell, divides into two cells, called...
Cell division Cell division is a process by which a cell, called the parent cell, divides into two cells, called daughter cells. Cell division is usually a
In a new study, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have discovered two important functions of a protein called RTEL1 during cell division.
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If you have a question about this talk, please contact Mihoko Tame.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Developmental Biology Seminar Series series.. ...
Stem cell division to evaluate proposals relating to stem cell research has been established by The Directorate General of Health Services, said Ghulam Nabi Azad Minister of Health and Family Welfare.
nucleus, DNA-binding transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding, asymmetric cell division, iron ion homeostasis, leaf development, negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle, radial pattern formation, regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
Chen G, Kong J, Tucker-Burden C, Anand M, Rong Y, Rahman F, Moreno CS, Van Meir EG, Hadjipanayis CG, Brat DJ. (2014) Human Brat ortholog TRIM3 is a tumor suppressor that regulates asymmetric cell division in glioblastoma. Cancer Res. 74:4536-48. Zerrouqi A, Pyrzynska B, Brat DJ, Van Meir EG. (2014) p14ARF suppresses tumor-induced thrombosis by regulating the tissue factor pathway. Cancer Res 74:1371-8.. The Cancer Genome Research Network (2015). Comprehensive and Integrative Genomic Characterization of Diffuse Lower Grade Gliomas. N Eng J Med 372:2481-98. *Corresponding Author. Chen K, Yang D, Li X, Sun B, Song F, Cao W, Brat D, Gao Z, Li H, Liang H,Zhao Y, Zheng H, Li M, Buckner J, Patterson SD, Ye X, Reinhard C, Bhathena A, Joshi D, Mischel PS, Croce C, Wang YM, Kaimal S, Li H, Lu X, Pan Y, Chang H, Ba S, Luo L, Cavenee W, Zhang W, Xishan Hao X. (2015) Mutational landscape of gastric adenocarcinoma in Chinese: implications for prognosis and therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 112:1107-12.. Lin R, Elf ...
Scientists have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study
The growing blue state-red state gap over this research shows that science has serious economic and political muscle in America today.
To understand the lineage relationship between BMI1+ and LGR5+ cells in asymmetric pairs, we derived and characterized CCIC lines (CCIC-1 and CCIC-2) from two colorectal cancer patients as previously described (4, 26) and performed a pair-cell assay (17, 31). Single CCICs were monitored through approximately 36 hours followed by immunofluorescence of cell pairs (Supplementary Fig. S1A) for markers, including BMI1, LGR5, NOTCH1, and others. Coimmunofluorescence for LGR5 and BMI1 confirmed that CCICs could divide into asymmetric BMI1+/LGR5+ daughter cell pairs; in addition, a notable difference was observed in the longest nuclear diameters of the BMI1+ CCIC and its LGR5+ counterpart (Supplementary Fig. S1B). The presence of these BMI1+/LGR5+ asymmetric cell pairs in CCIC is consistent with what we observed in primary colorectal cancer s. In approximately 5% of newly divided pairs, asymmetric division was identified producing daughter cell pairs that exhibited the specific cellular and nuclear ...
Immediately download the Cell division summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching Cell division.
Introduction to Cell Division This follows the page about the structure of an animal cell. Living cells divide to form new cells in order to repair worn-out or damaged tissues throughout an organism, and (in the gametes only) to enable the exchange of genetic material .
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... as well as asymmetric cell division. His laboratory employs notably the model organism C. elegans and human cell lines in their ... His research focuses on centriole biology and asymmetric cell division. He is currently professor at École Polytechnique ... Germany as a postdoctoral research fellow with Anthony Hyman to work on cell biology, cell division, and early embryonic ... "Functional genomic analysis of cell division in C. Elegans using RNAi of genes on chromosome III". Nature. 408 (6810): 331-336 ...
"Polarized Myosin Produces Unequal-Size Daughters During Asymmetric Cell Division". Science. 330 (6004): 677-680. Bibcode: ... During the division of the fertilized oocyte, cells aggregate and the compactness between cells increases with the help of ... It focuses on how physical forces and changes in the mechanical properties of cells and tissues contribute to development, cell ... Cell. 123 (5): 917-929. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.040. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 16325584. S2CID 13242763. Buganza Tepole, A; Ploch ...
"Virus-induced cell gigantism and asymmetric cell division in archaea". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... induce cell gigantism by blocking the expression of the cell division genes and arresting the cell cycle in the S phase. The ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors. DNA-templated transcription is the ... diameter of infected cells increases up to 20 times, resulting in 8,000-fold increase in volume compared to noninfected cells. ...
Li, S; Brazhnik, P; Sobral, B; Tyson, JJ (2009). "Temporal Controls of the Asymmetric Cell Division Cycle in Caulobacter ... These efforts fall far short of an exact, fully predictive, computer model of a cell's entire behavior. Limitations in the ... In silico computer-based modeling technologies have also been applied in: Whole cell analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ... In Silico Cell For TB Drug Discovery. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 12, 2010. ...
... the first cell division is highly asymmetric. C. elegans embryogenesis is among the best understood examples of asymmetric cell ... A second cell division produces the ABp and ABa cells from the AB cell, and the EMS and P2 cells from the P1 cell. This ... The resulting daughter cells of the first cell division are called the AB cell (containing PAR-6 and PAR-3) and the P1 cell ( ... the P2 cell instructs the EMS cell to divide along the anterior-posterior axis. Through Notch signaling, the P2 cell ...
Asymmetric cell division has also been described in polyploid giant cancer cells and low eukaryotic cells and reported to occur ... "Asymmetric cell division in polyploid giant cancer cells and low eukaryotic cells". BioMed Research International. 2014: 432652 ... It is cell proliferation that does not occur by mitosis, the mechanism usually identified as essential for cell division in ... A word of caution: some examples of cell division formerly thought to belong to this "non-mitotic" class, such as the division ...
They achieve this divergence through asymmetric cell division. The mitotic assymetry with non-random segregation of chromosomes ... Since meiosis II is not associated with cell division here, and since the two daughter formations of the first division also ... Non-random segregation of chromosomes is also found in mitosis when stem cells divide. Adult stem cells maintain the mature ... Only from this cell do two sperm cells emerge after meiosis II, while the smaller cell degenerates. Thus, each sperm - like the ...
... which begin with either a symmetric or an asymmetric division of the initial cell. Symmetric division leads to the development ... siliculosus gametophytes have an asymmetric initial cell division and immediate differentiation of an erect thallus. The ... cells) which is a filament with E cells on the edges and R cells in the center. Then, there is a period of secondary growth in ... Asymmetric division leads to the immediate development of an erect thallus without the formation of a prostate, basal structure ...
... alongside other molecules that also play a role in the process of asymmetric cell division. Since stem cell mitosis is a highly ... "Linking Cell Cycle to Asymmetric Division: Aurora-A Phosphorylates the Par Complex to Regulate Numb Localization". Cell. 135 (1 ... "Linking Cell Cycle to Asymmetric Division: Aurora-A Phosphorylates the Par Complex to Regulate Numb Localization". Cell. 135 (1 ... Asymmetric cell division is based on a reaction cascade in which a cascade of molecular switches are activated or inactivated. ...
Lin H, Spradling AC (1997). "A novel group of pumilio mutations affects the asymmetric division of germline stem cells in the ... But studies have reported that piRNA expression can be found in the ovarian somatic cells and neuron cells in invertebrates, as ... Piwi (or PIWI) genes were identified as regulatory proteins responsible for stem cell and germ cell differentiation. Piwi is an ... "piwi encodes a nucleoplasmic factor whose activity modulates the number and division rate of germline stem cells". Development ...
The asymmetric division of daughter cells results in the unequal division of both cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. Scientists believe ... During cell division, organelles divide synchronously before nuclear division. Cell division is aided by a phycoplast, which is ... Asymmetric cell division clearly plays an important role in the production of phenotypically diverse cells in multicellular ... For example, the species T. indica is being used to study how asymmetric cell-division during mitosis results in clonal cell ...
... has also been implicated in regulation of cell fates through asymmetric cell division in the model organism C. ... Sawa H (2012). "Control of cell polarity and asymmetric division in C. elegans". Planar Cell Polarity During Development. ... "A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 24): 4985 ... These cell-cell adhesion complexes are necessary for the creation and maintenance of epithelial cell layers and barriers. As a ...
... while the pIIb cell divides to produce a neuron and a glial cell. The asymmetric division of the SOP into daughter cells with ... The posterior daughter cell is called the pIIa cell and the anterior daughter cell is called the pIIb. The pIIa cell divides to ... This asymmetric division allows a daughter cell containing Numb to acquire a different fate than the other daughter cell. The ... Roegiers F, Jan YN (April 2004). "Asymmetric cell division". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 16 (2): 195-205. doi:10.1016/j.ceb.2004.02. ...
Cell polarity is a prerequisite for several fundamental operations in animal cells, such as asymmetric cell division and ... Cell and Developmental Biology, or CDB, is built on the idea that the cell should be the primary focus of developmental biology ... Stem cell research includes differentiation and transdifferentiation in the hematopoietic system, somatic cell reprogramming, ... stem cell differentiation, organoid formation, and induced pluripotent stem cells. This unit collaborates with the Biomolecular ...
Conversely, asymmetric cell division is expected to result in parent and daughter cells with different INM profiles. The INM ... Thus, the Nuclear Scaffold Theory predicts that symmetric cell division occurs when a daughter cell contains the same ... CD4+ TH1 and TH2 helper T-cells) is expected to be more similar than for cells that are more distantly related (e.g., T-cells ... complementarity to TH1 helper T-cells will be: TH2 > CD8+ > B-cell > Erythrocyte > cardiomyocyte). Some cells that are very ...
... the first cell division is highly asymmetric.[25] C. elegans embryogenesis is among the best understood examples of asymmetric ... A second cell division produces the ABp and ABa cells from the AB cell, and the EMS and P2 cells from the P1 cell. This ... The resulting daughter cells of the first cell division are called the AB cell (containing PAR-6 and PAR-3) and the P1 cell ( ... cell division.[26]. All cells of the germline arise from a single primordial germ cell, called the P4 cell, established early ...
... asymmetric cell division, and cellular differentiation. Caulobacter daughter cells have two very different forms. One daughter ... Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. Chromosome replication and cell division only ... TipN localizes to the new pole in both daughter cells after division and relocalizes to the cell division site in the late ... as it orchestrates activation of cell cycle subsystems and Caulobacter crescentus asymmetric cell division. The proteins of the ...
It disassembles during cell division and reforms in the daughter cells in an asymmetric fashion in relation to the cytoskeleton ... This asymmetric positioning of the eyespot in the cell is essential for proper phototaxis. The most critical eyespot proteins ... occurs when cells are briefly exposed to high light intensity, causing the cell to stop, briefly swim backwards, then change ... It allows the cells to sense light direction and intensity and respond to it, prompting the organism to either swim towards the ...
Sawa H (2012). "Control of cell polarity and asymmetric division in C. elegans". Current Topics in Developmental Biology 101: ... "A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science 116 (Pt 24): 4985- ... "Ksp-cadherin is a functional cell-cell adhesion molecule related to LI-cadherin". Experimental Cell Research 294 (2): 345-55. ... Dobrosotskaya IY, James GL (Apr 2000). "MAGI-1 interacts with beta-catenin and is associated with cell-cell adhesion structures ...
She is recognized as a leader in the study of cell polarity in the context of morphogenesis and asymmetric cell division, and ... "Milestones in Cell Division: Milestone 18". Nature Web Focus on Cell Division. Nature Publishing Group. Retrieved 2015-09-30. ... especially her research on topics such as cell polarity, asymmetric cell division, polycystic kidney disease, and adaptive ... Yi, Kexi; Li, Rong (1 October 2012). "Actin cytoskeleton in cell polarity and asymmetric division during mouse oocyte ...
... has been shown to eliminate toxic proteins in JUNQ and IPOD inclusion bodies in asymmetric division of mammalian cell ... With the blocking of transport of LDL-derived cholesterol inside the cell, cells were found to store a much lower percentage of ... Because of this, vimentin is often used as a marker of mesenchymally-derived cells or cells undergoing an epithelial-to- ... "Dynamic JUNQ inclusion bodies are asymmetrically inherited in mammalian cell lines through the asymmetric partitioning of ...
... in vivo have shown that BTG2 expression is associated with the neurogenic asymmetric division in neural progenitor cells. Tis21 ... Götz M, Huttner WB (October 2005). "The cell biology of neurogenesis". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 6 (10): 777-88. ... B-cell translocation gene 2) and in other mammals by the homologous Btg2 gene. This protein controls cell cycle progression and ... "Interaction of PRMT1 with BTG/TOB proteins in cell signalling: molecular analysis and functional aspects". Genes to Cells. 7 (1 ...
Differentiation produces neurons via asymmetric cell division, and these cells form interconnected axon networks and express ... such as rounded cell bodies and processes. NTERA-2 cells can also produce a small number of oligodendrocyte-type cells, but ... NTERA-2 cells exhibit biochemical and developmental properties similar to the cells of the early embryo, and can be used to ... The tumor was xenografted onto a mouse, and from this cells were cloned into the NTERA-2 cell line. Lee VM, Andrews PW (1986 ...
Cell interactions in the asymmetric division of stem cells.. *Michael Goldstein, Professor of Mathematics, University of ...
McConnell also confirmed the hypothesis that asymmetric cell division, as determined by the orientation of the dividing ... McConnell's research showed that progression through the cell cycle plays a key role in determining the final differentiated ... Chenn, A; McConnell, SK (25 August 1995). "Cleavage orientation and the asymmetric inheritance of Notch1 immunoreactivity in ... "Cell cycle dependence of laminar determination in developing neocortex". Science. 254 (5029): 282-285. Bibcode:1991Sci...254.. ...
... into JUNQ and IPOD inclusion bodies is a means by which mammalian cells can be rejuvenated through asymmetric division. Thus, ... "Live Cell Imaging". Live cell imaging enables in vivo tracking of proteins in space and time, in their natural endogenous ... "Dynamic JUNQ inclusion bodies are asymmetrically inherited in mammalian cell lines through the asymmetric partitioning of ... which can then be followed inside a cell using a fluorescence microscope. The cell may then be treated by a perturbation of ...
Biology portal Epithelial polarity Cell migration Embryogenesis Embryonic development Asymmetric cell division 3D cell culture ... and migrating cells. Furthermore, cell polarity is important during many types of asymmetric cell division to set up functional ... asymmetric cell division, in which two daughter cells receive different amounts of cellular material (e.g. mRNA, proteins), 2) ... "Asymmetric cell division and axis formation in the embryo". www.wormbook.org. Retrieved 2018-04-06. Munro, Edwin; Nance, Jeremy ...
This is due to there being the possibility of an asymmetric division. This as a result leads to cytokinesis producing unequal ... Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as ... Also, the pattern of cell division that transforms eukaryotic stem cells into gametes (sperm cells in males or egg cells in ... Multicellular organisms replace worn-out cells through cell division. In some animals, however, cell division eventually halts ...
Asymmetric cell division: a stem cell divides into one mother cell, which is identical to the original stem cell, and another ... stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and differentiation diagram). Symmetric division gives ... Cell bank Human genome Meristem Mesenchymal stem cell Partial cloning Plant stem cell Stem cell controversy Stem cell marker ... Asymmetric division, on the other hand, produces only one stem cell and a progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential. ...
N2a cells have been used to study neurite outgrowth, neurotoxicity, Alzheimer's disease, asymmetric division of mammalian cell ... N2a cells (also known as Neuro2a cells) are a fast-growing mouse neuroblastoma cell line. Originating from a mouse, the N2a ... The cells, due to passaging since initial collection, can exhibit responses to toxins that differ from those of neuronal cells ... "Dynamic JUNQ inclusion bodies are asymmetrically inherited in mammalian cell lines through the asymmetric partitioning of ...
The sagittal suture 'divides' the coronal suture in two halves; unilateral meaning that either the right side or the left side ... Certain cells in the brain respond specifically to an increase of CO2 in the blood.[4][24] The response involves vasodilatation ... but also evaluation of the brain for structural abnormalities and excluding other causes of asymmetric growth are possible at ... This is especially prevalent with asymmetric conditions, such as unilateral coronal synostosis, with compromised function of ...
Caulobacter is an important model organism for studying the regulation of the cell cycle, asymmetric cell division, and ... Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. Chromosome replication and cell division only ... TipN localizes to the new pole in both daughter cells after division and relocalizes to the cell division site in the late ... as it orchestrates activation of cell cycle subsystems and Caulobacter crescentus asymmetric cell division. The proteins of the ...
These M cells then alert the underlying B cells and T cells in the tonsil that a pathogen is present and an immune response is ... In older patients, asymmetric tonsils (also known as asymmetric tonsil hypertrophy) may be an indicator of virally infected ... Division of Otolaryngology, Nemours-AI duPont Hospital for Children ... The tonsils have on their surface specialized antigen capture cells called M cells that allow for the uptake of antigens ...
... such as the coding of speech for digital transmission in cell phone networks). In such applications, the data must be ...
These openings divide up the fluid stream and as the gears rotate away from the inlet port, the meter's inner wall closes off ... meter that has shown to be resistant to effects of asymmetric and swirling flow. While working with the same basic principles ... CH70/08, Div. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, Dec., pp. 49-66. ISBN 978-1-86499-928-0 ... For continuous measurements, we need a system of continually filling and emptying buckets to divide the flow without letting it ...
Kiss, Peter A. (2014), Winning Wars amongst the People: Case Studies in Asymmetric Conflict (Illustrated ed.), Potomac Books, p ... According to Pettigrew non-Jat urban Sikhs did not want to live in a country of "Jatistan."[167][168] Further division was ... opened a cell within ISI with the objective of supporting the "[Sikhs']...freedom struggle against India". Rahman's colleagues ... According to the US Department of State [92] and the Assistant Inspector General of the Punjab Police Intelligence Division,[ ...
In 2002, researchers at The Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics determined the structure of IgE.[34] ... Understanding of this structure (which is atypical of other isotypes in that it is highly bent and asymmetric) and of the ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. Binding of ... Regulation of IgE levels through control of B cell differentiation to antibody-secreting plasma cells is thought to involve the ...
... plays a key role in areas where erythropoiesis and active cell division occur.[9] The receptor helps maintain iron ... "Asymmetric binding of transferrin receptor to parvovirus capsids". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... basal part of cell. • endocytic vesicle. • extracellular region. • cell surface. • basal plasma membrane. • extrinsic component ... Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies.[9] ...
This asymmetric phospholipid distribution among the bilayer is the result of the function of several energy-dependent and ... and consequently cannot divide and have limited repair capabilities.[42] The inability to carry out protein synthesis means ... Red blood cells, also known as RBCs, red cells,[1] red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek ... Red blood cells in mammals anucleate when mature, meaning that they lack a cell nucleus. In comparison, the red blood cells of ...
We can divide this by one diagonal, and take one half (a triangle) as fundamental domain. Such a triangle has the same area as ... For an asymmetric quadrilateral this tiling belongs to wallpaper group p2. As fundamental domain we have the quadrilateral. ... Such foams present a problem in how to pack cells as tightly as possible: in 1887, Lord Kelvin proposed a packing using only ... Tessellations form a class of patterns in nature, for example in the arrays of hexagonal cells found in honeycombs. ...
Granule cell precursors (GCPs) of the cerebellum, after undergoing symmetric cell division[47] in the external granule-cell ... "Fast and slow voltage-dependent dynamics of magnesium block in the NMDA receptor: the asymmetric trapping block model". The ... ions into the cell and potassium (K+) out of the cell.[5][6][7][8] Ca2+ flux through NMDA receptors in particular is thought to ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.06.029. PMID 22863013.. *^ Sanz-Clemente A, Nicoll RA, Roche KW (February 2013). "Diversity in NMDA ...
Asymmetric cell division within the human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment: identification of asymmetrically ... decapentaplegic is essential for the maintenance and division of germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary". Cell, 94 (2), ... Core transcriptional regulatory circuitry in human embryonic stem cells". Cell, 122 (6), 947-56 (2005). DOI:10.1016/j.cell. ... 2005) "Stem cells: their definition, classification and sources", Stem Cells: From Benchtop to Bedside. World Scientific. ISBN ...
There is a theory that, in some nerve cell synapses, when long-term memories are being laid down, the receiving cell makes ... Ayres, Robert U.; Ayres, Edward H. (2009). Crossing the Energy Divide: Moving from Fossil Fuel Dependence to a Clean-Energy ... The molecule is therefore asymmetric: oxygen has more electron density than carbon, and is also slightly positively charged ... Some such nerve cells have been shown to contain guanylate cyclase, an enzyme that is activated by carbon monoxide.[15] ...
Alaska Division of Community and Regional Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 8, 2006. Retrieved April 11, 2006.. ... Optical fiber can be used to transmit power using a photovoltaic cell to convert the light into electricity.[45] While this ... an asymmetric shape improves the filling factor for laser pumping. ... Each fiber can carry many independent channels, each using a different wavelength of light (wavelength-division multiplexing ( ...
Carroll, FI (2003). "2002 Medicinal Chemistry Division Award address: Monoamine transporters and opioid receptors. Targets for ... and the location of the cells and circuits in which they occur, are the chief goals that guide current research. The work ... Asymmetric Syntheses of (+)-Bicifadine and DOV21947". Organic Letters. 8 (17): 3885-8. doi:10.1021/ol061650w. PMID 16898842. EP ...
Even after entering the cells, repeated dosing is required since their effects are diluted at each cell division. As previously ... Loading is asymmetric: the MID domain of Ago2 recognizes the thermodynamically stable end of the siRNA. Therefore, the " ... Cullen LM, Arndt GM (June 2005). "Genome-wide screening for gene function using RNAi in mammalian cells". Immunology and Cell ... RNAi is a valuable research tool, both in cell culture and in living organisms, because synthetic dsRNA introduced into cells ...
Cell. 19 (2): R55-R56.. *^ a b Jurkevitch, Edouard; Davidov, Yaacov (2006). "Phylogenetic Diversity and Evolution of Predatory ... Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved 3 September 2018.. *^ Bray, Dianne. "Eastern Frogfish, Batrachomoeus dubius". ... principle of Dawkins and Krebs predicts that this arms race is asymmetric: if a predator fails to catch its prey, it loses its ... Predation has evolved repeatedly in different groups of organisms.[5][164] The rise of eukaryotic cells at around 2.7 Gya, the ...
Such indexing gives the unit-cell parameters, the lengths and angles of the unit-cell, as well as its space group. Since ... It may not be possible to observe every atom in the asymmetric unit. In many cases, Crystallographic disorder smears the ... wave of amplitude proportional to the local amplitude of the incoming wave times the number of scatterers in a small volume dV ... Crystal symmetry, unit cell, and image scaling[edit]. Further information: Space group ...
... for the study of fundamental cellular processes such as the cell cycle, DNA replication, recombination, cell division, and ... and many do so by the asymmetric division process known as budding. ... The bud continues to grow until it separates from the parent cell, forming a new cell.[38] The daughter cell produced during ... or daughter cell, is formed on the parent cell. The nucleus of the parent cell splits into a daughter nucleus and migrates into ...
... and is necessary for the control of cellular and physiological processes including cell division, cell proliferation, apoptosis ... The asymmetric structure consists of an N-terminal beta-trefoil domain and a C-terminal alpha helical domain with a folding ... Cell. 17 (2): 193-203. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.11.047. PMID 15664189.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw ...
... which has been effectively used for label free classification and detection of cancer cell.[41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49] ... Sharma, Ajay K; Sinha, R K; Agarwala, R A (2015). "Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems and Networks". IETE Technical ... Sinha, R. K.; Hosain, S. I. (1989). "Characterisation of Single-Mode Asymmetric Slab Waveguide from Far Field Intensity Pattern ... Rani, Preeti; Kalra, Yogita; Sinha, R. K. (2015). "Slow light enabled time and wavelength division demultiplexer in slotted ...
"Cortical neurons arise in symmetric and asymmetric division zones and migrate through specific phases". Nature Neuroscience. 7 ... Cell biological determinants[edit]. Cortical stem cells, known as radial glial cells (RGC)s, reside in the ventricular zone and ... "Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 587-590. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2016.02.016. ISSN 1934-5909. PMC 5299540. PMID 26952870.. ... "Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 591-6. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2016.03.012. PMC 4860115. PMID 27038591.. ...
... stem cells; B - progenitor cell; C - differentiated cell; 1 - symmetric stem cell division; 2 - asymmetric stem cell division; ... Cell Division[edit]. To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and ... Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter stem cells, whereas asymmetric division produces one stem cell and one ... Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to ...
I. Cell cycle kinetics and control of cell division". J Cell Biol. 50 (3): 652-668. doi:10.1083/jcb.50.3.652. Weintraub, H; ... Seidman, MM; Levine, AJ; Weintraub, H (1979). "The asymmetric segregation of parental nucleosomes during chromosome replication ... and the control of cell division. The effects of bromodeoxyuridine on cell differentiation (conversion of a primitive cell into ... stop cell division, and elicit an entire program of muscle cell differentiation. In a series of sequential experiments, ...
Hudson, Rex A. Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why: The 1999 Government Report on Profiling Terrorists, Federal Research Division, ... The most common image of terrorism is that it is carried out by small and secretive cells, highly motivated to serve a ... Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare, and is more common when direct conventional warfare will not be effective because ... a b Library of Congress - Federal Research Division The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism. ...
Cleavage differs from other forms of cell division in that it increases the number of cells and nuclear mass without increasing ... One method involves asymmetric positioning of the cleavage spindle.[9] This occurs when the aster at one pole attaches to the ... Polar cells on the outside and apolar cells on the inside. The outer cells, called the trophoblast cells, pump sodium in from ... It is characteristic of deuterostomes - when the original cell in a deuterostome embryo divides, the two resulting cells can be ...
Irregular and asymmetric warfareEdit. Main articles: Irregular warfare and Asymmetric warfare ... A sniper team (or sniper cell) consists of a combination of one or more shooters with force protection elements and support ... Being a Military Police Officer attached to assist the 25th Infantry Division out of Hawaii, he and his team were tasked with ... Sniping has been used in asymmetric warfare situations, for example in the Northern Ireland Troubles, where in 1972, the ...
displaystyle I_{p}=C\cdot dv/dt}. where: I. p. {\displaystyle I_{p}}. is in A; C. {\displaystyle C}. in µF; d. v. /. d. t. {\ ... Low operating voltage per cell. (Stacked cells provide higher operating voltage.) Relatively high cost. ... Polarity is controlled by design with asymmetric electrodes, or, for symmetric electrodes, by a potential applied during the ... Low operating voltage per cell. (Stacked cells provide higher operating voltage.) Relatively high cost. ...
A pathway involved in asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, ces-1 Snail ... Cell cycle and cell division Is the Subject Area "Cell cycle and cell division" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
The term asymmetric cell division usually refers to such intrinsic asymmetric divisions. In order for asymmetric division to ... The single cell is now set up to undergo an asymmetric cell division, however the orientation in which the division occurs is ... An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell ... In normal stem and progenitor cells, asymmetric cell division balances proliferation and self-renewal with cell-cycle exit and ...
... has a key role in coordinating cell polarity and enabling asymmetric cell division. ... in the same stomatal lineage cell. However, the mechanisms that balance these mutually exclusive activities remain unclear. ... Stomatal cell lineage is an archetypal example of asymmetric cell division (ACD), which is necessary for plant survival1-4. In ... for a subset of GSK3-like kinases that confines them to the cytosol and subsequently transiently polarizes them within the cell ...
The majority of cells that build the nervous system of animals are generated early in embryonic development in a process called ... One daughter cell will continue to divide and the other daughter cell leaves the cell cycle and starts to differentiate as a ... Asymmetric cell division during neurogenesis in Drosophila and vertebrates Mech Dev. 2003 Nov;120(11):1297-309. doi: 10.1016/j. ... Asymmetric cell division in vertebrate neurogenesis has been studied mostly at a descriptive level and so far little is known ...
Spinal cord injury has been recognized as one of the conditions for which stem cell transplantation might be beneficial. Cell ... Promoting neurogenesis by regulating stem cell asymmetric division. Funded in: 2008, 2009. Back to overview Spinal cord injury ... This project aims at understanding how neurons are "born" under normal conditions during development (asymmetric division) and ... Cell replacement therapy depends on the efficient production (proliferation) of stem cells maturating into neurons, and later ...
The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl.. Betschinger J1, Mechtler K, ... To generate different cell types, some cells can segregate protein determinants into one of their two daughter cells during ... to ensure their segregation into the basal daughter cell. The Par protein complex has a conserved function in establishing cell ... In Drosophila neuroblasts, the Par protein complex localizes apically and directs localization of the cell fate determinants ...
... japonicus cells switch cell/mating type after undergoing two consecutive cycles of asymmetric cell divisions: only one among ... Defining the Epigenetic Mechanism of Asymmetric Cell Division of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus Yeast. Chuanhe Yu, Michael J. ... Defining the Epigenetic Mechanism of Asymmetric Cell Division of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus Yeast. Chuanhe Yu, Michael J. ... Defining the Epigenetic Mechanism of Asymmetric Cell Division of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus Yeast. Chuanhe Yu, Michael J. ...
The mechanisms that govern asymmetric cell division are increasingly well understood, owing notably to studies that were ... Asymmetric cell division is fundamental for generating diversity in multicellular organisms. ... Mechanisms of asymmetric cell division: flies and worms pave the way Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2008 May;9(5):355-66. doi: 10.1038/ ... Asymmetric cell division is fundamental for generating diversity in multicellular organisms. The mechanisms that govern ...
Stem cells orient cell division and generate a distinct cell fate based on position relative to the Wnt source. ... Stem cells orient cell division and generate a distinct cell fate based on position relative to the Wnt source. ... A Localized Wnt Signal Orients Asymmetric Stem Cell Division in Vitro. By Shukry J. Habib, Bi-Chang Chen, Feng-Chiao Tsai, ... A Localized Wnt Signal Orients Asymmetric Stem Cell Division in Vitro. By Shukry J. Habib, Bi-Chang Chen, Feng-Chiao Tsai, ...
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is one of the processes creating the overall diversity of cell types in multicellular organisms ... The essence of this process is that the daughter cells exit from it being different from both the parental cell and one another ... cell, which differentiates from the ectodermal cells of the wing imaginal disc in the third-instar larva and pupa. In this ... as well as the mechanisms providing for the structural characteristics of asymmetric division, namely, polar distribution of ...
Asymmetric cell division generates cell diversity and maintains tissue homeostasis. In early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, ... and the cell divides into two unequally sized daughters. However, other types of asymmetric cell divisions (for example, in ... Polarized Myosin Produces Unequal-Size Daughters During Asymmetric Cell Division Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Polarized Myosin Produces Unequal-Size Daughters During Asymmetric Cell Division. By Guangshuo Ou, Nico Stuurman, Michael ...
Polarized endosome dynamics during asymmetric cell division. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using vCal ... University of Cambridge , Talks.cam , Developmental Biology Seminar Series , Polarized endosome dynamics during asymmetric cell ...
"Kinetics of large-scale chromosomal movement during asymmetric cell division in Escherichia coli". United States. doi:10.1371/ ... title = {Kinetics of large-scale chromosomal movement during asymmetric cell division in Escherichia coli},. author = {Männik, ... Published Article: Kinetics of large-scale chromosomal movement during asymmetric cell division in Escherichia coli ... Title: Kinetics of large-scale chromosomal movement during asymmetric cell division in Escherichia coli. ...
The asymmetric division of stem or progenitor cells generates daughters with distinct fates and regulates cell diversity during ... Asymmetric division coordinates collective cell migration in angiogenesis. Costa, Guilherme Univ Manchester, Fac Biol Med & ... We find that asymmetric positioning of the mitotic spindle during endothelial tip cell division generates daughters of distinct ... However, roles for asymmetric division in other more dynamic morphogenetic processes, such as cell migration, have not ...
J Cell Sci. 2019 Oct 24;133(5). pii: jcs235358. doi: 10.1242/jcs.235358. ... A new role for Notch in the control of polarity and asymmetric cell division of developing T cells.. Charnley M1,2,3, Ludford- ... Asymmetric cell division (ACD) often controls segregation of Notch signalling by imposing unequal inheritance of regulators of ... A fundamental question in biology is how single cells can reliably produce progeny of different cell types. Notch signalling ...
... ultimately resulting in an asymmetric cell division of a cell that would normally divide symetrically. ... In symmetrically dividing cells, the cell division plane is precisely centered, ensuring each of the daughter cells inherits ... Resistance is futile: Centering forces yield for asymmetric cell division. Joshua Alper Correspondence email, View ORCID ... Asymmetric cell division relies on microtubule-based forces to asymmetrically position the mitotic apparatus. In this issue, ...
cells have a per cell death rate of μ. a. pre. ; (2) y. a. cells have a per cell death rate of μ. a. post. ; (3) x. b. cells ... cells differentiate to yield cells of type x. b. with a per cell rate of ξ. a. .. x. b. cells differentiate to yield cells of ... cells differentiate to yield cells of type x. p. with a per cell rate of ξ. 4. .. x. p. cells differentiate to yield cells of ... Polarized cells, polarized views: asymmetric cell division in hematopoietic cells. Front. Immunol. 5:26. doi:10.3389/fimmu. ...
A miR-34a-Numb Feedforward Loop Triggered by Inflammation Regulates Asymmetric Stem Cell Division in Intestine and Colon Cancer ... Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs can initiate asymmetric division, but whether microRNA and protein cell fate ... Regulation of Asymmetric Cell Divisions in the Developing Epidermis  Poulson, Nicholas (2012) ... Bu, P; Wang, L; Chen, KY; Srinivasan, T; Murthy, PK; Tung, KL; Varanko, AK; ... (12 authors) (Cell Stem Cell, 2016-02-04) ...
Asymmetric stem cell division balances maintenance of the stem cell pool and generation of diverse cell types by simultaneously ... Precise spatial control of the stem cell determinants inherited by both sibling cells in every asymmetric cell division ensures ... 2010). Asymmetric cell division: recent developments and their implications for tumour biology. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 11, ... 2008). Linking cell cycle to asymmetric division: Aurora-A phosphorylates the Par complex to regulate Numb localization. Cell ...
The depalmitoylase APT1 directs the asymmetric partitioning of Notch and Wnt signaling during cell division ... The depalmitoylase APT1 directs the asymmetric partitioning of Notch and Wnt signaling during cell division ... The depalmitoylase APT1 directs the asymmetric partitioning of Notch and Wnt signaling during cell division ... The depalmitoylase APT1 directs the asymmetric partitioning of Notch and Wnt signaling during cell division ...
Metazoan cells can generate unequal sized sibling cells during cell division. This form of asymmetric cell division depends on ... They show how during cell division a big and small cell are being formed simultaneously. Sibling cell size asymmetry occurs ... Identifying the cellular and biophysical mechanisms underlying asymmetric cell division. Monday, February 11, 2019 - 17:30 ... Home » Identifying the cellular and biophysical mechanisms underlying asymmetric cell division. ...
Asymmetric Cell Division and Template DNA Co-segregation in Cancer Stem Cells ... Asymmetric Cell Division and Template DNA Co-segregation in Cancer Stem Cells - Download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) ... modulation of asymmetric cell division in human lung cancer cells. Proc Natl metric cell division of Schizosaccharomyces ... Mechanisms of asymmetric stem cell division. Cell (2008) damage in stem cells activates p21, inhibits p53, and induces ...
DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS Asymmetric division of cyst stem cells in Drosophila testis is ensured by anaphase spindle ... DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS Asymmetric division of cyst stem cells in Drosophila testis is ensured by anaphase spindle ... DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS Asymmetric division of cyst stem cells in Drosophila testis is ensured by anaphase spindle ... Asymmetric division of cyst stem cells in Drosophila testis is ensured by anaphase spindle repositioning ...
... we suggest a mechanism for the principal molecular interactions that control DNA synthesis and asymmetric cell division in ... Caulobacter crescentus provides unique opportunities to study the molecular circuitry controlling the asymmetric cell division ... Cell cycle and cell division Is the Subject Area "Cell cycle and cell division" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
CB NBs do not require APCs for asymmetric cell division. (A) Larval brain. (B) CB NB, GMCs, neurons, and their fasciculated ... Surprisingly, APCs are not essential for asymmetric cell division or the stereotyped division axis of central brain (CB) ... Surprisingly, APCs are not essential for asymmetric cell division or the stereotyped division axis of central brain (CB) ... fig1: CB NBs do not require APCs for asymmetric cell division. (A) Larval brain. (B) CB NB, GMCs, neurons, and their ...
... to cell-specific transcription by handoff of a key developmental regulator from the cytokinetic machinery to the adjacent cell ... Hundreds of cells from images as shown in panel A were manually assessed for completion of asymmetric cell division and ... Dividing cellular asymmetry: asymmetric cell division and its implications for stem cells and cancer * RA Neumüller ... B) SpoIIE (green), AA, AB and σF are produced in predivisional cells. Prior to completion of asymmetric cell division SpoIIE ...
A novel long non-coding RNA targets microRNA miR-34a for epigenetic silencing and initiates asymmetric division of colon cancer ... Single sphere cells were allowed to divide once (1st division). Cells were then treated with BrdU for 3 hr to label cells that ... Asymmetric distribution of Lnc34a during colon cancer stem cell (CCSC) division leads to asymmetric daughter cell fate. Its ... Dividing cellular asymmetry: Asymmetric cell division and its implications for stem cells and cancer * RA Neumüller ...
... is crucial for asymmetric cell division and maintenance of cortical integrity in mouse oocytes. Cell Cycle 13, 2359-2369. doi: ... 2012). Actin cytoskeleton in cell polarity and asymmetric division during mouse oocyte maturation. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 69, ... 1). The location and roles of cytoplasmic actin mesh formation in spindle migration and asymmetric cell division have been ... et al.(2013). A soft cortex is essential for asymmetric spindle positioning in mouse oocytes. Nat. Cell Biol. 15, 958-966. doi: ...
After asymmetric cell division, POLAR-GFP is upregulated in only one of the daughter cells, which is predictive of the cell ... Those protodermal cells that did not undergo asymmetric entry division but underwent pavement cell differentiation or, ... 2009). Plant asymmetric cell division, vive la différence! Cell 137: 1189-1192. ... 2009). BASL controls asymmetric cell division in Arabidopsis. Cell 137: 1320-1330. ...
How the pool size of stem cells and their progeny is regulated ... Stem cells are present in all tissues and organs, and are ... Template DNA-strand co-segregation and asymmetric cell division in skeletal muscle stem cells. ... Example: +cell +stem * Tip 3. You can use + and - symbols to force inclusion or exclusion of specific words.. Example: +cell - ... In addition, asymmetric segregation of template DNA and the cytoplasmic protein Numb provides a landmark to define cell ...
  • Before cytokinesis was completed, the Wnt-proximal daughter cell expressed high levels of nuclear β-catenin and pluripotency genes, whereas the distal daughter cell acquired hallmarks of differentiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Indeed, partial inactivation of anterior myosin by chromophore-assisted laser inactivation created a more symmetric division and allowed the survival and differentiation of the anterior daughter. (sciencemag.org)
  • Stem cells are defined by their ability to make more stem cells, a property known as self-renewal and their ability to generate cells that enter differentiation. (duke.edu)
  • Normal stem cells often divide asymmetrically to produce one daughter cell like itself for self-renewal and another daughter cell unlike itself to go down a path of differentiation ( Neumuller and Knoblich, 2009 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • The balance between maintenance and differentiation of stem cells is a central question in developmental biology. (plantcell.org)
  • Synthetic combination of stomatal differentiation mutants due to loss- or gain-of-function mutations in SPEECHLESS , MUTE , and SCREAM create seedlings with an epidermis overwhelmingly composed of pavement cells, meristemoids, or stomata, respectively. (plantcell.org)
  • In addition, asymmetric segregation of template DNA and the cytoplasmic protein Numb provides a landmark to define cell behaviour as self-renewal and differentiation decisions are being executed. (pasteur.fr)
  • Within a meristem, stem cell niches are vital for maintaining the balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. (uu.nl)
  • Each root stem cell division gives rise to a new stem cell and a daughter cell that embarks on a trajectory towards differentiation, even though a limited number of cell divisions may still occur. (uu.nl)
  • In 1975 Antonio García-Bellido proposed that selector genes such as the homeotic transcription factors do not themselves participate in the differentiation of the body segments they specify but instead activate (or select) a set of downstream 'realisator' genes that encode the proteins that carry out cell differentiation (Garcia- Bellido, 1975). (escholarship.org)
  • Stem cells are capable of self-renewal and differentiation. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Defects in asymmetric division can result in excess neuroblast self-renewal and/or aberrant differentiation. (nus.edu.sg)
  • During asymmetric division of neuroblasts, several proteins controlling the self-renewal versus differentiation decision, including proliferation factor atypical protein kinase (aPKC) and the differentiation factor Numb, are asymmetrically localized and preferentially segregated into one daughter cell. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Stem cells self-renew but also give rise to daughter cells that are committed to lineage-specific differentiation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To employ this kind of mechanism for cellular differentiation in diploid organisms, selective segregation must occur for partitioning epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids from both chomosome homologs to specific daughter cells, at a specific cell division, during multicelluar organism development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The daughter cell that inherits Cyclin D2 mRNA maintains its self-renewal capability, while its sibling undergoes differentiation. (wiley.com)
  • Asymmetric partitioning of fate determinants is a mechanism that contributes to T cell differentiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, it remains unclear whether the ability of T cells to divide asymmetrically is influenced by their differentiation state, as well as whether enforcing asymmetric cell division (ACD) rates would have an impact on T cell differentiation and memory formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • To maintain the balance between stem cells and differentiating cells -- a failure of which may lead to tumorigenesis through excess self-renewal or tissue degeneration through excess differentiation -- many stem cells have the potential to divide asymmetrically so that each division produces one stem cell and one differentiating cell. (nih.gov)
  • Caulobacter crescentus is a model organism for the study of asymmetric division and cell type differentiation, as its cell division cycle generates a pair of daughter cells that differ from one another in their morphology and behavior. (ginsim.org)
  • The Drosophila brain tumor (brat) gene product regulates asymmetric cell division through its segregation into the daughter cell destined for differentiation, where it functions to translationally repress Myc. (grantome.com)
  • In brat mutants, asymmetric division and neural differentiation do not occur, leading to a massively enlarged larval brain containing highly proliferative undifferentiated neuroblastic cells with neoplastic properties. (grantome.com)
  • Here we show that asymmetric T cell division is an important mechanistic link between increased signal strength, effector differentiation, and the ability to induce tissue pathology. (unibas.ch)
  • Asymmetric cell division ( ACD ) is a conserved mechanism to establish differentiation, resulting in two daughter cells with differential potential fates. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Regulation of stem cell self-renewal versus differentiation is critical for embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. (uoregon.edu)
  • Auxin minimum triggers the developmental switch from cell division to cell differentiation in the Arabidopsis root. (duke.edu)
  • In multicellular organisms, a stringent control of the transition between cell division and differentiation is crucial for correct tissue and organ development. (duke.edu)
  • Stem cell division and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and differentiation diagram). (wikipedia.org)
  • The basal complexes, which will segregate to the GMC, asymmetrically localize three major cell fate determinants: Prospero, Brat, and Numb, which inhibit self-renewal and promote differentiation (Bowman et al. (stembook.org)
  • Depicted are the principles of molecular mechanisms controlling asymmetric cell division, stem cell differentiation, developmental and regenerative biology, epigenetic and genetic control as well as mathematical modelling for cell fate prediction. (springer.com)
  • Since both uncontrolled expansion as well as loss of stem cells would be fatal for multicellular organisms, the decision of self-renewal versus differentiation needs to be tightly controlled. (ashpublications.org)
  • Although mammalian hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the most intensively investigated somatic stem cells, the nature of the factors controlling self-renewal and differentiation remain largely unknown. (ashpublications.org)
  • Asymmetric cell division is a key step in differentiation and development regulation. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • We propose that the initial asymmetric placement of auxin at the leaf tip gives rise to later asymmetries in the internal auxin sources, which subsequently result in asymmetrical cell differentiation and division patterns. (plantcell.org)
  • In this study, we show that differentiation and self-renewal arise as opposing outcomes of sibling CD4 + T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Modeled differentiation experiments in vitro suggested that unequal PI3K/mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling drives intraclonal cell fate heterogeneity. (rupress.org)
  • Disruption of asymmetric division can alter the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in CCIC and, consequently, impact tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previously, it was generally thought that cells are forced to enter the dormant G0 phase following nutrient deprivation or contact inhibition, in order to avoid terminal differentiation or senescence, as this condition was considered irreversible. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interestingly, NPCs from N-CoR gene-disrupted mice display spontaneous differentiation into astroglia-like cells ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Actually, SIRT1 affects differentiation of adipocytes and muscle cells by inhibiting PPAR-γ ( 9 ) and MyoD ( 15 ), respectively. (pnas.org)
  • May regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in the developing nervous system. (genecards.org)
  • 2) Our lab uses genetically-encoded libraries to develop materials that control differentiation of cells (see iCID). (ualberta.ca)
  • My lab develops multiple approaches for controlling spatial gradients of biomolecules in cells and differentiation of cells during cell division (aka, asymmetric division). (ualberta.ca)
  • Specifically, we investigate the differentiation events that govern tumor development and control dynamic equilibrium between tumor-initiating cancer stem cells (CSC) and non-stem cancer cells (NSCC). (ualberta.ca)
  • Bode HR, Heimfeld S, Chow M, Huang LW (1987) Gland cells arise by differentiation from interstitial cells in Hydra attenuata . (springer.com)
  • Dübel S, Hoffmeister SA, Schaller HC (1987) Differentiation pathways of ectodermal epithelial cells in hydra. (springer.com)
  • This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term asymmetric cell division usually refers to such intrinsic asymmetric divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media In C. elegans, a series of asymmetric cell divisions in the early embryo are critical in setting up the anterior/posterior, dorsal/ventral, and left/right axes of the body plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • MacAlister, C. A., Ohashi-Ito, K. & Bergmann, D. C. Transcription factor control of asymmetric cell divisions that establish the stomatal lineage. (nature.com)
  • Remarkably however, similar to S. pombe , the S. japonicus cells switch cell/mating type after undergoing two consecutive cycles of asymmetric cell divisions: only one among four "granddaughter" cells switches. (genetics.org)
  • However, other types of asymmetric cell divisions (for example, in Drosophila neuroblasts) start with a centrally localized spindle. (sciencemag.org)
  • see the Perspective by Grill ) studied asymmetric cell divisions in the Q neuroblast lineage during C. elegans development and found that when the spindle was centred, myosin II accumulated at higher levels on the side of what will become the smaller daughter cell, giving rise to asymmetric myosin-based contractile forces acting on the membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • Complex organisms require certain cell divisions to be asymmetric, particularly during early development as an essential driver of cell specialization. (rupress.org)
  • ACD occurs specifically during the β-selection stage of T cell development, and subsequent divisions are predominantly symmetric. (rupress.org)
  • During development, oriented cell divisions are crucial for correctly organizing and shaping a tissue. (duke.edu)
  • Technology Center, LLC, USA cell divisions (ACDs). (scribd.com)
  • Notwithstanding, uncov- sive injury, normal stem cells can also be exponentially expanded ering the mechanisms regulating normal stem cell self-renewing through a series of symmetric divisions. (scribd.com)
  • Thus, both asymmetric divisions could provide insights into how those mechanisms are and symmetric cell divisions can lead to stem cell self-renewal. (scribd.com)
  • It was long believed that tissues were hierarchically organized symmetric and asymmetric stem cell divisions in order to preserve in which the tissue-specific stem cells reside at the apex and dif- an optimal number of stem cells within a tissue or organ. (scribd.com)
  • 2002). These neural progenitors undergo a series of asymmetric divisions, giving rise to ganglion mother cells (GMCs) that remain associated with the NB (Fig. 1 B). Progeny of GMCs remain associated as a cluster and differentiate as neurons. (nih.gov)
  • CB NB asymmetric divisions occur with a persistent spindle orientation with each new daughter born next to the previous daughter (Akong et al. (nih.gov)
  • The frequencies of symmetric vs. asymmetric divisions are associated with cancer proliferation and progression. (elifesciences.org)
  • Development of stomata in Arabidopsis thaliana begins with de novo asymmetric divisions producing meristemoids, proliferating precursor cells with stem cell-like properties. (plantcell.org)
  • We identified a novel protein, POLAR, and demonstrate through time-lapse live imaging that it exhibits transient polar localization and segregates unevenly during meristemoid asymmetric divisions. (plantcell.org)
  • We have shown that during lineage progression from a quiescent adult muscle satellite cell to a differentiated myofibre, both symmetric and asymmetric divisions take place. (pasteur.fr)
  • Stem cell divisions in Arabidopsis roots are asymmetric. (uu.nl)
  • In plants, where cells cannot migrate, asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) must be confined to the appropriate spatial context. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In C. elegans, the Wnt signaling pathway regulates the asymmetric divisions of a number of cells including the T blast cell. (elsevier.com)
  • This article describes classical studies that suggest that neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex is dependent on asymmetric divisions, where one daughter remains in a progenitor state while the other exits to become a mature neuron. (elsevier.com)
  • While much work has recently focused on the mechanisms controlling self-renewing asymmetric divisions producing a differentiating daughter and a progenitor, little is known about mechanisms regulating how distinct differentiating cell types are produced at terminal divisions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using clonal numb inactivation in retinal progenitor cells (RPCs), we show that Numb is required for normal cell-cycle progression at early stages, but is dispensable for the production of self-renewing asymmetric cell divisions. (jneurosci.org)
  • At late stages, however, Numb is no longer required for cell-cycle progression, but is critical for the production of terminal asymmetric cell divisions. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the absence of Numb, asymmetric terminal divisions that generate a photoreceptor and a non-photoreceptor cell are decreased in favor of symmetric terminal divisions generating two photoreceptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using live imaging in retinal explants, we show that a Numb fusion protein is asymmetrically inherited by the daughter cells of some late RPC divisions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together with our finding that Numb antagonizes Notch signaling in late-stage RPCs, and that blocking Notch signaling in late RPCs almost completely abolishes the generation of terminal asymmetric divisions, these results suggest a model in which asymmetric inheritance of Numb in sister cells of terminal divisions might create unequal Notch activity, which in turn drives the production of terminal asymmetric divisions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Asymmetric segregation of the double-stranded RNA binding protein Staufen2 during mammalian neural stem cell divisions promotes lineage progression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Asymmetric cell divisions are a fundamental feature of neural development, and misregulation can lead to brain abnormalities or tumor formation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This article is from Frontiers in Oncology, volume 4.AbstractDuring tissue homeostasis, normal stem cells self-renew and repopulate the diverse cell types found within the tissue via a series of carefully controlled symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs). (duhnnae.com)
  • Asymmetric cell divisions generate cells with different fates. (duke.edu)
  • It is believed that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors ) and their associated proteins between the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infrequent cell divisions also help reduce the risk of acquiring DNA mutations that would be passed on to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsidiary mother cell (SMC) divisions during stomatal complex formation in Zea mays are asymmetric generating a small subsidiary cell (SC) and a larger epidermal cell. (unt.edu)
  • These results are indicative of asymmetric divisions in primitive hematopoietic cells in which proliferative potential and cell cycle properties are unevenly distributed among daughter cells. (rupress.org)
  • Asymmetric localization of cell-cell junctions and/or intrinsic cell fate determinants and position within specific environment ("niche") are examples of mechanisms used to specify cell polarity and direct asymmetric divisions. (stembook.org)
  • During development, asymmetric divisions provide the basis for establishment of the body axis and cell fate determination in a range of processes. (stembook.org)
  • Subsequently, asymmetric cell divisions play a critical role in maintaining adult stem cell populations, while at the same time generating an adequate number of differentiating daughter cells to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair. (stembook.org)
  • Loss of cell polarity, and consequently the potential for asymmetric divisions, is often linked to excessive stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis. (stembook.org)
  • Here we will discuss multiple factors and mechanisms that imbue cells with polarity to facilitate an asymmetric outcome to stem cell divisions, assuring self-renewal and maintenance of the stem cell pool. (stembook.org)
  • Ultimately, asymmetric divisions are regulated directly by genes that control the process of asymmetric cell division itself or determine the distinct cell fates of the two daughter cells. (stembook.org)
  • The authors started with the previous finding that GOLVEN peptides are involved in lateral root initiation, as overexpression of GLV6 causes a strong reduction in number of emerged lateral roots as a consequence of excess asymmetric cell divisions interfering with lateral root development. (plantae.org)
  • Overall, the work suggests a lateral root development model in which an activator induces production of GLV peptides which are perceived by RGIs and inhibit further asymmetric cell divisions through downstream MPK6 signaling. (plantae.org)
  • After four or five divisions, some cells silenced, whereas some cells maintained TCF1 expression. (rupress.org)
  • Cells from earliest divisions were memory-like and concentrated in nondraining LN. TCF1-expressing cells from later divisions in the DLN could self-renew, clonally yielding a TCF1-silenced daughter cell as well as a sibling cell maintaining TCF1 expression. (rupress.org)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans , SYS-1/β-catenin and POP-1/TCF regulate several asymmetric divisions, including that of the somatic gonadal precursor cell (SGP). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, SYS-1 asymmetry is seen in many other tissues, consistent with the idea that SYS-1 regulates asymmetric divisions broadly during C. elegans development. (pnas.org)
  • A variant Wnt signaling pathway controls asymmetric cell divisions in Caenorhabditis elegans ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Asymmetric cell divisions can be mediated by the preferential segregation of intrinsic cell fate determinants into one of two sibling daughters. (mendeley.com)
  • however, the involvement of the cell cycle regulator in asymmetric cell divisions has not been previously shown. (mendeley.com)
  • Here we present evidence from ongoing experiments which suggest a requirement for the key cell cycle regulator cdc2 in asymmetric cell divisions. (mendeley.com)
  • Chen D, McKearin D (2003) Dpp signaling silences bam transcription directly to establish asymmetric divisions of germline stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Deng W, Lin H (1997) Spectrosomes and fusomes anchor mitotic spindles during asymmetric germ cell divisions and facilitate the formation of a polarized microtubule array for oocyte specification in Drosophila. (springer.com)
  • Asymmetric neuroblast divisions. (berkeley.edu)
  • Our current focus is to understand how Frizzleds, cell surface receptors for Wnt glycoproteins, orient these divisions and how membrane trafficking events regulate the function of Frizzled receptors. (berkeley.edu)
  • The C. elegans MELK ortholog PIG-1 kinase regulates cell size asymmetry and daughter cell fate in asymmetric neuroblast divisions. (berkeley.edu)
  • The cell biology of these events has been most studied in three animal models: the mouse, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila melanogaster, asymmetric cell division plays an important role in neural development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila, this process has been analyzed in great detail and several of the key players that control asymmetric cell division in the developing nervous system have been identified over the past years. (nih.gov)
  • In this review we will focus on recent findings dealing with asymmetric cell division during neurogenesis in Drosophila and vertebrates and will discuss common principles and apparent differences between both systems. (nih.gov)
  • In Drosophila neuroblasts, the Par protein complex localizes apically and directs localization of the cell fate determinants Prospero and Numb and the adaptor proteins Miranda and Pon to the basal cell cortex, to ensure their segregation into the basal daughter cell. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanisms that govern asymmetric cell division are increasingly well understood, owing notably to studies that were conducted in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. (nih.gov)
  • We used the type II neural stem cell (neuroblast) lineage in Drosophila larval brain as a genetic model system to investigate how an intermediate neural progenitor (INP) cell acquires restricted developmental potential. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we use atomic force microscopy and live cell imaging to elucidate the biophysical forces involved in the establishment of physical asymmetry in Drosophila neural stem cells. (washington.edu)
  • APC2's striking asymmetric localization suggested it helps orient spindles as it does in the Drosophila male germline (Yamashita et al. (nih.gov)
  • Here, I will review how fate asymmetry is regulated in the sensory bristle lineage in Drosophila and focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying ACD of the sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs). (wiley.com)
  • Drosophila larval brain neural stem cells, neuroblasts, divide asymmetrically to self-renew and to produce differentiated daughters. (nus.edu.sg)
  • This thesis describes two novel players in the asymmetric division and self-renewal of Drosophila neuroblasts that inhibit excess neuroblast self-renewal through distinct pathways. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The second is the Drosophila Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a brain tumor suppressor that inhibits excess self-renewal by regulating asymmetric localization/activation of Numb through the promotion of Polo expression. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Asymmetric stem cell division: lessons from Drosophila. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A large body of work on Drosophila and C. elegans suggests that this process occurs by non-equivalent distribution of proteins and/or mRNA (intrinsic factors) to daughter cells, or by their differential exposure to cell extrinsic factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Working in Drosophila, Knoblich and others elucidated a signaling pathway in which Par proteins are asymmetrically localized before cell division. (ibiology.org)
  • Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs) serve as an ideal model system to study stem-cell behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that in Drosophila testis, GSCs extend microtubule-based nanotubes into the hub cells, the major component of the stem-cell niche. (nih.gov)
  • Pathways that direct asymmetric cellular division and stem-like behavior in the Drosophila melanogaster nervous system have been well described and may provide clues to stem cell properties and the stem/non-stem balance in malignant gliomas. (grantome.com)
  • Drosophila larval neuroblasts divide asymmetrically to self-renew and are a model system for studying stem cell self-renewal. (uoregon.edu)
  • Studies of the underlying mechanisms regulating asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) have contributed to the establishment of paradigms and identification of molecular components that control asymmetric division in more complex stem cell systems (Reviewed in Chia et al. (stembook.org)
  • Cell division genes promote asymmetric interaction between Numb and Notch in the Drosophila CNS. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Binary sibling neuronal cell fate decisions in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system are nonstochastic and require inscuteable-mediated asymmetry of ganglion mother cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cell cycle machinery and asymmetric cell division of neural progenitors in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system. (mendeley.com)
  • In dividing Drosophila neural progenitors the apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle, the basal cortical localization of the cell fate determinants Numb and/or Prospero as well as the coordination of these events are mediated by several proteins which include Bazooka (Baz), Inscuteable (Insc) and Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) which localize as an apical cortical complex starting at interphase. (mendeley.com)
  • In Drosophila, neuroblasts divide asymmetrically into another neuroblast at the apical side and a smaller ganglion mother cell on the basal side. (genecards.org)
  • The central focus of her research involves the use of the Drosophila male germ line to identify the mechanisms that regulate stem cell behavior. (stanford.edu)
  • Abstract Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a simple and evolutionary conserved process whereby a mother divides to generate two daughter cells with distinct developmental potentials. (wiley.com)
  • abstract = "Human tumors often contain slowly proliferating cancer cells that resist treatment, but we do not know precisely how these cells arise. (elsevier.com)
  • Other proteins present in the neuroblast mediate the asymmetric localization of Numb and Prospero. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic and biochemical experiments show that Lgl phosphorylation prevents the localization of cell fate determinants to the apical cell cortex. (nih.gov)
  • Lgl promotes cortical localization of Miranda, and we propose that phosphorylation of Lgl by aPKC at the apical neuroblast cortex restricts Lgl activity and Miranda localization to the opposite, basal side of the cell. (nih.gov)
  • C) Asymmetric APC2 localization in CB NB (arrow). (nih.gov)
  • The first is a novel zinc-finger protein, Zif, which regulates the expression and asymmetric localization of aPKC to prevent excess neuroblast self-renewal. (nus.edu.sg)
  • This recruits a complex of proteins which defines the orientation of the mitotic spindle and causes the localization of Numb protein at one pole of the cell. (ibiology.org)
  • Cyclin D2, a positive regulator of G1 progression, shows a unique localization within radial glial (RG) cells (i.e., the neural progenitor in the developing neocortex). (wiley.com)
  • We found that sgt1 neuroblasts have two polarity phenotypes: failure to establish apical cortical polarity at prophase and lack of cortical Scribble localization throughout the cell cycle. (uoregon.edu)
  • however, some studies suggest that extrinsic signals from the overlying epithelium also facilitate proper spatio-temporal localization of cell fate determinants (Lee et al. (stembook.org)
  • These data indicate that embryonic NBs respond to signals from the adjacent epithelium to specify correct spindle orientation and localization of cortical cell fate determinants. (stembook.org)
  • Segregation of cell fate determinants to the daughter GMC is regulated by the reciprocal localization of four protein complexes: two complexes are localized to the apical cortex and two to the basal cortex (see Figure 1 ). (stembook.org)
  • We also show that the basis for the loss of asymmetric division is due to non-localization of Inscuteable and Numb in GMC-1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, loss of function for Abelson tyrosine kinase also causes loss of asymmetric localization of Inscuteable and Numb and symmetric division of GMC-1, the loss of function for WAVE has a very weakly penetrant loss of asymmetry defect. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Neuralized mediates asymmetric division of neural precursors by two distinct and sequential events: promoting asymmetric localization of Numb and enhancing activation of Notch-signaling. (semanticscholar.org)
  • He uses African-clawed frog embryos as a model for asymmetric localization during early development and for identification of molecular regulation of wound healing and regeneration. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • I will present asymmetric localization of biomolecules during early determination of body axes. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • Cell polarization is precisely regulated by 2 apically localized multiprotein signaling complexes that are tethered by Inscuteable, which regulates their apical localization (Izaki et al. (genecards.org)
  • Because this latter mechanism does not depend on interactions of cells with each other or with their environment, it must rely on intrinsic asymmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we identify the plant-specific protein POLAR as a stomatal lineage scaffold for a subset of GSK3-like kinases that confines them to the cytosol and subsequently transiently polarizes them within the cell, together with BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE (BASL), before ACD. (nature.com)
  • Consequently, post-mitotic Vegfr asymmetry drives Dll4/Notch-independent self-organization of daughters into leading tip or trailing stalk cells, and disruption of asymmetry randomizes daughter tip/stalk selection. (diva-portal.org)
  • https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201807102 ) use magnetic tweezers to induce asymmetric division in sea urchin zygotes, demonstrating that asymmetry could arise from a time-dependent weakening of centering forces. (rupress.org)
  • The paper describes cellular and biophysical mechanisms underlying the formation of sibling cell size asymmetry. (washington.edu)
  • Sibling cell size asymmetry occurs across animal cells but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. (washington.edu)
  • We propose that spatiotemporally controlled actomyosin contractile tension and hydrostatic pressure enable biased cortical expansion to generate sibling cell size asymmetry. (washington.edu)
  • Each cell must turn on different genes to play its role in spore development, but how asymmetry in the position of cell division leads to these differences in gene expression has been a longstanding mystery. (elifesciences.org)
  • In polarized cells, intrinsic asymmetry can be inherited from generation to generation. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, non-polarized cells such as Bacillus subtilis must generate asymmetry de novo, which is passed on to the daughter cells to differentiate. (elifesciences.org)
  • Fate asymmetry may result from the unequal segregation of molecules and/or organelles between the two daughter cells. (wiley.com)
  • a) The lineage of numb mutant SOPs: defective fate asymmetry results in the specification of two pIIa‐like cells that generate socket‐like cells. (wiley.com)
  • a) The lineage of Notch mutant SOPs: defective fate asymmetry results in the specification of two pIIb‐like cells that generate neuron‐like cells. (wiley.com)
  • We found that the let-19 and dpy-22 mutants have defects in their T-cell lineage, and lineage analyses showed that the defects were caused by disruption in the asymmetry of the T-cell division. (elsevier.com)
  • Polarized endosome dynamics by spindle asymmetry during asymmetric cell division. (wizdom.ai)
  • Cell biologists have lately develop into conscious that the asymmetry of cellphone department is a crucial regulatory phenomenon within the destiny of a phone. (firnm.net)
  • The research of the phenomenon in cells in the course of mitosis, despite the fact that, printed the asymmetry within the distribution of the genetic fabric that creates the float contributing to getting older of mammals. (firnm.net)
  • nevertheless, melanoma cells can originate from a deregulation of asymmetry in the course of mitosis particularly in the course of stem mobile enlargement. (firnm.net)
  • Cell biologists have lately come to appreciate that asymmetry of department is a vital regulatory phenomenon within the destiny of a cellphone. (agnichakra.com)
  • The different sizes of mature H and N cells result from cell division asymmetry in B. distachyon but different rates of cell expansion in O. sativa. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This precedes visible changes in leaf morphology, asymmetric placement of the distal margin gap, formation of margin gaps along the leaf border, asymmetric distribution of marginal auxin, and asymmetry in cell division patterns. (plantcell.org)
  • In all cases, SYS-1 is reciprocal to POP-1 asymmetry: cells with higher SYS-1 have lower POP-1, and vice versa. (pnas.org)
  • Brunet S, Verlhac MH (2011) Positioning to get out of meiosis: the asymmetry of division. (springer.com)
  • Numb is a suppressor of Notch, therefore the asymmetric segregation of Numb to the basal cortex biases the response of the daughter cells to Notch signaling, resulting in two distinct cell fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results show that this unique strand-specific imprinting/segregation epigenetic mechanism for asymmetric cell division is evolutionary conserved. (genetics.org)
  • Asymmetric cell division (ACD) often controls segregation of Notch signalling by imposing unequal inheritance of regulators of Notch. (nih.gov)
  • 08903, USA co-segregation of template DNA strands and the stem-cell pathways associated with it in e-mail: [email protected] normal and CSCs. (scribd.com)
  • This study aims to contribute a deeper understanding of asymmetric cell division and fate segregation. (uu.nl)
  • In some cases, factors within the dividing mother cell lead to the differential segregation of cell fate determinants to give two distinct daughters upon division. (stembook.org)
  • 2. The mitotic spindle is aligned along the apical-basal axis to ensure accurate segregation of these cell fate determinants to the appropriate daughter cell. (stembook.org)
  • Pillitteri, L. J., Peterson, K. M., Horst, R. J. & Torii, K. U. Molecular profiling of stomatal meristemoids reveals new component of asymmetric cell division and commonalities among stem cell populations in Arabidopsis . (nature.com)
  • Asymmetric cell division in vertebrate neurogenesis has been studied mostly at a descriptive level and so far little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control this process. (nih.gov)
  • In early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, the mitotic spindle is pulled toward one side of the cell by the molecular motor, dynein, and the cell divides into two unequally sized daughters. (sciencemag.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells generally use stiff, dynamic microtubule polymers and their associated molecular motors to exert these forces. (rupress.org)
  • Traditional approaches to investigate the positioning mechanisms of cell division machinery include genetic perturbations of key molecular players and laser severing of specific microtubule subpopulations. (rupress.org)
  • Despite their importance, the molecular mechanisms underlying the precise regulation of restricted developmental potential in progenitor cells remain largely unknown. (biologists.org)
  • Our work reveals molecular constituents of stomatal stem cells and illuminates a common theme among stem cell populations in plants. (plantcell.org)
  • Although many genes, proteins, and other molecules involved in the asymmetric division exhibited by C. Crescentus have been discovered and characterized during decades, it remains as a challenging task to understand how cell properties arise from the high number of interactions between these molecular components. (ginsim.org)
  • The present understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating both asymmetric cell division and the sequential production of different neuronal subtypes during development is reviewed. (elsevier.com)
  • The long-term goals of this project are to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of chromosome elimination and elucidate the selective advantages of asymmetric meiotic division. (grantome.com)
  • In this issue of Cell Stem Cell , Wu et All (2007) provide evidence for the existence of asymmetric cell division and its possible molecular control in normal and transformed blood precursor cells. (reya-lab.org)
  • Ron Vale has spent a career studying how molecular motors transport cargo within cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Stem cells and cancer cells have enough molecular similarities that the former can be used to trigger immunity against the latter. (the-scientist.com)
  • During an asymmetric cell division, molecular determinants are segregated preferentially into one daughter cell to specify its fate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Studies aimed at dissecting the molecular mechanism involved in stem cell regulation have been hampered by difficulties in obtaining populations of HSCs devoid of more differentiated progenitor cells. (rupress.org)
  • Regenerative medicine is the main field of groundbreaking medical development and therapy using knowledge from developmental and stem cell biology, as well as advanced molecular and cellular techniques. (springer.com)
  • Quiescence is a condition where molecular signaling pathways maintain the poised cell-cycle state whilst enabling rapid cell cycle re-entry. (frontiersin.org)
  • To achieve therapeutic breakthroughs in oncology it is crucial to decipher these molecular mechanisms employed by the cancerous milieu to control, maintain and gear stem cells towards re-activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review article covers the current knowledge regarding normal and aberrant cellular quiescence control whilst also exploring how different molecular mechanisms and properties of the neighboring cells can influence the molecular processes behind glioma stem cell quiescence. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cell quiescence is not only a dormant state but instead an effectively maintained and directed condition, while several molecular pathways permit the quick re-entry into the cell cycle ( Cheung and Rando, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A team of scientists led by MD Anderson's Dean Tang, Ph.D., professor in MD Anderson's Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, reports its findings about low-PSA prostate cancer cells today in the May edition of Cell Stem Cell. (mdanderson.org)
  • In cell biology, single-cell variability occurs when individual cells in an otherwise similar population differ in shape, size, position in the cell cycle, or molecular-level characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-cell analysis allows scientists to study the properties of a single cell of interest with high accuracy, revealing individual differences among populations and offering new insights in molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the current effort in his laboratory is directed toward a molecular understanding of the RNAi machinery and its roles in the cell. (stanford.edu)
  • In order for asymmetric division to take place the mother cell must be polarized, and the mitotic spindle must be aligned with the axis of polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitotic spindle must be oriented correctly to ensure that the proper cell fate determinants are distributed appropriately to the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asymmetric positioning of the mitotic spindle before cytokinesis can produce different-sized daughter cells that have distinct fates. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we found an asymmetric division in the Caenorhabditis elegans Q neuroblast lineage that began with a centered spindle but generated different-sized daughters, the smaller (anterior) of which underwent apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • We find that asymmetric positioning of the mitotic spindle during endothelial tip cell division generates daughters of distinct size with discrete 'tip' or 'stalk' thresholds of pro-migratory Vegfr signalling. (diva-portal.org)
  • Much evidence suggests the ultimate location of the division plane relies on mechanical forces that position relevant intracellular components, including the nucleus, centrosomes, and spindle. (rupress.org)
  • 1 ) injected magnetic beads into single-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and measured the effective stiffness and damping of the spindle centering machinery. (rupress.org)
  • This form of asymmetric cell division depends on spindle geometry and Myosin distribution, but the underlying mechanics are unclear. (washington.edu)
  • Surprisingly, APCs are not essential for asymmetric cell division or the stereotyped division axis of central brain (CB) neuroblasts, although they do affect cell cycle progression and spindle architecture. (nih.gov)
  • CD8∷GFP marks cell membrane, nuclei, and spindle. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated the roles of capping protein in mouse oocytes and found that it is essential for correct asymmetric spindle migration and polar body extrusion. (biologists.org)
  • 3 . Asymmetric positioning of the anaphase spindle results in daughter cells that will not only assume different fates but also differ in size. (stembook.org)
  • Depletion of WHAMM by microinjection of specific short interfering (si)RNA into the oocyte cytoplasm resulted in failure of spindle migration, disruption of asymmetric cytokinesis and a decrease in the first polar body extrusion rate during meiotic maturation. (springer.com)
  • Taken together, our data suggest that WHAMM is required for peripheral spindle migration and asymmetric cytokinesis during mouse oocyte maturation. (springer.com)
  • Cowan CR, Hyman AA (2004) Asymmetric cell division in C. elegans: cortical polarity and spindle positioning. (springer.com)
  • These proteins regulate the position of the neuroblast spindle and the distribution of developmental potential to daughter cells. (berkeley.edu)
  • To generate different cell types, some cells can segregate protein determinants into one of their two daughter cells during mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • Contrary to prevailing models, we demonstrate that Notch signalling controls the distribution of Notch1 itself and cell fate determinants, α-adaptin and Numb. (nih.gov)
  • We show that ACD of developing T cells controls cell fate through differential inheritance of cell fate determinants Numb and α-Adaptin. (rupress.org)
  • The disruption of polarity by deletion of the polarity regulator, Scribble, or the altered inheritance of fate determinants impacts subsequent fate decisions to influence the numbers of DN4 cells arising after the β-selection checkpoint. (rupress.org)
  • Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs can initiate asymmetric division, but whether microRNA and protein cell fate determinants coordinate with each other remains unclear. (duke.edu)
  • Since both daughter cells inherit the cellular content from their parental stem cell during asymmetric division, proper specification of sibling cell identity requires precise control of stem cell determinants. (biologists.org)
  • Palmitoylation-dependent asymmetric partitioning of cell fate determinants correlates with tumor cell heterogeneity. (sciencemag.org)
  • An important goal is to identify the asymmetric determinants in neural progenitor cells, which could be tumor suppressors or inducers of specific neural fates. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We immunoprecipitated Stau2 to examine its cargo mRNAs, and found enrichment for known asymmetric and basal cell determinants, such as Trim32, and identified candidates, including a subset involved in primary cilium function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, despite intense efforts to establish determinants by which primitive HSCs can be defined prospectively, available in vivo and in vitro stem cell assays only allow retrospective identification of HSCs. (rupress.org)
  • 1. Cell fate determinants are segregated to the basal cortex of the dividing NB, resulting in a disruption of the symmetry of the mother cell prior to division. (stembook.org)
  • Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroblasts are the progenitor cells which divide asymmetrically to give rise to another neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell (GMC). (wikipedia.org)
  • In both cases, neuronal cells are derived from polarized progenitor cells that divide asymmetrically. (nih.gov)
  • Lessons learned from these two model organisms also apply to cells that divide asymmetrically in other metazoans, such as self-renewing stem cells in mammals. (nih.gov)
  • Asymmetric cell division relies on microtubule-based forces to asymmetrically position the mitotic apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • Even when cells divide asymmetrically, the position of the division plane defines what each daughter inherits from the mother. (rupress.org)
  • A type I neuroblast expresses Deadpan (Dpn) and Asense (Ase) and divides asymmetrically to self-renew and to generate a progenitor cell called a ganglion mother cell (GMC). (biologists.org)
  • When a stem cell mouse models in which oncogenic events were restricted to spe- asymmetrically divides, it does so by actively segregating one or cific cell types have confirmed that transformation can indeed more intrinsic cell fate-determining constituents, or by polariz- arise from the normal stem cell population (4). (scribd.com)
  • In all panels, NB divides asymmetrically (fourth column, brackets). (nih.gov)
  • To do this, first a B. subtilis cell divides asymmetrically by placing the site of division close to a randomly selected end of the cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • SpoIIE is made before cells divide asymmetrically, but only accumulates in the small cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • SpoIIE first accumulates at the asymmetrically positioned cell division machinery and then is transferred to a secondary binding site at the nearby end of the cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • We show that rapidly proliferating cancer cells can divide asymmetrically to produce slowly proliferating "G0-like" progeny that are enriched following chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. (elsevier.com)
  • Later they divide asymmetrically to produce one progenitor cell and one (or two) cells which will terminally differentiate to become neurons. (ibiology.org)
  • During RG division, Cyclin D2 protein is asymmetrically distributed to two daughter cells following mitosis. (wiley.com)
  • APs continue to divide asymmetrically, thereby increasing the number of neuronal cells while maintaining the number of APs. (wiley.com)
  • Later in corticogenesis (~E12.5-15.5), neuroepithelial cells become long and thin radial glial cell (RG) and start to divide asymmetrically (the neurogenic period). (wiley.com)
  • In the let-19 and dpy-22 mutants, tlp-1, which is normally expressed asymmetrically between the T-cell daughters through the function of the Wnt pathway, was expressed symmetrically in both daughter cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In the developing nervous system, cell diversification depends on the ability of neural progenitor cells to divide asymmetrically to generate daughter cells that acquire different identities. (jneurosci.org)
  • The ability of cells to divide asymmetrically to produce two different cell types provides the cellular diversity found in every multicellular organism. (stembook.org)
  • The findings that many primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to daughter cells that adopt different cell fates and/or show different proliferation kinetics suggest that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) can divide asymmetrically. (ashpublications.org)
  • However, definitive experimental demonstration is lacking due to the current absence of asymmetrically segregating marker molecules within the primitive hematopoietic cell compartment. (ashpublications.org)
  • Thus, it remains an open question as to whether HSCs/HPCs have the capability to divide asymmetrically, or whether the differences that have been observed are established by extrinsic mechanisms that act on postmitotic progenitors. (ashpublications.org)
  • Therefore, this indicates for the first time that HSCs/HPCs have the capability to divide asymmetrically. (ashpublications.org)
  • 7-9 In addition to the data supporting the HSC niche model that likely provides cell extrinsic cue, evidence suggest that cells of the HSC and hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) compartment contain capabilities to divide asymmetrically. (ashpublications.org)
  • CCIC can divide symmetrically to generate two CCIC daughters or asymmetrically to generate a CCIC daughter and a more differentiated daughter cell ( 8, 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • One way to generate this diversity is for neuroblasts to divide asymmetrically, producing daughter cells that adopt distinct fates. (berkeley.edu)
  • We have identified several proteins that function in specific neuroblasts that divide asymmetrically to generate an apoptotic cell and a neuron or neural precursor. (berkeley.edu)
  • Since 3 of these proteins, the transferrin receptor and the tetraspanins CD53 and CD63, are endosomal-associated proteins, they may provide a link between the endosomal compartment and the process of asymmetric cell division within the HSC/HPC compartment. (ashpublications.org)
  • A progenitor cell possesses restricted developmental potential, and defects in the regulation of progenitor cell potential can directly impinge on the maintenance of homeostasis and contribute to tumor initiation. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we show that precise regulation of klu function is pivotal for distinguishing the self-renewing neuroblast from its sibling progenitor cell during asymmetric neuroblast division. (biologists.org)
  • Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the transcriptional profiles of a meristemoid with shoot and root apical meristems highlighted cytokinin signaling and the ERECTA family receptor-like kinases in the broad regulation of stem cell populations. (plantcell.org)
  • Regulation of cell fate by Numb. (wiley.com)
  • Asymmetric cell division and cell cycle regulation are fundamental mechanisms of mammalian brain development and evolution. (wiley.com)
  • Although a number of molecules have been implicated in regulation of asymmetric stem cell division, here, we highlight known tumor suppressors with established roles in this process. (elsevier.com)
  • For general information on polarity, signals, CFD allocation, cytokinesis/cellularization and cell cycle regulation, see Ranganath (2005) and Hiedstra R (2007), chapter 1 in this publication. (firnm.net)
  • Both extrinsic (e.g., growth factors and cell-matrix interactions) and intrinsic factors (e.g., developmentally controlled transcription factors) are involved in the regulation of HSCs. (rupress.org)
  • David CN, MacWilliams H (1978) Regulation of the self-renewal probability in Hydra stem cell clones. (springer.com)
  • A key question in developmental biology addresses the mechanism of asymmetric cell division. (genetics.org)
  • A fundamental question in biology is how single cells can reliably produce progeny of different cell types. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, mechanistic insight into how the sibling cells assume distinct identities during asymmetric stem cell division is likely to advance our knowledge in stem cell biology, developmental biology and tumor biology. (biologists.org)
  • The continual maintenance of a reservoir of tissue-specific stem A debated question in CSC biology is whether neoplastic trans- cells affords an organism with the ability to generate all the differ- formation emerges from normal stem/progenitor cells or from entiated cells needed for tissue homeostasis and repair through- more differentiated cells that commandeer stem cell properties out its lifespan. (scribd.com)
  • An important question in biology is how genetically identical cells activate different sets of genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • How genetically identical daughter cells adopt dissimilar programs of gene expression following cell division is a fundamental problem in developmental biology. (elifesciences.org)
  • How the pool size of stem cells and their progeny is regulated to establish the tissue prenatally, then maintain it throughout life, is a key question in biology and medicine. (pasteur.fr)
  • Mutations in tumor suppressors involved in asymmetric stem cell division provide mechanisms by which cancer stem cells can hyperproliferate and offer an intriguing new focus for understanding cancer biology. (elsevier.com)
  • This collection is organized into five volumes: (1) Biology of Tissue Regeneration, (2) Stem Cell Science and Technology, (3) Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials and Nanotechnology, (4) Regenerative Therapies I, and (5) Regenerative Therapies II. (springer.com)
  • The principles of cell regeneration control by extracellular matrix and the biology of stem cell niches are explained. (springer.com)
  • Regenerative biology of stem cells in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems leading to complex tissue regeneration in the model species axolotl and zebrafish, as well as the impact of immune signalling on nuclear reprogramming are outlined. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, key questions in stem cell biology are how and which mechanisms govern these decisions. (ashpublications.org)
  • Thus, accurate measurement of gene expression in individual cells allows researchers to better understand these critical aspects of cellular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology and cell-based high-throughput screening. (ualberta.ca)
  • Michael Clarke is the Karel H. and Avice N. Beekhuis Professor in Cancer Biology in the Department of Medicine (Oncology) and the Associate Director of the Stanford Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine at the Stanford University School of Medicine. (stanford.edu)
  • He is also Director of the Hubrecht Institute of Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research in Utrecht. (stanford.edu)
  • One daughter cell will continue to divide and the other daughter cell leaves the cell cycle and starts to differentiate as a neuron or a glia cell. (nih.gov)
  • A protodermal cell (P) can differentiate into a pavement cell (PC) or undergo a transition to become an MMC (purple). (plantcell.org)
  • After initial activation, CD8 + T cells proliferate and differentiate, acquiring effector functions. (sciencemag.org)
  • In contrast, T cells activated by below-threshold antigens underwent symmetric division, leading to abortive clonal expansion and failure to fully differentiate into tissue-infiltrating effector cells. (unibas.ch)
  • Adding or removing water changes how stem cells differentiate. (the-scientist.com)
  • Discoveries in recent years have suggested that adult stem cells might have the ability to differentiate into cell types from different germ layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Stem cells from the bone marrow, which is derived from mesoderm, can differentiate into liver, lung, GI tract and skin, which are derived from endoderm and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • One has the potential to renew stem cell identity and continue to divide in an asymmetric manner, whereas the other cell will differentiate along a specific lineage. (stembook.org)
  • In the embryo, NBs divide perpendicular to the plane of the neuroepithelium to generate another (apical) NB and a smaller, basally located ganglion mother cell (GMC) that will differentiate into neurons or glia. (stembook.org)
  • Somatic stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can self-renew over a long period of time in vivo and give rise to progenitor cells that are committed to differentiate. (ashpublications.org)
  • Upon infection, CD4 + T cells differentiate into short-lived effector cells as well as long-lived memory cells that mount responses upon re-exposure to the microbe. (rupress.org)
  • CD4 + T cells have the ability to differentiate into multiple effector subsets including T helper 1 cells (Th1 cells). (rupress.org)
  • Neural precursor cells (NPCs) differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in response to intrinsic and extrinsic changes. (pnas.org)
  • Bosch TCG, David CN (1987) Stem cells of Hydra magnipapillata can differentiate into somatic cells and germ line cells. (springer.com)
  • A miR-34a-Numb Feedforward Loop Triggered by Inflammation Regulates Asymmetric Stem Cell Division in Intestine and Colon Cancer. (duke.edu)
  • UAS-DE-Cad-GFP was driven by c587-Gal4 and expressed specifically in cyst cell lineage, including CySCs. (biologists.org)
  • Meristemoids represent a transitional state in the cell lineage producing stomata, valves on the plant epidermis ( Figure 1A ) ( Sachs, 1991 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Stomatal Cell Lineage Transitions and Cell Enrichment Strategy. (plantcell.org)
  • The ability to precisely locate stem and progenitors requires defining lineage progression from stem to differentiated cells, assessing the mode of cell expansion and self-renewal and identifying markers to assess the different cell states within the lineage. (pasteur.fr)
  • These findings provide a means of identifying presumed stem and progenitor cells within the lineage. (pasteur.fr)
  • While the weaker class exhibits weak axon guidance defect and the mis-migration of neurons, the stronger class causes severe axon guidance defects, mis-migration of neurons and symmetric division of ganglion mother cells (GMC) of the RP2/sib lineage. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Importantly, NOTCH signaling, which is well documented to be necessary for both stem cell proliferation and lineage allocation in the intestinal mucosa, may be an important determinant that drives asymmetric CCIC daughter fate ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In times of growth or regeneration, stem cells can also divide symmetrically, to produce two identical copies of the original cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following this first asymmetric division, the AB daughter cell divides symmetrically, giving rise to ABa and ABp, while the P1 daughter cell undergoes another asymmetric cell division to produce P2 and EMS. (wikipedia.org)
  • In symmetrically dividing cells, the cell division plane is precisely centered, ensuring each of the daughter cells inherits half of the genetic and nongenetic material when separated from her sister cell. (rupress.org)
  • Normally, cells of a bacterium called Bacillus subtilis divide symmetrically to produce two identical cells that express identical sets of genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • During mammalian brain development, neuronal progenitor cells initially divide symmetrically to increase their numbers. (ibiology.org)
  • At early stages of corticogenesis, NSPCs divide symmetrically to increase their numbers (embryonic day 9 [E9] to E11 in mice) (Haubensak et al . (wiley.com)
  • At the early stage of corticogenesis (~E9.5-11.5), neuroepithelial cells divide symmetrically to yield more progenitors, resulting in a thickened pseudo-stratified sheet of mitotic cells concentrated mainly on the apical side of the epithelium (the proliferation period). (wiley.com)
  • We are studying how asymmetric cell division, cell migration and axonal pathfinding contribute to the final form and connectivity of the Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system. (berkeley.edu)
  • Wnts, secreted glycoproteins that function in several different developmental processes, act antagonistically to VAB-8, orienting the polarity of neurons toward the anterior and guiding the anterior migrations of C. elegans cells and growth cones. (berkeley.edu)
  • C. elegans VAB-8L and UNC-73/Trio regulate the SAX-3/Robo receptor to direct cells and growth cones posteriorly. (berkeley.edu)
  • The establishment of this polarity initiates the polarized distribution of a group of proteins present in the zygote called the PARD proteins (partitioning defective), which are a conserved group of proteins that function in establishing cell polarity during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This division is also dependent on the distribution of the PAR proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Par protein complex has a conserved function in establishing cell polarity but how it directs proteins to the opposite side is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • To examine the consequences of local Wnt signaling, we immobilized Wnt proteins on beads and introduced them to embryonic stem cells in culture. (sciencemag.org)
  • Magnetic forces localize motor proteins attached to magnetic beads (green) at the cell cortex (black), but nuclear microtubule aster (orange) centration, potentially driven by cortical pushing, cortical pulling, and cytoplasmic pulling mechanisms (insets), is unaffected by the presence of these asymmetric force generators (left). (rupress.org)
  • In addition to actin nucleators, other actin-binding proteins cap, depolymerize, elongate and bundle actin filaments, and are therefore crucial for actin dynamics in various cell types ( Pollard and Cooper, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
  • In the current proposal, we hypothesize that reduced expression of Trim3, or its interacting proteins, is critical in defining stem-like properties in human GSCs by favoring a loss of asymmetric cell division and enriching the stem cell compartment. (grantome.com)
  • Here, we identify two proteins involved in distinct steps of the cell cycle that regulate neuroblast self-renewal. (uoregon.edu)
  • Here, we have identified 4 proteins (CD53, CD62L/L-selectin, CD63/lamp-3, and CD71/transferrin receptor) that segregate differentially in about 20% of primitive human hematopoietic cells that divide in stroma-free cultures. (ashpublications.org)
  • Remarkably, these proteins, in combination with the surrogate stem-cell marker CD133, help to discriminate the more primitive human cultivated HSCs/HPCs. (ashpublications.org)
  • Both gravitropism and phototropism are regulated through asymmetric distribution of the hormone auxin, with both environmental stimuli proposed to cause an altered distribution of auxin carrier proteins in the plasma membrane ( Friml, 2003 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Subsequently, the generated zygote contains a mixture of genes and proteins derived from both parents' cells. (phys.org)
  • Interacts with other neurogenic proteins in the specification of the neuroblast versus epidermoblast cell fate. (uniprot.org)
  • The single cell is now set up to undergo an asymmetric cell division, however the orientation in which the division occurs is also an important factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since normal stem cells undergo asymmetric cell division (ACD) to simultaneously gen- inherently possess many of the properties that CSCs exploit, erate daughters with differing cell fates. (scribd.com)
  • However, B. subtilis cells can also undergo a developmental program to form a spore to help it survive periods of extreme conditions. (elifesciences.org)
  • One interesting property of stem cells is their ability to undergo asymmetric cell division (ACD), which allows one of the daughter cells to retain stemness, whereas the other daughter cell becomes more differentiated. (sciencemag.org)
  • Akin to stem cells, memory cells in the immune system including memory T cells have the ability to undergo ACD. (sciencemag.org)
  • have developed a strategy to enhance the ability of memory T cells to undergo ACD. (sciencemag.org)
  • They show that transient inhibition of the mTOR pathway using rapamycin enhances the memory potential of CD8 + T cells and their ability to undergo ACD. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using the murine LCMV infection model, we established a correlation between cell stemness and the ability of CD8 + T cells to undergo ACD. (sciencemag.org)
  • After clearance of the infection, most of these effector cells undergo apoptosis during the contraction phase, but a subset of memory precursors survives and differentiates into memory cells, which are long-lived, self-renewing cells that afford increased protection against secondary encounter with the pathogen ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Our results suggest that "stem" cells endowed with the ability to undergo clonal (re)expansion show higher ACD rates in comparison to cells that are unable to form a memory reservoir. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here, we describe the co-existence of fast- and slow-cycling CCIC, which can undergo asymmetric division to generate each other, highlighting CCIC plasticity and interconvertibility. (aacrjournals.org)
  • During development, neural precursor cells (NPCs) primary undergo extensive self-renewal and then generate only neurons first, followed by the sequential genesis of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Asymmetric cell division generates cell diversity and maintains tissue homeostasis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The asymmetric division of stem or progenitor cells generates daughters with distinct fates and regulates cell diversity during tissue morphogenesis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Venkei and Yamashita summarize recent advances in our understanding of asymmetric stem cell division in tissue homeostasis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Stem cells have elaborate cellular mechanisms to ensure the asymmetric outcome of the division, producing one stem cell and one differentiating cell, which is the key to tissue homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • Antigen affinity and asymmetric division are important factors that regulate fate specification in CD8(+) T cells and predict the potential of a self-reactive T cell to mediate tissue pathology. (unibas.ch)
  • [1] Unlike for embryonic stem cells, the use of human adult stem cells in research and therapy is not considered to be controversial , as they are derived from adult tissue samples rather than human embryos designated for scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under normal conditions, tissue stem cells divide slowly and infrequently. (wikipedia.org)
  • From Asymmetric stem cell division to tissue engineering. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In 2000 he moved to the University of Rostock as a Director and Chairman of the Department of Cardiac Surgery where he continued his research on cardiac stem cell therapies and tissue engineering. (springer.com)
  • The maintenance of SAM symmetry and formation of organs require integration and coordination of processes controlling cell growth and cell division in diverse tissue types. (plantcell.org)
  • The small top cell forms a round tissue and eventually grows into flowers and leaves of the plant, whereas the large bottom cell elongates to form roots. (phys.org)
  • The neuroblast repeatedly undergoes this asymmetric cell division while the GMC continues on to produce a pair of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell replacement therapy depends on the efficient production (proliferation) of stem cells maturating into neurons, and later into cortical motor neurons or spinal cord motor neurons. (wingsforlife.com)
  • However, the yield of neurons derived from both embryonic and neural stem cells in vitro is generally low, even with the most successful protocol to generate the spinal cord motor neurons. (wingsforlife.com)
  • This project aims at understanding how neurons are "born" under normal conditions during development (asymmetric division) and to apply this knowledge to improve culture conditions subsequently. (wingsforlife.com)
  • During cortical development in mammals, the expansion of the cortical wall relies on the generation of large numbers of neurons by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) situated in the inner wall of the neural tube termed the ventricular zone (VZ). (wiley.com)
  • RGs produce self-renewing apical progenitors (APs), together with terminally differentiated neurons (blue), intermediate progenitors (IPs, green), or outer radial glial cells (oRGs, yellow). (wiley.com)
  • From guiding branching neurons in the developing brain to maintaining a healthy heartbeat, there seems to be no job that the immune cells can't tackle. (the-scientist.com)
  • Multipotency or multidifferentiative potential , which is the ability to generate progeny of several distinct cell types , (for example glial cells and neurons ) as opposed to unipotency , which is the term for cells that are restricted to producing a single-cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2006 ). NBs are neural stem/progenitor cells that are specified during embryogenesis and divide to generate the larval neurons. (stembook.org)
  • VAB-8, a novel kinesin-like protein orients polarity of neurons toward the posterior and promotes directed cell and growth cone migrations toward the posterior of the animal. (berkeley.edu)
  • This is particularly perplexing for cells that rely on random events to specify the genes they switch on. (elifesciences.org)
  • Bradshaw and Losick studied a regulatory protein called SpoIIE, which is responsible for switching on genes in the small cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • This prevented SpoIIE from incorrectly switching on genes before division was completed or in the large cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • Very small molecules called micro ribonucleic acids (or microRNAs for short) can influence how CSCs grow and divide by regulating the activity of specific genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • (A) Diagram of the sequential cell state transitions during stomatal development specified by the combinatorial and sequential actions of the stomatal bHLH genes. (plantcell.org)
  • The proneural transcription factors act as selector genes to specify neural cell types in the ectoderm. (escholarship.org)
  • Divide slowly and express anti-stress genes that help them resist chemotherapy. (mdanderson.org)
  • Cells with identical genomes may vary in the expression of their genes due to differences in their specialized function in the body, their timepoint in the cell cycle, their environment, and also noise and stochastic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asymmetric stem cell division balances maintenance of the stem cell pool and generation of diverse cell types by simultaneously allowing one daughter progeny to maintain a stem cell fate and its sibling to acquire a progenitor cell identity. (biologists.org)
  • These results led us to propose that multiple mechanisms converge to exert precise control of klu and distinguish a progenitor cell from its sibling stem cell during asymmetric neuroblast division. (biologists.org)
  • Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter stem cells, whereas asymmetric division produces one stem cell and one progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one, the daughter cells are initially equivalent but a difference is induced by signaling between the cells, from surrounding cells, or from the precursor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper, we report that Hem regulates the asymmetric division of neural precursor cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results define another role for Hem/Kette/Nap1 in a neural precursor cell during neurogenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We also show that orb2 funtions in asymmetric division of stem cells and precursor cells during the development of the embryonic nervous system and mesoderm. (princeton.edu)
  • The sys-1 gene was discovered as a regulator of the asymmetric cell division of somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • We suggest that a spatially restricted Wnt signal induces an oriented cell division that generates distinct cell fates at predictable positions relative to the Wnt source. (sciencemag.org)
  • Asymmetric division is a property of stem cells that leads to the generation of two cells that can adopt different fates. (stembook.org)
  • In others, however, establishment of different fates is reinforced through signaling from neighboring cells. (stembook.org)
  • Developmental signals such as Wnts are often presented to cells in an oriented manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • Progenitor cells possess restricted developmental potential and function to protect the genomic integrity of stem cells by minimizing their proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • Little is known about the way developmental cues affect how cells interpret their environment. (duke.edu)
  • Interestingly, the C-C pathways are associated with both mitotic and meiotic cell cycles and the number and types of specialized cells formed depends on the developmental context. (firnm.net)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the developmental basis for differences in H and N cell size in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have analyzed the development of leaf shape and vascular pattern in leaves mutant for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 ( AS1 ) or AS2 and compared the timing of developmental landmarks to cellular response to auxin, as measured by expression of the DR5:β-glucuronidase (GUS) transgene and to cell division, as measured by expression of the cycB1:GUS transgene. (plantcell.org)
  • Investigation of variability within a population of cells contributes to understanding of developmental and pathological processes, A sample of cells may appear similar, but the cells can vary in their individual characteristics, such as shape and size, mRNA expression levels, genome, or individual counts of metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • E. M. Jorgensen, S.G. Clark and G. Garriga (2008) Developmental Cell 14 , 132-139. (berkeley.edu)
  • Asymmetric cell division is fundamental for generating diversity in multicellular organisms. (nih.gov)
  • Here we combine zebrafish in vivo experimental and computational approaches to reveal that heterogeneity introduced by asymmetric division generates multicellular polarity that drives coordinated collective cell migration in angiogenesis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cell division is a highly orchestrated process, critical to the growth and development of multicellular organisms. (rupress.org)
  • Multicellular organisms develop their large variety of cell types from just one single cell, the zygote. (uu.nl)
  • Asymmetric cell division is a fundamental process that produces cellular diversity during development. (elsevier.com)
  • The different cellular forms are classified using morphology, including the order of the nucleus, flagellum and kinetoplast along the anterior-posterior axis of the cell, the predominant cell surface molecules and the location within the host. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Bosch TCG, Rollbühler R, Scheider B, David CN (1991) Role of the cellular environment in interstitial stem cell proliferation in hydra. (springer.com)
  • Germ cells are uniquely poised to maintain lifestyles throughout generations in the course of the fusion of oocyte and sperm. (skindeeptattoos.net)
  • Campbell RD (1985) Sex determination in Hydra: roles of germ cells (interstitial cells) and somatic cells. (springer.com)
  • In principle, there are two mechanisms by which distinct properties may be conferred on the daughters of a dividing cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells orient cell division and generate a distinct cell fate based on position relative to the Wnt source. (sciencemag.org)
  • The tobacco BY-2 mobilephone approach is a distinct version mobile line for the learn of dynamic beneficial properties of plant cells. (agnichakra.com)
  • may or may not be accompanied by the physical separation of a cell into distinct, individually membrane-bounded daughter cells. (wikimedia.org)
  • In phan mutants, the leaf margin, a region of distinct epidermal cells at the leaf edge, does not form. (plantcell.org)
  • Population-level views of cells can offer a distorted view of the data by averaging out the properties of distinct subsets of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new role for Notch in the control of polarity and asymmetric cell division of developing T cells. (nih.gov)
  • This mechanism is known as extrinsic asymmetric cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the second mechanism, the prospective daughter cells are inherently different at the time of division of the mother cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our work addresses whether such an epigenetic mechanism causes asymmetric cell division in the recently sequenced fission yeast, S. japonicus (with 36% GC content), which is highly diverged from the well-studied S. pombe species (with 44% GC content). (genetics.org)
  • such pushing forces acting all around the cell perimeter provide a robust centering mechanism ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Together these findings provide a simple mechanism to link the asymmetric position of cell division to differences in gene expression. (elifesciences.org)
  • Yu C, Bonaduce MJ, Klar AJS: Defining the epigenetic mechanism of asymmetric cell division of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus yeast. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During my PhD I have been working with asymmetric cell division in CD8 T lymphocytes and trying to understand how this mechanism impacts T cell fate and can be modulated to provide better memory potential and protection against viral infections. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Asymmetric stem cell division has emerged as a major regulatory mechanism for physiologic control of stem cell numbers. (elsevier.com)
  • This highlights an important new focus for understanding the mechanism underlying expansion of cancer stem cells in driving tumorigenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • We hypothesize that the mechanism that includes asymmetric cytokinesis during the development of H and N cells evolved among the Pooideae or ancestors of this subfamily. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, the asymmetric cell division cycle provides a mechanism for a change in cell morphology and also an explanation for how a reduction in cell length can occur in a cell shaped by a stable microtubule array. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We show that cytokinesis in the last cell division in each epidermal file is asymmetric in B. distachyon. (ox.ac.uk)
  • By contrast, asymmetric cytokinesis does not occur during H cell and N cell development in O. sativa and the differences in size arise because there is more cell expansion in N cells than in H cells after root hair initiation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we show that about 20% of the septating Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium xenopi cells in the exponential phase populationdivideasymmetrically, with an unusually high deviation (17 ± 4%) in the division site from the median, to generate short cells and long cells, thereby generating population heterogeneity. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
  • The continuous generation of functional heterogeneity among the clonal progeny of HSCs is in support of intrinsic control of stem cell fate and provides a model for the long-term maintenance of hematopoiesis in vitro and in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • The heterogeneity within the CD34 + CD38 − compartment of human cells is reminiscent of the functional heterogeneity as outlined above for murine cells with a Thy-1.1 lo Sca1 hi Lin −/lo phenotype. (rupress.org)
  • To study the functional heterogeneity of candidate HSCs, we followed the fate of single-sorted fetal liver CD34 + CD38 − cells that were cultured in cytokine-supplemented serum-free medium. (rupress.org)
  • By combining observations on in vitro growth with a detailed characterization of individual cells produced in culture, we observed that functional heterogeneity is continuously generated among the clonal progeny of HSCs. (rupress.org)
  • cells in the exponential phase populationdivideasymmetrically, with an unusually high deviation (17 ± 4%) in the division site from the median, to generate short cells and long cells, thereby generating population heterogeneity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One daughter remains a it seems more likely that a tumor would arise from a normal stem cell and the other gives rise to differentiated progeny that stem cell. (scribd.com)
  • Tumor cells are usually heterogeneous and have a wide range of potential for tumorigenesis, proliferation, and metastasis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Even genetically identical colorectal cancer cells from the same tumor demonstrate significant variability with regard to proliferation, invasive potential, and chemoresistance ( 1-3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Consistent with a role for CCIC in tumor progression, a signature that reflects that of normal colon stem cells is prognostic for higher frequency of colorectal cancer relapse ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although LGR5, a co-receptor for the WNT ligand RSPO1, is a marker for fast-cycling intestinal and colon stem cells ( 10-12 ), tumor expression of LGR5 is not strongly associated with colorectal cancer prognosis ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, while associated with a more quiescent stem cell population in the normal intestinal mucosa, BMI expression is also correlated with poor survival and colorectal cancer recurrence ( 14-16 ), and targeted anti-BMI1 therapy inhibits tumor xenograft growth and self-renewal ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This should then increase the yield of the number of neuronal cells generated from neural stem cells. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Polarity and guidance along the A/P axis appears to be regulated by the activity of several molecules that interact to orient neuronal polarity and guide migrating cells and growth cones. (berkeley.edu)
  • Therefore the S. pombe and S. japonicus mating systems provide the first two examples in which the intrinsic chirality of double helical structure of DNA forms the primary determinant of asymmetric cell division. (genetics.org)
  • Specifically, the double helical structure of DNA is the ultimate determinant of asymmetric cell division. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore these highly diverged yeasts provide the first two examples in which the intrinsic chirality of double helical structure of DNA forms the primary determinant of asymmetric cell division [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, asymmetric division seamlessly integrates cell proliferation with collective migration, and, as such, may facilitate growth of other collectively migrating tissues during development, regeneration and cancer invasion. (diva-portal.org)
  • Whereas the stem-cell niche provides essential signals for stem-cell identity and proliferation, it is not well known how the niche signal is limited to stem cells, while other cells in proximity are not misspecified by the niche signaling. (nih.gov)
  • David CN, Fujisawa T, Bosch TCG (1991) Interstitial stem cell proliferation in hydra: evidence for strain specific regulatory signals. (springer.com)
  • This quantity covers the present wisdom base at the position of signaling and environmental pathways that regulate the conventional improvement of germline stem cells, meiotic development of oocytes, occasions of oocyte maturation and fertilization, and the delivery of an embryo. (skindeeptattoos.net)
  • Metazoan cells can generate unequal sized sibling cells during cell division. (washington.edu)
  • This process can generate cell fate diversity during development. (wiley.com)
  • The short cells and the long cells further grew and divided to generate a population. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
  • Scientific interest in adult stem cells is centered on their ability to divide or self-renew indefinitely, and generate all the cell types of the organ from which they originate, potentially regenerating the entire organ from a few cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within a single human, individual cells typically have identical genomes, though there are interesting exceptions, such as B-cells, which have variation in their DNA enabling them to generate different antibodies to bind to the variety of pathogens that can attack the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we assessed the functional relationship between Notch and ACD in mouse T cell development. (nih.gov)
  • To attain immunological specificity, developing T cells must pass through a pivotal stage termed β-selection, which involves Notch signalling and ACD. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, Notch and CXCR4 signalling cooperated to drive polarity during division. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, Notch signalling directly orchestrates ACD, and Notch1 is differentially inherited by sibling cells.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. (nih.gov)
  • Numb (red dots) is specifically segregated into the anterior pIIb cell (left) where it inhibits Notch. (wiley.com)
  • In a second 'recycling inhibition model', Notch‐sanpodo oligomers are internalized in a Numb‐independent manner and Numb acts to inhibit the recycling of Notch and Sanpodo back to the cell surface (red stop sign). (wiley.com)
  • Notch receptors in pIIa are activated by ligands present at the surface of the pIIb cell (pink arrows 1 and 2) and/or of neighboring epidermal cells (pink arrow 3). (wiley.com)
  • A non-asymmetric Numb segregates to both daughter cells of GMC-1, which then prevents Notch signaling from specifying a sib fate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • NOTCH signaling promotes asymmetric cell fate, regulating the balance between these two populations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • B ) Selected confocal images at different z -focal planes show a rounder cell body during mitosis appearing closer to the hub. (biologists.org)
  • Asymmetric cancer cell division results from asymmetric suppression of AKT/PKB kinase signaling in one daughter cell during telophase of mitosis. (elsevier.com)
  • The cell cycle leading to the asymmetric division includes an exquisitely synchronised mitosis and exchange in relative location of organelles along the anterior-posterior axis of the cell. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Pillitteri, L. J., Guo, X. & Dong, J. Asymmetric cell division in plants: mechanisms of symmetry breaking and cell fate determination. (nature.com)
  • This makes it an intriguing factor for studying asymmetric cell division and fate determination in Arabidopsis roots. (uu.nl)
  • Formation of a division septum near a randomly chosen pole during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis creates unequal sized daughter cells with dissimilar programs of gene expression. (elifesciences.org)
  • to create two unequally sized daughter cells with dissimilar programs of gene expression. (elifesciences.org)
  • Furthermore, microscopy experiments revealed that when colon cancer cells divide, Lnc34a is distributed unevenly so that it blocks the production of miR-34a in one daughter cell but not the other. (elifesciences.org)
  • To this end, these cell populations must ensure stem cell survival through self-renewal and produce daughter cells destined for specialization. (plantcell.org)
  • Furthermore, we provide evidence that a sub-population of label retaining satellite cells co-segregate template DNA strands to one daughter cell. (pasteur.fr)
  • Type of cell division of stem cells resulting in one daughter cell identical to the original stem cell and another non-stem daughter cell. (semanticscholar.org)
  • What determines which daughter cell will become which? (ibiology.org)
  • Upon cell division, only one daughter cell will inherit Numb protein and this ultimately will determine the fate of the daughter cells. (ibiology.org)
  • Phosphorylation of a surface protein on endosomes is key to the organelles' uneven distribution in daughter cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Furthermore, we found that mTOR inhibition is able to increase ACD rates and that this reflects in daughter cells that, when transferred to new hosts and submitted to viral rechallenge, show better re-expansion and virus protection capacity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • a result of notion of semi-conservative DNA synthesis, it was once suggestion that the distribution of DNA among daughter cells used to be symmetric. (firnm.net)
  • The smaller daughter cell becomes an H cell and the larger cell forms an N cell. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Stem cells are classically defined as undifferentiated cells possessing a unique ability to produce differentiated daughter cells whilst their population maintains its stem cell state by self-renewal ( Weissman, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Each SGP produces a distal daughter that generates a "distal tip cell" and a proximal daughter with potential to make an "anchor cell" ( Fig. 1 A ). Each distal tip cell controls elongation into a gonadal "arm," while the anchor cell induces the vulva. (pnas.org)
  • the proximal daughter has anchor cell (ac) potential. (pnas.org)
  • Progenitors can go through several rounds of cell division before finally differentiating into a mature cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D2 accumulates at the very basal tip of the RG cell (i.e., the basal endfoot) via a unique cis -regulatory sequence found in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of its mRNA. (wiley.com)