Aggregates of matter in outer space.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Instruments used to observe distant objects.
An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)
Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.
The behavior and interactions of matter and energy in outer space.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
The eighth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its two natural satellites are Nereid and Triton.

Human injury from atomic particles and photon exposure: fears, myths, risks, and mortality. (1/3)

Energy absorbtion from particles and photons moving at relativistic speeds has been a fundamental part of life on earth and wherever else life might exist. Heat and visible light have deeply influenced the course of human evolution, affecting habitat and nutrition. The photons of ionizing radiation that over time can possibly affect evolution, contribute to the more immediate problem of morbidity and mortality of cancer This review addresses our radiative energy absorbtion, from both natural and manmade sources, and its relationship with disease and death. Educational Public Health efforts to offset the dangers of solar ultraviolet overexposure are presented, together with data on the significant mortality of metastatic melanoma.  (+info)

Cosmic carbon chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the early Earth. (2/3)

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Astronomical reach of fundamental physics. (3/3)

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The cosmic distance ladder (also known as the extragalactic distance scale) is the succession of methods by which astronomers determine the distances to celestial objects. A real direct distance measurement of an astronomical object is possible only for those objects that are close enough (within about a thousand parsecs) to Earth. The techniques for determining distances to more distant objects are all based on various measured correlations between methods that work at close distances and methods that work at larger distances. Several methods rely on a standard candle, which is an astronomical object that has a known luminosity. The ladder analogy arises because no single technique can measure distances at all ranges encountered in astronomy. Instead, one method can be used to measure nearby distances, a second can be used to measure nearby to intermediate distances, and so on. Each rung of the ladder provides information that can be used to determine the distances at the next higher rung. At ...
The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the interstellar medium was suggested nearly 30 years ago after the observation of the so-called unidentified infrared bands in the emission spectra of a large variety of astronomical objects. However up to now no clear identification of a specific PAH has been done. My work focuses on simulating the dynamics of PAHs and their spectroscopic signature using classical and quantum simulations.. ...
As I do not need to tell you, an artificial black hole has never been produced. There is, I believe, recent strong evidence for the existence of black holes as astronomical objects, but since the supporting experimental evidence for GR is entirely in cases of a weak gravitational field it is entirely possible that the Schwarzschild solution does not apply to such objects. What is more, the densities of such objects are probably such that one could not ignore quantum effects. As I also do not need to tell you, we do not currently understand gravity at the quantum level. Thus our understanding of black holes from both the theoretical and experimental standpoint is extremely poor. Despite this, using semi-classical arguments Stephen Hawking was able to demonstrate that if such objects exist according to the laws of GR, then they must radiate. However, since we do not really know what is going on here, there could also be a myriad of other effects, one or other of which could making Hawking ...
While the presence of any mass bends the path of light passing near it, this effect rarely produces the giant arcs and multiple images associated with strong gravitational lensing. Most lines of sight in the universe are thoroughly in the weak lensing regime, in which the deflection is impossible to detect in a single background source. However, even in these cases, the presence of the foreground mass can be detected, by way of a systematic alignment of background sources around the lensing mass. Weak gravitational lensing is thus an intrinsically statistical measurement, but it provides a way to measure the masses of astronomical objects without requiring assumptions about their composition or dynamical state. Gravitational lensing acts as a coordinate transformation that distorts the images of background objects (usually galaxies) near a foreground mass. The transformation can be split into two terms, the convergence and shear. The convergence term magnifies the background objects by ...
Minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) is a measure used in astronomy to assess potential close approaches and collision risks between astronomical objects.[1][2] It is defined as the distance between the closest points of the osculating orbits of two bodies. Of greatest interest is the risk of a collision with Earth. Earth MOID is often listed on comet and asteroid databases such as the JPL Small-Body Database. MOID values are also defined with respect to other bodies as well: Jupiter MOID, Venus MOID and so on. An object is classified as a potentially hazardous object (PHO) - that is, posing a possible risk to Earth - if, among other conditions, its Earth MOID is less than 0.05 AU. For more massive bodies than Earth, there is a potentially notable close approach with a larger MOID; for instance, Jupiter MOIDs less than 1 AU are considered noteworthy since Jupiter is the most massive planet.[1]. A low MOID does not mean that a collision is inevitable as the planets frequently perturb the ...
Minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) is a measure used in astronomy to assess potential close approaches and collision risks between astronomical objects.[1][2] It is defined as the distance between the closest points of the osculating orbits of two bodies. Of greatest interest is the risk of a collision with Earth. Earth MOID is often listed on comet and asteroid databases such as the JPL Small-Body Database. MOID values are also defined with respect to other bodies as well: Jupiter MOID, Venus MOID and so on. An object is classified as a potentially hazardous object (PHO) - that is, posing a possible risk to Earth - if, among other conditions, its Earth MOID is less than 0.05 AU. For more massive bodies than Earth, there is a potentially notable close approach with a larger MOID; for instance, Jupiter MOIDs less than 1 AU are considered noteworthy since Jupiter is the most massive planet.[1]. A low MOID does not mean that a collision is inevitable as the planets frequently perturb the ...
The Sun, like most other astronomical objects (planets, asteroids, galaxies, etc.), rotates on its axis. Unlike Earth and other solid objects, the entire Sun doesnt rotate at the same rate. Because the Sun is not solid, but is instead a giant ball of gas and plasma, different parts of the Sun spin at different rates.. We can tell how quickly the surface of the Sun is rotating by observing the motion of structures, such as sunspots, on the Suns visible surface. The regions of the Sun near its equator rotate once every 25 days. The Suns rotation rate decreases with increasing latitude, so that its rotation rate is slowest near its poles. At its poles the Sun rotates once every 36 days!. The interior of the Sun does not spin the same way as does its surface. Scientists believe that the inner regions of the Sun, including the Suns core and radiative zone, do rotate more like a solid body. The outer parts of the Sun, from the convective zone outward, rotate at different rates that vary with ...
To a methodological nominalist, labels, terms, or definitions do not describe a particular, universal essence, but instead serve as instruments to assist one in describing observable reality to others clearly through the medium of language. These labels do not assume an absolute definition, but their utility corresponds to the extent that it can describe reality in a manner consistent with our sensual perceptions and intuitive understanding of language. For instance, consider the definition of a star; in vernacular language, a star, in the astronomical context, is a far-away astronomical object that emits light. In its casual usage, one can correctly say that they see stars while gazing into a cloudless night sky, as the usage of star is appropriate here as star accurate describes what the observer sees with his/her sight. Indeed, one does not any scientific understanding on the nature of stars in order to fully appreciate this colloquial meaning of the term star. It is indeed inane ...
The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system.
The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system.
The game is based on the traditional Game of the Goose, which was adapted to a wide range of themed boards, many produced by John Wallis, one of the leading publishers of board games in the early 19th century. Margaret Bryan (fl. 1795-1816) ran a girls school in Blackheath and was author of a number of popular works on science (ZBA4475 is her portrait), and Wallis evidently felt that her association with this game would be a testament to its accuracy, as well as highlighting its suitability for girls education. The board has 35 numbered squares depicting astronomical objects, instruments and principles as well as astronomers (Ptolemy, Tycho Brahe, Nicholas Copernicus, Isaac Newton) and moral lessons (e.g. a studious and idle boy, the county gaol and an army volunteer). One square shows the man in the moon as an example of ignorance in astronomy. By spinning a te-totum, players can travel over the board, the object being to spin numbers up to 35 and reach the final square, depicting ...
1. How is the mind related to the brain?. 2. Water and the physical basis of holistic organization of living processes. 3. Control of gene expression and the paradox of supercomplexity of living systems. 4. Beyond genetic engineering -- from Darwinian to Vernadskian evolution. 5. What is a chemical bond?. 6. Supramolecular chemistry and the sociology of matter. 7. The puzzle of high-temperature superconductivity - What is an electric current?. 8. Magnetic isotope effects - a secret of living organisms?. 9. Low energy nuclear processes. 10. Changing the constants of radioactive decay.. 11. Where do raw materials come from? Self-organization and the generation of oil, gas and mineral deposits in the Earth. 12. Coupling of Earth, biosphere and solar activity, and electromagetic meteorology. 13. The coherent organization of the solar system, the Crab Nebula, galaxies and other astronomical objects -- can these objects be regarded as living organisms?. 14. Beyond quantum physics -- What is ...
Awesome! I can talk about what I think is one of the coolest inventions of all time: the analog computer.. An analog (more properly, a mechanical) computer was actually the worlds first computer - the Antikythera Mechanism. It was an ancient Greek device that predicted the motions of the planets and other astronomical objects. Only parts of it have been found, but we can figure out a few of its basic properties. It made its computations using an elaborate system of gears.. Fast forward a couple millennia. Lets go to England, and meet a man by the name of Charles Babbage. Im guessing youve heard of him. He shows up in a lot of books on alternative history, because hes hailed as one of the first computer pioneers. Babbages first computer was the Difference Engine, a glorified calculator that could work with polynomials. It used a lot of gears to work with polynomials and do advanced calculations. Babbage got some funding from the government, but not a lot.. Later, he worked on his more ...
In the interstellar medium - the space between the stars in galaxies - new stars are born from material that is replenished by the debris ejected by stars when they die. This book is a comprehensive manual for studying the collisional and radiative processes observed in the interstellar medium. This second edition has been thoroughly updated and extended to cover related topics in radiation theory. It considers the chemistry of the interstellar medium both at the present epoch and in the early Universe, and discusses the physics and chemistry of shock waves. The methods of calculation of the rates of collisional excitation of interstellar molecules and atoms are explained, emphasising the quantum mechanical method. This book will be ideal for researchers involved in the interstellar medium and star formation, and physical chemists specialising in collision theory or in the measurement of the rates of collision processes.. • Comprehensive manual for studying collisional and radiative processes ...
1904 Gerhard Herzberg was a pioneering physicist and physical chemist, and Nobel Laureate in chemistry. Herzbergs main work concerned atomic and molecular spectroscopy. He is well known for using these techniques that determine the structures of diatomic and polyatomic molecules, including free radicals difficult to investigate in any other way, and for the chemical analysis of astronomical objects ...
The Hubble Space Telescope is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory for the benefit of the international astronomical community. To accomplish this goal and protect the spacecraft against instrument and equipment failures, NASA had always planned on regular servicing missions. Hubble has special grapple fixtures, 76 handholds, and stabilized in all three axes. HST is a 2.4-meter reflecting telescope which was deployed in low-Earth orbit (600 kilometers) by the crew of the space shuttle Discovery (STS-31) on 25 April 1990. HSTs current complement of science instruments include three cameras, two spectrographs, and fine guidance sensors (primarily used for astrometric observations). Because of HSTs location above the Earths atmosphere, these science instruments can produce high resolution images of astronomical objects. Ground-based telescopes can seldom provide ...
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Solution for describe how the 21-cm line of hydrogen is formed. Why is this line such animportant tool for understanding the interstellar medium
Impact of space flight on bacterial virulence and antibiotic susceptibility Peter William Taylor School of Pharmacy, University College London, London, UK Abstract: Manned space flight induces a reduction in immune competence among crew and is likely to cause deleterious changes to the composition of the gastrointestinal, nasal, and respiratory bacterial flora, leading to an increased risk of infection. The space flight environment may also affect the susceptibility of microorganisms within the spacecraft to antibiotics, key components of flown medical kits, and may modify the virulence characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms that contaminate the fabric of the International Space Station and other flight platforms. This review will consider the impact of true and simulated microgravity and other characteristics of the space flight environment on bacterial cell behavior in relation to the potential for serious infections that may appear during missions to astronomical objects beyond low
The relationship between stars and the material around them -- the interstellar medium -- is complicated. Stars are born from this material -- wispy clouds of hydrogen, helium, and other elements, plus solid grains of dust. And when stars die, they expel much of their material back into the interstellar medium, enriching it with elements forged in the hearts of the stars themselves.. And between birth and death, a star can have a powerful influence on the interstellar medium around it.. An example is the star known as Alpha Camelopardalis. Its one of the brightest stars of the faint constellation Camelopardalis, the giraffe, which is high in the north on January evenings.. Alpha Cam is probably 25 to 30 times as massive as the Sun. That great heft makes its surface extremely hot, driving a strong wind of gas off the surface and into space, forming a big bubble around Alpha Cam.. The star is racing through space at more than a hundred thousand miles an hour. As it plows through the ...
Eck, C.L. van; Haverkorn, M. ; Alves, M.I.R.; Beck, R.; Bruyn, A.G. de; Enßlin, T.; Farnes, J.S.; Ferrière, K.; Heald, G.; Horellou, C.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Jelić, V.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Mulcahy, D.D.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.J.A.; Scaife, A.M.M.; Schnitzeler, D.H.F.M.; Sobey, C; Sridhar, S.S. ...
Like many of the molecular species that have been detected in the interstellar medium, the singlet carbene cyclopropenylidene (C3H2) has been presumed to be too unstable to isolate in the laboratory. However, by appending pi-electron-donating amino groups to the triangular skeleton, we prepared a cyclopropenylidene derivative that is stable at room temperature. In contrast to previously isolated carbenes, this compound does not require a heteroatom adjacent to the electron-deficient carbon to confer stability. Despite the presence of amino groups, the geometric parameters of the cyclic skeleton, revealed by x-ray crystallography, are only slightly perturbed relative to those of the calculated structure of unsubstituted cyclopropenylidene. Stable cyclopropenylidene derivatives might thus serve as models for a better understanding of the formation of carbon-bearing molecules in the interstellar medium ...
Numerous nitrile/isonitrile pairs have been detected in the interstellar medium; the isonitriles are suggested to be generated by nonthermal processes. Benzonitrile (C$_{6}$H$_{5}$CN) was recently detected in Taurus Molecular Cloud 1 (TMC-1) by radioastronomy. Herein, we report the analysis of benzoisonitrile (C$_{6}$H$_{5}$NC, $\mu$$_{a}$ = 4.0 D) ground vibrational state and its two lowest-energy vibrational states, \nub{22} (141 \wn, calculated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level of theory) and \nub{33} (155 \wn), in the 135 - 375 GHz frequency region. Over 4500 new rotational transitions have been measured in the ground vibrational state, main isotopologue. The rotational and distortion constants determined in this work may be used to search for benzoisonitrile in the interstellar medium. The Coriolis-coupled dyad reported herein, containing over 3000 new transitions for each vibrational state, has been analyzed for the first time, including resonances and several nominal interstate ...
KIDA is a database of kinetic data of interest for astrochemical (interstellar medium and planetary atmospheres) studies. In addition to the available referenced data, KIDA provides recommendations over a number of important reactions.
Boron is rare in the cosmos because its nucleus is fragile. So, how does one get from the interstellar medium, where boron was first produced, to Earths upper continental crust where boron is concentrated in deposits containing remarkably diverse suites of boron minerals? Processes that led to the formation of continental crust also concentrated boron, which is preferentially incorporated into melts and aqueous fluids. Deposits with high boron-mineral diversity include granitic pegmatites, peralkaline intrusions, boron-enriched skarns, and evaporite deposits. Despite the loss of boron minerals from the geologic record due to their ready solubility in water and breakdown at low temperatures, the increase in boron-mineral diversity with time is real, and is accelerated during supercontinent assembly.. Read More ...
Interstellar Cycle Ultimately, stars form the interstellar medium. Stars replenish the interstellar medium at the end of their life cycle. There is a balance between the interstellar medium and stars.
The reaction of ground-state carbon atoms with acetylene was studied under single-collision conditions in crossed beam experiments to investigate the chemical dynamics of forming cyclic and linear C3H isomers (c-C3H and l-C3H, respectively) in interstellar environments via an atom-neutral reaction. Combined state-of-the-art ab initio calculations and experimental identification of the carbon-hydrogen exchange channel to both isomers classify this reaction as an important alternative to ion-molecule encounters to synthesize C3H radicals in the interstellar medium. These findings strongly correlate with astronomical observations and explain a higher [c-C3H]/[l-C3H] ratio in the dark cloud TMC-1 than in the carbon star IRC+10216.. ...
A brief mission study is now presented to show the performance of a hypothetical ramjet. The fusion reaction occurring within the ramjets fusion reactor is assumed to have a mass-to-energy conversion efficiency of 0.71 percent and of the energy generated, 80 percent gets converted into useful propulsive energy while 20 percent is lost as thermal radiation. The ramjet is assumed to have a total mass of 10,000 metric tons and a ramscoop intake diameter of 7,000 kilometres. Finally, the interstellar medium is assumed to have a density of one proton per cubic centimetre. Starting from an initial velocity of 1 percent the speed of light, the time required for the ramjet to accelerate to 80 percent the speed of light is 454 days and the distance covered during this time is 0.632 light years or 5.98 trillion kilometres. Due to the effect of special relativity, the time elapsed for an observer onboard the ramjet is 369 days ...
Context. Pure gas-phase chemistry models do not succeed in reproducing the measured abundances of small hydrocarbons in the interstellar medium. Information on key gas-phase progenitors of these molecules sheds light on this problem. Aims: We aim to constrain the chemical content of the Horsehead mane with a millimeter unbiased line survey at two positions, namely the photo-dissociation region (PDR) and the nearby shielded core. This project revealed a consistent set of eight unidentified lines toward the PDR position. We associate them to the l-C3H+ hydrocarbon cation, which enables us to constrain the chemistry of small hydrocarbons. We observed the lowest detectable J line in the millimeter domain along a cut toward the illuminating direction to constrain the spatial distribution of the l-C3H+ emission perpendicular to the photo-dissociation front. Methods: We simultaneously fit 1) the rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of a linear rotor; and 2) the Gaussian line shapes located at the
Scientists have discovered l-C3H+ hydrocarbon in the interstellar medium for the first time, finding this molecule in the Horsehead Nebula in the Constellation of Orion….. ...
Radical systems, or systems with unpaired electrons, play fundamental roles in chemistry, biology, and physics. Relevant examples include photochemical breakdown of air pollution in the lower atmosphere, carbon-carbon bond formation in synthetic and pharmaceutical chemistry, and formation of fundamental organic molecules in the interstellar medium. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the electronic structure and spectroscopy of open-shell species; the organization is as follows. Chapter 1 provides a short background and overview. Chapter 2 presents a study of the excited states of several vinylic hydrocarbon radicals, with a focus on 3p Rydberg states and the effects of increased alkyl length on excitation energies and quantum defects. Chapters 3 and 4 extend some of these conclusions to the diazomethane molecule, work which was done in close collaboration with the Reisler group at USC. Chapter 5 focuses ondiazirine, a three-membered cyclic isomer of diazomethane. The agreement between ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Stephen Walley.. Astronomers have long realised that reactions on the surface of dust grains play an important role in the formation of molecules in the interstellar medium (ISM), in particular those found frozen out as interstellar ices. To help understand the gas-grain interaction in the ISM , our group is undertaking a range of experimental and theoretical investigations of the adsorption, desorption and formation of interstellar ices.. This talk is part of the Surfaces, Microstructure and Fracture Group series.. ...
This is the first in a series of three papers describing a project with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure abundances of the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) in a sample of nine nearby star-forming galaxies. The goal is to assess the (in)homogeneities of the multiphase ISM in galaxies where the bulk of metals can be hidden in the neutral phase, yet the metallicity is inferred from the ionized gas in the H II regions. The sample, spanning a wide range in physical properties, is to date the best suited to investigate the metallicity behavior of the neutral gas at redshift z = 0. ISM absorption lines were detected against the far-ultraviolet spectra of the brightest star-forming region(s) within each galaxy. Here we report on the observations, data reduction, and analysis of these spectra. Column densities were measured by a multicomponent line-profile fitting technique, and neutral-gas abundances were obtained for a wide range of elements. Several caveats ...
The role of nitrogen and oxygen chemistry in the interstellar medium is still rather poorly understood. Nitric oxide, NO, has been proposed as an important precursor in the formation of larger N- and O-bearing species, such as hydroxylamine, NH2OH, and nitrogen oxides, NO2 and N2O. The topic of this study is
Team member Giacomo Briani explains that the meteorite was found to contain several intrusions. These are small assemblages of minerals called xenoliths (literally foreign rock ) that have an origin different from that of the other components of the host meteorite. The Isheyevo xenoliths contain basic organic matter, which includes elements such as hydrogen and nitrogen. The usual interpretation is that the organic matter formed before the solar system, in the interstellar medium, says Briani. The Isheyevo xenoliths have unique variations in their nitrogen isotopic composition in fact, one sample showed the highest values of the 15N/14N ratio ever recorded in a meteorite.2 Solar system origin models we have at present explain this nitrogen isotopic composition as being caused by reactions between ions and molecules in the interstellar medium, explains Briani. And according to those models, the high concentrations of heavy nitrogen should be accompanied by high levels of deuterium (a hydrogen ...
Sulphur-bearing species are often used to probe the physical structure of star forming regions of the interstellar medium, but the chemistry of sulphur in these regions is still poorly understood. In dark clouds, sulphur is supposed to be depleted under a form which is still unknown despite numerous observations and chemical modeling studies that have been performed. In order to improve the modeling of sulphur chemistry, we propose an enhancement of the sulphur chemical network using experimental and theoretical literature. We test the effect of the updated network on the outputs of a three phases gas-grain chemical model for dark cloud conditions using different elemental sulphur abundances. More particularly, we focus our study on the main sulphur reservoirs as well as on the agreement between model predictions and the abundances observed in the dark cloud TMC-1 (CP). Our results show that depending on the age of the observed cloud, the reservoir of sulphur could either be atomic sulphur in the gas
In standard cosmologies, big bang nucleosynthesis is responsible for the production of hydrogen, helium and a trace abundance of lithium. The first stars - and the first galaxies - formed from this near-pristine material, and stellar nucleosynthesis accounts for the production of heavier elements (`metals, in astronomical parlance). As stars evolve and die, they return processed material to the interstellar medium, enriching the metal content and increasing the metallicity of subsequent stellar generations. Thus, within the Milky Way, the stars in the stellar halo (age 11-13 Gyrs) are 10 to 1000 times more metal-poor than the Suns neighbours in the Galactic Disk. However, a small number of dwarf galaxies are known that seem to have lain fallow, avoiding star formation and self-enrichment, for almost a Hubble time. The classic example is the dwarf galaxy I Zwicky 18, with a metallicity of [M/H]~-1.2. Investigations of the abundance in those systems tend to rest on analyses of the emission line ...
Context. It is still debated whether or not the Galactic chemical evolution of sulphur in the halo follows the flat trend with [Fe/H] that is ascribed to the result of explosive nucleosynthesis in type II SNe. It has been suggested that the disagreement between different investigations of sulphur abundances in halo stars might be owing to problems with the diagnostics used, that a new production source of sulphur might be needed in the early Universe, like hypernovae, or that the deposition of supernova ejecta into the interstellar medium is time-delayed. Aims. The aim of this study is to try to clarify this situation by measuring the sulphur abundance in a sample of halo giants using two diagnostics: the S I triplet around 1045 nm and the [S I] line at 1082 nm. The latter of the two is not believed to be sensitive to non-LTE effects. We can thereby minimize the uncertainties in the diagnostic used and estimate the usefulness of the triplet for the sulphur determination in halo K giants. We will ...
The atmospheres of low mass pre-main sequence stars are extremely valuable tools for probing the composition of the star-forming interstellar medium. This thesis investigation uses photospheric abundance analysis techniques to determine metal abundances both for individual weakly active T Tauri stars and the molecular clouds with which these stars are associated. Using the high resolution echelle spectrographs of the Palomar 1.5m and the Las Campanas Observatory 2.5m telescopes, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra have been obtained for 53 low mass pre-main sequence stars in six major northern and southern hemisphere star formation regions. Spectra were also taken of 14 main sequence stars with known effective temperatures and metallicity to serve as spectral standards. Equivalent widths of a large number of Fe I absorption lines have been measured, as well as lines of Ca I, Al I, V I, Ni I, Ti I, K I, and Li I. Temperature-sensitive line ratios of neutral iron and vanadium calibrated against the ...
ADC_Keywords: Surveys ; Photometry, H-alpha Keywords: Galaxy: halo - H II regions - ISM: atoms - ISM: structure Description: The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper has been designed to produce a survey of H-Alpha emission from the interstellar medium (ISM) over the entire northern sky. The instrument combines a 0.6 meter telescope and a dual-etalon 15cm Fabry-Perot spectrometer. In the primary spectral mode, an exposure captures a 200km/s spectral region with 8-12km/s velocity resolution from a one-degree beam on the sky. With a large-aperture design and modern CCD technology, WHAM can detect Galactic emission as faint as 0.05 Rayleighs in a 30 second exposure. For gas at 10000K, this observed intensity corresponds to an emission measure of about 0.1cm-6pc, more than 10 million times fainter than the Orion Nebula. File Summary ...
In Chira et al. (subm.), we investigate the time evolution of gas dynamics within simulated molecular clouds, as well as how velocity structure functions trace the dominating driving sources of turbulence. The molecular clouds are formed self-consistently within kiloparsec-scale numerical simulations of the interstellar medium that include self-gravity, magnetic fields, supernovae- driven turbulence, and radiative heating and cooling. Here, we provide the underlying data for the analysis and plots presented in the paper submitted to Astronomy & Astrophysics. The simulations are run using an implementation of the Flash code. We present data for each of the, in total, 160 timesteps in HDF5 format, the final velocity structure functions as functions of lag and time. Note that due to technical problems we are currently able to offer the raw data for those simulations that resolve the local Jeans length with 4 cells only. We will upload the higher Jeans-resolved data as soon as possible ...
IT pandemic continuity plans typically assume interruptions and disasters will be either local or regional in scope, and can be over come by simplistic approaches, like cross-training for maintenance, adding intranet portals, increasing remote gateways - all things which will allow remote work accommodations and keep the systems up. The internet is in actuality, a global scale system, highly vulnerable for attacks, and with little effective infrastructure monitoring systems for protection against cyber attacks. Most of the entire global DNS system was developed during the 70s and 80s, and it suffers from performance under stress, fundamental weaknesses, and potential breaking points. When it was developed, it focused nearly solely on functionality, and gave no consideration to faults, misconfigurations, or malicious attacks. Overwhelmingly, it suffers from disparate technologies - for example, different sites may use entirely different operating systems and speeds, which in normal times work ...
The chemistry of life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the Universe was only 10-17 million years old.[4][5]. The first carbon-containing molecule detected in the interstellar medium was the methylidyne radical (CH•) in 1937.[6] From the early 1970s it was becoming evident that interstellar dust consisted of a large component of more complex organic molecules (COMs),[7] probably polymers. Chandra Wickramasinghe proposed the existence of polymeric composition based on the molecule formaldehyde (H2CO).[8] Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe later proposed the identification of bicyclic aromatic compounds from an analysis of the ultraviolet extinction absorption at 2175 Å,[9] thus demonstrating the existence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules in space.. In 2004, scientists reported[10] detecting the spectral signatures of anthracene and pyrene in the ultraviolet light emitted by the Red Rectangle nebula (no other such ...
The uncertainties reported by the DIRBE team were dominated by systematic uncertainties in the foreground determination. This met the mission objective of searching for the CIB to the limits imposed by our astrophysical environment. Major sources of uncertainty were the stellar foreground model (1.2-3.5 µm), the interplanetary dust model (1.25-100 µm), and the interstellar medium model (100-240 µm). Because DIRBE data can yield improved measurements of the CIB as the foregrounds are better determined, it is worth summarizing how the DIRBE team analysis was done. The interplanetary dust contribution presents the most difficult problem except at the longest wavelengths, since it dominates the measured sky brightness from 1-140 µm even at high galactic and ecliptic latitude (see Figure 2, Hauser et al. 1998). The contribution from the IPD was determined by fitting a parameterized model of the spatial distribution and scattering and radiative properties of the dust cloud to the apparent annual ...
The Department of Physics offers research opportunities in astrophysics, biophysics, condensed matter physics, and the physics of materials. Astrophysical research centers on experimental radio astronomy, with particular emphasis on pulsars and the interstellar medium. Observations are carried out using major instruments of the U.S. National Observatories and generally involve computer analysis and interpretation.. Research in biophysical ultrasound is directed toward an understanding of the physical principles involved when ultrasound interacts with living systems. This often involves collaboration with the College of Medicine. Acoustical and optical tweezers permit manipulating single cells without touching them. New forms of ultrasonic transducers and biosensors are being developed in collaboration with Electrical Engineering, as part of the Materials Science Program.. Biophysical research includes studies on the development and employment of novel uses of in situ atomic force microscopy for ...
ISBN 0-7188-2695-7. "Naming astronomical objects". International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 2011-12-16. Streicher, Magda ( ... University of Toronto: International Astronomical Union. 30: 57. Bibcode:1967IAUS...30...57E. Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia ... November 2018). "Is there really a debris disc around zeta2 Reticuli?". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 481 ... December 2009). "Reticulum: The Celestial Crosshairs". Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of South Africa. 68 (11/12): ...
sfn error: no target: CITEREFLevy2005 (help) Wilkins, Jamie; Dunn, Robert (2006). 300 Astronomical Objects. Firefly Books. ISBN ... Objects of magnitude 6.5 are among the faintest visible to the unaided eye in suburban-rural transition night skies. "Pegasus, ... Pegasus is also noted for its more unusual galaxies and exotic objects. Einstein's Cross is a quasar that has been lensed by a ... Stephan's Quintet is another unique object located in Pegasus. It is a cluster of five galaxies at a distance of 300 million ...
Main article: Astronomical object. *Astronomical objects *Sun (sunlight, solar radiation) *Corona. *Photosphere ... Cryoluminescence is the emission of light when an object is cooled. Crystalloluminescence[edit]. Main article: ...
Lists of astronomical objects. ... These objects represent the final stage before a planetary ...
"Naming of Astronomical Objects". International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 2 November 2019. "IAU 2006 General Assembly: ... International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 8 May 2019. "Astronomers Invite the Public to Help Name Kuiper Belt Object". ... October 2011). "A Southern Sky and Galactic Plane Survey for Bright Kuiper Belt Objects". The Astronomical Journal. 142 (4): 10 ... "List Of Centaurs and Scattered-Disk Objects". Minor Planet Center. International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 9 February 2018 ...
"Naming of Astronomical Objects". International Astronomical Union. Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Steff, A. J.; Mutchler, M. J.; ... Hydra is believed to have formed from two smaller objects merging into one single object. Hydra is irregular in shape, ... Hydra's chaotic tumbling is also strengthened by its irregular shape, which creates torques that act on the object. At the time ... The name Hydra was approved on 21 June 2006 by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and was announced along with the ...
"Naming of Astronomical Objects". International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 2 November 2019. Tancredi, G.; Favre, S. (2008). " ... Lacerda, P.; Jewitt, D. (2006). "Densities Of Solar System Objects From Their Rotational Lightcurve". The Astronomical Journal ... Jewitt, David C.; Sheppard, Scott S. (2002). "Physical Properties Of Trans-Neptunian Object (20000) Varuna". Astronomical ... "List Of Trans-Neptunian Objects". Minor Planet Center. International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 24 September 2019. Braga- ...
"Naming of Astronomical Objects". International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 12 October 2019. Runyon, K. D.; Stern, S. A.; ... and so may exclude the higher-mass objects included in exoplanet catalogs as well as the lower-mass objects. The Extrasolar ... At the time of the IAU definition in 2006, it was thought that the limit at which icy astronomical bodies were likely to be in ... One small exoplanet, Kepler-1520b, has a mass of less than 0.02 times that of the Earth, and analogy to objects within the ...
"Naming of Astronomical Objects". International Astronomical Union. Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Steff, A. J.; Mutchler, M. J.; ... The chaotic tumbling of Nix is also strengthened by its elongated shape, which creates torques that act on the object. At the ... The name Nix was approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and was announced on 21 June 2006 along with the naming ... Another explanation suggests that the reddish material may have originated from a collision with Nix and another object with a ...
I. Light Curves of 80 Objects". The Astronomical Journal. 141 (5): 32. Bibcode:2011AJ....141..170M. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/141/5 ... "Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117-1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. ... According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE ... Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 414 (1): 565-574. arXiv:1109.1109. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.414..565B. doi:10.1111/ ...
ISBN 978-3-540-76023-8. Hartung, E. J.; Frew, David; Malin, David (1994). "Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes". ... Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes. Melbourne University Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-522-84553-2. Matthews, R.A.J. ( ... Astronomical Society of South Africa. "Henderson, Thomas [FRS] (2008)". Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Anton ... Their elliptical orbit is eccentric, so that the distance between A and B varies from 35.6 AU (astronomical units), or about ...
"Naming astronomical objects in Thailand". Pleiades, the IOAA 2017 Newsletter. Vol. 7. pp. 4-5. Retrieved 29 April 2020. CS1 ... Several space objects and features have been named after Thai people or things in Thailand. These include planetary features on ... The Thai Astronomical Society. Retrieved 29 April 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Original published in Thang ... after National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT) 6125 Singto (1989 CN) - after Singto Pukahuta (1915-2007), a ...
Naming of Astronomical Objects Andersen, Johannes. "Buying Stars and Star Names". International Astronomical Union. Retrieved ... The International Astronomical Union (IAU) has begun a process to select and formalise unique proper names for the brighter ... The International Astronomical Union has held two NameExoWorlds contests to give proper names to exoplanets and their host ... The USNO-B1.0 catalogue contains over a billion objects, and is also under continued development at the U.S. Naval Observatory ...
"Naming Astronomical Objects: Spelling of Names". International Astronomical Union. Archived from the original on 16 December ... the first human-made object to escape Earth's gravity and pass near the Moon was Luna 1; the first human-made object to impact ... The first manmade object to reach the Moon was the Soviet Union's Luna 2 uncrewed spacecraft in 1959; this was followed by the ... Despite this, it is the brightest object in the sky after the Sun. This is due partly to the brightness enhancement of the ...
"Naming of astronomical objects: Minor planets". International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 2008-11-17. Mike Brown (2008-09-17 ... The Ortiz team objected, suggesting that if Ataecina were not accepted the IAU could at least have chosen a third name favoring ... Immediately after the announcement of the name, Brown noted that it is unusual to be allowed to name an object without being ... He further said that in checking whether this was a known object, the team came across Brown's internet summary, describing a ...
"Naming of Astronomical Objects: Minor planets". International Astronomical Union. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. ... Haumea is the largest member of its collisional family, a group of astronomical objects with similar physical and orbital ... Lacerda, P.; Jewitt, D. C. (2007). "Densities of Solar System Objects from Their Rotational Light Curves". Astronomical Journal ... P. Lacerda (2009). "Time-Resolved Near-Infrared Photometry of Extreme Kuiper Belt Object Haumea". Astronomical Journal. 137 (2 ...
He is principally known for his spectacular colour images of astronomical objects. A galaxy is named after him, Malin 1, which ... Malin, David; Frew, David (2016). Hartung's Astronomical Objects For Southern Telescopes. Melbourne University Publishing. ISBN ... 1985: Henri Chrétien Award of the American Astronomical Society 1986: Jackson-Gwilt Medal, Royal Astronomical Society 1990: ... During his career at the AAO, Malin made about 150 three-colour images of deep sky objects, mostly using plates taken with the ...
Lists of astronomical objects Kohoutek, L. (1971). "New planetary nebula". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 13: 493. Bibcode:1971A&A ... Phillips, J. P. (2005). "The distances of highly evolved planetary nebulae". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ... Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 419 (1): 39-49. arXiv:1108.3957. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.419...39M. doi:10.1111/j. ...
... the type of astronomical object, the nature of sources of plasma and momentum, the period of the object's spin, the nature of ... Many astronomical objects generate and maintain magnetospheres. In the Solar System this includes the Sun, Mercury, Jupiter, ... Play media In astronomy and planetary science, a magnetosphere is a region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which ... Opposite the compressed magnetic field is the magnetotail, where the magnetosphere extends far beyond the astronomical object. ...
In usual conditions, a green rim of an astronomical object gets fainter when an astronomical object is very low above the ... The lower rim of an astronomical object is always red. A green rim is very thin and is difficult or impossible to see with the ... On rare occasion, the amount of blue light is sufficient to be visible as a "blue flash". As an astronomical object sets or ... The color of the upper rim of an astronomical object could go from green to blue to violet depending on the decrease in ...
Astronomical objects: 12782 Mauersberger is an asteroid. This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "NGC 5218 -- Galaxy in Pair of Galaxies". SIMBAD astronomical object database. Centre ... "VV 33a -- Interacting Galaxies". SIMBAD astronomical object database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved ... "Searching NED for object "ARP 104*"". NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED). Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute ...
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.08921.x. "del Sct - Variable star of delta Sct type". SIMBAD Astronomical Object Database. Centre ... Colacevich, A. (August 1935). "On the variable radial velocity of δ Scuti". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the ... May 2005). "The chemical composition of δ Scuti". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 359 (55): 865-873. Bibcode ... University of Toronto: International Astronomical Union. Bibcode:1967IAUS...30...57E. Holmberg, J.; Nordström, B.; Andersen, J ...
"SIMBAD Astronomical Object Database". Results for NGC 6723. Retrieved 2007-04-21. Multiple Stellar Populations of Globular ... X. New Determinations of Centers for 65 Clusters", The Astronomical Journal, 140 (6): 1830-1837, arXiv:1008.2755, Bibcode: ... Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 404 (3): 1203-1214, arXiv:1001.4289, Bibcode:2010MNRAS.404.1203F, doi: ...
"NLTT 5367 -- High proper-motion Star". SIMBAD Astronomical Object Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. ... Under the rules for naming objects in binary star systems, the two components are designated A and B. Under the same rules, the ... In July 2014 the International Astronomical Union (IAU) launched a process for giving proper names to certain exoplanets and ... November 2010), "Rotation periods of exoplanet host stars", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 408 (3): 1666- ...
"SIMBAD Astronomical Object Database". Results for NGC 6144. CCD PHOTOMETRY OF THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6144 "Clusters ...
SIMBAD Astronomical Object Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-03-19. Morledge, Paul ( ... In 1983, based on radiation in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite was ... The Astronomical Journal, 132 (1): 161-170, arXiv:astro-ph/0603770, Bibcode:2006AJ....132..161G, doi:10.1086/504637, S2CID ...
"NLTT 5367 -- High proper-motion Star". SIMBAD Astronomical Object Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. ... Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 m Program: New Young Stars Near the Sun". The Astronomical Journal. 154 (4): 151. Bibcode: ... Cousins, A. W. J. (1973), "UBV photometry of some southern stars", Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of Southern Africa ... RESULTS FROM THE CTIO/SMARTS 0.9 m: TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAXES FOR 151 NEARBY M DWARF SYSTEMS". The Astronomical Journal. 153 (1 ...
Lists of astronomical objects. References. *^ a b Merritt, David (2013). Dynamics and Evolution of Galactic Nuclei. Princeton, ... Brightest object in the sky in very high energy gamma rays. PG 1426+015. 7009129800000000000♠(1.298±0.385)×109[4]. ... "The Demography of Massive Dark Objects in Galaxy Centers". The Astronomical Journal. 115 (6): 2285-2305. arXiv:astro-ph/9708072 ... This object grew early in cosmic history (redshift 6.30). SDSS J081855.77+095848.0. 7010120000000000000♠(1.20±0.06)×1010[11]. ...
"SVOM (Spaceborne multiband astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) mission". eoPortal. 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2020. Erwin, ... "Einstein Probe - About EP". National Astronomical Observatory of China. Retrieved 12 October 2019. "Einstein Probe - Mission ... profile". National Astronomical Observatory of China. Retrieved 12 October 2019. Werner, Debra (14 January 2020). "TriSept buys ...
I'm a bit on the fence though, so if someone else adds it, I won't object. -- tariqabjotu 13:58, 25 December 2006 (UTC) ... In August 2006, the International Astronomical Union conference didn't get on ITN till the announcement of the re-definition of ...
The Gohonzon is the primary object of veneration in some Nichiren schools and the only one in others, which consider it to be ... been used primarily as a ceremonial basin or ritual altar for gladiatorial sacrifices than as an astrological or astronomical ... Unlike mandalas used in Vajrayana Buddhism, it is not used as an object of meditation or for esoteric ritual. Instead, it ... Also in Jodo Shinshu Buddhism, Shinran and his descendant, Rennyo, sought a way to create easily accessible objects of ...
... an object when a force of one newton acts on that object in the direction of its motion through a distance of one metre (1 ... The kinetic energy of an object with mass 1 kg moving at √2 ≈ 1.4 m/s. ...
Astronomical objects diskivert in 1989. *Proteus (muin). Skauk't categerie: *CS1 maint: ref=harv ... Astronomical Journal. 128 (3): 1412-1417. Bibcode:2004AJ....128.1412J. doi:10.1086/423037.. CS1 maint: ref=harv (link). .mw- ...
This article is supported by WikiProject Astronomical objects, which collaborates on articles related to astronomical objects. ... WikiProject Astronomy / Astronomical objects (Rated GA-class, High-importance). AstronomyWikipedia:WikiProject Astronomy ... Pages within the scope of WikiProject Astronomical objects (WP Astronomy Banner). *GA-Class Astronomy articles of High- ... Photo : See Category:Wikipedia requested photographs of astronomical bodies. *Stubs : See Category:Stub-Class Solar System ...
Celestial Objects for All (1907). *Astronomical Notebook (1909-15). *Astronomy articles for The Providence Evening News (1914- ...
The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, the largest submillimetre-wavelength astronomical telescope in the world, with a diameter of ... By finding photographic materials more sensitive to the less refrangible rays, the representation of the colours of objects ...
Astronomical Discovery. Berkeley: University of California Press.. Whitehead, Barbara J., ed. 1991 Women's Education in Early ... Michell postulated that if the density of a stellar object became great enough, its attractive force would become so large that ... However, much astronomical work of the period becomes shadowed by one of the most dramatic scientific discoveries of the 18th ... Caroline Herschel began her astronomical career, although somewhat reluctantly at first, by assisting her brother William ...
Any object that comes in contact with cervical secretions, vaginal mucosa, or menstrual blood, including fingers or penetrative ... Symbol representing lesbian made from two interlocked astronomical symbols for the planet Venus. In biology, the singular ... objects may transmit sexually transmitted diseases.[200] Orogenital contact may indicate a higher risk of acquiring HSV,[201] ...
She was a leading innovator in theorizing object relations theory.[183]. *Alfred Dillwyn Knox (1884-1943): British classics ... He was a co-owner of Carl Zeiss AG, a German manufacturer of research microscopes, astronomical telescopes, planetariums and ... Eudoria... gratitude without an object, no one to credit, no one to thank. No Jesus, no Yahweh, Muhammad, Vishnu or Buddha. ... In public life the scientist is a strong supporter of communism, an atheist strongly objecting to advancement of religious ...
Astronomical objects discovered in 2017. *Discoveries by Scott S. Sheppard. *Moons of Jupiter ...
Though the universe might in theory have a longer history, the International Astronomical Union[5] presently use "age of the ... The first estimate of the age of the universe came from the calculation of when all of the objects must have started speeding ... This model is well understood theoretically and strongly supported by recent high-precision astronomical observations such as ...
In astronomy, the term spectrophotometry refers to the measurement of the spectrum of a celestial object in which the flux ... Astronomical spectroscopy. *Cavity ring-down spectroscopy. *Circular dichroism spectroscopy. *Coherent anti-Stokes Raman ...
Astronomical objects discovered in 1930. Hidden categories: *Use dmy dates from March 2018 ... "Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117-1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. ... According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite, the NEOWISE ... Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 423 (3): 2587-2596. arXiv:1204.1388. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.423.2587H. doi: ...
Would you object? If you have a reason for preferring "Conformationes terrestres", please say so and we can leave them as they ... The Latin names are international, easily checked on any serious astronomical site, and I think all our pages agree with them ... written objects, and so that term would be fine under which to collect books, librettos, newspapers, poems, and so forth, ...
AstronomicalEdit. Other large numbers, as regards length and time, are found in astronomy and cosmology. For example, the ... Examples of large numbers describing everyday real-world objects include: *The number of bits on a computer hard disk (as of ... The factorial function, which defines the number of permutations on a set of fixed objects, grows very rapidly with the number ... of objects. Stirling's formula gives a precise asymptotic expression for this rate of growth. ...
The most distant astronomical objects observable with telescopes date to this period; as of 2016, the most remote galaxy ... See also: Hydrogen line and List of the most distant astronomical objects ... a b c A dying universe: the long-term fate and evolution of astrophysical objects, Fred C. Adams and Gregory Laughlin, Reviews ... Expansion by a factor of 1026 is equivalent to expanding an object 1 nanometer (10−9 m, about half the width of a molecule of ...
minute, hour, day, degree of arc, minute of arc, second of arc, hectare, litre, tonne, astronomical unit. Some of the units ... This is true whether the object is floating in space or in a gravity field e.g. at the Earth's surface. Weight is the force ... This object is the International Prototype Kilogram or IPK called rather poetically Le Grand K. ... a second is the time it takes a dense object to freely fall 4.9 metres from rest. ...
General Catalogue of Variable Stars, Sternberg Astronomical Institute(英语:Sternberg Astronomical Institute), Moscow, Russia. [ ... Annotations on HD 95735 object. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. [2010-04-14].. ... Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (American Astronomical Society, 188th AAS Meeting, #40.11;). May 1996, 28: 885. ... The Astronomical Journal. September 1992, 104 (3): 1237-1247. Bibcode:1992AJ....104.1237G. doi:10.1086/116313.. ...
Chemical elements can be detected in astronomical objects by emission lines and absorption lines. ... where scientists use it to analyze the properties of distant objects. Typically, astronomical spectroscopy uses high-dispersion ... The shifting of spectral lines can be used to measure the Doppler shift (red shift or blue shift) of distant objects. ... Spectroscopy is the study of objects based on the spectrum of color they emit, absorb or reflect. Spectroscopy is an important ...
After all, have we any other reason for believing in the existence of material objects? That, too, is only a convenient ... Without this postulate it would not be possible to infer the speed of light from astronomical observations, as Rømer did based ...
Astronomical. *Big Crunch. *Big Rip. *Coronal mass ejection. *Geomagnetic storm. *False vacuum decay ...
... observatories using the Cherenkov technique to measure air showers are key to determine the properties of astronomical objects ... the waves travel slower than the speeding object and cannot propagate forward from the body, instead forming a shock front. In ...
A few theoretical objects have been conjectured to match observations of astronomical black hole candidates identically or near ... When an object falls into a black hole, any information about the shape of the object or distribution of charge on it is evenly ... Objects and radiation can escape normally from the ergosphere. Through the Penrose process, objects can emerge from the ... Gravitational collapse occurs when an object's internal pressure is insufficient to resist the object's own gravity. For stars ...
... is an object model for controlling an astronomical telescope. An object model consists of the following important features: ... Object Reference Objects can be accessed via object references. To invoke a method in an object, the object reference and ... "The Java Object Model" The Ruby Object Model: Data Structure in Detail Object Membership: The core structure of object-oriented ... Examples are the object models of Java, the Component Object Model (COM), or Object-Modeling Technique (OMT). Such object ...
From this we can derive the object's physical parameters.[13] Nuclear technology[edit]. The atomic vapor laser isotope ... Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 459 (3): 2882-2993. arXiv:1604.03059. Bibcode:2016MNRAS.459.2882M. doi: ... In submillimeter astronomy, heterodyne receivers are widely used in detecting electromagnetic signals from celestial objects ... such as star-forming core or young stellar objects. The separations among neighboring components in a hyperfine spectrum of an ...
"The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 114 (802): 1309-1321. Bibcode:2002PASP..114.1309B. doi:10.1086/ ... "The bimodal colors of Centaurs and small Kuiper belt objects". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 546: 12. arXiv:1206.3153. Bibcode ... "Accurate absolute magnitudes for Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs". Icarus. 179 (2): 523-526. Bibcode:2005Icar..179..523R. doi ... "Centaurs and Scattered Disk Objects in the Thermal Infrared: Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE Observations" (PDF). The Astrophysical ...
"Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 242: 241-246. *^ a b c d e f g Forbes, Eric G. (1971). "Gauss and the ... "Physical Properties of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects: Constraints from Spitzer Space Telescope" (subscription required) ... Pitjeva, E. V.; Precise determination of the motion of planets and some astronomical constants from modern observations, in ... Hilton, James L., U.S. Naval Observatory Ephemerides of the Largest Asteroids The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 117, p. 1077 (1999 ...
Astronomical. *Big Crunch. *Big Rip. *Coronal mass ejection. *Gamma-ray burst. *Hypercane ...
The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 103 (1): 7-10. arXiv:0811.0171. Bibcode:2009JRASC.103....7M. Archived ... This suggests the possibility of near-simultaneous multiple impacts, perhaps from a fragmented asteroidal object similar to the ... "Direct high-precision U-Pb geochronology of the end-Cretaceous extinction and calibration of Paleocene astronomical timescales ...
... grouped by type of astronomical object. List of Solar System objects List of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar ... List of NGC objects (1001-2000) List of NGC objects (2001-3000) List of NGC objects (3001-4000) List of NGC objects (4001-5000 ... List of multiplanetary systems List of astronomical catalogues List of Messier objects List of NGC objects List of NGC objects ... List of NGC objects (5001-6000) List of NGC objects (6001-7000) List of NGC objects (7001-7840) Lists of telescopes Lists of ...
In usual conditions a green rim of an astronomical object gets fainter, when an astronomical object is very low above the ... A mock mirage of astronomical objects is much more complex than an inferior mirage. While an inferior mirage of astronomical ... Inferior mirage of astronomical objects is the most common mirage. Inferior mirage occurs when the surface of the Earth or the ... As an astronomical object sets or rises, the light it emits travels through the atmosphere, which works as a prism separating ...
Étienne Léopold Trouvelots Stunning 19th-Century Astronomical Drawings of Celestial Objects and Phenomena. The splendor of the ... The Astronomical Art of Maria Clara Eimmart: Stunning 17th-Century Drawings of Comets, Planets, and Moon Phases by a Self- ... Unlike the rest of his illustrations, which depict objects and phenomena as they appear in a single moment in time, Trouvelots ... On account of their vagueness and ill-defined contours, I have proposed for these objects the term, "Veiled Spots." ...
Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects. Proceedings of the 158th Colloquium of the International Astronomical Union, Held at ... Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects. Book Subtitle. Proceedings of the 158th Colloquium of the International Astronomical ... We felt therefore that the time was ripe to have an IAU meeting de- voted to an overview of CVs and related objects and the SOC ... Investigation of the Optical Variability of Relativistic Objects with High Time Resolution ...
Near Earth Object impact simulation tool for supporting the NEO mitigation decision making process - Volume 2 Issue S236 - Nick ... Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. *ISSN: 1743-9213* *EISSN: 1743-9221* *URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of- ... Near Earth Object impact simulation tool for supporting the NEO mitigation decision making process ... Near Earth Object impact simulation tool for supporting the NEO mitigation decision making process ...
... astronomical object with long tail, celestial body with a luminous tail in English->English dictionary. Search nearly 14 ... astronomical object with long tail, celestial body with a luminous tail paper-maker novercal pressure water soiree smísit ... Results for: astronomical object with long tail, celestial body with a luminous tail. English. English. ... astronomical object with long tail, celestial body with a luminous tail. comet. ...
Influence of misalignment on output of astronomical large-core fibers of multi-object fiber spectroscopic telescopes Author(s ... Large-core fibers are wildly used in astronomical applications. For multi-object fiber spectroscopic telescopes, for example ... We chose a single-mode fiber for 650nm, which core diameter is 4 μm, to scan a large-core astronomical fiber FBP320385415, ... This experimental result is important for designing and optimizing the fiber-end adjusting devices of multi-object fiber ...
Recovery of Diffraction-Limited Object Autocorrelations from Astronomical Speckle Interferograms using the CLEAN Algorithm ... Recovery of Diffraction-Limited Object Autocorrelations from Astronomical Speckle Interferograms using the CLEAN Algorithm. ... Copyright 1990, American Astronomical Society. Received 10 April 1989; revised 26 March 1990. We thank the W. M. Keck ... Astronomical Journal, 100 (1). pp. 294-306. ISSN 0004-6256. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140509-091947899 ...
Data on 400 million astronomical objects released Scientists on the Dark Energy Survey (DES), which includes UCL Astrophysics ... announce their first three years of data including information on about 400 million astronomical objects such as distant ... Two UCL astrophysicists win Royal Astronomical Society awards. *Hidden in the archives: Finding the first-ever evidence of ... have been recognised in this years Royal Astronomical Society awards. The announcements were made at the Ordinary Meeting of ...
Data on 400 million astronomical objects released Scientists on the Dark Energy Survey (DES), which includes UCL Astrophysics ... announce their first three years of data including information on about 400 million astronomical objects such as distant ... Two UCL astrophysicists win Royal Astronomical Society awards. *Hidden in the archives: Finding the first-ever evidence of ...
Astronomical Telescopes: Their Object Glasses and Reflectors. By G. D. Hiscox. How to make Colorless Specimens of Plants to be ...
Astronomical Telescopes: Their Object Glasses and Reflectors. By G. D. Hiscox. Popular Errors in Meteorology. ...
Sequence of Astronomical Objects in Infrared Light. This figure shows an artists rendition comparing brown dwarfs to stars and ... These four panels show the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed "Sedna," which lies in the far... view ... This artist concept illustrates how a massive collision of objects, perhaps as large as the planet Pluto, smashed tog... view ... The artists rendition shows the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed "Sedna," in relation to other bodies in ... view ...
Sequence of Astronomical Objects in Infrared Light. This figure shows an artists rendition comparing brown dwarfs to stars and ...
Astronomical objects, 74[edit]. Basics, 13. *Astronomical object. *Centaurus A. *Cygnus X-1 ...
THE OBJECT OF ASTRONOMICAL AND MATHEMATICAL RESEARCH. By Frank Schlesinger. Science. 22 Jan 1915. : 109-117 Full Access ...
Main article: Astronomical object. *Astronomical objects *Sun (sunlight, solar radiation) *Corona. *Photosphere ... Cryoluminescence is the emission of light when an object is cooled. Crystalloluminescence[edit]. Main article: ...
Growing Astronomical Community, Telescopes, Astrophotography, Space Objects » * General Astronomy » * Light Pollution Topics » ...
10 Hypothetical Astronomical Objects That Could Actually Exist. July 24, 2017. Space 10 Fascinating Facts About Living In Space ... Other explanations include an unidentified space object or the more fun explanation, aliens. ... scientists found that they can possibly deduce information about the interior of the object, including whether liquid water is ...
Scientists see unexplained circular astronomical objects through telescopes. The Independent. *. GE2020: Voting hours ...
Scientists see unexplained circular astronomical objects through telescopes. The Independent. *. GE2020: Voting hours ...
Reimagining the Astronomical Objects of Messier. An artist finds inspiration in the celestial frustrations of astronomer ...
Top 10 Sounds Made By Astronomical Objects (with Audio). January 26, 2021. Mysteries. Ten Amazing Slips In Time. January 26, ... Top 10 Sounds Made By Astronomical Objects (with Audio). January 26, 2021. Mysteries. Ten Amazing Slips In Time. January 26, ... At a superficial glance, The Really Rare Item is the one object that could help solve the mystery. In reality, its role is to ... an object which is to be described in utmost detail by the author - and snatches the Really Rare Item. Chosen One and Love ...
I. Light Curves of 80 Objects". The Astronomical Journal. 141 (5): 32. Bibcode:2011AJ....141..170M. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/141/5 ... "Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117-1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. ... According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE ... Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 414 (1): 565-574. arXiv:1109.1109. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.414..565B. doi:10.1111/ ...
ESO is the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere. It operates the La Silla Paranal ... Physics of luminous hot stars; Chemical evolution of the Milky Way; Polarized light from astronomical objects ... Astronomers and Astronomical Institutes in Chile. Astronomers in Chile: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. ... Young stellar objects at both ends of the stellar and substellar mass function; the study of manifestations of stellar youth at ...
In general, each type of astronomical object, such as a star or a galaxy, will emit a characteristic spectrum of light. (see ... Instrument employed to measure the elevation of astronomical objects above the horizon. Based upon an arc equal to a sixth of a ... The Schwarzschild radius is therefore the smallest physical size which an astronomical object of mass M can have. Matter ... An object that emits radiation in a continuous range of colors is said to have a continuous spectrum. An object that emits ...
"We found that if students demonstrate a basic understanding of two different astronomical objects by giving basic, one-sentence ... Cross-sectional study of students knowledge of sizes and distances of astronomical objects. Vinesh M. Rajpaul, Christine ... Cross-sectional study of students knowledge of sizes and distances of astronomical objects. Vinesh M. Rajpaul, Christine ... The researchers speculate that these misconceptions might arise because astronomical scales and objects are so remote from ...
... galaxies and the composition of astronomical objects.. First published on Tue, 22 Mar 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set. ...
tell whether theres helium or carbon, or nitrogen, in that object.. And I can exactly tell how much helium, nitrogen, and ... lines or the absorption lines, I can tell what that object was made out of. ...
  • For multi-object fiber spectroscopic telescopes, for example the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), the aiming accuracy is important. (spie.org)
  • This experimental result is important for designing and optimizing the fiber-end adjusting devices of multi-object fiber spectroscopic telescopes. (spie.org)
  • The study of primitive bodies is also aided by ground-based telescopes and radar, which are highly useful in this field because the number of objects is so great that only a tiny fraction can be visited by spacecraft, and space missions are aided substantially by prior observation. (nap.edu)
  • Indeed, ground-based telescopes continue to discover unusual and puzzling objects in the Kuiper belt and elsewhere, and those objects might serve as the targets for future missions. (nap.edu)
  • Telescopes also revealed the existence of objects not known to the ancients, because they are too far away and small to be spotted with the naked eye. (space.com)
  • Using Astronomical Telescopes: finding objects, tracking, choice of magnification [outdoor]. (hawaii.edu)
  • Most observers estimates the possibilities of observing a celestial object in a subjective way, depending on experience in handling their telescopes and knowledge on deep‑sky objects. (uv.es)
  • Points as the convenience of using telescopes with short focal ratios and very low magnifications, able to concentrate light of diffuse objects, and questions as the binocular giving the best performance, or the faintest star visible at a given telescope. (uv.es)
  • This page describes the optical principles necessary to understand the design and function of telescopes and astronomical eyepieces. (handprint.com)
  • In the astronomical community, this term is used for systems that correct for distortions in images of ground-based telescopes due to atmospheric turbulence. (nap.edu)
  • Based on a culture of freely shared information and shared goals astronomers are building a Virtual Observatory, using the internet to bring the totality of astronomical information to anyone, anywhere in the world. (classification-society.org)
  • The AAO is currently working to develop a database of surveys that will be made available to the public and Australian astronomical community, called the All-Sky Virtual Observatory (ASVO). (aao.gov.au)
  • This discovery, made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, resolves a ten-year mystery surrounding this object. (harvard.edu)
  • This is a list of lists, grouped by type of astronomical object. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also tend to classify ourselves by what type of astronomical object we study. (scholastic.com)
  • Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the rocky-object Io? (wikiversity.org)
  • Theoretical astronomy is oriented towards the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. (schools-wikipedia.org)
  • Astronomy (literally, "law of the stars") is the science of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere, such as stars, planets, comets, galaxies, and cosmic background radiation. (compadre.org)
  • Astronomical observations provide essential information for the verification of fundamental theories in physics and to explain astronomical phenomena. (compadre.org)
  • books.google.com - This fully revised and updated text is a comprehensive introduction to astronomical objects and phenomena. (google.com)
  • The branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of astronomical objects and phenomena. (amnh.org)
  • The strange orbits of some objects in the farthest reaches of our solar system, hypothesised by some astronomers to be shaped by an unknown ninth planet, can instead be explained by the combined gravitational force of small objects orbiting the Sun beyond Neptune, say researchers. (cam.ac.uk)
  • While discovering icy objects that far away was not unexpected - the supposed Oort Cloud , the birthplace of comets, should have trillions of these things - it was the size that made other astronomers pay attention. (space.com)
  • Astronomers harvest information across the electromagnetic spectrum, using spectra to measure the composition of distant objects and diagnose extreme physical conditions. (coursera.org)
  • Ignoring the atmosphere friction and orbital speed of earth around the Sun, a rough estimate of impact energy of a falling object towards earth at a speed of 40,000 kmph (the final velocity and object attains which falls to earth from infinity or a few million kilometres distance) has been calculated by the scientist and astronomers. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Expressing distances in the astronomical unit allowed astronomers to overcome the difficulty of measuring distances in some physical unit," Capitaine told SPACE.com by email. (livescience.com)
  • Defying astronomers' expectations, this object did not show any X-ray or radio pulsations or any signs of radio pulsar activity. (harvard.edu)
  • Scientists on the Dark Energy Survey (DES), which includes UCL Astrophysics Group (P&A) researchers, announce their first three years of data including information on about 400 million astronomical objects such as distant galaxies billions of light years away as well as stars in our own galaxy. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • galaxies and the composition of astronomical objects. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Deep Sky Objects: study appearance of double stars, star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies [outdoor]. (hawaii.edu)
  • [13] Hubble's law showed that the object was located several billion light-years away, and thus must be emitting the energy equivalent of hundreds of galaxies. (wikipedia.org)
  • these two objects were also the closest brown dwarfs to the Sun . WISE was also sensitive to emissions from young distant galaxies in which stars are forming. (britannica.com)
  • However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could actually be called astrophysics. (schools-wikipedia.org)
  • Summarising the striking advances of the last two decades, this reliable introduction to modern astronomical polarimetry provides a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art techniques, models and research methods. (cambridge.org)
  • These objects provide unique information on the solar system's origin and early history and help researchers to interpret observations of debris disks around other stars. (nap.edu)
  • While these irregularities were later discounted by further observations, Clyde Tombaugh did spot a smaller object in 1930 beyond the orbit of Neptune. (space.com)
  • Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, which is then analyzed using basic principles of physics. (schools-wikipedia.org)
  • Conducting astronomical observations in different parts of the spectrum can yield more information about an object: click here to see what the Milky Way looks like when viewed in different parts of the spectrum. (aao.gov.au)
  • Accompanying our SOFIA guests, science journalist Thomas Bührke and Henning Krause, from DLR Corporate Communications, I will have the opportunity to tell you about 'SOFIA's Secrets', the GREAT instrument and the scientific objectives of the live astronomical observations on board the aircraft. (dlr.de)
  • Lighter stellar remnants don't collapse to form neutron stars and instead form white dwarfs, while heavier objects collapse directly to form black holes. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Neutron stars are extremely dense stellar objects that form when giant stars explode and die-in the explosion, their cores collapse, and the protons and electrons melt into each other to form a remnant neutron star. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Neutron stars are one of the most fascinating astronomical objects in the known Universe. (universetoday.com)
  • For astrophysicists neutron stars are extremely complex astronomical objects. (phys.org)
  • Neutron stars are complex objects owing to the matter that composes them. (phys.org)
  • For neutron stars three moments are needed: mass, angular momentum and quadrupole moment, that is, a coefficient that describes the deformation of the object produced by its rotation. (phys.org)
  • This object was presumed to be a neutron star, the typical remnant of an exploded star, but researchers were unable to understand its properties. (harvard.edu)
  • By applying a model of a neutron star with a carbon atmosphere to this object, Ho and Heinke found that the region emitting X-rays would uniformly cover a typical neutron star. (harvard.edu)
  • Unlike most astronomical objects, neutron stars are small enough to understand on a human scale. (harvard.edu)
  • Two UCL astrophysicists, Dr Andrew Pontzen and the late Professor Bruce Swinyard (UCL Physics & Astronomy), have been recognised in this year's Royal Astronomical Society awards. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • By applying some basic physical principles to a variety of situations, students will learn how to relate everyday physics to the astronomical world. (google.com)
  • The nuclear physics required to understand the nature of the matter contained in these astronomical objects generally makes their description very complicated and difficult to formulate," continues Pappas. (phys.org)
  • Black holes are intriguing objects, allowing us to probe physics under extreme conditions - and with GRAVITY we can now probe them both near and far. (aftau.org)
  • In astronomical applications, light sources are so distant that the concentric wavefronts become a series of equally spaced parallel planes across the width of any practical telescope aperture. (handprint.com)
  • Since the fabrication limits of the highest quality astronomical optics are around λ /20 wave, or 10 times larger than the wavefront divergence, optical calculations can assume perfectly flat and parallel wavefronts from a distant light source. (handprint.com)
  • In 1963, astronomer Maarten Schmidt identified the first quasi-stellar object or "quasar," an extremely bright but distant object. (aftau.org)
  • The instrument can detect distant astronomical objects at an extremely high resolution. (aftau.org)
  • Quasars are among the most distant astronomical objects that can be observed," Prof. Netzer says. (aftau.org)
  • Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) , U.S. satellite that observed astronomical objects at infrared wavelengths. (britannica.com)
  • Even students who perform well on astronomy tests may hold misunderstandings about basic facts, such as the shapes of planetary orbits or the approximate Earth-Moon distance relative to the objects' sizes [ 1 ]. (aps.org)
  • The students, who were tested before and after having instruction in astronomy, also ranked the distances from Earth of ten astronomical entities, such as the Sun and the center of the Milky Way. (aps.org)
  • Astronomy is not to be confused with astrology , the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. (schools-wikipedia.org)
  • In early times, astronomy only comprised the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye. (schools-wikipedia.org)
  • As a purely observational science it is the task of astronomy to disentangle the vast network of objects with shared or similar properties and discover the underlying causal relationships which govern our universe. (classification-society.org)
  • In astronomy, angles are used to describe apparent sizes and positions of objects. (aao.gov.au)
  • When combined with a simplified model of the solar system, the gravitational forces of the hypothesised disc can account for the unusual orbital architecture exhibited by some objects at the outer reaches of the solar system. (cam.ac.uk)
  • While the new theory is not the first to propose that the gravitational forces of a massive disc made of small objects could avoid the need for a ninth planet, it is the first such theory which is able to explain the significant features of the observed orbits while accounting for the mass and gravity of the other eight planets in our solar system. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In accordance with the inverse-square law, the lowest of the four objects experiences the biggest gravitational acceleration, so that the whole formation becomes stretched into a line. (google.com)
  • Black holes are a class of astronomical object that have undergone gravitational collapse , leaving behind spheroidal regions of space from which nothing can escape, not even light . (wikipedia.org)
  • Objects didn't really exert gravitational forces on one another, which in turn caused accelerations/changes in momentum, but rather the entire Universe existed in a framework known as spacetime, and the presence of matter-and-energy curved the fabric of that spacetime, causing objects to move as they do. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The astronomical unit eventually came to be defined by a mathematical expression that involved the mass of the sun , the length of a day, and a fixed number known as the Gaussian gravitational constant. (livescience.com)
  • These objects, being more difficult, can offer dramatically different images depending on the telescope aperture and sky quality. (uv.es)
  • To illustrate: across the aperture of a 1 meter (39.4") telescope, light rays from a single point on the Moon, the closest astronomical object at 384,403 kilometers, diverge from parallel by no more than 1/384403000 of a radian or 0.0000026 millimeter, which is 0.0047 or 1/200 a wavelength of "green" light. (handprint.com)
  • A large aperture telescope can reveal dimmer astronomical objects better than a high magnification telescope can. (scopecity.com)
  • Image credit: NASA / Kepler, retrieved from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. (scienceblogs.com)
  • There will be an optional daytime meeting to view the Sun, and one or more nighttime trips to a dark site to view the Milky Way and faint objects. (hawaii.edu)
  • We will help you get up to date on the most recent astronomical discoveries while also providing support at an introductory level for those who have no background in science. (coursera.org)
  • On Black Holes as Real Astronomical Objects 7. (bio.net)
  • In the most extreme cases, near black holes, the stretching is so powerful that no object can withstand it, no matter how strong its components. (google.com)
  • Since the volume of a spherical object (such as the event horizon of a non-rotating black hole) is directly proportional to the cube of the radius, the density of a black hole is inversely proportional to the square of the mass, and thus higher mass black holes have lower average density . (wikipedia.org)
  • Black holes are truly unique objects: they have lost all matter and are only made up of space and time. (phys.org)
  • It can also apply for various fields of astronomical spectroscopy observation. (spie.org)
  • Knowing in advance the visibility of a given object is important when planning an observation. (uv.es)
  • If you remove planet nine from the model and instead allow for lots of small objects scattered across a wide area, collective attractions between those objects could just as easily account for the eccentric orbits we see in some TNOs," said Sefilian, who is a Gates Cambridge Scholar and a member of Darwin College. (cam.ac.uk)
  • After the solid hydrogen that kept WISE's detectors cool was exhausted, WISE was still able to use the 3.4- and 4.6-micron detectors to survey the main asteroid belt and search for near-Earth objects (NEOs), asteroids whose orbits cross that of Earth. (britannica.com)
  • Elliptical orbits are the paths taken by objects as they fly around a massive object, such as the sun or Earth. (reference.com)
  • A planetary-mass object that has been ejected from its home system, and orbits the galactic center directly, not gravitationally bound to any star or brown dwarf. (nap.edu)
  • The spacecraft began a new mission in 2014 called K2, discovering other astronomical objects including stars and supernovae. (go.com)
  • The mirages might be observed for such celestial objects as the Sun, the Moon, the planets, bright stars, and very bright comets. (wikipedia.org)
  • They tested the astronomical knowledge of Norwegian middle school pupils (grades 8-10) through questionnaires asking them to rank the sizes of the Galaxy, the Solar System, stars, planets, and the Universe, and requesting simple explanations of each. (aps.org)
  • Stars -- much like our Sun -- are incredibly stable objects, with only the most minuscule of natural variations in their intrinsic brightness. (scienceblogs.com)
  • reflected from material and material objects, like stars. (coursera.org)
  • Trying to see faint objects near stars in astronomical images is phenomenally tough work. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Discovery-class missions are ideally suited to research on primitive bodies, although larger missions also play a vital role, particularly for objects in the outer solar system that cannot be reached without radioisotope power systems. (nap.edu)
  • That changed in the 2000s, when Mike Brown - a young astronomer at the California Institute of Technology - was in search of a defining research project and decided upon searches for objects in the outer solar system. (space.com)
  • They utilize the astronomical unit to calculate the motion of bodies in the solar system. (livescience.com)
  • Capitaine said, "The change of definition of the astronomical unit mainly concerns those in the field of high-accuracy solar system dynamics. (livescience.com)
  • Provides basic data, cross-identifications and bibliography for astronomical objects outside the solar system. (einet.net)
  • Studies of primitive bodies encompass asteroids, comets, Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), the moons of Mars, and samples-meteorites and interplanetary dust particles-derived from them. (nap.edu)
  • It was originally classified as a planet, but it was later realized that Ceres was the first of a class of objects eventually called asteroids. (space.com)
  • On very rare occasions the mirages of astronomical objects other than the Sun and the Moon might be observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • New amateurs usually search only bright objects since they present smaller difficulties for finding and observing them, except perhaps under severe conditions (e.g., city, full moon). (uv.es)
  • In general, astronomical objects emit both continuous emission and lines superimposed on this continuous emission. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • It describes the physical and chemical properties of celestial objects with calculations of their motions. (compadre.org)
  • The Principal Investigator of the GREAT team, Rolf Güsten, describes the astronomical objectives in the GREAT Short Science Plan Flight #2 and presents the ambitious programme. (dlr.de)
  • How can an astronomical object of such crucial cosmological importance remain so fundamentally mysterious? (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Rajpaul says that, while previous studies have also probed students' perceptions of astronomical sizes and distances, the new tests were more comprehensive and used analytical tools "that allow a wealth of information to be straightforwardly extracted and summarized. (aps.org)
  • Two astronomical objects might look like they have the same brightness when viewed from Earth, but they could be at completely different distances. (aao.gov.au)
  • A cosmic ray may originate from what astronomical source? (wikiversity.org)
  • WISE was much more sensitive than previous satellites (such as the Cosmic Background Explorer and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite ) that carried out infrared sky surveys. (britannica.com)
  • These distortions can occur when light from an astronomical object passes through the Earth's atmosphere, for example. (nature.com)
  • The International Astronomical Union, the authority on astronomical constants, has voted unanimously to redefine the astronomical unit, the conventional unit of length based on the distance between the Earth and the sun. (livescience.com)
  • According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS , the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer , Ennomos measures between 80.03 and 91.43 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.077 and 0.078. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. (springer.com)
  • The research team, which includes members of the international collaboration CoRe (Computational Relativity), describe their findings in a paper appearing online in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society . (scitechdaily.com)
  • The precise current, and sometimes future, positions of celestial objects. (nap.edu)
  • Edwin E. Salpeter and Yakov B. Zel'dovich made the proposal in 1964 that matter falling onto a massive compact object would explain the properties of quasars. (wikipedia.org)
  • An apparent magnitude of an astronomical object should be low enough (that is, bright enough) in order to see it as not only a real object, but also a miraged one. (wikipedia.org)
  • True or False, MACHO is a general name for any kind of astronomical body that might explain the apparent presence of dark matter in galaxy halos. (wikiversity.org)
  • Terrestrial objects tend toward a different part of the universe according to their composition of the four elements. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Certainly, even if you knew it was an astronomical object, you'd be excused if you missed the idea that it's actually one of the most catastrophic events in the Universe: a supernova. (syfy.com)
  • They are considered to be the most perfect objects in the Universe and the expression 'hairless' that was coined by John Archibald Wheeler to indicate their simplicity has become famous. (phys.org)
  • Astronomical Journal, 100 (1). (caltech.edu)
  • The results are reported in the Astronomical Journal . (cam.ac.uk)
  • Astronomical Journal. (springer.com)
  • The Astronomical Journal 153 , id. (mpia.de)
  • These results are published in the Astronomical Journal . (nanowerk.com)
  • The Astrophysical Journal is published by the University of Chicago Press for the American Astronomical Society. (einet.net)
  • From time to time, additional viewing sessions may be scheduled to take advantage of unique astronomical events such as eclipses, meteor showers, occultations, etc. (hawaii.edu)
  • To account for this, absolute magnitude is used to describe the intrinsic brightness of an object, regardless of how far away or close it is to Earth. (aao.gov.au)
  • In how many ways can one describe an object ? (phys.org)
  • Scientists use "multipole moments" as parameters to describe objects. (phys.org)
  • Image: Optical image of the quasar 3C 273 (the bright stellar-like object in the center) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. (aftau.org)
  • They both are displaced from the geometric direction to the actual object. (wikipedia.org)
  • Klioner explained the simpler definition is helpful, for instance, for scientists who formulate ephemerides - tables that give the precise position of astronomical objects in the sky. (livescience.com)
  • Capitaine and Klioner are among several scientists who worked over the last two decades on a revision of the astronomical unit. (livescience.com)
  • The three scientists presented the issue to the astronomical community on a number of different occasions. (livescience.com)
  • As a result, it seems hard for students to get an intuitive grasp of such astronomical proportions. (aps.org)
  • A mirage of an astronomical object is a meteorological optical phenomenon, in which light rays are bent to produce distorted or multiple images of an astronomical object. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryoluminescence is the emission of light when an object is cooled. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of light variations of the source, dubbed a quasi-stellar object , or quasar, suggested the emitting region had a diameter of one parsec or less. (wikipedia.org)
  • An instrument designed to gather and focus electromagnetic radiation (light) to study celestial objects and events.UniverseThe physical system that encompasses all matter, energy, and space that exists.velocityThe speed and direction of an objectà s motion. (amnh.org)
  • CCD are used in digital cameras (including phone cameras) as a way to convert the light from an object into a digital signal. (aao.gov.au)
  • Some instruments (like SAMI ) can take spectra of multiple objects at once, which means light from the objects needs to be collected and analysed without mixing the light together. (aao.gov.au)
  • A telescopic piece employed to block out the direct light from a star, to enable the viewing of nearby objects and coronal activity. (nap.edu)
  • The measured light spectrum from yellow pixels on a typical computer display is complex, and very unlike the reflectance spectrum of a yellow object such as a banana. (statemaster.com)
  • Our schedule will be subject to frequent revision based on weather and astronomical events, and will not be synchronized with any ASTR 110 lecture section. (hawaii.edu)
  • Neptune and the other giant planets gravitationally influence the objects in the Kuiper Belt and beyond, collectively known as trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), which encircle the Sun on nearly-circular paths from almost all directions. (cam.ac.uk)
  • We thought, rather than allowing for a ninth planet, and then worry about its formation and unusual orbit, why not simply account for the gravity of small objects constituting a disc beyond the orbit of Neptune and see what it does for us? (cam.ac.uk)
  • Earlier attempts to estimate the total mass of objects beyond Neptune have only added up to around one-tenth the mass of the Earth. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Called Pluto, the object (then called a planet) was relatively small and had a highly eccentric orbit that sometimes even brought it closer to the sun than Neptune is. (space.com)
  • [1] [2] It shows a heated accretion ring orbiting the object at a mean separation of 350 AU , or ten times larger than the orbit of Neptune around the Sun. The dark center is the event horizon and its shadow. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was determined to be hydrogen emission lines that had been red shifted , indicating the object was moving away from the Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • So the absolute magnitude of an object is how bright it is if it were at a fixed distance of 10 parsecs from Earth. (aao.gov.au)
  • How bright an object appears to be when viewed from Earth. (aao.gov.au)
  • The astronomical unit once relied on a mathematical equation to provide its value for the distance from the Earth to the Sun. (livescience.com)
  • Under the new definition, the astronomical unit (or AU) - the measurement used for the Earth-sun distance - is no longer always in flux, depending on the length of a day and other changing factors. (livescience.com)
  • We found that if students demonstrate a basic understanding of two different astronomical objects by giving basic, one-sentence explanations of them, they are almost guaranteed to be able to rank them correctly," says coauthor Christine Lindstrøm of Oslo Metropolitan University (OMU) in Norway. (aps.org)
  • and basic scientific and astronomical techniques. (hawaii.edu)
  • The IAU also created a newer classification, "dwarf planet," which is an object that meets planetary criteria except that it has not cleared debris from its orbital neighborhood. (space.com)
  • Almost all the published methods to calculate the visibility of deep‑sky objects are based on the concept of surface brightness . (uv.es)
  • It is also necessary to consider the brightness of the sky background where the object is projected on. (uv.es)
  • The team suspects that these mistakes arise from the difficulty of comprehending astronomical scales, which could make them hard to dislodge simply by supplying factual information. (aps.org)
  • The name "Abell" is also commonly used as a designation for objects he compiled in a catalogue of 86 planetary nebulae in 1966. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herschel identified 79 objects as planetary nebulae, but only 20 of them truly were, while 13 others that he had classified as other objects turned out to be these gaseous shells. (space.com)
  • It was coined by William Herschel , who also compiled an astronomical catalog. (space.com)
  • He eventually added four to his catalog of astronomical objects. (space.com)
  • The WISE survey gathered enough data to catalog hundreds of millions of objects. (britannica.com)
  • Students will use various objects in the classroom to experiment with nonstandard measurement. (nasa.gov)