Aggregates of matter in outer space.

Human injury from atomic particles and photon exposure: fears, myths, risks, and mortality. (1/3)

Energy absorbtion from particles and photons moving at relativistic speeds has been a fundamental part of life on earth and wherever else life might exist. Heat and visible light have deeply influenced the course of human evolution, affecting habitat and nutrition. The photons of ionizing radiation that over time can possibly affect evolution, contribute to the more immediate problem of morbidity and mortality of cancer This review addresses our radiative energy absorbtion, from both natural and manmade sources, and its relationship with disease and death. Educational Public Health efforts to offset the dangers of solar ultraviolet overexposure are presented, together with data on the significant mortality of metastatic melanoma.  (+info)

Cosmic carbon chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the early Earth. (2/3)

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Astronomical reach of fundamental physics. (3/3)

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The cosmic distance ladder (also known as the extragalactic distance scale) is the succession of methods by which astronomers determine the distances to celestial objects. A real direct distance measurement of an astronomical object is possible only for those objects that are close enough (within about a thousand parsecs) to Earth. The techniques for determining distances to more distant objects are all based on various measured correlations between methods that work at close distances and methods that work at larger distances. Several methods rely on a standard candle, which is an astronomical object that has a known luminosity. The ladder analogy arises because no single technique can measure distances at all ranges encountered in astronomy. Instead, one method can be used to measure nearby distances, a second can be used to measure nearby to intermediate distances, and so on. Each rung of the ladder provides information that can be used to determine the distances at the next higher rung. At ...
This service is provided by the International Space Station program and the JSC Earth Science & Remote Sensing Unit, ARES Division, Exploration Integration Science Directorate ...
The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the interstellar medium was suggested nearly 30 years ago after the observation of the so-called unidentified infrared bands in the emission spectra of a large variety of astronomical objects. However up to now no clear identification of a specific PAH has been done. My work focuses on simulating the dynamics of PAHs and their spectroscopic signature using classical and quantum simulations.. ...
As I do not need to tell you, an artificial black hole has never been produced. There is, I believe, recent strong evidence for the existence of black holes as astronomical objects, but since the supporting experimental evidence for GR is entirely in cases of a weak gravitational field it is entirely possible that the Schwarzschild solution does not apply to such objects. What is more, the densities of such objects are probably such that one could not ignore quantum effects. As I also do not need to tell you, we do not currently understand gravity at the quantum level. Thus our understanding of black holes from both the theoretical and experimental standpoint is extremely poor. Despite this, using semi-classical arguments Stephen Hawking was able to demonstrate that if such objects exist according to the laws of GR, then they must radiate. However, since we do not really know what is going on here, there could also be a myriad of other effects, one or other of which could making Hawking ...
Minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) is a measure used in astronomy to assess potential close approaches and collision risks between astronomical objects.[1][2] It is defined as the distance between the closest points of the osculating orbits of two bodies. Of greatest interest is the risk of a collision with Earth. Earth MOID is often listed on comet and asteroid databases such as the JPL Small-Body Database. MOID values are also defined with respect to other bodies as well: Jupiter MOID, Venus MOID and so on. An object is classified as a potentially hazardous object (PHO) - that is, posing a possible risk to Earth - if, among other conditions, its Earth MOID is less than 0.05 AU. For more massive bodies than Earth, there is a potentially notable close approach with a larger MOID; for instance, Jupiter MOIDs less than 1 AU are considered noteworthy since Jupiter is the most massive planet.[1]. A low MOID does not mean that a collision is inevitable as the planets frequently perturb the ...
Minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) is a measure used in astronomy to assess potential close approaches and collision risks between astronomical objects.[1][2] It is defined as the distance between the closest points of the osculating orbits of two bodies. Of greatest interest is the risk of a collision with Earth. Earth MOID is often listed on comet and asteroid databases such as the JPL Small-Body Database. MOID values are also defined with respect to other bodies as well: Jupiter MOID, Venus MOID and so on. An object is classified as a potentially hazardous object (PHO) - that is, posing a possible risk to Earth - if, among other conditions, its Earth MOID is less than 0.05 AU. For more massive bodies than Earth, there is a potentially notable close approach with a larger MOID; for instance, Jupiter MOIDs less than 1 AU are considered noteworthy since Jupiter is the most massive planet.[1]. A low MOID does not mean that a collision is inevitable as the planets frequently perturb the ...
While the presence of any mass bends the path of light passing near it, this effect rarely produces the giant arcs and multiple images associated with strong gravitational lensing. Most lines of sight in the universe are thoroughly in the weak lensing regime, in which the deflection is impossible to detect in a single background source. However, even in these cases, the presence of the foreground mass can be detected, by way of a systematic alignment of background sources around the lensing mass. Weak gravitational lensing is thus an intrinsically statistical measurement, but it provides a way to measure the masses of astronomical objects without requiring assumptions about their composition or dynamical state. Gravitational lensing acts as a coordinate transformation that distorts the images of background objects (usually galaxies) near a foreground mass. The transformation can be split into two terms, the convergence and shear. The convergence term magnifies the background objects by ...
The Sun, like most other astronomical objects (planets, asteroids, galaxies, etc.), rotates on its axis. Unlike Earth and other solid objects, the entire Sun doesnt rotate at the same rate. Because the Sun is not solid, but is instead a giant ball of gas and plasma, different parts of the Sun spin at different rates.. We can tell how quickly the surface of the Sun is rotating by observing the motion of structures, such as sunspots, on the Suns visible surface. The regions of the Sun near its equator rotate once every 25 days. The Suns rotation rate decreases with increasing latitude, so that its rotation rate is slowest near its poles. At its poles the Sun rotates once every 36 days!. The interior of the Sun does not spin the same way as does its surface. Scientists believe that the inner regions of the Sun, including the Suns core and radiative zone, do rotate more like a solid body. The outer parts of the Sun, from the convective zone outward, rotate at different rates that vary with ...
Black holes are astronomical objects that have a gravity so strong that not even light can escape. Neutron stars are incredibly dense dead stars. It is estimated that a teaspoon of material from a neutron star weighs about 4 billion tons. Both objects are cosmic monsters, but black holes are considerably more massive than neutron stars. In the first collision, which was detected on January 5, 2020, a black hole that is six and a half times the mass of our Sun collided with a neutron star that was 1.5 times more massive than our star. In the second collision, detected just 10 days later ...
To a methodological nominalist, labels, terms, or definitions do not describe a particular, universal essence, but instead serve as instruments to assist one in describing observable reality to others clearly through the medium of language. These labels do not assume an absolute definition, but their utility corresponds to the extent that it can describe reality in a manner consistent with our sensual perceptions and intuitive understanding of language. For instance, consider the definition of a star; in vernacular language, a star, in the astronomical context, is a far-away astronomical object that emits light. In its casual usage, one can correctly say that they see stars while gazing into a cloudless night sky, as the usage of star is appropriate here as star accurate describes what the observer sees with his/her sight. Indeed, one does not any scientific understanding on the nature of stars in order to fully appreciate this colloquial meaning of the term star. It is indeed inane ...
High energy astronomical objects such as the active galactic nuclei and radio galaxies were searched as a possible origin of such EHECRs, but none were found in the arrival direction of thes
The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system.
The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system.
The game is based on the traditional Game of the Goose, which was adapted to a wide range of themed boards, many produced by John Wallis, one of the leading publishers of board games in the early 19th century. Margaret Bryan (fl. 1795-1816) ran a girls school in Blackheath and was author of a number of popular works on science (ZBA4475 is her portrait), and Wallis evidently felt that her association with this game would be a testament to its accuracy, as well as highlighting its suitability for girls education. The board has 35 numbered squares depicting astronomical objects, instruments and principles as well as astronomers (Ptolemy, Tycho Brahe, Nicholas Copernicus, Isaac Newton) and moral lessons (e.g. a studious and idle boy, the county gaol and an army volunteer). One square shows the man in the moon as an example of ignorance in astronomy. By spinning a te-totum, players can travel over the board, the object being to spin numbers up to 35 and reach the final square, depicting ...
1. How is the mind related to the brain?. 2. Water and the physical basis of holistic organization of living processes. 3. Control of gene expression and the paradox of supercomplexity of living systems. 4. Beyond genetic engineering -- from Darwinian to Vernadskian evolution. 5. What is a chemical bond?. 6. Supramolecular chemistry and the sociology of matter. 7. The puzzle of high-temperature superconductivity - What is an electric current?. 8. Magnetic isotope effects - a secret of living organisms?. 9. Low energy nuclear processes. 10. Changing the constants of radioactive decay.. 11. Where do raw materials come from? Self-organization and the generation of oil, gas and mineral deposits in the Earth. 12. Coupling of Earth, biosphere and solar activity, and electromagetic meteorology. 13. The coherent organization of the solar system, the Crab Nebula, galaxies and other astronomical objects -- can these objects be regarded as living organisms?. 14. Beyond quantum physics -- What is ...
Explanation: Most of our universe is too dim to see. To peer into our cosmos unknown depths, astronomers must deploy new tools - and the classic new tool is a larger telescope. Pictured above is the new Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) which recently declared first light in western Texas. HET currently has the largest single mirror of any optical telescope -- 11 meters in diameter. Telescopes in space, like the Hubble Space Telescope, are much smaller but avoid the Earths atmosphere blurring out fine detail. HETs huge size, on the other hand, allows it to see very dim objects and determine their spectrum. HETs unusual design allows the primary mirror to stay put during an observation! Only smaller focusing instruments suspending above the primary move to track an astronomical object. ...
Awesome! I can talk about what I think is one of the coolest inventions of all time: the analog computer.. An analog (more properly, a mechanical) computer was actually the worlds first computer - the Antikythera Mechanism. It was an ancient Greek device that predicted the motions of the planets and other astronomical objects. Only parts of it have been found, but we can figure out a few of its basic properties. It made its computations using an elaborate system of gears.. Fast forward a couple millennia. Lets go to England, and meet a man by the name of Charles Babbage. Im guessing youve heard of him. He shows up in a lot of books on alternative history, because hes hailed as one of the first computer pioneers. Babbages first computer was the Difference Engine, a glorified calculator that could work with polynomials. It used a lot of gears to work with polynomials and do advanced calculations. Babbage got some funding from the government, but not a lot.. Later, he worked on his more ...
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In the interstellar medium - the space between the stars in galaxies - new stars are born from material that is replenished by the debris ejected by stars when they die. This book is a comprehensive manual for studying the collisional and radiative processes observed in the interstellar medium. This second edition has been thoroughly updated and extended to cover related topics in radiation theory. It considers the chemistry of the interstellar medium both at the present epoch and in the early Universe, and discusses the physics and chemistry of shock waves. The methods of calculation of the rates of collisional excitation of interstellar molecules and atoms are explained, emphasising the quantum mechanical method. This book will be ideal for researchers involved in the interstellar medium and star formation, and physical chemists specialising in collision theory or in the measurement of the rates of collision processes.. • Comprehensive manual for studying collisional and radiative processes ...
1904 Gerhard Herzberg was a pioneering physicist and physical chemist, and Nobel Laureate in chemistry. Herzbergs main work concerned atomic and molecular spectroscopy. He is well known for using these techniques that determine the structures of diatomic and polyatomic molecules, including free radicals difficult to investigate in any other way, and for the chemical analysis of astronomical objects ...
The Hubble Space Telescope is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory for the benefit of the international astronomical community. To accomplish this goal and protect the spacecraft against instrument and equipment failures, NASA had always planned on regular servicing missions. Hubble has special grapple fixtures, 76 handholds, and stabilized in all three axes. HST is a 2.4-meter reflecting telescope which was deployed in low-Earth orbit (600 kilometers) by the crew of the space shuttle Discovery (STS-31) on 25 April 1990. HSTs current complement of science instruments include three cameras, two spectrographs, and fine guidance sensors (primarily used for astrometric observations). Because of HSTs location above the Earths atmosphere, these science instruments can produce high resolution images of astronomical objects. Ground-based telescopes can seldom provide ...
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Solution for describe how the 21-cm line of hydrogen is formed. Why is this line such animportant tool for understanding the interstellar medium
OVERALL We propose a U19 Cooperative Center on Human Immunology at The Jackson Laboratory (JAX CCHI) to elucidate the innate immune networks that shape adaptive...
Impact of space flight on bacterial virulence and antibiotic susceptibility Peter William Taylor School of Pharmacy, University College London, London, UK Abstract: Manned space flight induces a reduction in immune competence among crew and is likely to cause deleterious changes to the composition of the gastrointestinal, nasal, and respiratory bacterial flora, leading to an increased risk of infection. The space flight environment may also affect the susceptibility of microorganisms within the spacecraft to antibiotics, key components of flown medical kits, and may modify the virulence characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms that contaminate the fabric of the International Space Station and other flight platforms. This review will consider the impact of true and simulated microgravity and other characteristics of the space flight environment on bacterial cell behavior in relation to the potential for serious infections that may appear during missions to astronomical objects beyond low
The relationship between stars and the material around them -- the interstellar medium -- is complicated. Stars are born from this material -- wispy clouds of hydrogen, helium, and other elements, plus solid grains of dust. And when stars die, they expel much of their material back into the interstellar medium, enriching it with elements forged in the hearts of the stars themselves.. And between birth and death, a star can have a powerful influence on the interstellar medium around it.. An example is the star known as Alpha Camelopardalis. Its one of the brightest stars of the faint constellation Camelopardalis, the giraffe, which is high in the north on January evenings.. Alpha Cam is probably 25 to 30 times as massive as the Sun. That great heft makes its surface extremely hot, driving a strong wind of gas off the surface and into space, forming a big bubble around Alpha Cam.. The star is racing through space at more than a hundred thousand miles an hour. As it plows through the ...
It turns out Voyager 1 never stopped exploring. 14.1 billion miles from Earth it is continuing on with a new mission. In August of 2012 it became the first human-made object to reach Interstellar Space. Astoundingly, after traveling tens of billions of kilometers through frigid deep space for decades, there are still five scientific instruments functioning normally on the craft. And also on its twin, Voyager 2. The JPL engineers make gifts that keeps on giving.. Like the ocean, the interstellar medium is full of turbulent waves. The largest come from our galaxys rotation, as space smears against itself and sets forth undulations tens of light-years across. Smaller (though still gigantic) waves rush from supernova blasts, stretching billions of miles from crest to crest. The smallest ripples are usually from our own Sun, as solar eruptions send shockwaves through space that permeate our heliospheres lining.. These crashing waves reveal clues about the density of the interstellar medium - a ...
Eck, C.L. van; Haverkorn, M. ; Alves, M.I.R.; Beck, R.; Bruyn, A.G. de; Enßlin, T.; Farnes, J.S.; Ferrière, K.; Heald, G.; Horellou, C.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Jelić, V.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Mulcahy, D.D.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.J.A.; Scaife, A.M.M.; Schnitzeler, D.H.F.M.; Sobey, C; Sridhar, S.S. ...
Like many of the molecular species that have been detected in the interstellar medium, the singlet carbene cyclopropenylidene (C3H2) has been presumed to be too unstable to isolate in the laboratory. However, by appending pi-electron-donating amino groups to the triangular skeleton, we prepared a cyclopropenylidene derivative that is stable at room temperature. In contrast to previously isolated carbenes, this compound does not require a heteroatom adjacent to the electron-deficient carbon to confer stability. Despite the presence of amino groups, the geometric parameters of the cyclic skeleton, revealed by x-ray crystallography, are only slightly perturbed relative to those of the calculated structure of unsubstituted cyclopropenylidene. Stable cyclopropenylidene derivatives might thus serve as models for a better understanding of the formation of carbon-bearing molecules in the interstellar medium ...
Numerous nitrile/isonitrile pairs have been detected in the interstellar medium; the isonitriles are suggested to be generated by nonthermal processes. Benzonitrile (C$_{6}$H$_{5}$CN) was recently detected in Taurus Molecular Cloud 1 (TMC-1) by radioastronomy. Herein, we report the analysis of benzoisonitrile (C$_{6}$H$_{5}$NC, $\mu$$_{a}$ = 4.0 D) ground vibrational state and its two lowest-energy vibrational states, \nub{22} (141 \wn, calculated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level of theory) and \nub{33} (155 \wn), in the 135 - 375 GHz frequency region. Over 4500 new rotational transitions have been measured in the ground vibrational state, main isotopologue. The rotational and distortion constants determined in this work may be used to search for benzoisonitrile in the interstellar medium. The Coriolis-coupled dyad reported herein, containing over 3000 new transitions for each vibrational state, has been analyzed for the first time, including resonances and several nominal interstate ...
KIDA is a database of kinetic data of interest for astrochemical (interstellar medium and planetary atmospheres) studies. In addition to the available referenced data, KIDA provides recommendations over a number of important reactions.
Boron is rare in the cosmos because its nucleus is fragile. So, how does one get from the interstellar medium, where boron was first produced, to Earths upper continental crust where boron is concentrated in deposits containing remarkably diverse suites of boron minerals? Processes that led to the formation of continental crust also concentrated boron, which is preferentially incorporated into melts and aqueous fluids. Deposits with high boron-mineral diversity include granitic pegmatites, peralkaline intrusions, boron-enriched skarns, and evaporite deposits. Despite the loss of boron minerals from the geologic record due to their ready solubility in water and breakdown at low temperatures, the increase in boron-mineral diversity with time is real, and is accelerated during supercontinent assembly.. Read More ...
Interstellar Cycle Ultimately, stars form the interstellar medium. Stars replenish the interstellar medium at the end of their life cycle. There is a balance between the interstellar medium and stars.
Scientists have discovered l-C3H+ hydrocarbon in the interstellar medium for the first time, finding this molecule in the Horsehead Nebula in the Constellation of Orion….. ...
The reaction of ground-state carbon atoms with acetylene was studied under single-collision conditions in crossed beam experiments to investigate the chemical dynamics of forming cyclic and linear C3H isomers (c-C3H and l-C3H, respectively) in interstellar environments via an atom-neutral reaction. Combined state-of-the-art ab initio calculations and experimental identification of the carbon-hydrogen exchange channel to both isomers classify this reaction as an important alternative to ion-molecule encounters to synthesize C3H radicals in the interstellar medium. These findings strongly correlate with astronomical observations and explain a higher [c-C3H]/[l-C3H] ratio in the dark cloud TMC-1 than in the carbon star IRC+10216.. ...
A brief mission study is now presented to show the performance of a hypothetical ramjet. The fusion reaction occurring within the ramjets fusion reactor is assumed to have a mass-to-energy conversion efficiency of 0.71 percent and of the energy generated, 80 percent gets converted into useful propulsive energy while 20 percent is lost as thermal radiation. The ramjet is assumed to have a total mass of 10,000 metric tons and a ramscoop intake diameter of 7,000 kilometres. Finally, the interstellar medium is assumed to have a density of one proton per cubic centimetre. Starting from an initial velocity of 1 percent the speed of light, the time required for the ramjet to accelerate to 80 percent the speed of light is 454 days and the distance covered during this time is 0.632 light years or 5.98 trillion kilometres. Due to the effect of special relativity, the time elapsed for an observer onboard the ramjet is 369 days ...
Context. Pure gas-phase chemistry models do not succeed in reproducing the measured abundances of small hydrocarbons in the interstellar medium. Information on key gas-phase progenitors of these molecules sheds light on this problem. Aims: We aim to constrain the chemical content of the Horsehead mane with a millimeter unbiased line survey at two positions, namely the photo-dissociation region (PDR) and the nearby shielded core. This project revealed a consistent set of eight unidentified lines toward the PDR position. We associate them to the l-C3H+ hydrocarbon cation, which enables us to constrain the chemistry of small hydrocarbons. We observed the lowest detectable J line in the millimeter domain along a cut toward the illuminating direction to constrain the spatial distribution of the l-C3H+ emission perpendicular to the photo-dissociation front. Methods: We simultaneously fit 1) the rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of a linear rotor; and 2) the Gaussian line shapes located at the
The tendency for deuterium to be concentrated into the cold dense regions of the galaxy is due to the lower ground state energy of the heavier molecules. Such chemical fractionation leads to [D/H] values as high as 1! In turn this allows the detection of species such as ND_3, H_2D^+ and D_2H^+. The fraction of the interstellar medium (ISM) with such large deuteration is hard to estimate, but may be sufficient to cause both spatially variable and generally low [D/H] values in the diffuse ISM. ...
Using the Hubble Space Telescope, NASA scientists have discovered stars doing something very interesting: speeding around through the interstellar medium. This
Radical systems, or systems with unpaired electrons, play fundamental roles in chemistry, biology, and physics. Relevant examples include photochemical breakdown of air pollution in the lower atmosphere, carbon-carbon bond formation in synthetic and pharmaceutical chemistry, and formation of fundamental organic molecules in the interstellar medium. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the electronic structure and spectroscopy of open-shell species; the organization is as follows. Chapter 1 provides a short background and overview. Chapter 2 presents a study of the excited states of several vinylic hydrocarbon radicals, with a focus on 3p Rydberg states and the effects of increased alkyl length on excitation energies and quantum defects. Chapters 3 and 4 extend some of these conclusions to the diazomethane molecule, work which was done in close collaboration with the Reisler group at USC. Chapter 5 focuses ondiazirine, a three-membered cyclic isomer of diazomethane. The agreement between ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Stephen Walley.. Astronomers have long realised that reactions on the surface of dust grains play an important role in the formation of molecules in the interstellar medium (ISM), in particular those found frozen out as interstellar ices. To help understand the gas-grain interaction in the ISM , our group is undertaking a range of experimental and theoretical investigations of the adsorption, desorption and formation of interstellar ices.. This talk is part of the Surfaces, Microstructure and Fracture Group series.. ...
This is the first in a series of three papers describing a project with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure abundances of the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) in a sample of nine nearby star-forming galaxies. The goal is to assess the (in)homogeneities of the multiphase ISM in galaxies where the bulk of metals can be hidden in the neutral phase, yet the metallicity is inferred from the ionized gas in the H II regions. The sample, spanning a wide range in physical properties, is to date the best suited to investigate the metallicity behavior of the neutral gas at redshift z = 0. ISM absorption lines were detected against the far-ultraviolet spectra of the brightest star-forming region(s) within each galaxy. Here we report on the observations, data reduction, and analysis of these spectra. Column densities were measured by a multicomponent line-profile fitting technique, and neutral-gas abundances were obtained for a wide range of elements. Several caveats ...
The role of nitrogen and oxygen chemistry in the interstellar medium is still rather poorly understood. Nitric oxide, NO, has been proposed as an important precursor in the formation of larger N- and O-bearing species, such as hydroxylamine, NH2OH, and nitrogen oxides, NO2 and N2O. The topic of this study is
Team member Giacomo Briani explains that the meteorite was found to contain several intrusions. These are small assemblages of minerals called xenoliths (literally foreign rock ) that have an origin different from that of the other components of the host meteorite. The Isheyevo xenoliths contain basic organic matter, which includes elements such as hydrogen and nitrogen. The usual interpretation is that the organic matter formed before the solar system, in the interstellar medium, says Briani. The Isheyevo xenoliths have unique variations in their nitrogen isotopic composition in fact, one sample showed the highest values of the 15N/14N ratio ever recorded in a meteorite.2 Solar system origin models we have at present explain this nitrogen isotopic composition as being caused by reactions between ions and molecules in the interstellar medium, explains Briani. And according to those models, the high concentrations of heavy nitrogen should be accompanied by high levels of deuterium (a hydrogen ...
Sulphur-bearing species are often used to probe the physical structure of star forming regions of the interstellar medium, but the chemistry of sulphur in these regions is still poorly understood. In dark clouds, sulphur is supposed to be depleted under a form which is still unknown despite numerous observations and chemical modeling studies that have been performed. In order to improve the modeling of sulphur chemistry, we propose an enhancement of the sulphur chemical network using experimental and theoretical literature. We test the effect of the updated network on the outputs of a three phases gas-grain chemical model for dark cloud conditions using different elemental sulphur abundances. More particularly, we focus our study on the main sulphur reservoirs as well as on the agreement between model predictions and the abundances observed in the dark cloud TMC-1 (CP). Our results show that depending on the age of the observed cloud, the reservoir of sulphur could either be atomic sulphur in the gas
In standard cosmologies, big bang nucleosynthesis is responsible for the production of hydrogen, helium and a trace abundance of lithium. The first stars - and the first galaxies - formed from this near-pristine material, and stellar nucleosynthesis accounts for the production of heavier elements (`metals, in astronomical parlance). As stars evolve and die, they return processed material to the interstellar medium, enriching the metal content and increasing the metallicity of subsequent stellar generations. Thus, within the Milky Way, the stars in the stellar halo (age 11-13 Gyrs) are 10 to 1000 times more metal-poor than the Suns neighbours in the Galactic Disk. However, a small number of dwarf galaxies are known that seem to have lain fallow, avoiding star formation and self-enrichment, for almost a Hubble time. The classic example is the dwarf galaxy I Zwicky 18, with a metallicity of [M/H]~-1.2. Investigations of the abundance in those systems tend to rest on analyses of the emission line ...
The advent of the new Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has opened a new window onto the high redshift Universe, shedding light on the cold interstellar medium (ISM) of normal star forming galaxies at redshift z , 5 [Capak et al., 2015, Watson et al., 2015, Knudsen et al., 2017, Barisic et al., 2017, Laporte et al., 2017b]. The information collected so far through observations that map the rest-frame emission in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) have started to paint a complex picture: while the ALMA view of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) has detected the most massive star forming galaxies [Dunlop, 2016], with only one source at z , 3.5, reflecting the rapid drop-out of high-mass galaxies with increasing redshift, these sources may be simply the tip of the iceberg of a larger population of fainter dusty systems. These systems are very interesting as their star formation rates are comparable to those of UV selected galaxies. The comparison between faint dusty galaxies ...
Context. It is still debated whether or not the Galactic chemical evolution of sulphur in the halo follows the flat trend with [Fe/H] that is ascribed to the result of explosive nucleosynthesis in type II SNe. It has been suggested that the disagreement between different investigations of sulphur abundances in halo stars might be owing to problems with the diagnostics used, that a new production source of sulphur might be needed in the early Universe, like hypernovae, or that the deposition of supernova ejecta into the interstellar medium is time-delayed. Aims. The aim of this study is to try to clarify this situation by measuring the sulphur abundance in a sample of halo giants using two diagnostics: the S I triplet around 1045 nm and the [S I] line at 1082 nm. The latter of the two is not believed to be sensitive to non-LTE effects. We can thereby minimize the uncertainties in the diagnostic used and estimate the usefulness of the triplet for the sulphur determination in halo K giants. We will ...
The atmospheres of low mass pre-main sequence stars are extremely valuable tools for probing the composition of the star-forming interstellar medium. This thesis investigation uses photospheric abundance analysis techniques to determine metal abundances both for individual weakly active T Tauri stars and the molecular clouds with which these stars are associated. Using the high resolution echelle spectrographs of the Palomar 1.5m and the Las Campanas Observatory 2.5m telescopes, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra have been obtained for 53 low mass pre-main sequence stars in six major northern and southern hemisphere star formation regions. Spectra were also taken of 14 main sequence stars with known effective temperatures and metallicity to serve as spectral standards. Equivalent widths of a large number of Fe I absorption lines have been measured, as well as lines of Ca I, Al I, V I, Ni I, Ti I, K I, and Li I. Temperature-sensitive line ratios of neutral iron and vanadium calibrated against the ...
ADC_Keywords: Surveys ; Photometry, H-alpha Keywords: Galaxy: halo - H II regions - ISM: atoms - ISM: structure Description: The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper has been designed to produce a survey of H-Alpha emission from the interstellar medium (ISM) over the entire northern sky. The instrument combines a 0.6 meter telescope and a dual-etalon 15cm Fabry-Perot spectrometer. In the primary spectral mode, an exposure captures a 200km/s spectral region with 8-12km/s velocity resolution from a one-degree beam on the sky. With a large-aperture design and modern CCD technology, WHAM can detect Galactic emission as faint as 0.05 Rayleighs in a 30 second exposure. For gas at 10000K, this observed intensity corresponds to an emission measure of about 0.1cm-6pc, more than 10 million times fainter than the Orion Nebula. File Summary ...
In Chira et al. (subm.), we investigate the time evolution of gas dynamics within simulated molecular clouds, as well as how velocity structure functions trace the dominating driving sources of turbulence. The molecular clouds are formed self-consistently within kiloparsec-scale numerical simulations of the interstellar medium that include self-gravity, magnetic fields, supernovae- driven turbulence, and radiative heating and cooling. Here, we provide the underlying data for the analysis and plots presented in the paper submitted to Astronomy & Astrophysics. The simulations are run using an implementation of the Flash code. We present data for each of the, in total, 160 timesteps in HDF5 format, the final velocity structure functions as functions of lag and time. Note that due to technical problems we are currently able to offer the raw data for those simulations that resolve the local Jeans length with 4 cells only. We will upload the higher Jeans-resolved data as soon as possible ...
IT pandemic continuity plans typically assume interruptions and disasters will be either local or regional in scope, and can be over come by simplistic approaches, like cross-training for maintenance, adding intranet portals, increasing remote gateways - all things which will allow remote work accommodations and keep the systems up. The internet is in actuality, a global scale system, highly vulnerable for attacks, and with little effective infrastructure monitoring systems for protection against cyber attacks. Most of the entire global DNS system was developed during the 70s and 80s, and it suffers from performance under stress, fundamental weaknesses, and potential breaking points. When it was developed, it focused nearly solely on functionality, and gave no consideration to faults, misconfigurations, or malicious attacks. Overwhelmingly, it suffers from disparate technologies - for example, different sites may use entirely different operating systems and speeds, which in normal times work ...
Developing arrayed waveguide grating spectrographs for multi-object astronomical spectroscopy. In: Optics Express. 2012 ; Vol. ... Developing arrayed waveguide grating spectrographs for multi-object astronomical spectroscopy. Nick Cvetojevic*, Nemanja ... Dive into the research topics of Developing arrayed waveguide grating spectrographs for multi-object astronomical spectroscopy ... title = "Developing arrayed waveguide grating spectrographs for multi-object astronomical spectroscopy",. abstract = "With the ...
Messier object images by members of the Manchester Astronomical Society. These images were obtained by members of the ... Manchester Astronomical Society. *M6, M7: Ray Grover image [caption] *M32: Michael Oates image [caption] *M34: Michael Oates ...
Can violet astronomical objects actually exist?. Some nebulae containing oxygen are green. Im looking for non black-body ... But some of the other astronomical objects may not be black body. $\endgroup$ - change ... Whats this red stuff in some astronomical photos, e.g. Centaurus A? ...
Colorfulness, Font, Astronomical object, Art, Circle, Science, Electric blue. Download Our Wallpaper App. ...
Planets are large objects which orbit around a star. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Planets. ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... No astronomical object found : coord 03 02 17.62080 +01 02 20.0112 (ICRS, J2000, 2000.0), radius: 2 arcmin deg arc min arc sec ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... No astronomical object found : coord 12.1120647 85.42451553333335 (ICRS, J2000, 2000.0), radius: 0.08 arcmin deg arc min arc ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... No astronomical object found : coord 12 20 42 +14 10 24.30 (FK5, 2000, 2000), radius: 1.0 arcmin deg arc min arc sec Click on ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... No astronomical object found : coord 01 08 44.616600 +17 01 50.65572 (ICRS, J2000, 2000.0), radius: 2 arcmin deg arc min arc ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... No astronomical object found : coord 20 20 03.40344 +16 40 46.4844 (ICRS, J2000, 2000.0), radius: 2 arcmin deg arc min arc sec ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... No astronomical object found : coord 01 08 57.021408 +17 01 33.87324 (ICRS, J2000, 2000.0), radius: 2 arcmin deg arc min arc ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... No astronomical object found : coord 10 59 30.1 +43 13 57.70 (FK5, 2000, 2000), radius: 1.0 arcmin deg arc min arc sec Click on ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... No astronomical object found : coord 11 06 04.4 +43 30 40.80 (FK5, 2000, 2000), radius: 1.0 arcmin deg arc min arc sec Click on ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... No astronomical object found : coord 20.45066275 75.2841114142857 (ICRS, J2000, 2000.0), radius: 0.08 arcmin deg arc min arc ...
A: Determining what is a planet has been a discussion for many centuries as more and more astronomical objects have been ... Astronomical objects are most generally referred to by these designations in scientific literature and databases. ... Q: I took an astronomical image. Can you publish my photo?. A: The IAU does not publish submitted astronomical images. Some ... A: Names for minor planets are proposed by the discoverer of the specific object after the object is numbered. You may wish to ...
The group that names astronomical objects has been assigning official proper names to stars. Most of the names have been around ...
... has been elected president of Division F of the International Astronomical Union. ... It also promotes the dissemination of reliable physical and dynamical data about astronomical objects in our solar system and ... UH astronomer to head international astronomical division on planetary science and astrobiology ... of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) for 2015-18. Haghighipour will have an important role in promoting and ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... The astronomical object called NGC 4657 is a HII Galaxy ... object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,, ... Origin of the objects types : (Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref". (acronym) Object type linked to the acronym ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The astronomical object called SDSS J113206.48+294615.6 is a Galaxy ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,,+ objName+); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay points ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The astronomical object called NGC 957 is a Open (galactic) Cluster ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,,+ objName+); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay points ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The astronomical object called GAL 034.3+00.1 is a Star forming region ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,,+ objName+); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay points ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... The astronomical object called LEDA 1461774 is a Galaxy ... object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,, ... Origin of the objects types : (Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref". (acronym) Object type linked to the acronym ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... The astronomical object called IC 5125 is a Galaxy ... object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,, ... Origin of the objects types : (Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref". (acronym) Object type linked to the acronym ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... The astronomical object called NGC 279 is a Possible Quasar ... object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,, ... Origin of the objects types : (Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref". (acronym) Object type linked to the acronym ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The astronomical object called IC 1277 is a Galaxy in Pair of Galaxies ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,,+ objName+); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay points ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... The astronomical object called LEDA 1131270 is a Galaxy ... object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,, ... Origin of the objects types : (Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref". (acronym) Object type linked to the acronym ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... The astronomical object called NGC 2640 is a Galaxy ... object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,, ... Origin of the objects types : (Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref". (acronym) Object type linked to the acronym ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The astronomical object called NGC 3084 is a Emission-line galaxy ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross- ... object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,,+ objName+); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay points ... Origin of the objects types : (Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref". (acronym) Object type linked to the acronym ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The astronomical object called IC 1434 is a Open (galactic) Cluster ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,,+ objName+); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay points ...
... bibliography and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. ... The astronomical object called NGC 1996 is a Open (galactic) Cluster ... The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, ... object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,,+ objName+); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay points ...
  • Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system). (u-strasbg.fr)
  • SimPlay is a new quick viewer of objects available in the Simbad astronomical database (Simbad is also an essential database for Aladin). (u-strasbg.fr)
  • Aladin is an interactive sky atlas allowing the user to visualize digitized astronomical images or full surveys, superimpose entries from astronomical catalogues or databases, and interactively access related data and information from the Simbad database, the VizieR service and. (alternativeto.net)
  • It also promotes the dissemination of reliable physical and dynamical data about astronomical objects in our solar system and other planetary systems and oversees the assignment of proper nomenclature and discovery credits, where appropriate. (hawaii.edu)
  • Solar System - the observation and study of objects within our solar system. (aaq.org.au)
  • Visual Observing - the observation of deep sky (outside the solar system) objects. (aaq.org.au)
  • WinStars uses the latest 3D technology to show the objects of our solar system in a realistic manner. (alternativeto.net)
  • Aciqra (uh-SEE-kruh) is a free and open source virtual sky map and planetarium which tracks and displays astronomical bodies including planets, nebulae and stars to an accuracy of a fraction of a degree for thousands of years into both the future and the past. (alternativeto.net)
  • Its international membership consists of astronomical societies representing national or regional interests and individual astronomers active in professional research, education and outreach of astronomy. (iau.org)
  • Astronomers who discover objects get the pleasure of naming them, according to guidelines set up by the International Astronomical Union. (thoughtco.com)
  • Nick suggests looking for several objects of historical interest including a controversial Messier Object, a planetary nebula and a naked green star! (britastro.org)
  • Each time that astronomical object is spectroscopically observed with any of the spectrographs connected to the SDSS telescope, it is assigned a separate specObjID. (sdss.org)
  • To enable these kinds of questions, the list below shows all SDSS objects within 0.5 arcminutes of the selected object. (sdss.org)
  • Due to overlaps in imaging stripes, the SDSS sometimes observes the same object more than once. (sdss.org)
  • Each astronomical object is assigned a thingID, and each time that "thing" is observed (detected in SDSS imaging), it assigned a separate objID. (sdss.org)
  • The SDSS often takes repeat spectra of the same object. (sdss.org)
  • Astrophotography - the photography, film and digital, of astronomical objects and transient phenomena. (aaq.org.au)
  • They explain the sights, what they are, and how they fit into the astronomical zoo of familiar and curious objects and phenomena. (banguniverse.com)
  • Planets are large objects which orbit around a star . (wikipedia.org)
  • It provides planetarium-like views of the sky, as well as dynamic images of planets and other astronomical objects. (harvard.edu)
  • In observational astronomy , culmination is the instant of time of the transit of a celestial object (the Sun , the Moon , a planet , a star , constellation or a deep-sky object ) across the observer's local meridian . (wikipedia.org)
  • A Moon-planet conjunction occurs when an astronomical object has either the same, or nearly the same, right ascension or the same ecliptic longitude of that of the Moon, as observed from Earth. (vercalendario.info)
  • Like many other astronomical objects, the Sombrero galaxy was discovered in 1781 by Pierre Mechain, a French astronomer. (odysseymagazine.com)
  • Promoting astronomical research, education and outreach within the public sphere. (iau.org)
  • Aladin has been paired with a new Sky Browser that allows navigation of the whole sky, an essential feature for outreach/educational purposes that almost always include the exploration of the sky besides the study of a selected object. (u-strasbg.fr)
  • Furthermore, Aladin can now understand the new VO emerging standard called AVM used by the outreach astronomical community for describing image context (origin, calibration, etc). (u-strasbg.fr)
  • These images were obtained by members of the Manchester Astronomical Society . (lamost.org)
  • It complements the other software tools since it offers the possibility of a very fast display of images of astronomical objects with superimposed graphic markers at the position of objects of predefined categories (stars, galaxies, x-ray sources, etc. (u-strasbg.fr)
  • The project has used input and feedback from the UK's vision impaired (VI) community to produce a suite of tactile 3D images of astronomical objects which can be used to help VI students access topics in current astronomy research, particularly those related to galaxies research. (eventbrite.co.uk)
  • Some images are archived - particularly where I have re-imaged an object. (jthommes.com)
  • [1] [2] Except at the geographic poles , any celestial object passing through the meridian has an upper culmination , when it reaches its highest point above the horizon, and nearly twelve hours later, is followed by a lower culmination , when it reaches its lowest point. (wikipedia.org)
  • The time of culmination (when the object culminates) is often used to mean upper culmination. (wikipedia.org)
  • PixBot › Wording Banner Ad - #Saying #Quote #Wording #daytime #night-time #space #atmosphere #object #astronomical #picture. (pixteller.com)
  • During each day, every celestial object appears to move along a circular path on the celestial sphere due to the Earth's rotation creating two moments when it crosses the meridian. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nader Haghighipour, an astronomer at the Institute for Astronomy and the NASA Astrobiology Institute at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa has been elected president of Division F (planetary systems and astrobiology) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) for 2015-18. (hawaii.edu)
  • When you complete the program and apply for your certificate, you will have met these requirements: you located the object yourself, made your own observation at the eyepiece, kept your own log book or pre-programmed observing forms, and then applied for your certificate on your own merit. (rasc.ca)
  • Much of my observing experience has been taking pictures of the many astronomical objects in our known universe. (jthommes.com)
  • I have taken many of my pictures with optics ranging from DSLR lenses to amateur class astronomical telescopes. (jthommes.com)
  • RCA volunteers guide stargazers and ensure that everyone gets to see a sampling of objects that are viewable on that particular date. (spiritone.com)
  • The group that names astronomical objects has been assigning official proper names to stars. (stardate.org)
  • Stellarium/Virgo now features a display of hour angle for any selected object, absolute magnitude for bright stars and allows screenshots in reversed colours (for easier/faster /cheaper printing). (u-strasbg.fr)
  • The stars and other astronomical objects move across the sky from the east to the west, the stars do not travel from north to south. (unexplainable.net)
  • Almost all the objects listed--down to and including stars of the seventh magnitude--areshown on the maps, the plan and arrangement of which enable an area of about one-fifth of the heavens to be seen at a single opening. (rasc.ca)
  • Sue French's extensive knowledge of the subject is showcased in these 100 detailed tours, including color photographs, descriptions of objects such as stars and clusters and galaxies, historical and scientific background, color charts, and more. (rasc.ca)
  • Annotations allow a user to add a note or report an error concerning the astronomical object and its data. (u-strasbg.fr)
  • They feature all of the important data about each Finest NGC object and a generous area for making notes and drawings. (rasc.ca)
  • En route, we stop off to gaze at 100 amazing sights - from asteroids to zodiacal dust and from orbit around the Earth to beyond the most distant galaxies. (banguniverse.com)
  • Finding nearby objects is computationally intensive, so we have precomputed a 0.5-arcminute neighbors search for each object in the photoObjAll table. (sdss.org)
  • A large quantity of astronomical research is publicly funded, and freely available for use by anyone who wants it. (harvard.edu)
  • The International Astronomical Union (IAU) is an internationally recognised body with the mission to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects. (iau.org)
  • While we are aware of the situation regarding the construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and understand that it is a deeply complex and sensitive issue, our goal is to advance astronomical science and unite communities internationally. (iau.org)
  • Does the bible say we should see the very same star-like objects in the latter days? (unexplainable.net)
  • Some say that the star of Bethlehem, also called Bethleham, was an astronomical event. (unexplainable.net)
  • The International Astronomical Union (IAU) credited the observatory in Spain for the discovery, but not the Spanish team. (thoughtco.com)
  • team, hope that the interactive nature of BangUniverse.com will stimulate constructive discussion of the astronomical topics raised in the book. (banguniverse.com)
  • So, the Brown team went to Hawaiian mythology and selected Haumea, who is the goddess of the island of Hawai'i (from where the object was discovered using the Keck telescope). (thoughtco.com)
  • The impact shattered the colliding objects and might also have removed much of primordial Haumea's ice, leaving it a large, rocky body with a thin layer of ice. (thoughtco.com)
  • The table below shows all spectra that were measured for this object. (sdss.org)
  • The information in the following table comes from calculations published by the Astronomical Applications Department of the U.S. Naval Observatory. (vercalendario.info)
  • In the case of these distant worlds, the IAU's rules suggest that objects in the Kuiper Belt and beyond should be named after mythological beings associated with creation. (thoughtco.com)
  • The list of 110 deep-sky objects includes many fine deep-sky treasures as well as a few some mildly challenging objects. (rasc.ca)
  • Sky Atlas 2000 - by Will Tirion is an excellent sky chart set that contains all of the objects on the Finest NGC list. (rasc.ca)
  • The Night Sky Observer's Guide (Volumes One and Two) - by George Robert Kepple and Glen W. Sanner contains descriptions and finder charts for most of the objects on the Finest NGC list. (rasc.ca)
  • In addition, the Atlas provides a wealth of material, including lists of over 700 interesting astronomical objects, and explanations of unfamiliar terms. (rasc.ca)
  • Some important notes on this object about identifications and objects associations. (u-strasbg.fr)

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