Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestations include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.
Autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome classically characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION; EPILEPSY; and skin lesions (e.g., adenoma sebaceum and hypomelanotic macules). There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in the neurologic manifestations. It is also associated with cortical tuber and HAMARTOMAS formation throughout the body, especially the heart, kidneys, and eyes. Mutations in two loci TSC1 and TSC2 that encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively, are associated with the disease.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A relatively slow-growing glioma that is derived from oligodendrocytes and tends to occur in the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, or lateral ventricle. They may present at any age, but are most frequent in the third to fifth decades, with an earlier incidence peak in the first decade. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, relatively avascular, and tend to form cysts and microcalcifications. Neoplastic cells tend to have small round nuclei surrounded by unstained nuclei. The tumors may vary from well-differentiated to highly anaplastic forms. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2052; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p655)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.
Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Use of optic and geometric techniques to enhance radiographic image quality and interpretation. It includes use of microfocal X-ray tubes and intensifying fluoroscopic screens.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Unequal pupil size, which may represent a benign physiologic variant or a manifestation of disease. Pathologic anisocoria reflects an abnormality in the musculature of the iris (IRIS DISEASES) or in the parasympathetic or sympathetic pathways that innervate the pupil. Physiologic anisocoria refers to an asymmetry of pupil diameter, usually less than 2mm, that is not associated with disease.
Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Expression and tissue localization of membrane-type 1, 2, and 3 matrix metalloproteinases in human astrocytic tumors. (1/1796)

Three different membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT1-, MT2-, and MT3-MMPs) are known to activate in vitro the zymogen of MMP-2 (pro-MMP-2, progelatinase A), which is one of the key MMPs in invasion and metastasis of various cancers. In the present study, we have examined production and activation of pro-MMP-2, expression of MT1-, MT2-, and MT3-MMPs and their correlation with pro-MMP-2 activation, and localization of MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and MT2-MMP in human astrocytic tumors. The sandwich enzyme immunoassay demonstrates that the production levels of pro-MMP-2 in the anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas are significantly higher than that in the low-grade astrocytomas (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), metastatic brain tumors (P<0.05), or normal brains (P<0.01). Gelatin zymography indicates that the pro-MMP-2 activation ratio is significantly higher in the glioblastomas than in other astrocytic tumors (P<0.01), metastatic brain tumors (P<0.01), and normal brains (P<0.01). The quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrate that MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP are expressed predominantly in glioblastoma tissues (17/17 and 12/17 cases, respectively), and their expression levels increase significantly as tumor grade increases. MT3-MMP is detectable in both astrocytic tumor and normal brain tissues, but the mean expression level is approximately 50-fold lower compared with that of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP in the glioblastomas. The activation ratio of pro-MMP-2 correlates directly with the expression levels of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP but not MT3-MMP. In situ hybridization indicates that neoplastic astrocytes express MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP in the glioblastoma tissues (5/5 cases and 5/5 cases, respectively). Immunohistochemically, MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP are localized to the neoplastic astrocytes in glioblastoma samples (17/17 cases and 12/17 cases, respectively), which are also positive for MMP-2. In situ zymography shows gelatinolytic activity in the glioblastoma tissues but not in the normal brain tissues. These results suggest that both MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP play a key role in the activation of pro-MMP-2 in the human malignant astrocytic tumors and that the gelatinolytic activity is involved in the astrocytic tumor invasion.  (+info)

Early induction of angiogenetic signals in gliomas of GFAP-v-src transgenic mice. (2/1796)

Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for solid tumor growth. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common malignant brain tumor, is characterized by extensive vascular proliferation. We previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a GFAP-v-src fusion gene in astrocytes develop low-grade astrocytomas that progressively evolve into hypervascularized glioblastomas. Here, we examined whether tumor progression triggers angiogenetic signals. We found abundant transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neoplastic astrocytes at surprisingly early stages of tumorigenesis. VEGF and v-src expression patterns were not identical, suggesting that VEGF activation was not only dependent on v-src. Late-stage gliomas showed perinecrotic VEGF up-regulation similarly to human glioblastoma. Expression patterns of the endothelial angiogenic receptors flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2 were similar to those described in human gliomas, but flt-1 was expressed also in neoplastic astrocytes, suggesting an autocrine role in tumor growth. In crossbreeding experiments, hemizygous ablation of the tumor suppressor genes Rb and p53 had no significant effect on the expression of VEGF, flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2. Therefore, expression of angiogenic signals is an early event during progression of GFAP-v-src tumors and precedes hypervascularization. Given the close similarities in the progression pattern between GFAP-v-src and human gliomas, the present results suggest that these mice may provide a useful tool for antiangiogenic therapy research.  (+info)

Clinical importance of c-Met protein expression in high grade astrocytic tumors. (3/1796)

The clinical importance of the expression of c-Met protein, the receptor of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, was evaluated in neuroepithelial tissue tumors. c-Met immunohistochemistry was performed using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with anti-c-Met polyclonal antibody. Specimens were classified as c-Met negative (< 30%) or c-Met positive (> or = 30%) according to the proportion of immunopositive cells under microscopic examination. All c-Met-positive cases occurred in high grade astrocytic tumors, not in other neuroepithelial tissue tumors. Most c-Met-positive astrocytic tumors were classified histologically as high grade tumors. Epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR) and MIB-1 immunohistochemistry were also performed for high grade astrocytic tumors. Survival analysis was performed for patients with these tumors with variables including c-Met positivity, EGFR positivity, and MIB-1 labeling index. Positivity of c-Met was independent from EGFR positivity and MIB-1 labeling index, and the c-Met-positive group showed a significant shorter survival (p < 0.05). c-Met immunopositivity may be a parameter of biological aggressiveness in high grade astrocytic tumors. Examination of c-Met expression in astrocytic tumors provides significant clinical information, especially as a prognostic factor.  (+info)

Secondary glioblastoma remarkably reduced by steroid administration after anaplastic transformation from gliomatosis cerebri--case report. (4/1796)

A 45-year-old female presented with gliomatosis cerebri manifesting as hemiballismus-like involuntary movement in the arm, motor weakness in the leg, and hypesthesia in her left side. Computed tomography showed only diffuse swelling of the right cerebral hemisphere, but T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed a diffuse lesion spreading from the right thalamus to the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes on the same side. No abnormal enhancement was recognized. Cerebral angiography showed no specific finding. A right occipital lobectomy was performed to confirm the diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri. Anaplastic transformation was recognized 5 months later. The disease did not resolve with radiation or interferon administration, but steroid therapy achieved remarkably effective tumor regression. The patient died due to pneumonia. Autopsy showed the features of diffuse glioblastoma. Steroid therapy may be an effective treatment for gliomatosis cerebri before the terminal stage.  (+info)

Requirements for measles virus induction of RANTES chemokine in human astrocytoma-derived U373 cells. (5/1796)

Interferons and chemokines play a critical role in regulating the host response to viral infection. Measles virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, induces RANTES expression by astrocytes. We have examined the mechanism of this induction in U373 cells derived from a human astrocytoma. RANTES was induced in a dose- and time-dependent manner by measles virus infection. Inhibition of receptor binding by the anti-CD46 antibody TRA-2.10 and of virus-membrane fusion by the tripeptide X-Phe-Phe-Gly reduced RANTES expression. Formalin-inactivated virus, which can bind but not fuse, and extensively UV-irradiated virus, which can bind and fuse, were both ineffective. Therefore, virus binding to the cellular receptor CD46 and subsequent membrane fusion were necessary, but not sufficient, to induce RANTES. UV irradiation of virus for less than 10 min proportionally inhibited viral transcription and RANTES expression. RANTES induction was decreased in infected cells treated with ribavirin, which inhibits measles virus transcription. However, RANTES mRNA was superinduced by measles virus in the presence of cycloheximide. These data suggest that partial transcription of the viral genome is sufficient and necessary for RANTES induction, whereas viral protein synthesis and replication are not required. This hypothesis was supported by the fact that RANTES was induced through transient expression of the measles virus nucleocapsid gene but not by measles genes encoding P or L proteins or by leader RNA in A549 cells. Thus, transcription of specific portions of measles virus RNA, such as the nucleocapsid gene, appears able to generate the specific signaling required to induce RANTES gene expression.  (+info)

Persistent infection of human oligodendrocytic and neuroglial cell lines by human coronavirus 229E. (6/1796)

Human coronaviruses (HuCV) cause common colds. Previous reports suggest that these infectious agents may be neurotropic in humans, as they are for some mammals. With the long-term aim of providing experimental evidence for the neurotropism of HuCV and the establishment of persistent infections in the nervous system, we have evaluated the susceptibility of various human neural cell lines to acute and persistent infection by HuCV-229E. Viral antigen, infectious virus progeny and viral RNA were monitored during both acute and persistent infections. The astrocytoma cell lines U-87 MG, U-373 MG, and GL-15, as well as neuroblastoma SK-N-SH, neuroglioma H4, and oligodendrocytic MO3.13 cell lines, were all susceptible to an acute infection by HuCV-229E. The CHME-5 immortalized fetal microglial cell line was not susceptible to infection by this virus. The MO3.13 and H4 cell lines also sustained a persistent viral infection, as monitored by detection of viral antigen and infectious virus progeny. Sequencing of the S1 gene from viral RNA after approximately 130 days of infection showed two point mutations, suggesting amino acid changes during persistent infection of MO3.13 cells but none for H4 cells. Thus, persistent in vitro infection did not generate important changes in the S1 portion of the viral spike protein, which was shown for murine coronaviruses to bear hypervariable domains and to interact with cellular receptor. These results are consistent with the potential persistence of HuCV-229E in cells of the human nervous system, such as oligodendrocytes and possibly neurons, and the virus's apparent genomic stability.  (+info)

Simultaneous alterations of retinoblastoma and p53 protein expression in astrocytic tumors. (7/1796)

The genetic alterations frequently involved in glial malignancies are in the tumor suppressor genes, Rb and p53. An altered Rb expression or p53 overexpression is thought to indicate defective tumor suppression and subsequently more aggressive tumors. Therefore, to assess the alterations in the conjoint expression of Rb and p53 proteins in formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections, 64 astrocytic tumors were studied (16 astrocytomas,7 gemistocytic astrocytomas, 19 anaplastic astrocytomas and 22 glioblastomas) using the avidin biotin immunoperoxidase technique. Fifty two cases (81.25%) were found to be positive for p53 protein. Seventeen of these showed aberrant heterogenous staining for pRb, of which 7 were glioblastomas. Only one case of astrocytoma showed aberrant expression of both p53 and Rb. Thus, of the 64 tumors, simultaneous aberrant expression of both p53 and Rb was seen in 21.9% of cases. This was more commonly observed among glioblastoma cases (7/22). No statistical difference was found between the survival rate of heterogenous pRb and p53 positivity in different grades of tumors. In glioblastomas, the survival rate appeared to be less in patients expressing heterogenous pRb, but this was not statistically significant. These results lead us to suspect that p53 and pRb pathways are inactivated, either through mutation or as part of the neoplastic process in astrocytic tumors.  (+info)

Procarbazine and high-dose tamoxifen as a second-line regimen in recurrent high-grade gliomas: a phase II study. (8/1796)

PURPOSE: A phase II study was conducted in patients with high-grade gliomas that recurred after surgery plus radiotherapy and a first-line nitrosourea-based regimen. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of procarbazine (PCB) combined with high-dose tamoxifen in relation to tumor control, toxicity, and time to progression (TTP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients were treated with procarbazine in repeated 30-day courses at 100 mg/m2/d plus tamoxifen 100 mg/d, with a 30-day interval between courses. Thirty-four patients had been pretreated with a first-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy regimen (group A), and 19 patients had also been pretreated with a second-line chemotherapy regimen consisting of carboplatin and teniposide (group B). Twenty-one of the patients had also been procarbazine pretreated, whereas the remaining 32 patients were not procarbazine pretreated. RESULTS: The response was assessed in 51 patients, 28 of whom had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and 23 of whom had anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). There were two complete responses (CR) (4%) and 13 partial responses (PR) (25.5%). The overall response rate (CR + PR) was 29.5% (SE, 6.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23 to 35.8). Seventeen patients (32%) had stable disease (SE, 6.2; 95% CI, 21 to 33.6). The median TTP was 13 weeks for patients with GBM and 33 weeks for patients with AA (P = .006). The median survival time (MST) was 27 weeks for patients with GBM and 57 weeks for those with AA (P = .006). CONCLUSION: Combined PCB and tamoxifen as a second-line regimen gave a reasonably high response rate in patients with heavily pretreated high-grade gliomas. However, although it resulted in an improvement in the patients' quality of life and/or performance status, it was not followed by an increased TTP or MST.  (+info)

MMP-2 production by tumor cells has been demonstrated to play a fundamental role in ECM degradation and tumor cell invasion (for review see 5 . The recent finding of reduced tumor progression in MMP-2-deficient mice (57) highlights the importance of this molecule. In this study, we wished to determine how MMP-2 gene expression is regulated in human astroglioma cells, as a strong correlation has been observed between astroglioma invasion and MMP-2 expression (17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 27). Our results indicate that two cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ, partially inhibit MMP-2 gene expression and can function together in an additive manner for near-complete inhibition of MMP-2 expression in human astroglioma cells. TNF-α/IFN-γ inhibition of MMP-2 expression was observed at several levels: on gelatinolytic activity as determined by zymography, on protein expression (both ProMMP-2 and activated MMP-2) as assessed by immunoblotting, on MMP-2 mRNA expression, and on MMP-2 promoter activity. Our results also ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Epithelioid glioblastoma arising from pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with the BRAF V600E mutation. AU - Tanaka, Shingo. AU - Nakada, Mitsutoshi. AU - Nobusawa, Sumihito. AU - Suzuki, Satoshi O.. AU - Sabit, Hemragul. AU - Miyashita, Katsuyoshi. AU - Hayashi, Yutaka. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is classified by the World Health Organization as a grade II astrocytic tumor with relatively favorable prognosis among gliomas. A valine-to-glutamic acid substitution at position 600 of the serine/threonine-protein kinase BRAF (BRAF V600E) mutation, which is commonly found in PXA, has recently been detected in approximately 50 % of all epithelioid glioblastoma (GBM) cases. We herein report a case of epithelioid GBM developing at the site of a left temporal PXA 13 years after the treatment of the primary tumor. The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in both tumors. These findings suggest ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pathological and molecular advances in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma. AU - Rodriguez, Fausto J.. AU - Lim, Kah Suan. AU - Bowers, Daniel. AU - Eberhart, Charles G.. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Pediatric low-grade astrocytomas are the most common brain tumors in children. They can have similar microscopic and clinical features, making accurate diagnosis difficult. For patients whose tumors are in locations that do not permit full resection, or those with an intrinsically aggressive biology, more effective therapies are required. Until recently, little was known about the molecular changes that drive the initiation and growth of pilocytic and other low-grade astrocytomas beyond the association of a minority of cases, primarily in the optic nerve, with neurofibromatosis type 1. Over the past several years, a wide range of studies have implicated the BRAF oncogene and other members of this signaling cascade in the pathobiology of pediatric low-grade astrocytoma. In this review, ...
Astrocytomas are a type of cancer of the brain. They originate in a particular kind of glial cells, star-shaped brain cells in the cerebrum called astrocytes. This type of tumor does not usually spread outside the brain and spinal cord and it does not usually affect other organs. Astrocytomas are the most common glioma and can occur in most parts of the brain and occasionally in the spinal cord. Within the astrocytomas, there are two broad classes recognized in literature, those with: Narrow zones of infiltration (mostly noninvasive tumors; e.g., pilocytic astrocytoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma), that often are clearly outlined on diagnostic images Diffuse zones of infiltration (e.g., high-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma), that share various features, including the ability to arise at any location in the CNS (Central Nervous System), but with a preference for the cerebral hemispheres; they occur usually in adults; and an intrinsic ...
Background: Immunohistochemical markers are considered as important factors in diagnosis of malignant astrocytomas. The aim of the current study was to investigate the frequency of the immunohistochemical markers neurofilament protein (NFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in malignant astrocytoma tumors in Firoozgar and Rasool-Akram hospitals from 2005 to 2010. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, immunohistochemical analysis of NFP and GFAP was performed on 79 tissue samples of patients with the diagnosisof anaplastic and glioblastoma multiform (GBM) astrocytomas. Results: The obtained results demonstrated that all patients were positive for GFAP and only 3.8% were positive for NFP. There was no significant association between these markers and clinical, demographic, and prognostic features of patients (p|0.05). Conclusions: NFP was expressed only in GBMs and not in anaplastic astrocytomas. It would be crucial to confirm the present findings in a larger number of tumors,
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A case of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) in a 9-year-old girl is reported. Histological features of PXAs are cellular pleomorphism of GFAP-positive cells, with intracytoplasmic lipidic vacuoles and a reticulin network, bizarre giant cells, low mitotic activity, and lack of necrosis and of endothelial vascular proliferations. These tumors are generally reported to have a favorable postoperative course. In our case, a poor clinical prognosis and spread of the illness through the CSF was observed. Immunohistochemical features of the tumor, which were histologically anaplastic in nature, were analyzed. There were small foci of necrosis in the sections of the material obtained at the first operation and extensive necrosis in that from the second operation, although the patient had not received radiotherapy between the operations. The presence of necrosis in PXA is an uncommon and significant feature. It predicts the poor prognosis seen in this case, and therefore this report strongly supports
Anaplastic astrocytoma is a rare WHO grade III type of astrocytoma, which is a type of cancer of the brain. In the United States, the annual incidence rate for Anaplastic astrocytoma is 0.44 per 100,000 persons Anaplastic astrocytomas fall under the category of high grade gliomas (WHO grade III-IV), which are pathologically undifferentiated gliomas that carry a poor clinical prognosis. Unlike glioblastomas (WHO grade IV), anaplastic astrocytomas lack vascular proliferation and necrosis on pathologic evaluation. Compared to grade II tumors, anaplastic astrocytomas are more cellular, demonstrate more atypia, and mitoses are seen. Initial presenting symptoms most commonly are headache, depressed mental status, focal neurological deficits, and/or seizures. The growth rate and mean interval between onset of symptoms and diagnosis is approximately 1.5-2 years but is highly variable, being intermediate between that of low-grade astrocytomas and glioblastomas. Seizures are less common among patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma. T2 - An Institutional Series and Systematic Literature Review for Extent of Resection and Recurrence. AU - Bond, Kamila M.. AU - Hughes, Joshua D.. AU - Porter, Amanda L.. AU - Orina, Josiah. AU - Fang, Shanna. AU - Parney, Ian F.. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Introduction Pilocytic astrocytoma is a classically benign tumor that most often affects pediatric patients. Rarely, it occurs during adulthood. We present a case series and systematic literature review of adult pilocytic astrocytoma (APA) to examine the clinical presentation, extent of resection, and recurrence rate associated with this tumor in this population. Materials and Methods Our institutional records were retrospectively reviewed for cases of pilocytic astrocytoma in adults. A PubMed search identified English-language studies of pathology-proven APA. A meta-analysis was performed to determine the relationship between extent of tumor resection and recurrence. Results Forty-six ...
Malignant Astrocytoma is observed to occur at any age. The low-grade tumor is common in children and adolescents, while high-grade tumor is known to develop
TY - JOUR. T1 - An elderly case of malignant small cell glioma with hemorrhage coexistent with a calcified pilocytic astrocytoma component in the cerebellar hemisphere. AU - Sangatsuda, Yuhei. AU - Hata, Nobuhiro. AU - Suzuki, Satoshi O.. AU - Akagi, Yojiro. AU - Hatae, Ryusuke. AU - Kuga, Daisuke. AU - Yoshimoto, Koji. AU - Momosaki, Seiya. AU - Iwaki, Toru. AU - Iihara, Koji. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Pilocytic astrocytoma is a less aggressive form of glial tumor that commonly occurs in the pediatric population, and its malignant transformation is extremely rare. Here, we report an elderly case of malignant small cell glioma with hemorrhage coexistent with a calcified pilocytic astrocytoma component. An 80-year-old male was found to have a right cerebellar non-enhanced tumor with hematoma adjoining a calcified nodule. The lesion was surgically removed, and a histological examination verified that the tumor was a malignant small cell glioma with hemorrhagic change and the calcified ...
buffalogirl - Survivor: Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults > Astrocytoma > High-Grade Astrocytoma (also called Glioblastoma) Patient Info: Finished active treatment less than 5 years ago, Diagnosed: over 12 years ago, Female, Age: 53
ljl4mj - Lost Loved One: Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults > Astrocytoma > High-Grade Astrocytoma (also called Glioblastoma) Patient Info: Diagnosed: over 8 years ago, Female
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prognostic significance of multiple kallikreins in high-grade astrocytoma. AU - Drucker, Kristen L.. AU - Gianinni, Caterina. AU - Decker, Paul A.. AU - Diamandis, Eleftherios P.. AU - Scarisbrick, Isobel A. PY - 2015/8/1. Y1 - 2015/8/1. N2 - Background: Kallikreins have clinical value as prognostic markers in a subset of malignancies examined to date, including kallikrein 3 (prostate specific antigen) in prostate cancer. We previously demonstrated that kallikrein 6 is expressed at higher levels in grade IV compared to grade III astrocytoma and is associated with reduced survival of GBM patients. Methods: In this study we determined KLK1, KLK6, KLK7, KLK8, KLK9 and KLK10 protein expression in two independent tissue microarrays containing 60 grade IV and 8 grade III astrocytoma samples. Scores for staining intensity, percent of tumor stained and immunoreactivity scores (IR, product of intensity and percent) were determined and analyzed for correlation with patient survival. ...
Astrocytes are the most common type of cell in the central nervous system. They perform many essential roles and make up the supportive tissue of the brain. When there is a defect in an astrocyte that causes it to grow out of control, the brain tumor that forms is called an astrocytoma.. Astrocytomas come in four major subtypes: pilocytic astrocytoma (grade 1), fibrillary astrocytoma (grade 2), anaplastic astrocytoma (grade 3), and glioblastoma multiforme (grade 4).. Low-grade astrocytomas (grades 1 and 2), seen more often in kids and young adults, are highly curable because they usually grow slowly, dont spread, and usually are fairly easy to remove unless found in areas where surgery would be difficult. After surgery, theres a chance that chemotherapy or radiation wont be needed.. High-grade astrocytomas (grades 3 and 4), which tend to be seen more in adults, are more aggressive and invade deeper into the tissues. This makes them more difficult to treat. Treatment usually includes surgery, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical signatures of doppel protein in human astrocytomas to support prediction in tumor malignancy. AU - Comincini, Sergio. AU - Rognoni, Paola. AU - Chiarelli, Laurent R.. AU - Azzalin, Alberto. AU - Miracco, Clelia. AU - Valentini, Giovanna. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Doppel (Dpl) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein mainly expressed in the testis of adult healthy people. It is generally absent in the central nervous system, but its coding gene sequence is ectopically expressed in astrocytoma specimens and in derived cell lines. In this paper, we investigated the expression and the biochemical features of Dpl in a panel of 49 astrocytoma specimens of different WHO malignancy grades. As a result, Dpl was expressed in the majority of the investigated specimens (86), also including low grade samples. Importantly, Dpl exhibited different cellular localizations and altered glycan moieties composition, depending on the tumor grade. Most low-grade astrocytomas (83) showed a ...
Presence of IDH1 mutation determines best treatment for malignant astrocytomas. Astrocytomas are the most common malignant brain tumors. While most patients tumors prove to be quite aggressive, outcomes overall can vary widely, with some patients surviving for many years. Now a new study has found that malignant astrocytoma patients whose tumors carry a specific genetic mutation benefit greatly from surgical removal of the largest possible amount of tumor. Preliminary results of the study were reported at the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting, and the teams full report appears in the January issue of the journal Neuro-Oncology. A type of glioma, astrocytomas include the highly aggressive glioblastoma and the less aggressive but still dangerous anaplastic astrocytoma.. We found that the benefit of surgery and how aggressively the surgery should be done depend, in large part, on whether or not patients tumors have the mutated form of the IDH1 gene, says Daniel Cahill, MD, ...
Malignant astrocytomas, which are highly invasive, vascular neoplasms, compose the majority of nervous system tumors in humans. Elevated expression of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in astrocytomas has implicated the FGF family of mitogens in the initiation and progression of astrocyte-derived tumors. In this study, we demonstrated that human astrocytomas undergo parallel changes in FGF-receptor (FGFR) expression during their progression from a benign to a malignant phenotype. FGFR type 2 (BEK) expression was abundant in normal white matter and in all low-grade astrocytomas but was not seen in malignant astrocytomas. Conversely, FGFR type 1 (FLG) expression was absent or barely detectable in normal white matter but was significantly elevated in malignant astrocytomas. Malignant astrocytomas also expressed an alternatively spliced form of FGFR-1 (FGFR-1 beta) containing two immunoglobulin-like disulfide loops, whereas normal human adult and fetal brains expressed a receptor form (FGFR-1 alpha) ...
Background Astrocytomas are the most aggressive and common human brain tumors characterized by their highly invasive development. of miR-335 in C6 cells enhances cell viability significantly, colony-forming invasiveness and ability. Conversely, delivery of villain particular for miR-335 (antagomir-335) to C6 cells outcomes in development police arrest, cell apoptosis, attack dominance and proclaimed regression of astrocytoma xenografts. Additional analysis reveals that miR-335 focuses on disheveled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1(Daam1) at posttranscriptional level. Furthermore, silencing of endogenous Daam1 (siDaam1) could imitate the oncogenic results of miR-335 and invert the development police arrest, proapoptotic and attack dominance results caused by antagomir-335. Particularly, the oncogenic results of miR-335 and siDAAM1 collectively with anti-tumor results of antagomir-335 are also verified in human being astrocytoma U87-MG cells. Summary These results recommend an oncogenic ...
Mitochondrial Lactate Dehydrogenase Is Involved in Oxidative-Energy Metabolism in Human Astrocytoma Cells CCF-STTG1. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The cyclin-dependent kinase member, Cdk5, is expressed in a variety of cell types, but neuron-specific expression of its activator, p35, is thought to limit its activity to neurons. Here we demonstrate that both Cdk5 and p35 are expressed in the human astrocytoma cell line, U373. Cdk5 and p35 are present in the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction of this cell line and Cdk5 localizes to filopodia and vinculin-rich regions of cell-matrix contact in lamellopodia. When exposed to a 46(o)C heat shock, U373 cells change shape, lose cell-matrix contacts and show increased levels of apoptosis. To test whether Cdk5 activation might play a role in these events, U373 cells were stably transfected with histidine-tagged or green fluorescent protein-tagged constructs of Cdk5 or a dominant negative mutation, Cdk5T33. Under normal growth conditions, growth characteristics of the stably transfected lines were indistinguishable from untransfected U373 cells and Cdk5 localization was not changed. However, ...
Work in this thesis was primarily involved with the characterisation of four receptors, the turkey and bovine P2Y1, and the human P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors, transfected into the human astrocytoma cell line, 1321N1. It also describes the preliminary characterisation of two vascular smooth muscle cell types, and the generation of P2Y1-GST fusion proteins for the production of antibodies.;1321N1 cells were found to release nucleotides in response to sheer stress, but this was overcome by adaptation of the stimulation method. 1321N1 cells expressing the four receptors were assayed for PLC activity, and the rank order of agonist potency for each receptor was generally consistent with reports in the literature. Nucleotide interconversion at the surface of 1321N1 cells was also examined indirectly using the ecto-ATPase inhibitor ARL 67156 and hexokinase. Although there was no significant effect of nucleotide breakdown on the agonist concentration-responses, it was found that upstream conversion of ...
Low-grade astrocytomas are a heterogeneous group of intrinsic central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms that share certain similarities in their clinical presentation, radiologic appearance, prognosis, and treatment. The most common intrinsic brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme, is high grade and malignant.
PXA are a rare form of astrocytic tumor that is commonly found in young adults and children.[4] Although rare, identification or at least suspicion of, PXA can often be made preoperatively on imaging, given its characteristic location and radiographic morphologic features.[6,12] Although pleomorphic in histology this tumor is considered low grade and has a relatively favorable prognosis. Due to PXAs rarity, including it in the preoperative list of differential diagnoses becomes a significant challenge when the tumor does not behave characteristically, especially if the location on imaging is not the usual. PXA is most commonly found supratentorially, in the cortical regions of the cerebral hemispheres, and typically presents as a cystic mass with a solid, contrast enhancing mural component.[6,12] Definitive diagnosis relies on histopathological and immunohistochemistry analysis. The pleomorphic and atypical nature of the neoplastic cells makes an intraoperative diagnosis on frozen sections ...
Dr. Keith Ligon at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute is determined to discover the mutated driver genes that sustain the unregulated growth of pediatric diffuse astrocytomas (PDAs). These tumors are a clinically problematic subset of the larger family of pediatric low-grade astrocytoma family. They are especially difficult because they are rare and represent a major clinical problem in pediatric neuro-oncology due to their heterogeneous pathology and unpredictable clinical behavior. The multi-year project Evaluation of MYBL1 fusions oncogene in PDA, funded by the PLGA Foundation, represents a significant step to help address the unmet need for discovery in this subset of tumors and in the fullness of time, these genes could serve as targets for drug development….read more…. Then on a different page, please continue the article with the same title as above and then the following:. The Dana Farber Cancer Institutes Dr. Keith Ligons MYBL1 project is designed as a three year initiative. ...
astrocytoma - MedHelps astrocytoma Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for astrocytoma. Find astrocytoma information, treatments for astrocytoma and astrocytoma symptoms.
For patient information click here Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Marjan Khan M.B.B.S.[2] Synonyms and Keywords: Spongioblastoma multiforme; glioblastoma; glioblastomas; GBM; GBMs; G.B.M; grade IV astrocytoma; grade IV astrocytomas; astrocytoma, grade IV; undifferentiated glioma; grade IV malignant astrocytoma; grade IV malignant glioma; kernohan grade IV astrocytoma; St. Anne/Mayo astrocytoma grade 4; butterfly glioma ...
Intramedullary mixed signal cervical spinal cord mass. No evidence of hemorrhage. Mild expansile remodeling of the cervical spinal bony canal. The tumor enhances heterogeneously
My wife had brain surgery on 15th of May. The doctors said that they had removed all of that growth. Now after nearly one and a half month of the operation, I recollect all the symptoms and changes in her behaviour which started about a month prior to the operation.. She used to be an active lady and never showed her phycscal weakness to others. But I started noticing her tired looks. Sometimes she used to drop things like lunch box, forgot to close kitchen cabinets and fridge door and to switch off lights of rooms. We had little arguments over these. Once we were comming out of a party and she stood in the middle of stairs I observed that her left foot was out of sandle. I asked if the footware is broken. She looked at me in a strange way and noded. Actually she was not aware of it. We blamed it on her weakness due to some gynec problem and sought appointment for that. During that period her condition deteriorated. While walking her left hand was not moving freely, left leg also became slow and ...
In the present series, glioma was the most common diagnosis, representing 40.1% of cases (sixty nine patients): 23 (33.8%) were classified as glioblastoma multiforme (WHO IV), 13 (19.1%) as anaplasic astrocytoma (WHO III) and 11 as low grade astrocytomas (10%). Two patients (1.2%) had their lesions classified as probable low grade astrocytoma and one (0.6%) as oligodendroglioma.. The rest of tumors (12.2%) were classified as: lymphomas (7%), metastasis (2.3%), germinomas (1.2%), epidermoid cyst (0.6%) and primitive neuroectoderm tumor (1.2%). Metastasis were originated from pulmonary carcinoma, kidney and colon. Only one case ended in undifferentiated carcinoma as the diagnosis. Two HIV positive patients had B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. From the other 10 HIV negative patients, 5 had the same B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 1 T-cell lymphoma, 2 high grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 1 primary brain lymphoma and 1 a Reed- Steinberg variance of Hodgkins disease.. An inflammatory or infectious process was ...
Progesterone receptors (PR) have been detected in human astrocytomas; however, the expression pattern of PR isoforms in these brain tumors is unknown. Progesterone receptor isoforms expression was studied in 13 biopsies of astrocytomas (6 grade III, and 7 grade IV) from adult Mexican patients by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Progesterone receptor expression was observed at mRNA and at protein levels in 66% and 83% of astrocytomas grade III, respectively, whereas 100% of astrocytomas grade IV expressed PR. Almost all PR mRNA content in astrocytomas grades III and IV corresponded to PR-B. The number of immunoreactive cells expressing PR-B was higher than that expressing PR-A in 73% of the cases. Estrogen receptor-á protein was only observed in 33% of astrocytomas grade III, whereas no astrocytomas grade IV expressed it. These data suggest that PR-B is the predominant isoform expressed in human astrocytomas grades III and IV, and that estrogen ...
Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), the most common childhood brain tumor, is a low-grade glioma with a single driver BRAF rearrangement. Here, we perform scRNAseq in six PAs using methods that enabled detection of the rearrangement. When compared to higher-grade gliomas, a strikingly higher proportion of the PA cancer cells exhibit a differentiated, astrocyte-like phenotype. A smaller proportion of cells exhibit a progenitor-like phenotype with evidence of proliferation. These express a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) programme that was absent from higher-grade gliomas. Immune cells, especially microglia, comprise 40% of all cells in the PAs and account for differences in bulk expression profiles between tumor locations and subtypes. These data indicate that MAPK signaling is restricted to relatively undifferentiated cancer cells in PA, with implications for investigational therapies directed at this pathway.. ...
Adjuvant chemotherapy using DNA-damaging agents has largely failed to make a significant impact on the outcome of patients with malignant astrocytoma. One of the primary mechanisms of resistance to nitrosureas such as CCNU is mediated through O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltrans-ferase (MGMT). This DNA repair enzyme removes the cytotoxic alkyl adducts from O6-guanine, and hence the level of MGMT activity in tumor cells is related to their sensitivity to nitroureas. It has been proposed that functional inactivation of MGMT through hypermethylation of the gene promotor region could be predictive of chemosensitivity. We have previously reported differential sensitivity to CCNU in a panel of 17 short-term cultures derived from malignant astrocytoma. In this study, we determined the methylation status of MGMT using methylation-specific PCR in these 17 cultures. We also assessed the amounts of MGMT mRNA and protein present in each culture using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry with a ...
MR diffusion imaging has been used to study water mobility in normal brain tissue (1, 2), cerebral infarction (2), multiple sclerosis (3), gliomas (4-8), and brain abscesses (8, 9) and to differentiate between arachnoid cysts and epidermoid cysts (10) and other diseases (7, 8, 13, 14). Gliomas are the most common brain tumors. On imaging studies, malignant gliomas usually are enhanced after intravenous contrast injection and show peritumoral edema, whereas, except for pilocytic astrocytoma and giant-cell astrocytoma, low-grade gliomas usually show little to no abnormal enhancement or peritumoral edema. Differentiation of these two types of tumors occasionally may be difficult, because low-grade astrocytomas also may show abnormal contrast enhancement and peritumoral edema. In fact, abnormal enhancement was noted in four of eight patients with grade II astrocytoma in our study, and peritumoral edema was found in four patients.. We found that ADC values cannot be used in individual cases to ...
Endothelial cell proliferation is a significant biological feature of malignant astrocytomas. The ability of the cells of these tumors to elaborate mitogenic angiogenesis factors has been well documented. However, less is known about the transformational effects that neoplastic astrocytes may have on the endothelial cells within malignant astrocytomas. In this study, the hypothesis that humoral factors elaborated by cells derived from malignant astrocytomas induce transformational changes in normal endothelial cells in vitro is investigated. Conditioned medium (CM) was prepared from exponentially growing cultures of a human glioblastoma cell line (UW18) and from two rat brain-tumor cell lines: an anaplastic astrocytoma (R175A) and a glioblastoma with sarcomatous elements (9L). Subconfluent target bovine aortic arch endothelial cells (BAECs) were exposed for 48 hours to varying concentrations of CM prepared from each of these tumors, and then evaluated for transformational changes. Different ...
Astrocytic tumors are the most common intracranial neoplasms. Their prognoses correlate with a conventional morphological grading system that suffers from diagnostic subjectivity and hence, inter-observer inconsistency. A molecular marker that provides an objective reference for classification and prognostication of astrocytic tumors would be useful in diagnostic pathology. RhoA, a GTPase protein involved in cell migration and adhesion, has been shown to be upregulated in a variety of human cancers. Based on direct analysis of clinical materials, our study demonstrates increased expression of RhoA in high-grade astrocytomas. This observation may be relevant to astrocytoma biology and the development of potential therapeutics against high-grade astrocytomas. Of more immediate consequence, utilization of this marker may aid in the routine pathological grading (and hence prognostication) of astrocytomas. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved ...
In bacterial meningitis, LPS induces production in cerebrospinal fluid of the cytokines IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), which are the principle mediators of meningeal inflammation. IL-1 beta and TNF alpha induce fever, and elevated temperature may affect cytokine expression. Dexamethasone treatment improves outcome in bacterial meningitis possibly by inhibiting IL-1 beta and TNF alpha. In this report, the effects of elevated temperature and dexamethasone on LPS-stimulated IL-1 beta and TNF alpha mRNA gene expression and protein synthesis were studied in human astrocytoma cell lines and primary cultures of human fetal astrocytes. Cells cultured at 40 degrees C exhibited smaller peaks of IL-1 beta and TNF alpha transcription and protein synthesis compared with cells cultured at 37 degrees C. The addition of dexamethasone before, during, or after exposure of the cells to LPS resulted in temperature-dependent inhibition of IL-1 beta transcription and protein synthesis. The ...
Klironomos, G., Bravou, V., Papachristou, D. J., Gatzounis, G., Varakis, J., Parassi, E., Repanti, M. and Papadaki, H. (2010), Loss of Inhibitor of Growth (ING-4) is Implicated in the Pathogenesis and Progression of Human Astrocytomas. Brain Pathology, 20: 490-497. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3639.2009.00325.x ...
This never-ending cycle of tests, treatments and time spent recovering from surgeries deprives diagnosed children of their childhood. We have watched our son suffer through this disease for almost 9 years. Most devastating of all, we could not stop the tumor from taking his eyesight.. ...
Protoplasmic astrocytoma is a rare variant of diffuse low-grade astrocytomas with histological and imaging features which overlap with other entities. Until recently they were classified as a subtype of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma, however, i...
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Cerebral astrocytoma, childhood
Neuroepithelial tumors. Astrocytic tumors. An increased risk of astrocytic tumors has been observed in patients who receive therapeutic radiation therapy for pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngioma, pineal parenchymal tumors, germinoma, and tinea capitis. In addition, children who receive prophylactic radiation therapy of the CNS for acute lymphoblastic leukemia have an increased risk of developing astrocytomas. Recurrent lesions often signal histologic progression to a higher grade; this malignant progression is associated with a cumulative acquisition of multiple genetic alterations. [4] Pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) is a grossly circumscribed, slow-growing, often cystic tumor that occurs primarily in children and young adults. [5] Histologically, pilocytic astrocytomas are composed of varying proportions of compacted bipolar cells with Rosenthal fibers and loose-textured multipolar cells with microcysts and granular bodies. This tumor is the most common glioma in children and represents ...
Introduction:. Astrocytomas are the most common subtype of glioma, accounting for about 70% of all malignant tumors found in the central nervous system. Genetic alterations in gliomas have been extensively researched, but epigenetic changes are less well investigated. The aim of this study is to analyze genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation in a set of astrocytic tumors to identify aberrantly methylated genes, which could serve as candidates for new diagnostic markers and/or therapeutic targets.. Material & Methods:. DNA methylation was investigated genome-wide by methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) and hybridization to customized Agilent Human CpG island (250K) oligonucleotide arrays. In total, 18 glioblastoma cell lines, 59 astrocytic tumor samples (4 diffuse astrocytomas WHO grade II, 17 anaplastic astrocytomas grade III and 38 glioblastomas grade IV) and 5 normal whole brain samples were analyzed. Data quality control, normalization and analysis was performed through the arrayQuality ...
Contrast studies -- Coronal post-gadolinium T1-weighted image shows the medial portion of solid component enhancing with contrast material. Note bilateral tonsils sagging into the ...
Overview of common imaging features found with Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma, characteristic pathologic findings, and relevant clinical features. Provided recommendation of imaging for the specific lesion.
Background: Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is inherited as an autosomal dominant disease, characterized by skin lesion and tubers in vital organs, especially brain in three categories including subependymal nodules, cortical tubers and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is an indolent neoplasm which usually arises at the cauda thalamic groove near foramen monro, although it occurs usually in the clinical settings of TSC, a few number of SEGA has been reported without such history. Its morphology with special cytoarchitecture could be mistaken with other glial brain tumors with similar morphology. Therefore, investigating new markers for differentiating SEGA from other mimickers seems logical rather than other glioneural immunohistochemical markers introduced before. Case: We investigated CD99 expression in SEGA as an adjunctive marker for diagnostic purposes. Five reported cases of SEGA were studied and all of them showed CD99 expression besides usual glioneural
There are considerable efforts to identify naturally occurring substances as new drugs in cancer therapy. Many components of medicinal plants have been identified that possess substantial anticancerous properties. This prompted us to investigate the effect of Scrophularia striata (an Iranian species belonging to the Scrophulariace family) extract on the growth of astrocyte cancer cell line (1321). The 1321 cell line were seeded in 96-well culture plates in the presence and absence of various concentrations of either leaf and seed filtered and unfiltered extract of Scrophularia striata to determine their probable anticancer effects in comparison with etoposide (chemical anticancer reagent). filtered leaf extract of S. Striata showed strong anticancer effect on 1321cell line as compared to control group (cells not exposed to extracts), and even the group (adenocarcinoma gastric cell line) exposed to etoposide. Unlike the leaf extract, the seed extract activated cell proliferation in all experiments. Flow
Histopathologic grading of astrocytic tumors based on current WHO criteria offers a valuable but simplified representation of oncologic reality and is often insufficient to predict clinical outcome. In this study, we report a new astrocytic tumor microarray gene expression data set (n = 65). We have used a simple artificial neural network algorithm to address grading of human astrocytic tumors, derive specific transcriptional signatures from histopathologic subtypes of astrocytic tumors, and asses whether these molecular signatures define survival prognostic subclasses. Fifty-nine classifier genes were identified and found to fall within three distinct functional classes, that is, angiogenesis, cell differentiation, and lower-grade astrocytic tumor discrimination. These gene classes were found to characterize three molecular tumor subtypes denoted ANGIO, INTER, and LOWER. Grading of samples using these subtypes agreed with prior histopathologic grading for both our data set (96.15%) and an ...
Two related drugs have been shown to shrink or stabilize supependymal giant cell tumors: rapamycin and everolimus. These both belong to the mTOR inhibitor class of immunosuppressants, and are both contraindicated in patients with severe infections. Rapamycin showed efficacy in five cases of SEGA in TSC patients, shrinking their tumor volumes by an average of 65%. However, after the drug was stopped, the tumors regrew. Everolimus, which has a similar structure as rapamycin, but with slightly increased bioavailability and shorter half-life, was studied in 28 patients with SEGA. There was a significant reduction in SEGA size in 75% of the patients, and a mild improvement in their seizures. Everolimus was approved for the treatment of SEGA by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October, 2010.[1] ...
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Jack - Small but probably important to keep. I recontextualized the results. Laura wrote initially there was no significant increase in tumor volume and I changed it to what you see now.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Pilocytic Astrocytomas. T2 - Well-Demarcated Magnetic Resonance Appearance Despite Frequent Infiltration Histologically. AU - Coakley, Kevin J.. AU - Huston, John. AU - Scheithauer, Bernd W.. AU - Forbes, Glenn. AU - Kelly, Patrick J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - To determine the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of pilocytic astro-cytomas and to correlate them with the histopathologic findings. MRI examinations and histopathologic findings in 56 patients with pilocytic astrocytomas were retrospectively reviewed. In 38 patients, findings on MRI were compared with those on computed tomography. The tumors occurred at all levels of the central nervous system, including the spinal cord. The intracranial tumors were periventricular (73%) or periaqueductal (9%). All tumors were typical pilocytic astrocytomas and were grade 1 on the basis of the World Health Organization classification. At operation, they ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Astrocytoma with pilomyxoid features presenting in an adult. AU - Komotar, Ricardo J.. AU - Mocco, J.. AU - Zacharia, Brad E.. AU - Wilson, David A.. AU - Kim, Peter Y.. AU - Canoll, Peter D.. AU - Goodman, Robert R.. PY - 2006/2/1. Y1 - 2006/2/1. N2 - Pilomyxoid histology is presently considered to occur in pediatric brain tumors. We report an astrocytoma with pilomyxoid features presenting in an adult and discuss its relationship to both the established childhood pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) and recently reported tanycytoma. A 28-year-old man with medically intractable seizures presented for surgical evaluation. MRI revealed a discrete lesion in the right amygdala/uncus region. The patient elected for craniotomy with stereotactic temporal lobe resection and excision of the lesion. Postoperatively, the patient has done well. At 30-month follow up, he is seizure free and without evidence of tumor recurrence. We report an astrocytoma with pilomyxoid features presenting in an ...
Looking for online definition of piloid astrocytoma in the Medical Dictionary? piloid astrocytoma explanation free. What is piloid astrocytoma? Meaning of piloid astrocytoma medical term. What does piloid astrocytoma mean?
Differentiating low-grade astrocytomas from low-grade oligodendrogliomas preoperatively with use of imaging is important for several reasons. First, these two tumor types are well-defined, clinicopathologic entities with distinct biologic and prognostic characteristics for which distinction based on histopathologic evaluation, the current reference standard, can be difficult and not without error (2, 3, 11). The histopathologic evaluation of low-grade glioma is challenged by a mixed cellular component in a given tumor that can lead to subjective criteria for determining the cell of origin, inherent sampling error associated with a surgical tissue specimen, and lack of specific tumor markers. Preoperative anatomic imaging already plays a complementary role by providing information on tumor location, surgical resectablity, satellite focus of tumor, and reactive changes in the adjacent brain-all of which are important factors influencing treatment and outcome, but which cannot be assessed directly ...
OLIVEIRA, Eduardo Fontana de; GUERREIRO, Juliano R.; SILVA, Carlos A.; et al. Enhancement of the citrulline-nitric oxide cycle in astroglioma cells by the proline-rich peptide-10c from Bothrops jararaca venom. Brain Research, Amsterdam, v. 1363, n. 1, p. 11-19, 2010. Disponível em: < http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.09.067 > DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.09.067 ...
The astrocyte, one form of glial cell that comprises much of the background substance of the brain and spinal cord, is believed to give rise to a large category of primary brain tumors, the astrocytomas. These neoplasms can occur in all areas of the brain and spinal cord in children and adults. Although the vast majority of astrocytic neoplasms occur sporadically, they can be seen in patients with the familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome, the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and central neurofibromatosis (see Li-Fraumeni Syndrome, Neurofibromatosis 2 and Colorectal Tumors). The incidence of astrocytomas is approximately 7.0 per 100,000,1 which means that nearly 20,000 Americans will have an astrocytoma diagnosed each year. The World Health Organization (WHO) classification2 recognizes four grades of astrocytoma (Fig. 73-1). Grade I astrocytomas are slow-growing, noninfiltrative neoplasms, occurring mainly in children and young adults, and include juvenile pilocytic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pilomyxoid astrocytoma with high proliferation index. AU - Pruthi, Sonam Kumar. AU - Chakraborti, Shrijeet. AU - Naik, Ramadas. AU - Ballal, C. K.. PY - 2013/9/1. Y1 - 2013/9/1. N2 - Pilomyxoid astrocytomas is an uncommon aggressive piloid neoplasm, closely related to pilocytic astrocytomas and typically presents in the very young but can occur in older children and rarely in adults. A 12-years-old male presented with focal seizures, headache and vomiting of 10 days duration. Computed tomogram showed a hypo- to hyperdense and peripherally enhancing, solid-cystic lesion in the left temporal lobe. Histopathological examination revealed a characteristic tumor composed of bipolar cells arranged in dyscohesive sheets, angiocentric pattern in a loose myxoid background, with brisk mitotic activity and foci of necrosis. No Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies were seen. The tumor cells showed strong GFAP and scattered p53 positivity, but were negative for EMA. Ki-67 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Silencing GFAP isoforms in astrocytoma cells disturbs laminin-dependent motility and cell adhesion. AU - Moeton, M. AU - Kanski, R. AU - Stassen, Oscar. AU - Sluijs, JA. AU - Geerts, D. AU - Tijn P, van. AU - Wiche, G. AU - Strien ME, van. AU - Hol, EM. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein expressed in astrocytes and neural stem cells. The GFAP gene is alternatively spliced, and expression of GFAP is highly regulated during development, on brain damage, and in neurodegenerative diseases. GFAP alpha is the canonical splice variant and is expressed in all GFAP-positive cells. In the human brain, the alternatively spliced transcript GFAP alpha marks specialized astrocyte populations, such as subpial astrocytes and the neurogenic astrocytes in the human subventricular zone. We here show that shifting the GFAP isoform ratio in favor of GFAP alpha in astrocytoma cells, by selectively silencing the canonical isoform GFAP ...
AoA - Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma. Looking for abbreviations of AoA? It is Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma. Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma listed as AoA
1. Budka H. Partially resected and irradiated astrocytoma of childhood: Malignant evolution after 28 years. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1975. 32: 139-46. 2. Last accessed on 2016 Nov 01. Available from: http://www.cbtrus.org/2011-NPCR-SEER/WEB-0407-Report-3-3-2011.pdf.. 3. Das DK. Psammoma body: A product of dystrophic calcification or of a biologically active process that aims at limiting the growth and spread of tumor?. Diagn Cytopathol. 2009. 37: 534-41. 4. Fernandez C, Figarella-Branger D, Girard N, Bouvier-Labit C, Gouvernet J, Paz Paredes A. Pilocytic astrocytomas in children: Prognostic factors-A retrospective study of 80 cases. Neurosurgery. 2003. 53: 544-55. 5. Filippidis AS, Tsonidis CA. Intraventricular brain tumors in children. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1989. 5: 230-3. 6. Fisher BJ, Naumova E, Leighton CC, Naumov GN, Kerklviet N, Fortin D. Ki-67: A prognostic factor for low-grade glioma?. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002. 52: 996-1001. 7. Gajjar A, Sanford R, Heideman R, Jenkins JJ, Walter A, ...
In an inositol-depleted 1321 N1 astrocytoma cell line, propranolol at 0.5 mM concentration and carbachol in the presence of Li+ induce a large increase (30-60-fold) in the amount of CMP-phosphatidate, the lipid substrate of PtdIns synthase. The actions of both agents on CMP-phosphatidate accumulation were reversed by co-incubation with 1 mM inositol. In cells grown in the presence of 40 microM inositol the propranolol- and carbachol-mediated CMP-phosphatidate accumulation was much smaller (2-4-fold). Propranolol- and carbachol-mediated increases in CMP-phosphatidate accumulation were at least additive in both inositol-replete and -depleted cells. The subcellular distribution of accumulated CMP-phosphatidate was investigated by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation of a lysate of inositol-depleted cells. There were two coincident peaks of carbachol-stimulated [3H]CMP-phosphatidate and PtdIns synthase activity, respectively. The first peak of accumulated [3H]CMP-phosphatidate and PtdIns synthase ...
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Tumours of astroglial origin, both malignant glioblastoma (GBM) and benign subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), pose a serious medical problem. Casein kinase 2 (CK2), a member of the serine/threonine kinase family, has antiapoptotic properties and plays a vital role in glial tumour cell...
Everolimus (RAD001) has been in clinical development since 1996 as an immunosuppressant in solid organ transplantation and has obtained marketing authorization (Certican®) for prophylaxis of rejection in renal and cardiac transplantation in a number of countries, including the majority of the European Union. Everolimus has been in development for patients with various malignancies since 2002. Everolimus 2.5mg, 5mg and 10mg tablets were approved under the trade name Afinitor® for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after failure of treatment with Sutent® (sunitinib) or Nexavar® (sorafenib) in the US, EU and several other countries and is undergoing registration in other regions worldwide. Afinitor® was also recently approved for the treatment of patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with tuberous sclerosis (TS) who require therapeutic intervention but are not candidates for curative surgical resection. Everolimus is being investigated as an ...
Drs. David Louis (AANP president) and Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov put together a nice day-long educational session today to kick off the American Association of Neuropathologists annual meeting here in Philadelphia. In addition to our own kind, non-neuropathologists were brought in to give their persepctives on these syndromes. For instance, Dr. Elizabeth Henske (pictured), an oncologist, talked about the spectrum of clinical manifestations seen in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and experiemental therapeutics based on understanding the molecular underpinnings of the syndrome. Given that the genes mutated in tuberous sclerosis (TSC1 and TSC2) inhibit mTOR, Henske said that researchers are looking into the use of rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, as a treatment for not only the more obvious manifestations of TSC, such as subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, but even for reversing learning deficits in children with TSC. In a mouse model of TSC in which there is no pathological evidence of brain ...
You are being asked to take part in this study because you have advanced cancer that has either gotten worse or is resistant to standard therapy.. The goal of this clinical research study is to find the highest tolerable dose of the combination of Afinitor (everolimus) either with Kineret (anakinra) or Xgeva (denosumab) that can be given to patients with advanced cancer. The safety of these drugs will also be studied.. Everolimus is designed to stop cells from dividing.. Anakinra is designated to block a protein that is involved in tumor development, new blood vessels growing, and spread of cancer.. Denosumab is designed to block the activity of a protein, which may prevent bone complications in cancer that has spread to the bone.. This is an investigational study. Everolimus is FDA approved and commercially available to treat pancreatic cancer that has gotten worse, advanced renal cell carcinoma, and a type of brain tumor called subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Anakinra is FDA approved and ...
A 92 year old woman was admitted with generalised convulsive status epilepticus. Although antiepileptic treatment was initiated the patient never regained consciousness and died 3 weeks after admission.. Brain CT showed multiple contrast enhancing nodules within the ventricular wall (figure, A and B). The periventricular location of the lesions could be confirmed macroscopically (figure C). Histopathology showed diffuse infiltrates of neoplastic lymphocytes, predominantly centroblasts, with several small necrotic areas (figure D) leading to the diagnosis of a diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Space occupying lesions in the ventricular wall represent a challenging differential diagnosis which includes both neoplastic and inflammatory disorders such as cerebral lymphoma, metastatic carcinoma, gliomas (for example, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma), hamartoma in tuberous sclerosis, and germinoma, as well as tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, neurocysticercosis, and sarcoidosis. ...
Get information about types of astrocytoma brain tumour and their treatments, including pilocytic, diffuse and anaplastic astrocytoma
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular analysis of two putative tumour suppressor genes, PTEN and DMBT, which have been implicated in glioblastoma multiforme disease progression. AU - Somerville, R. P.T.. AU - Shoshan, Y.. AU - Eng, C.. AU - Barnett, G.. AU - Miller, D.. AU - Cowell, J. K.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was in part supported by the Rose-Ella Burkhardt Endowment Fund.. PY - 1998/10/1. Y1 - 1998/10/1. N2 - The transition from low grade astrocytoma to glioblastoma multiforme is almost always accompanied by the loss of genetic markers from chromosome 10. Recently two genes, PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1 and DMBT, have been isolated from chromosome 10q. We have analysed these two genes for mutations in 21 primary glioblastomas. An exon by exon screen of the PTEN gene using SSCP failed to identify any mutations in this tumour series. In contrast, 38% of tumours showed intragenic homozygous deletions in the DMBT gene. The fact that the majority of gliomas do not carry mutations in either of these genes ...
Objective: The normal blood brain barrier (BBB) is composed of tight junctions between endothelial cells and surrounding astrocyte foot processes. Breakdown of the physiological astrocyte-endothelial cell relationship occurs in adult metastatic and primary brain tumors. However, the astrocyte-endothelial cell relationship has not been studied in pediatric tumors. Materials and Methods: Utilizing specimens from cases of pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 5), medulloblastoma (n = 5), and low-grade diffuse astrocytoma (n = 1), immunofluorescence were performed using primary antibodies against CD31, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and aquaporin 4 (AQ4). Clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, operative, and histopathological findings were analyzed. Results: Strongly-enhancing areas of medulloblastoma exhibited complete BBB breakdown with sparse GFAP and AQ4 staining around CD31-positive vessels. Moderately enhancing regions of pilocytic astrocytomas exhibited regions of intact BBB and vasculature ...
RADIOLOGY: HEAD: Case# 33608: CEREBELLAR PILOCYTIC ASTROCYTOMA. This two year old child presented with a history of ataxia and loss of motor coordination. T1 weighted axial MRI reveals a heterogeneous low signal mass in the right cerebellum. T1 weighted axial MRI after gadolinium shows enhancement of mass posterior to fourth ventricle. T2 weighted axial MRI shows high signal mass to be posterior to fourth ventricle. Pilocytic astrocytomas are slowly growing neoplasms of children and young adults which usually arise around the third and fourth ventricles. About one half arise in the optic pathways or hypothalamus, and one third arise in the cerebellar hemispheres or vermis. On imaging studies the cerebellar lesions are cystic with variably enhancing mural nodules.. ...
Vajtai, I; Varga, Z; Aguzzi, A (1997). Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with gangliogliomatous component. Pathology, Research and Practice, 193(9):617-621.. Vajtai, I; Varga, Z; Aguzzi, A (1996). MIB-1 immunoreactivity reveals different labelling in low-grade and in malignant epithelial neoplasms of the choroid plexus. Histopathology, 29(2):147-151.. Varga, Z; Vajtai, I; Aguzzi, A (1996). The standard isoform of CD44 is preferentially expressed in atypical papillomas and carcinomas of the choroid plexus. Pathology, Research and Practice, 192(12):1225-1231.. Varga, Z; Vajtai, I; Marino, S; Schäuble, B; Yonekawa, Y; Aguzzi, A (1996). Tubular adenoma of the choroid plexus: evidence for glandular differentiation of the neuroepithelium. Pathology, Research and Practice, 192(8):840-844.. ...
PARTICIPATES IN alfentanil pharmacodynamics pathway; bupivacaine pharmacodynamics pathway; buprenorphine pharmacodynamics pathway; ASSOCIATED WITH early myoclonic encephalopathy (ortholog); pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (ortholog)
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | A 1-month-old male infant with tuberous sclerosis presented with leukocoria for an evaluation of possible retinoblastoma. The patient had several Ash leaf spots and multiple subependymal lesions on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. He was found to have a large intraocular tumor in the left eye. B-scan ultrasonography of the mass did not show any calcifications. Given the size of
Everolimus: A phase II trial using everolimus, another mTor inhibitor used as an anti-organ rejection drug, to treat SEGAs in 28 patients with TSC showed SEGA reduction of at least 30% in 21 patients (75%) and at least 50% in 9 patients (32%) (19 ...
Gliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (astrocytomas), oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogliomas), mixtures of various glial cells (for example,oligoastrocytomas) and ependymal cells (ependymomas). The most malignant form of infiltrating astrocytoma - glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) - is one of the most aggressive human cancers. GBM may develop de novo (primary glioblastoma) or by progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytoma (secondary glioblastoma). Primary glioblastomas develop in older patients and typically show genetic alterations (EGFR amplification, p16/INK4a deletion, and PTEN mutations) at frequencies of 24-34%. Secondary glioblastomas develop in younger patients and frequently show overexpression of PDGF and CDK4 as well as p53 mutations (65%) and loss of Rb playing major roles in such transformations. Loss of PTEN has been ...
Gliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (astrocytomas), oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogliomas), mixtures of various glial cells (for example,oligoastrocytomas) and ependymal cells (ependymomas). The most malignant form of infiltrating astrocytoma - glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) - is one of the most aggressive human cancers. GBM may develop de novo (primary glioblastoma) or by progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytoma (secondary glioblastoma). Primary glioblastomas develop in older patients and typically show genetic alterations (EGFR amplification, p16/INK4a deletion, and PTEN mutations) at frequencies of 24-34%. Secondary glioblastomas develop in younger patients and frequently show overexpression of PDGF and CDK4 as well as p53 mutations (65%) and loss of Rb playing major roles in such transformations. Loss of PTEN has been ...
Subsequent visits: Subsequent visits are scheduled every 3 months for the first 6 months, then every 6 months for the next year, and then yearly for 2 years. After this period, the child is seen every 2 years for follow-up. High-risk patients need to be seen more often, and more frequent scanning needs to be considered. The child should be seen by the neurosurgeon. An endocrinologist and neuropsychologist may also see the child if ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thalamic gliomas. T2 - A clinicopathologic analysis of 20 cases with reference to patient age. AU - Nishio, S.. AU - Morioka, T.. AU - Suzuki, Satoshi. AU - Takeshita, I.. AU - Fukui, M.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Twenty patients (M 11, F 9; ranging from 1-77 years old) with histologically proven glial tumours in the thalamic region, treated from 1979 until 1994 at Kyushu University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed and analysed in order to elucidate their clinical and neuropathological characteristics. The initial common clinical manifestations were those of increased intracranial pressure or motor weakness. The histological diagnosis of the tumour was pilocytic astrocytoma in 2 patients, fibrillary astrocytoma in 7, anaplastic astrocytoma in 7, and glioblastoma multiforme in 4. The initial treatment was surgery alone in 4 patients, surgery followed by radiation therapy in 5, surgery followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy in 9, and conventional radiation ...
PURPOSE: Bevacizumab, an anti-VEGFA antibody, inhibits the developing vasculature of tumors, but resistance is common. Antiangiogenic therapy induces hypoxia and we observed increased expression of hypoxia-regulated genes, including carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), in response to bevacizumab treatment in xenografts. CAIX expression correlates with poor prognosis in most tumor types and with worse outcome in bevacizumab-treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, malignant astrocytoma, and recurrent malignant glioma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We knocked down CAIX expression by short hairpin RNA in a colon cancer (HT29) and a glioblastoma (U87) cell line which have high hypoxic induction of CAIX and overexpressed CAIX in HCT116 cells which has low CAIX. We investigated the effect on growth rate in three-dimensional (3D) culture and in vivo, and examined the effect of CAIX knockdown in combination with bevacizumab. RESULTS: CAIX expression was associated with increased growth rate in spheroids and in vivo.
PURPOSE: Bevacizumab, an anti-VEGFA antibody, inhibits the developing vasculature of tumors, but resistance is common. Antiangiogenic therapy induces hypoxia and we observed increased expression of hypoxia-regulated genes, including carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), in response to bevacizumab treatment in xenografts. CAIX expression correlates with poor prognosis in most tumor types and with worse outcome in bevacizumab-treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, malignant astrocytoma, and recurrent malignant glioma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We knocked down CAIX expression by short hairpin RNA in a colon cancer (HT29) and a glioblastoma (U87) cell line which have high hypoxic induction of CAIX and overexpressed CAIX in HCT116 cells which has low CAIX. We investigated the effect on growth rate in three-dimensional (3D) culture and in vivo, and examined the effect of CAIX knockdown in combination with bevacizumab. RESULTS: CAIX expression was associated with increased growth rate in spheroids and in vivo.
Results Twist and Zeb1 were widely expressed in astrocytic gliomas, but the expression of the former did not correlate with that of the latter. Stronger Twist expression levels were associated with higher WHO grades (p=0.001), whereas Zeb1 did not correlate with WHO grades. We found no association between Twist and proliferation activity (Ki67/MIB-1), p53 status, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification or neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression. There was no significant difference in Twist or Zeb1 expression when primary and secondary gliomas were analysed. Tumours with high Twist expression were IDH1 negative (p=0.009). High hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression correlated significantly with positive Twist expression (p,0.001), whereas it was not associated with Zeb1 expression. Zeb1 expression did not correlate with proliferation, EGFR or IDH1. Nevertheless, we did find a correlation between high Zeb1 expression and low p53 expression levels (p=0.027). Positive NCAM ...
Title: Toxic epidermal necrolysis in patient with malignant astrocytoma Authors: Kaczmarska-Turek D, Bartnik P, Kacperczyk J, Orlewski J, Olszewska M, Krasnodebska-Kiljanska M.
High-resolution magic angle spinning proton (HRMAS 1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy produces well-resolved spectra of metabolites from intact tissue specimens. Here we report the results of a preliminary study of 19 human brain tumors obtained by applying this method. Among these 19 cases were 2 low-grade astrocytomas, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 8 glioblastomas, 6 meningiomas, and 2 schwannomas. In addition, autopsy human brain tissues from two subjects without any known neurological diseases were used as normal controls. The HRMAS 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements were performed at 2°C on a 400-MHz NMR spectrometer with a HRMAS speed of 2.5 kHz. From these HRMAS 1H MR spectra, we measured the concentrations of 11 metabolites, the ratios of 15 metabolites (resonances) to creatine (at 3.03 ppm), and the spin-spin relaxation time for these metabolites (resonances). Our results indicate that these parameters have the potential to characterize tumor types and grades with statistical ...
Journal of Oncology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to breast cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, paediatric oncology, neurooncology as well as genitourinary cancer. The journal provides a multidisciplinary forum for translational and clinical oncology research in the areas of molecular pathology, genomics, diagnosis and therapy, with a specific focus on molecular targeted agents and novel immune therapies.
For the first time, the WHO classification of brain tumors has introduced molecular parameters in the diagnosis of brain tumors. Together with embryonal tumors, the diffuse gliomas have suffered significant changes in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to treatment. A new concept of
Glioblastomas are aggressive astrocytomas characterized by endothelial cell proliferation and abnormal vasculature, which can cause brain edema and increase patient morbidity. We identified the heparin-binding cytokine pleiotrophin as a driver of vascular abnormalization in glioma. Pleiotrophin abundance was greater in high-grade human astrocytomas and correlated with poor survival. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), which is a receptor that is activated by pleiotrophin, was present in mural cells associated with abnormal vessels. Orthotopically implanted gliomas formed from GL261 cells that were engineered to produce pleiotrophin showed increased microvessel density and enhanced tumor growth compared with gliomas formed from control GL261 cells. The survival of mice with pleiotrophin-producing gliomas was shorter than that of mice with gliomas that did not produce pleiotrophin. Vessels in pleiotrophin-producing gliomas were poorly perfused and abnormal, a phenotype that was associated with ...
Malignant astrocytomas are more prevalent among men, contributing to worse survival. Pilocytic astrocytomas are grade I tumors ... Anaplastic astrocytomas are grade III malignant tumors. They grow more rapidly than lower grade tumors. Anaplastic astrocytomas ... Astrocytomas Archived 2012-04-05 at the Wayback Machine. International RadioSurgery Association (2010). Astrocytoma Tumors. ... Astrocytomas are divided into two categories: low grade (I and II) and high grade (III and IV). Low grade tumors are more ...
a b c d Astrocytomas. International RadioSurgery Association (2010). *^ a b Astrocytoma Tumors. American Association of ... Astrocytomas[edit]. Astrocytomas are primary intracranial tumors derived from astrocytes cells of the brain. It is also ... Pilocytic astrocytoma are Grade I tumors. They are considered benign and slow growing tumors. Pilocytic astrocytomas frequently ... Astrocytomas are divided into two categories: Low grade (I and II) and High Grade (III and IV). Low grade tumors are more ...
"Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma: A Review". Medscape General Medicine. 6 (4): 42. ISSN 1531-0132. PMC 1480592. PMID 15775869. Preston, ...
Anaplastic astrocytomas are considered by the WHO to be a grade III astrocytoma and Glioblastoma is a grade IV both are ... The next tumor is never common in the Dns called diffuse astrocytoma and it is considered a grade II, they are benign, or ... Bond, K. M., Hughes, J. D., Porter, A. L., Orina, J., Fang, S., & Parney, I. F. (2018). Adult pilocytic astrocytoma: an ... Glial tumor is a general term for numerous tumors of the central nervous system, including astrocytomas, ependymal tumors, ...
"Astrocytoma Tumors - Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments". www.aans.org. Retrieved 2020-05-03. "Home - SNP - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm ...
Grade 1 tumors are benign astrocytomas. Grade 2 tumors are low-grade astrocytomas. Grade 3 tumors are anaplastic astrocytomas. ... The St Anne-Mayo grading system also is used to grade astrocytomas; however, this system uses four morphologic criteria to ... Kim TS, Halliday AL, Hedley W, Convery K (1991). Correlates of survival and the Daumas-Duport grading system for astrocytomas. ... Daumas-Duport C, Scheithauer B, O'Fallon J, Kelly P (1988). Grading of astrocytomas. A simple and reproducible method. Cancer ...
Johnson, Derek (August 2014). "Medical Management of High-Grade Astrocytoma: Current and Emerging Therapies". Seminars in ... "Initial postoperative therapy for glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma". UpToDate. Retrieved 26 December 2014. CS1 maint: ...
Pilocytic astrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Focal cortical dysplasia Thom, Maria; Toma, Ahmed; An, Shu; Martinian, Lillian; ...
Childhood astrocytomaEdit. Main article: Astrocytoma. A study concluded that foetal exposure to alcohol is not associated with ... "Gestational and familial risk factors for childhood astrocytoma: results of a case-control study" (PDF). Cancer Research. 50 ...
2004). "Overexpression of human reticulon 3 (hRTN3) in astrocytoma". Clin. Neuropathol. 23 (1): 1-7. PMID 14986927. Hu Y, Fang ...
However compared to the more common astrocytomas, they are slowly growing with prolonged survival. In one series, median ... Oligodendrogliomas must be differentiated from the more common astrocytoma. Non-classical variants and combined tumors of both ... are more common in classic oligodendrogliomas than in either astrocytomas or oligoastrocytomas. In one study, classic ... tumors with which they are often confused due to their monotonous round cell appearance include pilocytic astrocytoma, central ...
The best way to distinguish it from a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma is the size. The diagnosis is based on tissue, e.g. a ... Earlier, they were called subependymal astrocytomas. The prognosis for a subependymoma is better than for most ependymal tumors ...
"Primidone-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy in a patient with cerebral astrocytoma". Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 9 (1 ... early 2002 in a patient who had been stable on primidone monotherapy for five years before undergoing surgery for astrocytoma, ...
Identification of pilocystic astrocytoma and fibrillary astrocytoma as distinct entities". Cancer. 89 (7): 1569-76. doi:10.1002 ... Of numerous grading systems in use, the most common is the World Health Organization (WHO) grading system for astrocytoma, ... May 1992). "p53 mutations are associated with 17p allelic loss in grade II and grade III astrocytoma". Cancer Research. 52 (10 ... The main types of gliomas are: Ependymomas: ependymal cells Astrocytomas: astrocytes (glioblastoma multiforme is a malignant ...
"Development of a pilocytic astrocytoma in a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Case report", Journal of Neurosurgery, 2007 ...
... and 4-hydroxynonenal-induced cytotoxicity in human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells]". Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi = Chinese ...
In July, she announced that she had an astrocytoma that could not be completely removed surgically. She was diagnosed with ... Berns, Magdalen [@MagdalenBerns] (3 July 2017). "My tumour couldn't be completely resected and it's an astrocytoma => not ...
Some of the tumors include astrocytoma, glioblastoma, glioma, and subependynoma. These lesions can be visualized with brain ...
"Shc3 affects human high-grade astrocytomas survival". Oncogene. 24 (33): 5198-206. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208708. PMID 15870690. ...
Astrocytoma. *Glial fibrillary acidic protein. NC/Melanoma. *S100 protein. *Melanoma inhibitory activity ...
Astrocytoma. *Glial fibrillary acidic protein. NC/Melanoma. *S100 protein. *Melanoma inhibitory activity ...
... and a malignant astrocytoma". Dermatology Online Journal. 18 (5): 3. PMID 22630573. Grandhi R, Deibert CP, Pirris SM, Lembersky ...
Overexpression of the encoded protein may be associated with astrocytoma progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple ... and angiogenesis in human astrocytoma". Med. Oncol. 28 (3): 907-12. doi:10.1007/s12032-010-9537-9. PMID 20405246. S2CID ...
2006). "Matrilin-2 expression distinguishes clinically relevant subsets of pilocytic astrocytoma". Neurology. 66 (1): 127-30. ...
Pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common primitive tumor found in pediatrics. The fibers are found in astrocytic processes and ... Its presence is associated with either pilocytic astrocytoma (more common) or Alexander's disease (a rare leukodystrophy). They ...
Palma C, Manzini S (Jan 1998). "Substance P induces secretion of immunomodulatory cytokines by human astrocytoma cells". ...
Recently, it has also been discovered that mPRα and mPRβ are clearly expressed at mRNA and protein levels in astrocytoma cells ... Recent studies suggest that some progesterone actions in astrocytoma cells (the most common and malignant human brain tumors) ... "Expression and hormonal regulation of membrane progesterone receptors in human astrocytoma cells". The Journal of Steroid ...
Jiang Z, Hu J, Li X, Jiang Y, Zhou W, Lu D (2006). "Expression analyses of 27 DNA repair genes in astrocytoma by TaqMan low- ... Low expression of NTHL1 is associated with initiation and development of astrocytoma. Low expression of NTHL1 is also found in ...
In February 2009, Barbero was diagnosed with Astrocytoma, an inoperable brain tumor. Even though he continued his PA announcing ...
It is difficult to distinguish from highly infiltrative anaplastic astrocytoma or GBM.[citation needed] In 2014, Weill Cornell ...
Treatments and Tools for astrocytoma. Find astrocytoma information, treatments for astrocytoma and astrocytoma symptoms. ... astrocytoma - MedHelps astrocytoma Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Posts on astrocytoma. 5x5cm Possible astrocytoma in my childs head - Brain/Pituitary Tumors Community ... Is this an astrocytoma at the tip of the cerebellar tonsils? - Chiari Malformation Community ...
Various types of astrocytomas are given these WHO grades: According to the WHO data the lowest grade astrocytomas (grade I) ... A pathological specimen of a gemistocytic astrocytoma MRI scans of an astrocytoma patient, showing tumor progression over the ... high-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma), that share various features, including the ability to arise at ... There are no precise guidelines because the exact cause of astrocytoma is not known. For low-grade astrocytomas, removal of the ...
Treatment of high-grade astrocytomas such as anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme, depends on: the size and ... A low-grade astrocytoma may turn into an anaplastic astrocytoma.. Treatment of low-grade astrocytomas depends on:* the size and ... called pilocytic astrocytoma or juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas). Some are grade II (called diffuse astrocytoma or fibrillary ... High-grade astrocytomas include both grade III and grade IV tumours. Treatment of high-grade astrocytomas depends on:* the size ...
A low-grade astrocytoma may turn into an anaplastic astrocytoma.. Pilocytic astrocytoma. Pilocytic astrocytomas (also called ... Anaplastic astrocytoma. Anaplastic astrocytomas (also called malignant astrocytomas) are grade 3 tumours that grow at a ... Astrocytoma. Astrocytomas are a type of glioma that starts in glial cells called astrocytes. Astrocytes surround, support and ... Diffuse or infiltrating astrocytoma. Diffuse or infiltrating astrocytomas are grade 2 tumours. They tend to grow slowly into ...
Astrocytoma - Overview covers diagnosis and treatment for this type of glioma brain tumor, including surgery, chemotherapy and ... Astrocytoma. Astrocytoma. Astrocytoma is a type of cancer that can occur in the brain or spinal cord. It begins in cells called ... Astrocytoma is a type of cancer that can form in the brain or spinal cord. Astrocytoma begins in cells called astrocytes that ... Astrocytoma treatments include:. *. Surgery to remove the astrocytoma. Your brain surgeon (neursurgeon) will work to remove as ...
"Malignant astrocytomas - Epidemiology". Astrocytoma at eMedicine Childrens Hospital Boston > Anaplastic Astrocytoma. Archived ... Anaplastic astrocytoma is a rare WHO grade III type of astrocytoma, which is a type of cancer of the brain. In the United ... Anaplastic astrocytomas have also been associated with previous exposure to vinyl chloride and to high doses of radiation ... Anaplastic astrocytomas fall under the category of high grade gliomas (WHO grade III-IV), which are pathologically ...
Definition of protoplasmic astrocytoma. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
Low-grade astrocytomas are a heterogeneous group of intrinsic central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms that share certain ... Low-Grade Astrocytoma Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Dec 21, 2017 * Author: George I Jallo, MD; Chief Editor: Tarakad S ... encoded search term (Low-Grade%20Astrocytoma) and Low-Grade Astrocytoma What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape Consult. ... Morantz R A. Low-grade astrocytomas. Kaye AH, Laws ER Jr, eds. Brain Tumors: An Encyclopedic Approach. New York: Churchill ...
Pilocytic astrocytoma/glioma CancerTumor If someone has had chemotherapy treatments for the above mentioned (brain) tumor, does ... Pilocytic astrocytoma and glioma are benign tumors of the brain and may or may not be cancerous which means these tumors ... Pilocytic astrocytoma and glioma are benign tumors of the brain and may or may not be cancerous which means these tumors ... Pilocytic astrocytoma/glioma. If someone has had chemotherapy treatments for the above mentioned (brain) tumor, does it mean he ...
Retinal Astrocytoma Written By: Cristina Moreira dos Santos, MD, Inês Coutinho, MD, and Susana Teixeira, MD, and photographed ... Because retinal astrocytoma is often associated with tuberous sclerosis, a workup for tuberous sclerosis was performed, ... A presumptive diagnosis of retinal astrocytoma, a low-grade neoplasm of retinal origin, was established. ...
Tag: astrocytoma. CancerClinical TrialsScience and the Media. Dr. Stanislaw Burzynskis cancer "success" stories update: Why is ...
Positional vertigo with cerebellar astrocytoma.. Gregorius FK, Crandall PH, Baloh RW.. Abstract. The authors present two ... surgically verified cases of cerebellar astrocytoma extending into the fourth ventricular floor. Each patient presented with ...
Read about some possible signs of an astrocytoma here. ... An astrocytoma is a brain or spinal cord tumor that can produce ... Astrocytoma treatment. As with all types of cancer, the early detection and treatment of an astrocytoma can help ensure the ... What are some early warning signs of an astrocytoma?. A common early sign of an astrocytoma is pain around the site of the ... Astrocytoma symptoms can vary widely based on the size of the tumor and its specific location in the brain or spinal cord, as ...
This is the first page of Cancer.Nets Guide to Childhood Astrocytoma. Use the menu to see other pages. Think of that menu as a ... Astrocytoma can occur throughout the CNS, including in the following places:. * The cerebellum, which is the back part of the ... Astrocytoma is a type of CNS tumor that forms in cells called astrocytes. Healthy astrocytes provide the connecting network of ... This is the first page of Cancer.Nets Guide to Childhood Astrocytoma. Use the menu to see other pages. Think of that menu as a ...
3 LITTLE BIRDS 4 LIFE wrote - My name is Briana, and I was diagnosed with a rare brain cancer called Anaplastic Asterocytoma. Stage three brain cancer. I am 24 years, and I am the mother of a five year old little girl named Angelina. My dream in life is to be a cop, and I had done 6 1/2 weeks of Proton Raidation , along with chemo everyday for the 6 1/2 weeks. I am currently doing chemo five days per month, and I had surgery in November 2012 I had the whole right temporal lobe of the brain removed. I know is I just want to be cancer free, and I pray to beat the odds of this deadly disease because, I believe I have more to share with this world, and my journey is not done here if possible a cure my real wish is to have a cure for cancer. I just want to enjoy every day/night being happy, and also for my mother to be happy also because, she has done so much for me, and my child she deserves a vacation she is a mother of six, and I know as a mother
You will find out more about the factors that increase the chance of developing astrocytoma. Use the menu to see other pages.A ... Astrocytoma - Childhood: Risk Factors. Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 02/2019 ... ON THIS PAGE: You will find out more about the factors that increase the chance of developing astrocytoma. Use the menu to see ... It explains what body changes or medical problems astrocytoma can cause. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in ...
Learn more about astrocytoma symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments from experts at Boston Childrens, ranked best Childrens ... Most astrocytomas are both highly treatable and highly curable. The most common kind of astrocytoma, called a pilocytic ... Astrocytoma Treatment at Dana-Farber/Boston Childrens. Children and adolescents with astrocytomas are treated at Dana-Farber/ ... Grades 1 and 2 are considered low-grade astrocytomas, and grades 3 and 4 are considered high-grade astrocytomas. ...
Figure 5: Dietary restriction reduces PDGF-Rβ and VEGF-R2 association in the CT-2A astrocytoma. (a) Confocal analysis of CT-2A ... Figure 3: Dietary restriction increases α-SMA and reduces Factor VIII expression in the CT-2A astrocytoma. The histograms show ... Dietary Restriction Reduces PDGF-Rβ and VEGF-R2 Association in the CT-2A Astrocytoma. Confocal microscopy showed that the ... We found for the first time that DR could enhance tumor blood vessel maturation in a malignant mouse astrocytoma. DR not only ...
My youngest son has a recurring astrocytoma. He has undergone 2 resections in two years. It appears the tumor has reoccurred. ... My youngest son has a recurring astrocytoma. He has undergone 2 resections in two years. It appears the tumor has reoccurred. ...
In children, the majority of astrocytomas that occur are classified as low-grade, but in adults most of the tumors are of the ... Like all brain tumors, astrocytomas are very serious and are usually described by the medical community based upon their grade ... The most advanced astrocytomas (grade IV) are usually described as glioblastoma multiforme. ... Astrocytomas are the most common variety of glioma (tumor that arises from glial cells) and may be benign or malignant. ...
Study of Blood Samples and Risk of Infection in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Malignant Supratentorial Astrocytoma. *Brain and ... Efficacy and Safety of Everolimus (RAD001) in Patients of All Ages With Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma Associated With ... Everolimus (RAD001) Therapy of Giant Cell Astrocytoma in Patients With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. *Tuberous Sclerosis ... Percentage of Participants With Best Overall Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytomas (SEGA) Response ...
Treatment for an astrocytoma depends upon a number of factors, such as the state of health of the patient and the specific ... Astrocytoma at 40x Magnification. Treatment for an astrocytoma depends upon a number of factors, such as the state of health of ...
Astrocytomas are brain tumors that affect the organs glial cells, which surround nerve cells (neurons), giving them support ... However, an astrocytoma can also be rarely found in the spinal cord, and there was one reported case of an astrocytoma located ... Astrocytoma in Dogs. Astrocytomas are brain tumors that affect the organs glial cells, which surround nerve cells (neurons), ... The astrocytomas biologic behavior depends on the tumors location and degree of lack of cell differentiation (graded I-IV, ...
When Kellilyn Monar was diagnosed with an astrocytoma, her father said they only had once chance to make the best decision ... When Kellilyn Monar was diagnosed with an astrocytoma, her father said they only had once chance to make the best decision ... She had her biopsy in Las Vegas, and learned it was a grade II astrocytoma. But Kellilyn wasnt comfortable moving forward with ...
... Zhongyu Liu,1 Zhiqiang Yao,2 Chao Li,3 Yicheng Lu,4 and Chunfang ... Zhongyu Liu, Zhiqiang Yao, Chao Li, Yicheng Lu, and Chunfang Gao, "Gene Expression Profiling in Human High-Grade Astrocytomas ...
Stereotactic biopsy revealed an anaplastic (high grade, 3) astrocytoma. Notes:. Link to this frame from your Personal ...
Dizzy spell… Cheryl Edmonson needs your support for Help Jay Conquer Anaplastic Astrocytoma ... Graded on a scale of 1 to 4, Jays is a 3, or anaplastic astrocytoma. It requires more aggressive treatment.. Surgery went well ... The neurosurgeon was able to remove almost 100% of the tumor and identified Jays tumor as something called astrocytoma. It was ...
Recurrent Childhood Astrocytomas. A recurrent childhood astrocytoma is an astrocytoma that has recurred (come back) after it ... There are many types of low-grade astrocytomas. Low-grade astrocytomas can be either:. *Grade I tumors-pilocytic astrocytoma, ... An astrocytoma is a type of glioma.. Astrocytoma is the most common type of glioma diagnosed in children. It can form anywhere ... Low-grade astrocytomas. Low-grade astrocytomas are slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the brain and spinal cord ...
Diseases : Astrocytoma, Astrocytoma: Grade IV, Brain Cancer, Glioma. Additional Keywords : Tissue Inhibitors of ... 1 Abstracts with Astrocytoma: Grade IV Research. Filter by Study Type. Human: Case Report. ...
Learn about Anaplastic Astrocytoma symptoms and causes from experts at Boston Childrens, ranked best Childrens Hospital by US ...
  • Most low-grade tumours are grade I tumours (called pilocytic astrocytoma or juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas). (cancer.ca)
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (also called juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas) are grade 1 tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • Some of the gliomas that commonly fit within this category are pilocytic astrocytomas, subependymal, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas, subependymomas and giant cell astrocytomas. (knowcancer.com)
  • To assess outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for newly diagnosed or recurrent pilocytic astrocytomas in pediatric patients. (springer.com)
  • Fifty patients (28 male and 22 females) with juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA) underwent Gamma knife SRS between 1987 and 2006. (springer.com)
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery for pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas should be considered when resection is not feasible, or if there is an early recurrence. (springer.com)
  • Fulham MJ, Melisi JW, Nishimiya J, Dwyer AJ, Di Chiro G (1993) Neuroimaging of juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas: an enigma. (springer.com)
  • Boethius J, Ulfarsson E, Rahn T, Lippittz B (2002) Gamma knife radiosurgery for pilocytic astrocytomas. (springer.com)
  • Hadjipanayis CG, Kondziolka D, Gardner P, Niranjan A, Dagam S, Flickinger JC et al (2002) Stereotactic radiosurgery for pilocytic astrocytomas when multimodal therapy is necessary. (springer.com)
  • Somaza SC, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Flickinger JC, Bissonette DJ, Albright AL (1996) Early outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery for growing pilocytic astrocytomas in children. (springer.com)
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) have deceiving histologic and radiographic features that resemble more aggressive tumors (e.g., mitotic figures, endothelial proliferation, necrosis, and contrast-enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] scans), although lack of perilesional edema often distinguishes them from higher grade tumors. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Through this multicenter trial by the Children's Oncology Group, researchers will compare how well low-dose lenalidomide works compared with high-dose lenalidomide in treating younger patients with juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas or optic nerve pathway gliomas that have come back (recurrent), have not responded to treatment (refractory), or are growing, spreading, or getting worse (progressive). (chp.edu)
  • People with pilocytic astrocytomas might experience symptoms including: headaches, nausea, vomiting, irritability, ataxia (uncoordinated movement or unsteady gait), and vision issues. (nih.gov)
  • The exact underlying cause of pilocytic astrocytomas is currently unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are typically sporadic, occurring by chance in individuals with no history of the condition in the family. (nih.gov)
  • In total 205 low and high grade astrocytoma samples (15 pilocytic astrocytomas, 56 diffuse astrocytomas, 32 anaplastic astrocytomas and 102 glioblastomas) were used for target mRNA, protein expression and DNA methylation analysis applying qRT-PCR, Western-Blot and MS-PCR assays, respectively. (jcancer.org)
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are WHO grade I gliomas that occur predominantly in childhood. (ed.gov)
  • Understanding the molecular basis responsible for the aggressive behaviour of hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas is a prerequisite to setting up new molecular targeted therapies. (ed.gov)
  • We used the microarray technique to compare the transcriptional profiles of five hypothalamo-chiasmatic and six cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas. (ed.gov)
  • Results demonstrate that cerebellar and hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas are two genetically distinct and topography-dependent entities. (ed.gov)
  • Numerous genes upregulated in hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas also increased in the developing chiasm, suggesting that developmental genes mirror the cell of origin whereas migrative, adhesive and proliferative genes reflect infiltrative properties of these tumours. (ed.gov)
  • Of particular interest, "NOTCH2", a gene expressed in radial glia and involved in gliomagenesis, was upregulated in hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas. (ed.gov)
  • In order to find progenitor cells that could give rise to hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas, we performed a morphological study of the hypothalamo-chiasmatic region and identified, in the floor of the third ventricle, a unique population of vimentin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells highly suggestive of radial glia cells. (ed.gov)
  • Therefore, pilocytic astrocytomas of the hypothalamo-chiasmatic region should be considered as a distinct entity which probably originates from a unique population of cells with radial glia phenotype. (ed.gov)
  • Herrera EJ, Viano JC, Gomez JM, Surur A, Suarez JC (2007) Interstitial stereotactic radiosurgery of pilocytic astrocytomas in paediatric patients. (springer.com)
  • Using methylation‑specific polymerase chain reaction, the methylation status of the tumor suppressor genes P15, P16, RB1, and MGMT in pilocytic astrocytomas (n=18) was analyzed. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The pilocytic astrocytomas of all 18 patients revealed wild‑type IDH1. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Astrocytomas are a type of brain tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grading of the tumor sample is a method of classification that helps the doctor to determine the severity of the astrocytoma and to decide on the best treatment options. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low grade astrocytoma of the midbrain (lamina tecti), sagittal T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging after contrast medium administration: The tumor is marked with an arrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pathological specimen of a gemistocytic astrocytoma MRI scans of an astrocytoma patient, showing tumor progression over the course of seven years Of numerous grading systems in use for the classification of tumor of the central nervous system, the World Health Organization (WHO) grading system is commonly used for astrocytoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astrocytoma symptoms can vary widely based on the size of the tumor and its specific location in the brain or spinal cord, as well as which nerves or glands are affected, if any. (moffitt.org)
  • A common early sign of an astrocytoma is pain around the site of the tumor. (moffitt.org)
  • Astrocytoma is a type of CNS tumor that forms in cells called astrocytes. (cancer.net)
  • Astrocytoma begins when healthy astrocytes change and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor. (cancer.net)
  • An astrocytoma is a brain tumor that originates from star-shaped cells called astrocytes. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Children and adolescents with astrocytomas are treated at Dana-Farber/Boston Children's through the Brain Tumor Center's Glioma Program , one of the largest and most experienced pediatric glioma programs in the world. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Astrocytomas are the most common variety of glioma (tumor that arises from glial cells) and may be benign or malignant. (microscopyu.com)
  • Treatment for an astrocytoma depends upon a number of factors, such as the state of health of the patient and the specific characteristics (size, grade, location, etc.) of the tumor. (microscopyu.com)
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are also highly instrumental in diagnosing astrocytomas, as is radionuclide imaging, which may show an area of increased activity at the tumor site. (petmd.com)
  • The neurosurgeon was able to remove almost 100% of the tumor and identified Jay's tumor as something called astrocytoma. (gofundme.com)
  • Astrocytoma is a glioma, a tumor that arises from the glial cells. (dana-farber.org)
  • After treatment, we continue to provide care and support to children with astrocytoma through our pediatric cancer survivorship programs , including the Stop & Shop Family Pediatric Neuro-Oncology Outcomes Clinic for pediatric brain tumor survivors . (dana-farber.org)
  • We offer innovative brain tumor clinical trials for children with astrocytomas. (dana-farber.org)
  • Primary brain tumors, including astrocytomas, are a diverse group of diseases that together constitute the most common solid tumor of childhood. (oncolink.org)
  • An astrocytoma (as-troh-sy-TOE-muh) is a brain tumor that originates from a star-shaped brain cell known as an astrocyte. (akronchildrens.org)
  • When there is a defect in an astrocyte that causes it to grow out of control, the brain tumor that forms is called an astrocytoma. (akronchildrens.org)
  • Astrocytoma is type of brain tumor. (epnet.com)
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a slow-growing type of brain tumor. (ahealthyme.com)
  • The tumor was resected in July 2003(95%) and the pathology reported that I had an anaplastic astrocytoma level III in 20% of the tumor. (cancer.org)
  • We were notified yesterday that the pathologists had classified the tumor as a Grade 3 Anaplastic Astrocytoma. (cancer.org)
  • Determine the antitumor activity of antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 in children with low-grade astrocytoma by determining the proportion of patients who experience an objective tumor response. (knowcancer.com)
  • Previously, we reported a mouse model for malignant astrocytomas, in which germline haploinsufficiency of p53 and conditional haploinsufficiency of Nf1 tumor suppressors on the same chromosome induce the malignancy with complete penetrance (Mut3 mice in Zhu et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The B7-H6 expression did not show significant relevance with patient age, sex distribution, Karnofsky performance status score, extent of resection, and tumor location in astrocytoma patients, but B7-H6 positive expression is significantly associated with World Health Organization grade ( P =0.046). (dovepress.com)
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma is a benign brain tumor that grows slowly in the brain or spinal cord. (stlouischildrens.org)
  • Astrocytoma" describes the type of tumor that begins in the brain or spinal cord in small, star-shaped cells called astrocytes. (stlouischildrens.org)
  • Astrocytoma is a type of brain tumor and the most common type of glioma . (emf-portal.org)
  • Anaplastic astrocytoma is a World Health Organization (WHO) Grade III brain glioma that is a malignant, diffusely infiltrating primary brain tumor, which usually presents as a solitary mass but can present as multiple brain lesions [ 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • PURPOSE To describe the MR findings in six patients with recurrent cerebral astrocytomas before, immediately after, and 3 months after local immunotherapy with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin-2. (ajnr.org)
  • METHODS Contrast-enhanced MR studies were obtained in six patients (three with anaplastic astrocytoma and three with glioblastoma multiforme) at the time of tumor recurrence, after a second resection and placement of an Ommaya catheter, at the end of immunotherapy, and thereafter at 3-month intervals. (ajnr.org)
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma is an often benign , slow-growing tumor of the brain or spinal cord. (nih.gov)
  • Anaplastic astrocytoma is a rare, cancerous (malignant) type of brain tumor that arises from star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • A mosaic mouse model of astrocytoma identifies alphavbeta8 integrin as a negative regulator of tumor angiogenesis. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Alterations of DNA copy number are believed to be important indicators of tumor progression in human astrocytoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fifty tumor samples (GBM, grade 4 astrocytoma) were obtained from the tissue bank at the Brain Tumor Research Center, UCSF. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A higher astrocytoma grade is associated with increased tumor invasiveness and shorter patient survival [ 3 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • We applied this technique in 5 patients with spinal cord astrocytomas to visualize the spinal cord tumor extension inside the white matter fibers. (ajnr.org)
  • Melanoma - astrocytoma syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of a melanoma with a type of brain tumor called an astrocytoma. (checkorphan.org)
  • Desmoplastic astrocytoma (DA) is a rare intracranial tumor which usually affects pediatric patients. (springermedizin.de)
  • Brain Tumor News: Human interferon beta, nimustine hydrochloride, and radiation therapy in the treatment of newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas. (virtualtrials.com)
  • In conclusion, miR‑370 inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells by regulating the levels of β‑catenin and the activation of FOXO3a, suggesting that miR‑370 was a tumor suppressor in the progression of human astrocytoma and glioblastoma cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Familial melanoma-astrocytoma syndrome is a tumor predisposition syndrome caused by inactivating germline alteration of the CDKN2A tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 9p21. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Disabato JA, Handler MH, Strain JD, Fleitz JM, Foreman NK (1999) Successful use of intracavitary bleomycin for low-grade astrocytoma tumor cyst. (springer.com)
  • Astrocytomas are the most common glioma and can occur in most parts of the brain and occasionally in the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astrocytomas are a type of glioma that starts in glial cells called astrocytes. (cancer.ca)
  • Hi, Pilocytic astrocytoma and glioma are benign tumors of the brain and may or may not be cancerous which means these tumors generally do not spread to the neighboring organs or distant organs through blood. (medhelp.org)
  • An astrocytoma is a type of glioma. (oncolink.org)
  • Astrocytoma is the most common type of glioma diagnosed in children. (oncolink.org)
  • Astrocytoma is one of the most common forms of glioma (a cancer that arises in the brain and/or spinal cord). (knowcancer.com)
  • WHO Grade II astrocytoma identifies a glioma that has infiltrated other parts of the brain and/or other nearby structures. (knowcancer.com)
  • The most common kind of low-grade glioma is pilocytic astrocytoma . (dana-farber.org)
  • Decreased survival of glioma patients with astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) associated with long-term use of mobile and cordless phones. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • To test the mechanism of neuronal control of glioma cell growth, we added granule neurons or PC12 cells that had been fixed lightly with paraformaldehyde, a plasma membrane fraction of purified granule cells, PC12 cells or astrocytoma cells, or medium conditioned by either granule cells or a mixed population of cerebellar neurons and astroglia. (jneurosci.org)
  • This case was proved by pathology to be low-grade glioma compatible with pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade 1). (radiopaedia.org)
  • Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) is a WHO Grade III brain glioma. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The integrated diagnosis was low-grade glioma with piloid features, most consistent with pilocytic astrocytoma, WHO grade I. (springermedizin.de)
  • In the United States, the annual incidence rate for Anaplastic astrocytoma is 0.44 per 100,000 people Initial presenting symptoms most commonly are headache, depressed mental status, focal neurological deficits, and/or seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some are grade II (called diffuse astrocytoma or fibrillary astrocytomas). (cancer.ca)
  • Diffuse or infiltrating astrocytomas are grade 2 tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • Ajlan A, Recht L. Supratentorial low-grade diffuse astrocytoma: medical management. (medscape.com)
  • Currently, the diffuse gliomas (oligodendroglial or astrocytic) are nosologically closer than the astrocytomas with a diffuse growth pattern, and the astrocytomas with a more circumscribed growth pattern defined by the presence of the IDH mutation. (intechopen.com)
  • According to WHO 2016, diffuse gliomas are lumped together, regardless of their histopathological aspect (astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas) [ 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Low grade gliomas (LGG) are a group of slow growing WHO grade II tumours comprising of diffuse astrocytoma , oligodendroglioma and rarely oligoastrocytoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hi, I am a 55 year old male just diagnosed with diffuse astrocytoma stage 2 IDH wild type after experiencing mild headaches and nausea. (cancercompass.com)
  • My husband (56) was diagnosed with the same (diffuse astrocytoma stage 2 IDH wildtype) a few weeks ago after a seizure. (cancercompass.com)
  • My son is the one with the stage 2, diffuse astrocytoma, triple negative. (cancercompass.com)
  • Fibrillary astrocytomas (FA) have a uniform histologic pattern of elongated nuclei and diffuse infiltration of surrounding gray and white matter. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Grade II astrocytomas are pilomyxoid astrocytoma occurring most often in infants and very young children, diffuse astrocytoma, seen at any age, but often between ages 30-40, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, typically developing in children and young adults. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • A total of 69% of GBMs presented TERT mutation, whereas IDH1 mutation was most frequent in diffuse (85.7%) and anaplastic (100%) astrocytomas. (g3journal.org)
  • Familial melanoma-astrocytoma syndrome: synchronous diffuse astrocytoma and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma in a patient with germline CDKN2A/B deletion and a significant family history. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas fall under the category of high grade gliomas (WHO grade III-IV), which are pathologically undifferentiated gliomas that carry a poor clinical prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of gliomas are astrocytomas. (cancer.ca)
  • For example, astrocytomas originate from astrocytes, oligodendroglial tumors from oligodendrocytes, and mixed gliomas from a mix of oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and ependymal cells. (oncolink.org)
  • An astrocytoma is a type of the larger group of brain tumors called gliomas. (epnet.com)
  • In the present study, the diagnosis was incorrectly made for five cases of gliomas, where two cases of Grade III Astrocytoma were wrongly diagnosed as cerebral abscess and Metastasis respectively, one case of Grade II astrocytoma was wrongly diagnosed as acute infarct, one case of Oligoastrocytoma was wrongly diagnosed as Meningioma, one case of GBM was wrongly diagnosed as Choroid plexus carcinoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Subject to certain exclusion criteria, this study is open to patients of both genders up to 21 years of age, who have refractive, recurrent, or progressive juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma or optic nerve pathway gliomas. (chp.edu)
  • Herein, using an extensive integrated analysis, we indicated potentially important genes, not extensively studied in gliomas, that could be further explored to assess their biological and clinical impact in astrocytomas. (g3journal.org)
  • Gliomas are classified into different histological subtypes, with astrocytomas the most prevalent. (g3journal.org)
  • Astrocytomas are attributed to gliomas, a larger group of CNS tumors, which originate from neuroglial cells. (jcancer.org)
  • EXPERMENTAL DESIGN: In this study, we examined the expression levels of 365 mature human miRNAs in 12 malignant gliomas, including 8 glioblastomas (GBMs) and 4 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), using TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR arrays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gliomas are the most abundant brain tumours of which for the most part predominate astrocytomas [ 1 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • The most common grade III tumour is anaplastic astrocytoma, and the most common grade IV tumour is glioblastoma (also called glioblastoma multiforme or GBM). (cancer.ca)
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas tend to turn into glioblastoma multiforme. (cancer.ca)
  • Astrocytomas come in four major subtypes: pilocytic astrocytoma (grade 1), fibrillary astrocytoma (grade 2), anaplastic astrocytoma (grade 3), and glioblastoma multiforme (grade 4). (akronchildrens.org)
  • For instance, low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme usually occur in adults, and their fundamental nature is to progressively worsen in intensity and to spread. (brain-surgery.com)
  • GBM - glioblastoma multiforme - constitutes 70% of all astrocytomas reported. (brain-surgery.com)
  • Five to 15% of affected individuals display subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, which can lead to substantial neurological and postoperative morbidity due to the production of hydrocephalus, mass effect, and their typical location adjacent to the foramen of Monro. (nih.gov)
  • Five subjects with clinically definite TSC and either subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (n = 4) or a pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 1) were treated with oral rapamycin at standard immunosuppressive doses (serum levels 5-15 ng/ml) from 2.5 to 20 months. (nih.gov)
  • Interruption of therapy resulted in regrowth of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in one patient. (nih.gov)
  • Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA, WHO grade I) arise almost exclusively in the setting of tuberous sclerosis (TS). (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Astrocytomas are tumors that start in star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes . (oncolink.org)
  • Astrocytomas (astrocytes). (oncolink.org)
  • Astrocytomas are tumors that arise from astrocytes-star-shaped cells that make up the "glue-like" or supportive tissue of the brain. (postpals.co.uk)
  • Astrocytomas in the base of the brain are more common in young people and account for roughly 75% of neuroepithelial tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaplastic astrocytoma is a rare WHO grade III type of astrocytoma, which is a type of cancer of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas have also been associated with previous exposure to vinyl chloride and to high doses of radiation therapy to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astrocytomas are found in the cerebellum, cerebrum, central areas of the brain, brain stem and spinal cord. (cancer.ca)
  • Low-grade astrocytomas have cells that look similar to normal CNS cells and are a type of benign brain tumour. (cancer.ca)
  • However, unlike other brain tumours, some children with remaining (residual) low-grade astrocytomas may survive a long time without any symptoms or tumour regrowth even without additional treatment after surgery. (cancer.ca)
  • Most astrocytomas spread throughout the brain and blend with normal tissue, which can make it difficult to remove the tumour with surgery. (cancer.ca)
  • Because retinal astrocytoma is often associated with tuberous sclerosis, a workup for tuberous sclerosis was performed, including tympanometry, renal and abdominal ultrasound, and brain CT scan and MRI. (aao.org)
  • Like all brain tumors, astrocytomas are very serious and are usually described by the medical community based upon their grade. (microscopyu.com)
  • Astrocytomas are brain tumors that affect the organ's glial cells, which surround nerve cells (neurons), giving them support and electrically insulating them. (petmd.com)
  • Childhood astrocytoma is a disease in which benign (noncancer) or malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain. (oncolink.org)
  • Tests that examine the brain and spinal cord are used to detect (find) childhood astrocytomas. (oncolink.org)
  • Astrocytomas develop from astrocyte cells that are located primarily in the cerebrium, which is the main part of the brain. (knowcancer.com)
  • The diagnostic evaluation for astrocytoma is often limited to a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain or spine. (oncolink.org)
  • This cell line was established from a brain metastasis in a person with astrocytoma. (mskcc.org)
  • An astrocytoma is a neoplasm in the brain or spinal cavity which arises out of certain glial cells present in the cerebrum of the human brain. (brain-surgery.com)
  • Astrocytoma is known to restrict its presence and growth in the human brain and spinal cord and is only very rarely known to reach to other body parts. (brain-surgery.com)
  • Moreover, a novel variant of OCT4, OCT4B3, was detected in two human cancer cell lines of bladder carcinoma (5637) and brain astrocytoma (1321N1) for the first time. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Low grade astrocytomas (LGA) represent the most common group of pediatric brain tumors, with several histologic types arising at multiple sites within the central nervous system (CNS). (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Among the most common brain tumors in humans, glioblastomas can be classified into four classes, one of which consists of anaplastic astrocytomas (AA). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Though initial concern was for neuro-Behçet's disease, brain biopsy ultimately revealed a diagnosis of astrocytoma. (bmj.com)
  • Herein, to understand the underlying relationship between obesity and brain tumors, we investigated the effect of leptin, alone or in combination with sPLA2-IIA on astrocytoma cell functions. (csic.es)
  • AREG was also designated to be a promising marker for several types of cancer however precious little data about AREG role in the most frequent and generally lethal human brain tumours - astrocytomas reported up to date. (jcancer.org)
  • Moreover, we showed that G-7 was able to induce a strong inhibition of U373 cell migration, a crucial biological effect when we know that astrocytoma cells' migration in brain parenchyma constitutes a major feature of malignancy in astrocytic tumors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Astrocytomas are the most common types of primary brain tumours accounting for approximately 13.3% of all newly diagnosed brain tumours. (egms.de)
  • mRNA expression of seven different stem cell markers (CD133, Nestin, SOX-2, Musashi-1, Flt-4, Endoglin and CXCR4) was examined in normal brain tissue (NBT) and human astrocytomas of different WHO grades using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. (egms.de)
  • Glioblastomas are aggressive astrocytomas characterized by endothelial cell proliferation and abnormal vasculature, which can cause brain edema and increase patient morbidity. (diva-portal.org)
  • A variety of factors influence an astrocytoma patient's prognosis. (knowcancer.com)
  • In all, it seems that the B7-H6 expression might be a marker to differentiate the World Health Organization grade level of astrocytoma, but the prognosis value of B7-H6 in astrocytoma should be studied in detail. (dovepress.com)
  • Gene mutations, such as 1p19q and IDH132, affect the prognosis of anaplastic astrocytoma and should, therefore, be tested to guide therapy [ 1 - 2 , 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A growing body of epidemiologic and molecular research has identified an important role of genomic and epigenomic alterations in astrocytoma initiation, susceptibility, and prognosis. (jcancer.org)
  • Protein kinase C activators sensitize cyclic AMP accumulation by intact 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pretreatment of 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate or other activators of protein kinase C led to 2.5- to 5-fold increases (sensitization) in subsequent stimulation by forskolin of intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • sPLA2-IIA induced up-regulation of leptin receptors in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. (csic.es)
  • Although temozolomide is effective for treating recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma, its role as an adjuvant to radiation therapy has not been fully tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may also be used to treat anaplastic astrocytoma that comes back after treatment (called recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma). (cancer.ca)
  • Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) grading system, astrocytomas are classified as low to high grade (grades 1-4). (cancer.ca)
  • Astrocytoma is more commonly referred to as either high grade or low grade (see Stages and Grades ). (cancer.net)
  • Grades 1 and 2 are considered low-grade astrocytomas, and grades 3 and 4 are considered high-grade astrocytomas. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Low-grade astrocytomas (grades 1 and 2), seen more often in kids and young adults, are highly curable because they usually grow slowly, don't spread, and usually are fairly easy to remove unless found in areas where surgery would be difficult. (akronchildrens.org)
  • High-grade astrocytomas (grades 3 and 4), which tend to be seen more in adults, are more aggressive and invade deeper into the tissues. (akronchildrens.org)
  • WHO's histological guidelines categorize the grades of astrocytoma into four levels. (brain-surgery.com)
  • Astrocytomas vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors and are classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). (emf-portal.org)
  • Therefore, we performed CNA profiling of 65 astrocytomas of distinct malignant grades (WHO grade I-IV) of Brazilian origin, using array-CGH and microsatellite instability analysis (MSI), and investigated their correlation with TERT and IDH1 mutational status and clinico-pathological features. (g3journal.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies astrocytomas into 4 grades based on histological properties [ 2 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Correlation analysis determined positive correlations between the percentages of Nestin, CD133, SOX-2, and Musashi-1 immunoassayed cells and the pathological grades of astrocytomas. (egms.de)
  • These results demonstrated a complex gene expression pattern of putative tumour stem cell markers in astrocytomas of different WHO grades. (egms.de)
  • The results of this study indicate that modern high-resolution neuroimaging alone cannot be used as a reliable tool to predict the histological diagnosis of astrocytoma (50% false-positive rate). (nih.gov)
  • It is generally known that bone metastasis is found after the initial diagnosis with/without intervening surgery rather than being found at the time of the diagnosis of astrocytoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This pattern identifies among glioblastoma as well as lower-grade astrocytoma patients a subtype, where the CNA genotype is correlated with an approximately one-year survival phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seizures are less common among patients with anaplastic astrocytomas compared to low-grade lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma may experience various types of paralysis, speech impediments, difficulties planning and skewed sensory perception. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grade-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins-2, -3, and -5 in astrocytomas: IGFBP-3 emerges as a strong predictor of survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma," Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention , vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1399-1408, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Many physicians rely upon neuroimaging studies alone to select therapy for adult patients suspected of having a glial neoplasm, in the belief that certain imaging features accurately characterize the histological diagnosis of low-grade astrocytoma. (nih.gov)
  • During a 4-year interval when both computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging was available, the authors performed stereotactic biopsies on 20 consecutive adult patients who were suspected of having an astrocytoma. (nih.gov)
  • All patients with supratentorial mass lesions that exhibit the "typical" imaging features of astrocytoma should undergo stereotactic biopsy for confirmation in order that appropriate management may be planned. (nih.gov)
  • However, up until now, there is no data about the clinical significance of B7-H6 expression in astrocytoma patients. (dovepress.com)
  • However, the survival rate after operation presented no significant difference of B7-H6 expression in astrocytoma patients. (dovepress.com)
  • Management of choice for patients with low grade astrocytoma is still not clear and is controversial9-11. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hi Keithga: I do not check into this site too often these days, but when I do I look for posts by people with astrocytomas stage 2 as there is much less info out there for such patients. (cancercompass.com)
  • The rs2070935 AA genotype was found to be associated with poor clinical outcome for grade IV astrocytoma patients (p = 0.0007), although the following data should be checked in a larger sample size of astrocytoma patients. (jcancer.org)
  • Burkhard C, Di Patre PL, Schuler D, Schuler G, Yasargil MG, Yonekawa Y, Lutolf UM, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H. A population-based study of the incidence and survival rates in patients with pilocytic astrocytoma. (springermedizin.de)
  • Our objective was to visualize the deformation of the posterior spinal cord lemniscal and corticospinal tracts in 5 patients with low-grade astrocytomas compared with 10 healthy volunteers by using 3D fiber-tracking reconstructions. (ajnr.org)
  • This study was undertaken to examine further the efficacy of the IAR regimen followed by maintenance therapy with IFN-beta and ACNU in patients with newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas. (virtualtrials.com)
  • The estimated median overall survival (OS) was 16 months, with values of 58 and 13 months for anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma (GB) patients, respectively. (virtualtrials.com)
  • Steponaitis G, Kazlauskas A, Skiriute D, Vaitkiene P, Skauminas K, Tamasauskas A. Significance of Amphiregulin (AREG) for the Outcome of Low and High Grade Astrocytoma Patients. (jcancer.org)
  • I wish there was more research on Astrocytomas Stage 2 that could lead to stopping progression right at that level. (cancercompass.com)
  • Differential expression of two fibroblast growth factor-receptor genes is associated with malignant progression in human astrocytomas. (pnas.org)
  • Elevated expression of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in astrocytomas has implicated the FGF family of mitogens in the initiation and progression of astrocyte-derived tumors. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrated that human astrocytomas undergo parallel changes in FGF-receptor (FGFR) expression during their progression from a benign to a malignant phenotype. (pnas.org)
  • Current findings demonstrate that AREG appearance is associated with patient survival as well as astrocytomas malignancy indicating its influence on tumour progression and suggest its applicability as a promising marker. (jcancer.org)
  • In the present study, the role of miR‑370 in the progression and proliferation of human astrocytoma and glioblastoma cells was assessed and the underlying molecular mechanism was investigated. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Astrocytomas can be classified as low or high grade depending on how the tumour cells look and how quickly they grow and spread. (cancer.ca)
  • To investigate the putative adaptive changes in antioxidant enzyme protein expression and targeting to mitochondria as mtDNA depletion occurs, we progressively depleted U87 astrocytoma cells of mtDNA by chronic treatment with ethidium bromide (EB, 50 ng/ml). (springer.com)
  • Rapid, specific binding of granule neurons to the human A-172, HTB-16, and U-251 and mouse G26-24 cell lines occurred, after which 3H-thymidine incorporation by these astrocytoma cells dropped 2-5-fold within 12 hr. (jneurosci.org)
  • The addition of fixed PC12 cells or plasma membranes purified from PC12 cells, 3T3 cells, or astrocytoma cells had no effect on glial cell growth. (jneurosci.org)
  • Astrocytomas are tumors originating from astrocyte cells of the central nervous system (CNS) [ 1 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Knockdown of STAT3 expression by RNAi induces apoptosis in astrocytoma cells. (tufts.edu)
  • Leptin, at concentrations with minimal or no activating effects on astrocytoma cells, enhanced growth and migration promoted by low doses of sPLA2-IIA. (csic.es)
  • We therefore chose to express the P2Y12 receptor in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, which have minimal endogenous receptor. (creative-biogene.com)
  • In relation to NBT high CD133, Nestin, SOX-2, and Musashi-1 mRNA expression levels and amounts of positive stained cells could be observed especially in astrocytomas of WHO grade IV. (egms.de)
  • While also great quantities of Nestin positive cells could be detected in high malignant astrocytomas, the percentage of CD133 positive cells was lower than that of Nestin but higher than that of SOX-2 and Musashi-1. (egms.de)
  • Rapamycin causes regression of astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex. (nih.gov)
  • Burger PC, Breiter SN, Fisher PG (1996) Pilocytic and fibrillary astrocytomas of the brainstem-a comparative clinical, radiological and pathological study. (springer.com)
  • Palma L, Russo A, Mercuri S (1983) Cystic cerebral astrocytomas in infancy and childhood: long-term results. (springer.com)
  • However, a small proportion (less than 5%) of persons with malignant astrocytoma has a definite or suspected hereditary predisposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma usually occurs in children and young adults. (cancer.gov)
  • Familial cases of isolated astrocytomas are very rare. (nih.gov)
  • [1] [2] Familial cases of isolated astrocytomas have been reported but are very rare. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, FGFR type 1 (FLG) expression was absent or barely detectable in normal white matter but was significantly elevated in malignant astrocytomas. (pnas.org)
  • Bucy PC, Thieman PW (1968) Astrocytomas of the cerebellum. (springer.com)
  • Coronal (frontal) MRI image showing the typical appearance of a cystic astrocytoma of the cerebellum. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The growth rate and mean interval between onset of symptoms and diagnosis is approximately 1.5-2 years but is highly variable, being intermediate between that of low-grade astrocytomas and glioblastomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike glioblastomas (WHO grade IV), anaplastic astrocytomas lack vascular proliferation and necrosis on pathologic evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. (epnet.com)
  • Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116413/Astrocytoma-and-oligodendroglioma-in-adults. (epnet.com)
  • A Adult Low Grade Infiltrative Supratentorial Astrocytoma Oligodendroglioma anonymous support group with information on diagnosis, treatment, symptoms, along with personal stories and experiences with Adult Low Grade Infiltrative Supratentorial Astrocytoma Oligodendroglioma. (experienceproject.com)
  • Astrocytomas may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). (oncolink.org)
  • Low-grade astrocytomas include both grade I and grade II tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • High-grade astrocytomas include both grade III and grade IV tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas (also called malignant astrocytomas) are grade 3 tumours that grow at a moderate rate. (cancer.ca)
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis encompassing only malignant tumours showed similar results indicating that AREG is associated with astrocytoma patient survival independently from astrocytoma grade. (jcancer.org)
  • These features are significant in measuring the malignancy of an astrocytoma with regard to its invasion and developmental pace. (brain-surgery.com)
  • The aim of the study was to investigate how AREG changes at epigenetic and expression levels reflect on astrocytoma malignancy and patient outcome. (jcancer.org)
  • Examples are pilocytic astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. (brain-surgery.com)
  • Spinal astrocytomas more common in children, can affect the whole spine, show patchy enhancement , more eccentric and less commonly show hemorrhagic or cystic component. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Colnat-Coulbois S, Klein O, Braun M, Thouvenot P, Marchal JC (2010) Management of intramedullary cystic pilocytic astrocytoma with rhenium-186 intracavitary irradiation: case report. (springer.com)
  • Hood TW, Shapiro B, Taren JA (1987) Treatment of cystic astrocytomas with intracavitary phosphorus 32. (springer.com)
  • Positional vertigo with cerebellar astrocytoma. (nih.gov)
  • The authors present two surgically verified cases of cerebellar astrocytoma extending into the fourth ventricular floor. (nih.gov)
  • Scott RM, Ballantine HT Jr (1973) Cerebellar astrocytoma: malignant recurrence after prolonged postoperative survival. (springer.com)
  • Larson DA, Wara WM, Edwards MS (1990) Management of childhood cerebellar astrocytoma. (springer.com)
  • This is the first page of Cancer.Net's Guide to Childhood Astrocytoma. (cancer.net)
  • Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood astrocytomas. (oncolink.org)
  • This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of childhood astrocytomas. (oncolink.org)
  • Childhood astrocytomas are usually diagnosed and removed in surgery. (oncolink.org)
  • This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of childhood astrocytomas. (oncolink.org)
  • Childhood astrocytomas can occur anywhere in the central nervous system (CNS) (refer to Figure). (oncolink.org)
  • According to the WHO histologic typing of CNS tumors, childhood astrocytomas and other tumors of glial origin are classified according to clinicopathologic and histologic subtype and are graded (grade I to IV). (oncolink.org)
  • Childhood astrocytomas can occur anywhere in the central nervous system (CNS). (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Established in 1993 in an effort to eliminate confusion regarding diagnoses, the WHO system established a four-tiered histologic grading guideline for astrocytomas that assigns a grade from 1 to 4, with 1 being the least aggressive and 4 being the most aggressive. (wikipedia.org)
  • A spinal cord astrocytoma and its concurrent osteoblastic metastases at the time of the initial diagnosis: a case report and literature review. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bone metastasis from a spinal cord astrocytoma has been reported only twice in the English medical literature. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The purpose of this article is to report for the first time a case of concurrent bone metastasis from a spinal cord astrocytoma at the time of diagnosing the spinal cord astrocytoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Kim MS, Chung CK, Choe G, Kim IH, Kim HJ (2001) Intramedullary spinal cord astrocytoma in adults: postoperative outcome. (springer.com)
  • Zurück zum Zitat Abuharbid G, Esmaeilzadeh M, Hartmann C, Hermann EJ, Krauss JK (2015) Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma with multiple intracranial and intraspinal localizations at presentation. (springermedizin.de)
  • Zurück zum Zitat Al-Kharazi K, Gillis C, Steinbok P, Dunham C (2013) Malignant desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma? (springermedizin.de)
  • Astrocytoma treatment has been the focus of ongoing research and clinical trials. (knowcancer.com)
  • The present study provides an investigation on the relationship between prognostic and clinical value of B7-H6 protein in astrocytoma tissues. (dovepress.com)
  • GlobalData's clinical trial report, "Anaplastic Astrocytoma Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2016" provides an overview of Anaplastic Astrocytoma clinical trials scenario. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this presentation, clinical and radiological findings of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and cortical tubers leading to new onset seizures will be discussed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Finding the right clinical trial for Melanoma astrocytoma syndrome can be challenging. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • However, whether promoter methylation of these genes also has an impact on the clinical course of pilocytic astrocytoma remains unclear. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Endothelial Proliferation - The intensity of penetration of the neoplasm into the endothelium layer is a decisive factor in deciding the grade of an Astrocytoma. (brain-surgery.com)
  • In children, the majority of astrocytomas that occur are classified as low-grade, but in adults most of the tumors are of the high-grade variety. (microscopyu.com)
  • These tumors typically occur sporadically, in people with no family history of astrocytomas. (nih.gov)
  • Like many other cancers , it is believed that isolated astrocytomas may occur due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors . (nih.gov)
  • Survival after stereotactic biopsy and irradiation of cerebral nonanaplastic, nonpilocytic astrocytoma. (medscape.com)
  • Stereotactic biopsy revealed an anaplastic (high grade, 3) astrocytoma. (vesalius.com)
  • Astrocytoma is the major type of CNS tumors in NF1, and pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) the main histological subtype3,4. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We report the results of combined taxol-radiation exposures in the human Grade III astrocytoma cell line, G18. (aacrjournals.org)
  • I was diagnosed with a grade III astrocytoma in October of 2001. (cancer.org)
  • An astrocytoma with two of these aspects prominent is Grade-III, and one with either three or all four aspects present is Grade-IV. (brain-surgery.com)
  • However, the mortality rate is considerably high, owing to late detection and the dispersed spread of the grade III & IV astrocytomas. (brain-surgery.com)
  • Neuropathologic examination revealed anaplastic astrocytoma WHO Grade III [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • anaplastic astrocytoma, grade III and glioblastoma, grade IV) [ 2 ]. (jcancer.org)