Optic Nerve Glioma: Glial cell derived tumors arising from the optic nerve, usually presenting in childhood.Neurofibromatosis 1: An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Neurofibromin 1: A protein found most abundantly in the nervous system. Defects or deficiencies in this protein are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome. Mutations in the gene (GENE, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) affect two known functions: regulation of ras-GTPase and tumor suppression.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Optic Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.Neurocutaneous Syndromes: A group of disorders characterized by ectodermal-based malformations and neoplastic growths in the skin, nervous system, and other organs.Genes, Neurofibromatosis 1: Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 17 in the region 17q11.2. Mutation of these genes is thought to cause NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Optic Neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).Optic Chiasm: The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Optic Atrophy: Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Optic Lobe, Nonmammalian: In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)Optic Flow: The continuous visual field seen by a subject through space and time.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Optic Atrophies, Hereditary: Hereditary conditions that feature progressive visual loss in association with optic atrophy. Relatively common forms include autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT) and Leber hereditary optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, HEREDITARY, LEBER).Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber: A maternally linked genetic disorder that presents in mid-life as acute or subacute central vision loss leading to central scotoma and blindness. The disease has been associated with missense mutations in the mtDNA, in genes for Complex I, III, and IV polypeptides, that can act autonomously or in association with each other to cause the disease. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim/, MIM#535000 (April 17, 2001))Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tuberous Sclerosis: Autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome classically characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION; EPILEPSY; and skin lesions (e.g., adenoma sebaceum and hypomelanotic macules). There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in the neurologic manifestations. It is also associated with cortical tuber and HAMARTOMAS formation throughout the body, especially the heart, kidneys, and eyes. Mutations in two loci TSC1 and TSC2 that encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively, are associated with the disease.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Neurofibromatosis 2: An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high incidence of bilateral acoustic neuromas as well as schwannomas (NEURILEMMOMA) of other cranial and peripheral nerves, and other benign intracranial tumors including meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal neurofibromas, and gliomas. The disease has been linked to mutations of the NF2 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2) on chromosome 22 (22q12) and usually presents clinically in the first or second decade of life.Neurofibroma, Plexiform: A type of neurofibroma manifesting as a diffuse overgrowth of subcutaneous tissue, usually involving the face, scalp, neck, and chest but occasionally occurring in the abdomen or pelvis. The tumors tend to progress, and may extend along nerve roots to eventually involve the spinal roots and spinal cord. This process is almost always a manifestation of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1016; J Pediatr 1997 Nov;131(5):678-82)Neurofibromatoses: A group of disorders characterized by an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with high rates of spontaneous mutation and multiple neurofibromas or neurilemmomas. NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 (generalized neurofibromatosis) accounts for approximately 95% of cases, although multiple additional subtypes (e.g., NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2, neurofibromatosis 3, etc.) have been described. (From Neurochirurgie 1998 Nov;44(4):267-72)Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Hypermedia: Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Intrinsic etiologies include gliomas and multiple sclerosis. Gliomas of the optic chiasm are usually derived from astrocytes. ... The optic chiasm is formed by the union of the two optic nerves. The nasal fibers of each optic nerve decussate (cross) across ... Clinically, no optic field deficits have been observed in a small series of optic nerve sections at the optic nerve-chiasm ... Posterior lesions may also involve the optic tract and cause a contralateral homonymous hemianopia. Optic disc pallor may be ...
... or the optic chiasm, but they may occur in any area where astrocytes are present, including the cerebral hemispheres and the ... and optic gliomas are among the most frequently encountered tumors in patients with this disorder. The majority of pilocytic ... Tumors of the optic pathway account for 3.6-6% of pediatric brain tumors, 60% of which are juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas. ... Grade I pilocytic astrocytoma and cerebellar gliomas are not associated with recurrence after complete resection. Grade II ...
Neoplasm Neuroepithelial cell Astrocytes Glial cells Brain cancer REDIRECT Template:Curlie From a page move: This is a redirect ... of all brain gliomas since its discovery in 1926. Without a doubt, astroblastoma remains one of the most challenging and ... optic nerve, cauda equina, hypothalamus, and brain stem. The most defining physical symptom of astroblastoma, regardless of ... high-grade astrocytes, and embryonal neoplasms. However, the "bubbly" appearance in astroblastoma is entirely exclusive. ...
A glioma is essentially a glial-derived tumor. These can be induced by an increase in glutamate levels due to an increase in ... Glutamate release by astrocytes has been linked to the synchrony of neurons in the hippocampus and cortex. A decrease in system ... It has been observed that glutamate released from microglia leads to oligodendrocyte death in culture and in the rat optic ... This gene is highly expressed by astrocytes and couples the uptake of one molecule of cystine with the release of one molecule ...
... and optic nerve gliomas. In addition to neurofibromatosis type I, mutations in NF1 can also lead to juvenile myelomonocytic ... Expression is at its highest level in adult neurons, Schwann cells, astrocytes, leukocytes, and oligodendrocytes. The catalytic ... skeletal defects and optic nerve gliomas. NF1 encodes the protein neurofibromin, a GTPase-activating protein, which primarily ...
Brainstem gliomas have the poorest prognosis of any form of brain cancer, with most patients dying within one year, even with ... A bilateral temporal visual field defect (due to compression of the optic chiasm) or dilation of the pupil, and the occurrence ... Astrocytes. Pilocytic Astrocytoma (PCA). Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) Oligodendrocytes. Oligodendroglioma Ependyma. Ependymoma ... "Brain Stem Gliomas in Childhood". Childhoodbraintumor.org. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 17 February ...
Glioma. Astrocyte. *Astrocytoma *Pilocytic astrocytoma. *Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. *Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. * ... Other uncommon locations are the lateral ventricle, foramen magnum, and the orbit/optic nerve sheath.[7] Meningiomas also may ... Increased intracranial pressure eventually occurs, but is less frequent than in gliomas. ... and risk of adult meningioma and glioma: A meta-analysis". Neurology. 85 (15): 1342-50. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000002020. PMID ...
Gliomas are complex brain tumors composed of heterogeneous populations of neoplastic as well as non-neoplastic cells. Not only ... However, depletion of microglia from the retina and optic nerve does not affect the degeneration process of retinal ganglion ... December 2005). "Protective effects of nicergoline against neuronal cell death induced by activated microglia and astrocytes". ... Tumor-associated macrophages/microglia (TAMs) are the main infiltrate in gliomas, comprising up to 40% of the tumor mass. TAMs ...
Bloch, O (2015). Immunotherapy for malignant gliomas. Cancer Treatment and Research. 163. pp. 143-58. doi:10.1007/978-3-319- ... A bilateral temporal visual field defect (due to compression of the optic chiasm) or dilation of the pupil, and the occurrence ... Astrocytes. Pilocytic Astrocytoma (PCA). Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) Oligodendrocytes. Oligodendroglioma Ependyma. Ependymoma ... Gliomas with IDH1 or IDH2 mutations respond better to chemotherapy than those without the mutation. Loss of chromosome arms 1p ...
J Neurosurg 1996;84:430-6. Bailey P, Cushing H. A classification of tumors of the glioma group on a histogenetic basis with a ... Medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body and optic nerve: clinicopathologic, CT, and MR imaging features. Neuroimaging Clin N Am ... medulloepithelioma with differentiation into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes; ependymal cells; neuronal cells; others (melanin, ... 1998 Jan-Feb;14(1-2):74-8. Chidambaram B; Santosh V; Balasubramaniam V. Medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve with intradural ...
Optic pathway gliomas are very common, affecting up to 15% of children with NF1, the majority presenting before 7 years of age ... The function of the glutamate transporters GLT and GLAST is decreased in astrocytes of these mice (73). The result is altered ... optic pathway gliomas, and neurocognitive deficits. NF1 patients are also at risk to develop multiple benign and malignant ... Gliomas of the hemispheres, brainstem, or cerebellum can also occur, which are mostly pilocytic or diffuse astrocytomas (Figure ...
Optic Nerve Glioma in Mice Requires Astrocyte Nf1 Gene Inactivation and Nf1 Brain Heterozygosity. Cancer Research. 2003 Dec 15; ... Optic Nerve Glioma in Mice Requires Astrocyte Nf1 Gene Inactivation and Nf1 Brain Heterozygosity. / Bajenaru, M. Livia; ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Optic Nerve Glioma in Mice Requires Astrocyte Nf1 Gene Inactivation and Nf1 Brain ... title = "Optic Nerve Glioma in Mice Requires Astrocyte Nf1 Gene Inactivation and Nf1 Brain Heterozygosity", ...
... astrocyte growth and Nf1 glioma growth. Lastly, the optic gliomas in the Nf1+/−GFAPCKO mice exhibit increased cell death, ... glial cells develop optic gliomas. Similar to human NF1-associated optic gliomas, the optic gliomas arising in Nf1+/−GFAPCKO ... Optic pathway gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis 1: consensus statement from the NF1 Optic Pathway Glioma Task Force. ... Therefore, to validate the Nf1+/−GFAPCKO optic glioma mouse model as a preclinical model of human NF1-associated optic glioma, ...
Intrinsic etiologies include gliomas and multiple sclerosis. Gliomas of the optic chiasm are usually derived from astrocytes. ... The optic chiasm is formed by the union of the two optic nerves. The nasal fibers of each optic nerve decussate (cross) across ... Clinically, no optic field deficits have been observed in a small series of optic nerve sections at the optic nerve-chiasm ... Posterior lesions may also involve the optic tract and cause a contralateral homonymous hemianopia. Optic disc pallor may be ...
Inactivation of NF1 in CNS causes increased glial progenitor proliferation and optic glioma formation. Development 132, 5577- ... This labeling revealed more glycoproteins on the cell surface membranes of HRASG12S astrocytes than on HRASWT astrocytes (Fig. ... 2C). Because HRAS is known to modulate astrocyte proliferation (24), we characterized the rate of cell division. Astrocytes ... We found that expression of hyperactivated HRAS primarily in astrocytes is sufficient to alter timing of astrocyte development ...
This type of tumor begins from small, star-shaped cells called astrocytes. Astrocytes are one of many types of supporting brain ... Brain Tumor; Glioma). by Michael Jubinville, MPH. • Definition • Causes • Risk Factors • Symptoms • Diagnosis • Treatment • ... For children, the most common place is in the optic nerves. But, they can happen anywhere. ... An astrocytoma is a type of the larger group of brain tumors called gliomas. ...
... while PI3K inhibition decreased Nf1 optic glioma volume and proliferation. Akt inhibition of Nf1-deficient astrocyte and optic ... to optic glioma maintenance. This study was designed to address the importance of MEK and Akt signaling to Nf1 optic glioma ... Both MEK and Akt were hyperactivated in Nf1-deficient astrocytes in vitro and in Nf1 murine optic gliomas in vivo. ... Akt and MEK inhibition on Nf1-deficient astrocyte growth. Nf1 optic glioma-bearing mice were used to assess the effect of Akt ...
Tumor of optic nerve called optic pathway glioma (in astrocytes). - Bone deformities (i.e. around eye, tibia) ...
... microglia was shown to promote optic glioma proliferation [72] and glioma growth [73]. Interestingly, IL-4 or IFN-γ-mediated ... heterozygous brain microglia elaborate paracrine factors that promote Nf1-deficient astrocyte and glioma growth," Human ... L. Yi, H. Xiao, M. Xu et al., "Glioma-initiating cells: a predominant role in microglia/macrophages tropism to glioma," Journal ... The GAM MT1-MMP expression then in turn activates glioma-derived pro-MMP-2 that subsequently promotes glioma invasion. A ...
Optic pathway gliomas are composed of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, microglia and progenitor or stem cells.[24][39] ... "Optic nerve glioma in mice requires astrocyte Nf1 gene inactivation and Nf1 brain heterozygosity". Cancer Res. 63 (24): 8573-7 ... Optic gliomas are the most common brain tumors in neurofibromatosis type 1, they are observed in 15-20% of children younger ... In 1873, German ophtalmologist, Julius von Michel first reported the case of a patient with optic glioma.[4][7] ...
Among brain tumors, low-grade gliomas are the most common type, accounting for almost 50% o... ... 3. Optic pathway gliomas: These are pilocytic astrocytomas that arise from the optic nerve or optic pathway. This tumor is ... Some of the more common low grade gliomas are:. 1. Pilocytic astrocytomas: These tumors are made up of astrocytes that have a ... Optic pathway gliomas can cause vision loss, lazy eye (strabismus), or bulging of the eye (proptosis). ...
Immunohistochemical properties of human optic nerve glioma: Evidence of type 1 astrocyte origin. Cutarelli, P. E., Roessmann, U ... Influence of the type of surgery on the histologic diagnosis in patients with anaplastic gliomas. Glantz, M. J., Burger, P. C ... The development of the transferrin-transferrin receptor system in relation to astrocytes, MBP and galactocerebroside in normal ... Toxoplasma gondii Retinochoroiditis and Optic Neuritis in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Report of a Case. Grossniklaus, ...
Gliomas originate from cells called glial cells. These include a subclassification of cells called astrocytes (with tumors ... optic. *brain stem. *cerebellar. *Cancerous (anaplastic astrocytomas) WHO gade III These may further be classified as - * ... Thus there are three major types of gliomas (1). *Astrocytic tumors that may be further classified as - *Astrocytoma - non- ... Oligodendroglial tumors that may be made up of a combination of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. These are thus called mixed ...
... brain stem glioma, and optic glioma. About half of all brain and spinal cord tumors in children are gliomas. ... Astrocytomas are tumors that start in cells called astrocytes, a kind of glial cell. ... Optic gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas that start in the optic nerves (the nerves leading from the eyes to the brain). They ... Gliomas. Gliomas are not a specific type of tumor. Glioma is a general term for a group of tumors that start in glial cells. A ...
While the contributions of the cancer cells in low-grade and high-grade gliomas... ... Optic nerve glioma in mice requires astrocyte Nf1 gene inactivation and Nf1 brain heterozygosity. Cancer Res 63(24):8573-8577 ... Hu F, Dzaye O, Hahn A, Yu Y, Scavetta RJ, Dittmar G et al (2015) Glioma-derived versican promotes tumor expansion via glioma- ... heterozygous brain microglia elaborate paracrine factors that promote Nf1-deficient astrocyte and glioma growth. Hum Mol Genet ...
2003) Optic nerve glioma in mice requires astrocyte Nf1 gene inactivation and Nf1 brain heterozygosity. Cancer Res 63:8573-8577 ... Nf1+/− RGC neuronal apoptosis is induced by optic nerve crush and optic glioma formation in vivo. A, Three days after optic ... 1997) Optic pathway gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis 1: consensus statement from the NF1 Optic Pathway Glioma Task ... 2009) Optic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of neurofibromatosis-1 optic glioma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 68:542-551. ...
Bajenaru ML, Hernandez MR, Perry A, Zhu Y, Parada LF, Garbow JR et al (2003) Optic nerve glioma in mice requires astrocyte Nf1 ... Freret ME, Gutmann DH (2007) Understanding vision loss from optic pathway glioma in neurofibromatosis type 1. Ann Neurol 61:189 ... BRAF duplications and MAPK pathway activation are frequent in gliomas of the optic nerve proper. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 71: ... and temporally-restricted pattern relevant to mouse optic glioma formation and growth. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 70:51-62. https ...
... including the optic nerve, striatum, hypothalamus, and subcortical white matter, but in these areas the majority of cells ... Dedifferentiation of Neurons and Astrocytes by Oncogenes Can Induce Gliomas in Mice ... Dedifferentiation of Neurons and Astrocytes by Oncogenes Can Induce Gliomas in Mice ... Dedifferentiation of Neurons and Astrocytes by Oncogenes Can Induce Gliomas in Mice ...
Glioblastoma multiforme, a malignant tumor is the most common type of astrocytoma that arises from astrocytes and is a glioma. ... As the tumor grows it can push on the optic nerve and cause visual changes and blindness. ... Astrocytes help clear neurotransmitter chemicals so that the synapse can be ready to react to the next signal that might arrive ... Affected vision (if there is damage along the pathway from the optic nerve to the occiput) ...
Spontaneous regressions of optic pathway gliomas have been reported in children with and without NF1. ... Mixed gliomas (cell types of origin include oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and ependymal cells). ... Childhood secondary high-grade glioma (high-grade glioma that is preceded by a low-grade glioma) is uncommon (2.9% in a study ... No pediatric low-grade gliomas with the fusion transformed to a high-grade glioma, whereas low-grade gliomas with the V600E ...
A similar pattern occurred in the mice: The optic nerve and chiasm were enlarged and astrocytes along the optic pathway began ... Optic pathway gliomas in humans are typically surrounded by blood vessels and microglia, which are immune system cells in the ... Unlike most tumors, optic pathway gliomas associated with NF1 typically stop growing after a few years. Moreover, they almost ... Gutmanns team found that optic pathway gliomas lit up just as brightly in 2-month-old mice as in 8-month-old mice, despite the ...
These include the oligodendrocyte-type 2 astrocyte progenitor, first derived from the rat optic nerve (24), and the A2B5 ... Gliomas and Their Cell(s) of Origin. Controversy exists about the cell of origin in glial tumor formation. It is clear from a ... Most EGFR-directed glioma therapies used to date have focused on single agents, with modest results at best. However, when the ... Results of a single phase I/II clinical trial with i.v. EGFR antibodies in malignant glioma have been reported from the Center ...
Similarly, Gutmann and colleagues have used their GEM model of Nf1 low-grade optic glioma to identify new molecular targets for ... Cell of origin. Although it is often presumed that astrocytomas (gliomas) arise from astrocytes, it is not known whether these ... normal human fetal astrocytes have been engineered to harbor genetic changes that mimic those found in high-grade glioma to ... primary astrocyte cultures, and various astrocyte-rich brain structures. This annotated data set provides new markers for the ...
... is highly expressed in animal glioma and human glioblastoma in situ. In contrast, most cultivated glioma cell lines dont ... Rohlmann A,Gocht A,Wolburg H. Year: 1992Reactive astrocytes in myelin-deficient rat optic nerve reveal an altered distribution ... Rat glioma C6 (C6BU-1) cells (American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD, USA [37] and RG-2 cells (Rat glioma cells, [38] ... Accordingly, in C6 cells and RG2 cells, two glioma cell lines of the rat, and in SMA mouse glioma cell lines, we found no AQP4 ...
Glioma. Złośliwy nowotwór mózgu, objawy i leczenie. Złośliwy nowotwór mózgu, objawy i ... develop in the brain stemOptic nerve glioma - develop in or around the optic nerveMixed gliomas, such as oligoastrocytomas, ... Ependymomas-ependymal cells.Astrocytomas-astrocytes (glioblastoma multiforme is a malignant astrocytoma and the most primary ... It is called a glioma because it arises from glial cells. The most common site of gliomas is the brain.[1] Gliomas make up ~30 ...
  • Whereas biallelic neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) inactivation is observed in NF1-associated gliomas, astrocyte-restricted Nf1 conditional knockout mice do not develop gliomas. (elsevier.com)
  • For this purpose, we analyzed three genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of low-grade glioma resulting from either inactivation of the neurofibromatosis-1 ( Nf1 ) tumor suppressor gene or constitutive activation of KRas in glial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bajenaru ML, Donahoe J, Corral T, Reilly KM, Brophy S, Pellicer A et al (2001) Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) heterozygosity results in a cell-autonomous growth advantage for astrocytes. (springer.com)
  • One of the clinical hallmarks of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) arising in children with the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome is significant clinical variability with respect to tumor growth, associated neurologic deficits, and response to therapy. (stanford.edu)
  • One obstacle to the implementation of biologically targeted therapies is an incomplete understanding of the individual contributions of the downstream Ras effectors (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase [MEK], Akt) to optic glioma maintenance. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Work on the systems responsible for normal cell division has shown that a number of pathways in low grade gliomas are disrupted in ways that make cell division become uncontrolled. (childhoodbraintumor.org)
  • Those of special importance in glioma biology include the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To perform in silico reconstructions of the cellular pathways affected during the development of glaucoma, however, data derived specifically from astrocytes must be used, rather than data derived from whole-tissue (retina or optic nerve) samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • they tend to invade locally and spread along white matter pathways, creating the appearance of multiple GBMs or multicentric gliomas on imaging studies. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, microscopic analysis of microglia morphology in high-grade glioma revealed an activated state, described by amoeboid or spherical shape [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Finally, both PI3K and MEK inhibition reduced optic glioma-associated retinal ganglion cell loss and nerve fiber layer thinning. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Choroidal thickness and the retinal ganglion cell complex in chronic Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: a prospective study using swept-source optical coherence tomography. (nih.gov)
  • C6 glioma and JScl1 Schwannoma cells were observed to express moderate to high levels of GR. Furthermore, cells grown in the absence of glucocorticoids had diffuse GR staining over the cytoplasm, whereas cells grown in the presence of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone had strong nuclear staining. (deepdyve.com)
  • This means that coadministration of CBD with cytotoxic brokers may possibly improve drug uptake and potentiate cell Dying in human glioma cells. (bloginwi.com)
  • We recently used Cre-inducible lentiviral vectors to generate a novel mouse glioma model ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Accordingly, in C6 cells and RG2 cells, two glioma cell lines of the rat, and in SMA mouse glioma cell lines, we found no AQP4 expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • AQP4 staining in vivo normally is polarized in the astrocytic endfoot membranes at the glia limitans superficialis and perivascularis, but in C6 and RG2 tumors the AQP4 staining is redistributed over the whole glioma cell as in human glioblastoma. (biomedsearch.com)
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