Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Retinoscopy: An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Keratoplasty, Penetrating: Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Anisometropia: A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Keratoconus: A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ: A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.Corneal Wavefront Aberration: Asymmetries in the topography and refractive index of the corneal surface that affect visual acuity.Aberrometry: The use of an aberrometer to measure eye tissue imperfections or abnormalities based on the way light passes through the eye which affects the ability of the eye to focus properly.Keratectomy, Subepithelial, Laser-Assisted: A surgical technique to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS of the EYE, such as MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. In this method, a flap of CORNEAL EPITHELIUM is created by exposure of the area to dilute alcohol. The flap is lifted and then replaced after laser ablation of the subepithelial CORNEA.Pseudophakia: Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Refractive Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures employed to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS such as MYOPIA; HYPEROPIA; or ASTIGMATISM. These may involve altering the curvature of the CORNEA; removal or replacement of the CRYSTALLINE LENS; or modification of the SCLERA to change the axial length of the eye.Keratotomy, Radial: A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.Corneal Surgery, Laser: Surgical techniques on the CORNEA employing LASERS, especially for reshaping the CORNEA to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS.Photorefractive Keratectomy: A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.Glare: Relatively bright light, or the dazzling sensation of relatively bright light, which produces unpleasantness or discomfort, or which interferes with optimal VISION, OCULAR. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Phacoemulsification: A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.Albinism, Ocular: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Pterygium: An abnormal triangular fold of membrane in the interpalpebral fissure, extending from the conjunctiva to the cornea, being immovably united to the cornea at its apex, firmly attached to the sclera throughout its middle portion, and merged with the conjunctiva at its base. (Dorland, 27th ed)Phakic Intraocular Lenses: Lenses, generally made of plastic or silicone, that are implanted into the eye in front of the natural EYE LENS, by the IRIS, to improve VISION, OCULAR. These intraocular lenses are used to supplement the natural lens instead of replacing it.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Corneal Pachymetry: Measurement of the thickness of the CORNEA.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphyses: A developmental deformity in which the metaphysis of the FEMUR moves proximally and anteriorly away from FEMUR HEAD (epiphysis) at the upper GROWTH PLATE. It is most common in male adolescents and is associated with a greater risk of early OSTEOARTHRITIS of the hip.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Baseball: A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.

Results of small incision extracapsular cataract surgery using the anterior chamber maintainer without viscoelastic. (1/358)

AIMS: To assess the efficacy of extracapsular cataract surgery using the anterior chamber maintainer (ACM) without the use of viscoelastic. To compare the effects of this surgical technique on non-diabetic and diabetic patients. METHODS: A prospective single armed clinical trial of 46 eyes in 46 patients undergoing cataract surgery using the ACM without viscoelastic. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 3 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months postoperatively. The main outcome variables included visual acuity, surgically induced astigmatic change (SIAC), changes in endothelial cell density (ECD), and morphology affecting the central and superior regions of the cornea. RESULTS: Postoperatively, 56% and 70% of patients had unaided visual acuities of 6/12 or better at 3 weeks and 3 months respectively. Even after excluding those patients with pre-existing maculopathy (including diabetic maculopathy), there remains a significant difference between the non-diabetic and diabetic groups in terms of the proportion of patients attaining an unaided visual acuity of 6/12 or better at both 3 weeks (p = 0.003) and 3 months (p = 0.001). Three months postoperatively, the SIAC based upon the keratometric and refractive data was 1.1 dioptres (D) and 1.3 D respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the SIAC when the non-diabetic and diabetic groups were compared. The mean central and superior endothelial cell losses at 3 months postoperatively were 16% and 22% respectively and at 12 months postoperatively were 20% and 25% respectively. The diabetic group demonstrated greater endothelial cell losses and a more marked and protracted deviation of endothelial cell morphology from normality when compared with the non-diabetic group; however, the differences did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of small incision cataract surgery using the ACM in terms of visual outcome and induced astigmatism is comparable with the results obtained using other techniques that utilise a similar size of incision. However, in view of the magnitude and range of the endothelial cell losses associated with this technique the concurrent use of viscoelastic is suggested. There does not appear to be a statistically or clinically significant difference between non-diabetic and diabetic patients in terms of the magnitude of the endothelial cell losses or in the wound healing response in the 12 months after cataract surgery using the ACM.  (+info)

Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye. (2/358)

Off-axis monochromatic aberrations in the human eye impose limits on peripheral vision. However, the magnitude of the aberrations off-axis, and in particular coma, has not been yet completely determined. We have developed a procedure to estimate third order aberrations in the periphery of the human eye. The technique is based on recording series of double pass retinal images with unequal entrance and exit pupil diameters (Artal, Iglesias, Lopez-Gil & Green (1995b). J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 12, 2358-2366.) which allows the odd asymmetries in the retinal image be assessed. The procedure that is described provides accurate estimates of the main off-axis aberrations: astigmatism, defocus and coma. We have measured these aberrations in four normal subjects. For a given eccentricity, the measured amount of coma and astigmatism are relatively similar among subjects, because the angular distance from the axis is the dominant factor in determining the magnitude of these aberrations. However, we found considerable variability in the values of peripheral defocus, probably due to a complicate combination of off-axis aberrations and fundus shape. The final off-axis optical performance of the eye for a given object location is determined by a particular mixture of defocus, astigmatism, coma and higher order aberrations.  (+info)

Image quality in polypseudophakia for extremely short eyes. (3/358)

AIM: To evaluate the image quality produced by polypseudophakia used for strongly hypermetropic and nanophthalmic eyes. METHODS: Primary aberration theory and ray tracing analysis were used to calculate the optimum lens shapes and power distribution between the two intraocular lenses for two example eyes: one a strongly hypermetropic eye, the other a nanophthalmic eye. Spherical aberration and oblique astigmatism were considered. Modulation transfer function (MTF) curves were computed using commercial optical design software (Sigma 2100, Kidger Optics Ltd) to assess axial image quality, and the sagittal and tangential image surfaces were computed to study image quality across the field. RESULTS: A significant improvement in the axial MTF was found for the eyes with double implants. However, results indicate that this may be realised as a better contrast sensitivity in the low to mid spatial frequency range rather than as a better Snellen acuity. The optimum lens shapes for minimum spherical aberration (best axial image quality) were approximately convex-plano for both lenses with the convex surface facing the cornea. Conversely, the optimum lens shapes for zero oblique astigmatism were strongly meniscus with the anterior surface concave. Correction of oblique astigmatism was only achieved with a loss in axial performance. CONCLUSIONS: Optimum estimated visual acuity exceeds 6/5 in both the hypermetropic and the nanophthalmic eyes studied (pupil size of 4 mm) with polypseudophakic correction. These results can be attained using convex-plano or biconvex lenses with the most convex surface facing the cornea. If the posterior surface of the posterior intraocular lens is convex, as is commonly used to help prevent migration of lens epithelial cells causing posterior capsular opacification (PCO), then it is still possible to achieve 6/4.5 in the hypermetropic eye and 6/5.3 in the nanophthalmic eye provided the anterior intraocular lens has an approximately convex-plano shape with the convex surface anterior. It was therefore concluded that consideration of optical image quality does not demand that additional intraocular lens shapes need to be manufactured for polypseudophakic correction of extremely short eyes and that implanting the posterior intraocular lens in the conventional orientation to help prevent PCO does not necessarily limit estimated visual acuity.  (+info)

Cataract extraction and lens implantation with and without trabeculectomy: an intrapatient comparison. (4/358)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cataract extraction and lens implantation combined with trabeculectomy provides better long-term results than cataract extraction and lens implantation alone in a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and cataract randomly selected to receive surgery with trabeculectomy in one eye and without in the other. METHODS: A prospective, randomized clinical trial involving 35 patients with bilateral symmetric primary open-angle glaucoma and visually disabling cataracts with procedures performed by a single surgeon in a private practice setting with follow-up for more than 5 years in all cases. RESULTS: After an average of 87 months of follow-up, cataract extraction and lens implantation reduced intraocular pressure 4.4 mm Hg, reduced number of medications by 1.28, increased diopter vector of astigmatism by 1.49, and was associated with visual field loss in 6 of 35 eyes. After an average of 80 months of follow-up, cataract extraction, lens implantation, and trabeculectomy reduced intraocular pressure 8.2 mm Hg, reduced number of medications by 1.76, increased diopter vector of astigmatism by 1.14, and was associated with visual field loss in 1 eye. Both groups had similar improvement in visual acuity and perioperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: Extracapsular cataract extraction, lens implantation, and trabeculectomy is a complex procedure that was beneficial in the long-term control of intraocular pressure and in prevention of visual field loss. This procedure should be considered in patients who may not be able to comply with a complex medical regimen, in whom pressure elevation in the immediate postoperative period would be undesirable, or in whom long-term pressure control at a lower level would be beneficial in preventing further optic nerve damage.  (+info)

Topographic and keratometric astigmatism up to 1 year following small flap trabeculectomy (microtrabeculectomy). (5/358)

AIM: To determine the induced corneal astigmatism by measuring the changes in manual keratometry and computerised corneal videokeratoscopy up to 1 year following small flap trabeculectomy (microtrabeculectomy). METHOD: A prospective study of a case series of small flap trabeculectomy procedures performed at the 90 degree meridian on 16 eyes of 16 patients, all followed to 1 year postoperatively. Changes in manual keratometry and computerised videokeratoscopy (Eyesys) readings were analysed by vector analysis and vector decomposition techniques. RESULTS: By vector analysis, the mean surgically induced refractive change (SIRC) cylinder power vectors induced at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months as measured by manual keratometry were 0.68, 0.38, 0.52, and 0.55 dioptres, and by keratography 0.75, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.64 dioptres. Vector decomposition on the induced vector cylinders on manual keratometry resulted in a "with the rule" mean vector of 0.52 and 0.22 dioptres at 1 and 3 months and an "against the rule" mean vector of 0.16 and 0.16 dioptres at the same time points (p=0.03 and 0.28 respectively). Vector decomposition at 6 and 12 months revealed no significant with the rule changes induced. Similar analysis on the videokeratoscopy results revealed significant induced with the rule astigmatism until 3 months, but not at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Small flap trabeculectomy (microtrabeculectomy) produces smaller changes in corneal curvature that resolve sooner than previous reports of larger flap techniques.  (+info)

Screening for refractive errors in children: accuracy of the hand held refractor Retinomax to screen for astigmatism. (6/358)

AIMS: To assess the reliability of the hand held automated refractor Retinomax in measuring astigmatism in non-cycloplegic conditions. To assess the accuracy of Retinomax in diagnosing abnormal astigmatism in non-cycloplegic refractive screening of children between 9 and 36 months. METHODS: Among 1205 children undergoing a non-cycloplegic refractive screening with Retinomax, 299 (25%) had repeated non-cycloplegic measurements, 302 (25%) were refracted under cycloplegia using the same refractor, and 88 (7%) using retinoscopy or an automated on table refractor. The reproducibility of non-cycloplegic cylinder measurement was assessed by comparing the cylindrical power and axis values in the 299 repeated measurements without cycloplegia. The influence of the quick mode on cylinder measurement was analysed by comparing the cylinder and axis value in 93 repeated measurements without cycloplegia where normal mode was used in one measurement and quick mode in the other. Predictive values of the refractive screening were calculated for three different thresholds of manifest astigmatism (> or = 1.5, > or = 1.75, and > or = 2 D) considering as a true positive case an astigmatism > or = 2 D under cycloplegic condition (measured by retinoscopy, on table, or hand held refractor). RESULTS: The 95% limits of agreement between two repeated manifest cylinder measurements with Retinomax attained levels slightly less than plus or minus 1 D. The 95% limits of agreement for the axis were plus or minus 46 degrees. The comparison of non-cycloplegic measurements in the quick and normal mode showed no significant difference and 95% limits of agreement plus or minus 0.75 D. The mean difference between non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic cylinder values measured by Retinomax reached 0.17 D and was statistically significant. Manifest thresholds of > or = 1.5 D, > or = 1.75 D, > or = 2 D cylinder value diagnosed 2 D of astigmatism under cyclplegia respectively with 71-84%, 59-80%, 51-54% of sensitivity (right eye-left eye) and 90-92%, 95%, 98% of specificity. CONCLUSION: Without cycloplegia, Retinomax is able to measure cylinder power with the same reproducibility as cycloplegic retinoscopy. No significant difference was found in the cylinder values obtained with the quick and the normal modes. Therefore, the quick mode of measurement is recommended as it is more feasible in children. No difference, which is significant from a screening point of view, exists between the non-cycloplegic and the cycloplegic cylinder value (< 0.25 D). Retinomax diagnoses abnormal astigmatism (> or = 2 D) in a non-cycloplegic refractive screening at preschool ages with 51-84% sensitivity rates and 98-90% specificity rates, depending on the chosen threshold of manifest astigmatism. If 2 D of manifest astigmatism is chosen as a positive test, the positive predictive value of the screening reaches 81-84% and the negative predictive value 91-90% (right eye-left eye).  (+info)

Proposed classification for topographic patterns seen after penetrating keratoplasty. (7/358)

AIMS: To create a clinically useful classification for post-keratoplasty corneas based on corneal topography. METHODS: A total of 360 topographic maps obtained with the TMS-1, from 95 eyes that had undergone penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), were reviewed independently by two examiners in a masked fashion, and were categorised according to a proposed classification scheme. RESULTS: A high interobserver agreement (88% in the first categorisation) was achieved. At 12 months post-PKP, a regular astigmatic pattern was observed in 20/85 cases (24%). This was subclassified as oval in three cases (4%), oblate symmetric bow tie in six cases (7%), prolate asymmetric bow tie in six cases (7%), and oblate asymmetric bow tie in five cases (6%). An irregular astigmatic pattern was observed in 61/85 cases (72%), subclassified as prolate irregular in five cases (6%), oblate irregular in four cases (5%), mixed in seven cases (8%), steep/flat in 11 cases (13%), localised steepness in 16 cases (19%), and triple pattern in three cases (4%). Regular astigmatic patterns were associated with significantly higher astigmatism measurements. The surface asymmetry index was significantly lower in the regular astigmatic patterns. CONCLUSIONS: In post-PKP corneas, the prevalence of irregular astigmatism is about double that of regular astigmatism, with a trend for increase of the irregular patterns over time.  (+info)

LASIK for post penetrating keratoplasty astigmatism and myopia. (8/358)

AIMS: To report the results of a series of patients who were treated with LASIK to correct post penetrating keratoplasty ametropia. METHODS: 26 eyes of 24 patients underwent LASIK to correct astigmatism and myopia after corneal transplantation; 14 eyes also received arcuate cuts in the stromal bed at the time of surgery. The mean preoperative spherical equivalent was -5.20D and the mean preoperative astigmatism was 8.67D. RESULTS: The results of 25 eyes are reported. The mean 1 month values for spherical equivalent and astigmatism were -0.24D and 2.48D respectively. 18 eyes have been followed up for 6 months or more. The final follow up results for these eyes are -1.91D and 2.92D for spherical equivalent and astigmatism. The patients undergoing arcuate cuts were less myopic but had greater astigmatism than those not. The patients receiving arcuate cuts had a greater target induced astigmatism, surgically induced astigmatism, and astigmatism correction index than those eyes that did not. One eye suffered a surgical complication. No eyes lost more than one line of BSCVA and all eyes gained between 0 and 6 lines UCVA. CONCLUSIONS: LASIK after penetrating keratoplasty is a relatively safe and effective procedure. It reduces both the spherical error and the cylindrical component of the ametropia. Correction of high astigmatism may be augmented by performing arcuate cuts in the stromal bed.  (+info)

  • The magnitude and direction of the IOL cylinder were based on total corneal astigmatism (TCA) measurement, as calculated by the Sirius with ray-tracing over a 3 mm diameter. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The patient included in the study had significant cataract, pre-existing corneal astigmatism of more than 1.25 D. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Despite the developments in contact lens technology, the alterations in corneal metabolism and the mechanical forces associated with contact lens wear can affect the anterior shape of the cornea and result in central corneal steepening or flattening, loss of radial symmetry, and changes in astigmatism or optical higher order aberrations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If the placement were precise, this lens would correct 2.00 D of astigmatism in the corneal plane. (crstoday.com)
  • Since 1983, I have used corneal relaxing incisions to reduce preexisting astigmatism. (crstoday.com)
  • Although these incisions have a greater effect than limbal relaxing incisions (LRIs), the results are variable and highly dependent upon the incisions' depth and length, the size of the optical zone relative to the corneal diameter, the patient's age, and the type of astigmatism. (crstoday.com)
  • The decision whether to use corneal relaxing incisions or a toric IOL to reduce preexisting astigmatism at the time of cataract surgery is determined by the surgeon's level of comfort and experience with each modality as well as specific characteristics of a given patient. (crstoday.com)
  • If your cornea is distorted, you have corneal astigmatism . (bfeye.com)
  • You may hear your optometrist refer to the terms together, as in, corneal myopic astigmatism. (bfeye.com)
  • Postoperative visual acuity can be limited by post-keratoplasty astigmatism, even with a clear corneal graft. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this case, topography-guided suture manipulation, including selective suture removal [ 6 ] guided by corneal topography [ 7 ], or adjustment of sutures along the steep meridian of astigmatism or adjustment of running sutures are key factors for controlling astigmatism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Before any surgical astigmatism management, a complete ophthalmologic examination including manifest and objective refraction, keratometry, and slit biomicroscopy should be performed to evaluate the graft-host interface and clarity of the graft, corneal topography, pachymetry, specular microscopy and wave-front analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Medical technology company ZEISS reported on Friday the receipt of US FDA Premarket Approval (PMA) for ReLEx SMILE PMA to expand the myopia treatment to patients with astigmatism , a blurry, distorted, or fuzzy vision at all distances and difficulty seeing at night. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Blurry and distorted vision at varying distance are common signs of all 3 types of astigmatism. (schaeffereyecenter.com)
  • Astigmatism is characterized by a mild defect in the curvature of the eye which causes blurry vision. (medigest.uk)
  • Astigmatism can make objects look blurry and put halos around lights, especially at night. (pscontacts.com)
  • You should see distorted or blurry lines if you have an astigmatism. (azcentral.com)
  • In the study, patients with high astigmatism are treated with conventional LASIK for astigmatism in one eye and with ReLEx for astigmatism in the other. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These two meridians generally have a constant curvature and are generally perpendicular to each other (regular astigmatism). (encyclopedia.com)
  • What would your strategy be for reducing the astigmatism in the initial eye undergoing surgery? (crstoday.com)
  • In this case, the age of the patient and his high level of astigmatism make excimer laser refractive surgery the optimal choice based on its accuracy and optical superiority. (crstoday.com)
  • LASIK Surgery can also correct most types of astigmatism. (schaeffereyecenter.com)
  • This refractive error in astigmatism is caused by the cornea or lens being more steeply curved in one direction than the other. (medigest.uk)
  • EyeMellow is dealing various design of quality-approved toric contact lens and will update more various products for the customers difficult to experience various color lens due to astigmatism. (eyemellow.com)
  • I just got new glasses 2 days ago that has a stronger Rx for astigmatism than what I had in. (medhelp.org)
  • The main symptom of astigmatism is blurring. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The most typical symptom of astigmatism is that you can not see things clearly. (eyemellow.com)
  • If you believe that you are suffering from any of the symptoms of Astigmatism it is important that you obtain an accurate diagnosis from a medical professional to ensure that you obtain the correct medication or treatment for your condition. (medigest.uk)
  • Most patients with astigmatism higher than 6 diopters had residual cylinder less than or equal to 3 diopters, which can be treated by laser excimer ablation or secondary intraocular lens implantation. (biomedcentral.com)