A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Drugs that are used to treat asthma.
Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A sudden intense and continuous aggravation of a state of asthma, marked by dyspnea to the point of exhaustion and collapse and not responding to the usual therapeutic efforts.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Asthmatic adverse reaction (e.g., BRONCHOCONSTRICTION) to conventional NSAIDS including aspirin use.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The act of BREATHING out.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
The contamination of indoor air.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil cationic protein is a 21-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. Although eosinophil cationic protein is considered a member of the RNAse A superfamily of proteins, it has only limited RNAse activity.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Living facilities for humans.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Respiratory tract diseases are a broad range of medical conditions that affect the nose, throat, windpipe, and lungs, impairing breathing and oxygen uptake, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, bronchitis, influenza, tuberculosis, and sleep apnea.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Quinolines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds consisting of a two-nitrogened benzene ring fused to a pyridine ring, which have been synthesized and used as building blocks for various medicinal drugs, particularly antibiotics and antimalarials.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The status of health in urban populations.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Michigan" is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. It refers to a state in the United States, and does not have a direct medical connotation.
Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.
Chronic absence from work or other duty.
Difficult or labored breathing.
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Direct costs of occupational asthma due to sensitization in Quebec (1988 to 2002): revisited. (1/37)

BACKGROUND: In a previous study, the authors assessed direct costs for occupational asthma (OA) in a random sample of eight to 10 accepted claims per year for OA between 1988 and 2002. Compensation for loss of income (CLI) was found to be significantly higher for men and for OA caused by low-molecular-weight agents. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To identify sociodemographic factors that modulate CLI, the dossier of each claimant in the previous study was re-examined. RESULTS: Higher CLI costs were directly related to the duration of CLI (over which loss of income was reimbursed) (r=0.65). Costs of CLI were higher in patients 30 years of age or older at diagnosis, married subjects and individuals who were offered early retirement or were enrolled in an active interventional rehabilitation program. Higher CLI costs in men, but not in women, were associated with the following sociodemographic factors: older age, different rehabilitation program (early retirement and active program versus no specific program) and married status. Older age was found to be significant in the multivariate analysis performed for men. The cost of CLI was higher in workers with OA caused by low-molecular-weight agents. Although proportionally fewer men and younger workers were affected with OA caused by low-molecular-weight agents, the longer duration of CLI for this category of agent could explain the higher costs. CONCLUSION: Higher costs for CLI were associated in men (but not women) with older age, married status and type of rehabilitation program (early retirement and active rehabilitation). Higher costs of CLI for OA caused by low-molecular-weight agents were associated with a longer duration of CLI per se, and not with sociodemographic factors.  (+info)

Barriers to the recognition and reporting of occupational asthma by Canadian pulmonologists. (2/37)

BACKGROUND: Occupational asthma is a common, but probably under-recognized problem. OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors that suggest work-related asthma when a pulmonologist encounters an adult patient with new-onset asthma, and to identify the barriers to recognizing and reporting such cases. METHODS: A postal questionnaire was sent to all pulmonologists in Canada. The questionnaire asked participants to respond to several questions about recognizing, diagnosing and reporting occupational asthma. Answers were scored using visual analogue scales. RESULTS: A total of 201 eligible responses were received from 458 pulmonologists. Pulmonologists identified that the most important factor in initially considering the role of work in occupational asthma was having seen others affected at the same workplace, or exposed to the same agent. Important perceived barriers to considering a diagnosis of occupational asthma were physicians' low awareness, lack of knowledge and time. The most important barriers to reporting cases were the pulmonologists' perceived patient concerns regarding job security and income. Quebec pulmonologists generally perceived barriers to recognizing and reporting occupational asthma to be less important, and believed that the use of specific inhalation challenge was more important in considering a diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonologists most readily recognized occupational asthma caused by a substance or process that they previously encountered as a possible cause of asthma. Time constraints and knowledge may hamper their ability to recognize occupational asthma. Concerns regarding the effect of the diagnosis on the patient's job and income may discourage reporting.  (+info)

Work-related respiratory symptoms and lung function among solderers in the electronics industry: a meta-analysis. (3/37)

 (+info)

Environmental isocyanate-induced asthma: morphologic and pathogenetic aspects of an increasing occupational disease. (4/37)

 (+info)

Sensitization and irritant-induced occupational asthma with latency are clinically indistinguishable. (5/37)

 (+info)

Guidelines for the management of work-related asthma. (6/37)

 (+info)

Assessment of public health impact of work-related asthma. (7/37)

 (+info)

Is specific IgE antibody analysis feasible for the diagnosis of methylenediphenyl diisocyanate-induced occupational asthma? (8/37)

 (+info)

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Anti-asthmatic agents are a class of medications used to prevent or alleviate the symptoms of asthma, such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. These medications work by reducing inflammation, relaxing muscles in the airways, and preventing allergic reactions that can trigger an asthma attack.

There are several types of anti-asthmatic agents, including:

1. Bronchodilators: These medications relax the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe. They can be short-acting or long-acting, depending on how long they work.
2. Inhaled corticosteroids: These medications reduce inflammation in the airways and help prevent asthma symptoms from occurring.
3. Leukotriene modifiers: These medications block the action of leukotrienes, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
4. Combination therapies: Some anti-asthmatic agents combine different types of medications, such as a bronchodilator and an inhaled corticosteroid, into one inhaler.
5. Biologics: These are newer types of anti-asthmatic agents that target specific molecules involved in the inflammatory response in asthma. They are usually given by injection.

It's important to note that different people with asthma may require different medications or combinations of medications to manage their symptoms effectively. Therefore, it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to determine the best treatment plan for each individual.

Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is a type of asthma that is triggered by physical activity or exercise. Officially known as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), this condition causes the airways in the lungs to narrow and become inflamed, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. These symptoms typically occur during or after exercise and can last for several minutes to a few hours.

EIA is caused by the loss of heat and moisture from the airways during exercise, which leads to the release of inflammatory mediators that cause the airways to constrict. People with EIA may have underlying asthma or may only experience symptoms during exercise. Proper diagnosis and management of EIA can help individuals maintain an active lifestyle and participate in physical activities without experiencing symptoms.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) is a measurement of how quickly a person can exhale air from their lungs. It is often used as a quick test to assess breathing difficulties in people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PEFR is measured in liters per minute (L/min) and the highest value obtained during a forceful exhalation is recorded as the peak expiratory flow rate. Regular monitoring of PEFR can help to assess the severity of an asthma attack or the effectiveness of treatment.

Occupational asthma is a type of asthma that is caused or worsened by exposure to specific agents in the workplace. These agents, known as occupational sensitizers, can cause an immune response that leads to airway inflammation and narrowing, resulting in classic asthma symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness.

Occupational asthma can develop in individuals who have no prior history of asthma, or it can worsen pre-existing asthma. The onset of symptoms may be immediate (within hours) or delayed (up to several days) after exposure to the sensitizer. Common occupational sensitizers include isocyanates (found in certain paints and spray foam insulation), flour and grain dust, wood dust, animal dander, and various chemicals used in manufacturing processes.

Prevention of occupational asthma involves minimizing or eliminating exposure to known sensitizers through proper engineering controls, personal protective equipment, and workplace practices. If occupational asthma is suspected, individuals should consult with a healthcare professional for appropriate diagnosis and management strategies.

Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) is a medical term used to describe the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs in one second. It is often measured during pulmonary function testing to assess lung function and diagnose conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

FEV is typically expressed as a percentage of the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), which is the total volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking a deep breath in. The ratio of FEV to FVC is used to determine whether there is obstruction in the airways, with a lower ratio indicating more severe obstruction.

There are different types of FEV measurements, including FEV1 (the volume of air exhaled in one second), FEV25-75 (the average volume of air exhaled during the middle 50% of the FVC maneuver), and FEV0.5 (the volume of air exhaled in half a second). These measurements can provide additional information about lung function and help guide treatment decisions.

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) or bronchial hyperreactivity (BH) is a medical term that refers to the increased sensitivity and exaggerated response of the airways to various stimuli. In people with BHR, the airways narrow (constrict) more than usual in response to certain triggers such as allergens, cold air, exercise, or irritants like smoke or fumes. This narrowing can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

BHR is often associated with asthma and other respiratory conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis. It is typically diagnosed through a series of tests that measure the degree of airway narrowing in response to various stimuli. These tests may include spirometry, methacholine challenge test, or histamine challenge test.

BHR can be managed with medications such as bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs, which help to relax the muscles around the airways and reduce inflammation. It is also important to avoid triggers that can exacerbate symptoms and make BHR worse.

Bronchodilators are medications that relax and widen the airways (bronchioles) in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. They work by relaxing the smooth muscle around the airways, which allows them to dilate or open up. This results in improved airflow and reduced symptoms of bronchoconstriction, such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.

Bronchodilators can be classified into two main types: short-acting and long-acting. Short-acting bronchodilators are used for quick relief of symptoms and last for 4 to 6 hours, while long-acting bronchodilators are used for maintenance therapy and provide symptom relief for 12 hours or more.

Examples of bronchodilator agents include:

* Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, levalbuterol, and pirbuterol
* Long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) such as salmeterol, formoterol, and indacaterol
* Anticholinergics such as ipratropium, tiotropium, and aclidinium
* Combination bronchodilators that contain both a LABA and an anticholinergic, such as umeclidinium/vilanterol and glycopyrrolate/formoterol.

Respiratory sounds are the noises produced by the airflow through the respiratory tract during breathing. These sounds can provide valuable information about the health and function of the lungs and airways. They are typically categorized into two main types: normal breath sounds and adventitious (or abnormal) breath sounds.

Normal breath sounds include:

1. Vesicular breath sounds: These are soft, low-pitched sounds heard over most of the lung fields during quiet breathing. They are produced by the movement of air through the alveoli and smaller bronchioles.
2. Bronchovesicular breath sounds: These are medium-pitched, hollow sounds heard over the mainstem bronchi and near the upper sternal border during both inspiration and expiration. They are a combination of vesicular and bronchial breath sounds.

Abnormal or adventitious breath sounds include:

1. Crackles (or rales): These are discontinuous, non-musical sounds that resemble the crackling of paper or bubbling in a fluid-filled container. They can be heard during inspiration and are caused by the sudden opening of collapsed airways or the movement of fluid within the airways.
2. Wheezes: These are continuous, musical sounds resembling a whistle. They are produced by the narrowing or obstruction of the airways, causing turbulent airflow.
3. Rhonchi: These are low-pitched, rumbling, continuous sounds that can be heard during both inspiration and expiration. They are caused by the vibration of secretions or fluids in the larger airways.
4. Stridor: This is a high-pitched, inspiratory sound that resembles a harsh crowing or barking noise. It is usually indicative of upper airway narrowing or obstruction.

The character, location, and duration of respiratory sounds can help healthcare professionals diagnose various respiratory conditions, such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and bronchitis.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

Hypersensitivity is an exaggerated or inappropriate immune response to a substance that is generally harmless to most people. It's also known as an allergic reaction. This abnormal response can be caused by various types of immunological mechanisms, including antibody-mediated reactions (types I, II, and III) and cell-mediated reactions (type IV). The severity of the hypersensitivity reaction can range from mild discomfort to life-threatening conditions. Common examples of hypersensitivity reactions include allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylaxis.

Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Also known as Type I hypersensitivity, it is an exaggerated and abnormal immune response that occurs within minutes to a few hours after exposure to a second dose of an allergen (a substance that triggers an allergic reaction). This type of hypersensitivity is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies, which are produced by the immune system in response to the first exposure to the allergen. Upon subsequent exposures, these IgE antibodies bind to mast cells and basophils, leading to their degranulation and the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins. These mediators cause a variety of symptoms, including itching, swelling, redness, and pain at the site of exposure, as well as systemic symptoms such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, and hypotension (low blood pressure). Examples of immediate hypersensitivity reactions include allergic asthma, hay fever, anaphylaxis, and some forms of food allergy.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Rhinitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and irritation of the nasal passages, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, and postnasal drip. It can be caused by various factors, including allergies (such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander), infections (viral or bacterial), environmental irritants (such as smoke or pollution), and hormonal changes. Depending on the cause, rhinitis can be classified as allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis, infectious rhinitis, or hormonal rhinitis. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause but may include medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, nasal sprays, and immunotherapy (allergy shots).

Albuterol is a medication that is used to treat bronchospasm, or narrowing of the airways in the lungs, in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is a short-acting beta-2 agonist, which means it works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe. Albuterol is available in several forms, including an inhaler, nebulizer solution, and syrup, and it is typically used as needed to relieve symptoms of bronchospasm. It may also be used before exercise to prevent bronchospasm caused by physical activity.

The medical definition of Albuterol is: "A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. It works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe."

Methacholine chloride is a medication that is used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and assess the severity of asthma or other respiratory conditions that cause airway hyperresponsiveness. It is a synthetic derivative of acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter that causes smooth muscle contraction in the body.

When methacholine chloride is inhaled, it stimulates the muscarinic receptors in the airways, causing them to constrict or narrow. This response is measured and used to determine the degree of airway hyperresponsiveness, which can help diagnose asthma and assess its severity.

The methacholine challenge test involves inhaling progressively higher doses of methacholine chloride until a significant decrease in lung function is observed or until a maximum dose is reached. The test results are then used to guide treatment decisions and monitor the effectiveness of therapy. It's important to note that this test should be conducted under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it carries some risks, including bronchoconstriction and respiratory distress.

Allergic rhinitis, perennial type, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the nasal passages caused by an allergic response to environmental allergens that are present throughout the year. Unlike seasonal allergic rhinitis, which is triggered by specific pollens or molds during certain times of the year, perennial allergic rhinitis is a persistent condition that occurs year-round.

Common allergens responsible for perennial allergic rhinitis include dust mites, cockroaches, pet dander, and indoor mold spores. Symptoms may include sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, itchy eyes, ears, throat, or roof of the mouth. Treatment options typically involve avoiding exposure to the offending allergens, if possible, as well as medications such as antihistamines, nasal corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists to manage symptoms. Immunotherapy (allergy shots) may also be recommended for long-term management in some cases.

Spirometry is a common type of pulmonary function test (PFT) that measures how well your lungs work. This is done by measuring how much air you can exhale from your lungs after taking a deep breath, and how quickly you can exhale it. The results are compared to normal values for your age, height, sex, and ethnicity.

Spirometry is used to diagnose and monitor certain lung conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory diseases that cause narrowing of the airways. It can also be used to assess the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions. The test is non-invasive, safe, and easy to perform.

Budesonide is a corticosteroid medication that is used to reduce inflammation in the body. It works by mimicking the effects of hormones produced naturally by the adrenal glands, which help regulate the immune system and suppress inflammatory responses. Budesonide is available as an inhaler, nasal spray, or oral tablet, and is used to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), rhinitis, and Crohn's disease.

When budesonide is inhaled or taken orally, it is absorbed into the bloodstream and travels throughout the body, where it can reduce inflammation in various tissues and organs. In the lungs, for example, budesonide can help prevent asthma attacks by reducing inflammation in the airways, making it easier to breathe.

Like other corticosteroid medications, budesonide can have side effects, particularly if used at high doses or for long periods of time. These may include thrush (a fungal infection in the mouth), hoarseness, sore throat, cough, headache, and easy bruising or skin thinning. Long-term use of corticosteroids can also lead to more serious side effects, such as adrenal suppression, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider when taking budesonide or any other medication, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the body's immune response. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they can travel to different tissues and organs throughout the body. Eosinophils are characterized by their granules, which contain various proteins and enzymes that are toxic to parasites and can contribute to inflammation.

Eosinophils are typically associated with allergic reactions, asthma, and other inflammatory conditions. They can also be involved in the body's response to certain infections, particularly those caused by parasites such as worms. In some cases, elevated levels of eosinophils in the blood or tissues (a condition called eosinophilia) can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as a parasitic infection, autoimmune disorder, or cancer.

Eosinophils are named for their staining properties - they readily take up eosin dye, which is why they appear pink or red under the microscope. They make up only about 1-6% of circulating white blood cells in healthy individuals, but their numbers can increase significantly in response to certain triggers.

Beclomethasone is a corticosteroid medication that is used to treat inflammation and allergies in the body. It works by reducing the activity of the immune system, which helps to prevent the release of substances that cause inflammation. Beclomethasone is available as an inhaler, nasal spray, and cream or ointment.

In its inhaled form, beclomethasone is used to treat asthma and other lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It helps to prevent symptoms such as wheezing and shortness of breath by reducing inflammation in the airways.

As a nasal spray, beclomethasone is used to treat allergies and inflammation in the nose, such as hay fever or rhinitis. It can help to relieve symptoms such as sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, and itching.

Beclomethasone cream or ointment is used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, dermatitis, and psoriasis. It works by reducing inflammation in the skin and relieving symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, and irritation.

It's important to note that beclomethasone can have side effects, especially if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include thrush (a fungal infection in the mouth), coughing, hoarseness, sore throat, and easy bruising or thinning of the skin. It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using beclomethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

Leukotriene antagonists are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of leukotrienes, which are chemicals released by the immune system in response to an allergen or irritant. Leukotrienes cause airway muscles to tighten and inflammation in the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. By blocking the action of leukotrienes, leukotriene antagonists can help relieve these symptoms and improve lung function. These medications are often used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Examples of leukotriene antagonists include montelukast, zafirlukast, and pranlukast.

Nebulizer: A nebulizer is a medical device that delivers medication in the form of a mist to the respiratory system. It is often used for people who have difficulty inhaling medication through traditional inhalers, such as young children or individuals with severe respiratory conditions. The medication is placed in the nebulizer cup and then converted into a fine mist by the machine. This allows the user to breathe in the medication directly through a mouthpiece or mask.

Vaporizer: A vaporizer, on the other hand, is a device that heats up a liquid, often water or essential oils, to produce steam or vapor. While some people use vaporizers for therapeutic purposes, such as to help relieve congestion or cough, it is important to note that vaporizers are not considered medical devices and their effectiveness for these purposes is not well-established.

It's worth noting that nebulizers and vaporizers are different from each other in terms of their purpose and usage. Nebulizers are used specifically for delivering medication, while vaporizers are used to produce steam or vapor, often for non-medical purposes.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Status asthmaticus is a severe, potentially life-threatening exacerbation of asthma that does not respond to standard treatments with bronchodilators and corticosteroids. It is characterized by persistent bronchospasm, air trapping, and hypoxemia, despite the administration of beta-agonists and systemic steroids. Prolonged respiratory acidosis and muscular fatigue may also occur due to the increased work of breathing. Status asthmaticus can lead to respiratory failure and may require mechanical ventilation in severe cases. It is a medical emergency that requires immediate evaluation and treatment in a hospital setting.

Bronchoconstrictor agents are substances that cause narrowing or constriction of the bronchioles, the small airways in the lungs. This can lead to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Bronchoconstrictor agents include certain medications (such as some beta-blockers and prostaglandin F2alpha), environmental pollutants (such as tobacco smoke and air pollution particles), and allergens (such as dust mites and pollen).

In contrast to bronchodilator agents, which are medications that widen the airways and improve breathing, bronchoconstrictor agents can make it more difficult for a person to breathe. People with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be particularly sensitive to bronchoconstrictor agents and may experience severe symptoms when exposed to them.

Airway remodeling is a term used to describe the structural changes that occur in the airways as a result of chronic inflammation in respiratory diseases such as asthma. These changes include thickening of the airway wall, increased smooth muscle mass, and abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix components. These alterations can lead to narrowing of the airways, decreased lung function, and increased severity of symptoms. Airway remodeling is thought to be a major contributor to the persistent airflow obstruction that is characteristic of severe asthma.

Bronchoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (the bronchi and bronchioles) due to the contraction of the smooth muscles surrounding them. This constriction can cause difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath, which are common symptoms of asthma and other respiratory conditions.

Bronchoconstriction can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, cold air, exercise, and emotional stress. In some cases, it may also be caused by certain medications, such as beta-blockers or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Treatment for bronchoconstriction typically involves the use of bronchodilators, which are medications that help to relax the smooth muscles around the airways and widen them, making it easier to breathe.

Bronchitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead to the lungs. This inflammation can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Bronchitis can be either acute or chronic.

Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu, and typically lasts for a few days to a week. Symptoms may include a productive cough (coughing up mucus or phlegm), chest discomfort, and fatigue. Acute bronchitis often resolves on its own without specific medical treatment, although rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications to manage symptoms may be helpful.

Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is characterized by a persistent cough with mucus production that lasts for at least three months out of the year for two consecutive years. Chronic bronchitis is typically caused by exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. It is often associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Treatment for chronic bronchitis may include medications to help open the airways, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, as well as lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and avoiding irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Adrenergic beta-agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and mediate the effects of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) and the hormone epinephrine (also called adrenaline).

When beta-agonists bind to these receptors, they stimulate a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways, increased heart rate and contractility, and increased metabolic rate. As a result, adrenergic beta-agonists are often used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis, as they can help to dilate the airways and improve breathing.

There are several different types of beta-agonists, including short-acting and long-acting formulations. Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) are typically used for quick relief of symptoms, while long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) are used for more sustained symptom control. Examples of adrenergic beta-agonists include albuterol (also known as salbutamol), terbutaline, formoterol, and salmeterol.

It's worth noting that while adrenergic beta-agonists can be very effective in treating respiratory conditions, they can also have side effects, particularly if used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. These may include tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. As with any medication, it's important to use adrenergic beta-agonists only as directed by a healthcare professional.

Respiratory hypersensitivity, also known as respiratory allergies or hypersensitive pneumonitis, refers to an exaggerated immune response in the lungs to inhaled substances or allergens. This condition occurs when the body's immune system overreacts to harmless particles, leading to inflammation and damage in the airways and alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.

There are two types of respiratory hypersensitivity: immediate and delayed. Immediate hypersensitivity, also known as type I hypersensitivity, is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and results in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and asthma-like symptoms within minutes to hours of exposure to the allergen. Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type III or type IV hypersensitivity, is mediated by other immune mechanisms and can take several hours to days to develop after exposure to the allergen.

Common causes of respiratory hypersensitivity include mold spores, animal dander, dust mites, pollen, and chemicals found in certain occupations. Symptoms may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves avoiding the allergen, if possible, and using medications such as corticosteroids, bronchodilators, or antihistamines to manage symptoms. In severe cases, immunotherapy (allergy shots) may be recommended to help desensitize the immune system to the allergen.

Ovalbumin is the major protein found in egg white, making up about 54-60% of its total protein content. It is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of around 45 kDa and has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Ovalbumin is a single polypeptide chain consisting of 385 amino acids, including four disulfide bridges that contribute to its structure.

Ovalbumin is often used in research as a model antigen for studying immune responses and allergies. In its native form, ovalbumin is not allergenic; however, when it is denatured or degraded into smaller peptides through cooking or digestion, it can become an allergen for some individuals.

In addition to being a food allergen, ovalbumin has been used in various medical and research applications, such as vaccine development, immunological studies, and protein structure-function analysis.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pyroglyphidae" is not a medical term. It is actually a family of small arthropods, specifically mites, that are often found in houses and other buildings. These mites are commonly known as dust mites or storage mites, and some species are associated with allergies and asthma symptoms in humans. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'll be happy to help!

Pulmonary medicine is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and conditions affecting the respiratory system, including the lungs, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. Pulmonologists are specialists who treat a wide range of respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, lung cancer, sleep-disordered breathing, tuberculosis, and interstitial lung diseases. They use various diagnostic techniques including chest X-rays, CT scans, pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopy, and sleep studies to evaluate and manage respiratory disorders. Pulmonologists also provide care for patients who require long-term mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy.

Vital capacity (VC) is a term used in pulmonary function tests to describe the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath. It is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. In other words, it's the total amount of air you can forcibly exhale after inhaling as deeply as possible. Vital capacity is an important measurement in assessing lung function and can be reduced in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory disorders.

Aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) is a specific form of asthma that is characterized by the worsening of respiratory symptoms after ingesting aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). AIA is also known as NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) or aspirin-sensitive asthma.

People with AIA typically experience bronchoconstriction, nasal congestion, and rhinorrhea after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs that inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1). These symptoms can range from mild to severe and may occur within a few minutes to several hours after ingesting the medication.

In addition to respiratory symptoms, some people with AIA may also develop skin reactions, such as hives or angioedema, and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain or diarrhea. The exact mechanism by which aspirin and other NSAIDs trigger these symptoms in people with AIA is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to an imbalance in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, two types of lipid mediators that play a role in inflammation.

Avoiding aspirin and other NSAIDs is the primary treatment for AIA. In some cases, medications such as corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, or antihistamines may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. Desensitization therapy, which involves gradually increasing the dose of aspirin under medical supervision, may also be an option for some people with AIA who are unable to avoid NSAIDs altogether.

Sputum is defined as a mixture of saliva and phlegm that is expelled from the respiratory tract during coughing, sneezing or deep breathing. It can be clear, mucoid, or purulent (containing pus) depending on the underlying cause of the respiratory issue. Examination of sputum can help diagnose various respiratory conditions such as infections, inflammation, or other lung diseases.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a type of clinical specimen obtained through a procedure called bronchoalveolar lavage. This procedure involves inserting a bronchoscope into the lungs and instilling a small amount of saline solution into a specific area of the lung, then gently aspirating the fluid back out. The fluid that is recovered is called bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

BAL fluid contains cells and other substances that are present in the lower respiratory tract, including the alveoli (the tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs). By analyzing BAL fluid, doctors can diagnose various lung conditions, such as pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and lung cancer. They can also monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions by comparing the composition of BAL fluid before and after treatment.

BAL fluid is typically analyzed for its cellular content, including the number and type of white blood cells present, as well as for the presence of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. The fluid may also be tested for various proteins, enzymes, and other biomarkers that can provide additional information about lung health and disease.

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal gland, or can be synthetically manufactured. They play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticoids suppress immune responses and inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators from various cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They are frequently used in medical treatment for a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological disorders, and certain cancers. Prolonged use or high doses of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, osteoporosis, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Exhalation is the act of breathing out or exhaling, which is the reverse process of inhalation. During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards, while the chest muscles also relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size. This decrease in size puts pressure on the lungs, causing them to deflate and expel air.

Exhalation is a passive process that occurs naturally after inhalation, but it can also be actively controlled during activities such as speaking, singing, or playing a wind instrument. In medical terms, exhalation may also be referred to as expiration.

Airway obstruction is a medical condition that occurs when the normal flow of air into and out of the lungs is partially or completely blocked. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including swelling of the tissues in the airway, the presence of foreign objects or substances, or abnormal growths such as tumors.

When the airway becomes obstructed, it can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally. They may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. In severe cases, airway obstruction can lead to respiratory failure and other life-threatening complications.

There are several types of airway obstruction, including:

1. Upper airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the upper part of the airway, such as the nose, throat, or voice box.
2. Lower airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the lower part of the airway, such as the trachea or bronchi.
3. Partial airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is partially blocked, allowing some air to flow in and out of the lungs.
4. Complete airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is completely blocked, preventing any air from flowing into or out of the lungs.

Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, removing the obstruction may be as simple as clearing the airway of foreign objects or mucus. In other cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery may be necessary.

A cough is a reflex action that helps to clear the airways of irritants, foreign particles, or excess mucus or phlegm. It is characterized by a sudden, forceful expulsion of air from the lungs through the mouth and nose. A cough can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term), and it can be accompanied by other symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or fever. Coughing can be caused by various factors, including respiratory infections, allergies, asthma, environmental pollutants, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchitis. In some cases, a cough may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as heart failure or lung cancer.

Indoor air pollution refers to the contamination of air within buildings and structures due to presence of particles, gases, or biological materials that can harmfully affect the health of occupants. These pollutants can originate from various sources including cooking stoves, heating systems, building materials, furniture, tobacco products, outdoor air, and microbial growth. Some common indoor air pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and mold. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can cause a range of health issues, from respiratory problems to cancer, depending on the type and level of exposure. Effective ventilation, air filtration, and source control are some of the strategies used to reduce indoor air pollution.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

Eosinophilia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high concentration of eosinophils in the circulating blood. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in fighting off parasitic infections and regulating allergic reactions. However, when their numbers become excessively high, they can contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.

Eosinophilia is typically defined as a count of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood. Mild eosinophilia (up to 1,500 cells/μL) may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered during routine blood tests. However, higher levels of eosinophilia can lead to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, skin rashes, and organ damage, depending on the underlying cause.

The causes of eosinophilia are varied and can include allergic reactions, parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, certain medications, and some types of cancer. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilia require identification and management of the underlying cause.

Mites are tiny arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida, which also includes spiders and ticks. They are characterized by their small size, usually measuring less than 1 mm in length, and their lack of obvious segmentation on their bodies. Many mites are parasitic, feeding on the skin cells, blood, or fluids of plants and animals, including humans. Some common mite infestations in humans include scabies, caused by the itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), and dust mites (e.g., Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae), which are commonly found in household dust and can cause allergic reactions in some people. It's worth noting that the majority of mites are not harmful to humans and play important roles in ecosystems as decomposers and predators.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

A breath test is a medical or forensic procedure used to analyze a sample of exhaled breath in order to detect and measure the presence of various substances, most commonly alcohol. The test is typically conducted using a device called a breathalyzer, which measures the amount of alcohol in the breath and converts it into a reading of blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

In addition to alcohol, breath tests can also be used to detect other substances such as drugs or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may indicate certain medical conditions. However, these types of breath tests are less common and may not be as reliable or accurate as other diagnostic tests.

Breath testing is commonly used by law enforcement officers to determine whether a driver is impaired by alcohol and to establish probable cause for arrest. It is also used in some healthcare settings to monitor patients who are being treated for alcohol abuse or dependence.

Nedocromil is not a medication that has direct therapeutic use, but it is the active ingredient in a prescription eye drop and inhaler medication called "nedocromil sodium." Therefore, I will provide you with the definition of nedocromil sodium.

Nedocromil sodium is a medication used to prevent asthma symptoms and allergic rhinitis (hay fever) symptoms. It belongs to a class of medications called mast cell stabilizers, which work by preventing the release of chemicals from certain cells in the body that cause inflammation and allergic reactions.

Nedocromil sodium is available as an eye drop solution for the prevention of itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis and as a metered-dose inhaler for the prevention of asthma symptoms. It is typically used on a regular basis to help prevent symptoms from occurring, rather than to treat acute symptoms.

It's important to note that nedocromil sodium is not a bronchodilator or a steroid medication and should not be used as a replacement for these types of medications if they have been prescribed by your healthcare provider.

Self care is a health practice that involves individuals taking responsibility for their own health and well-being by actively seeking out and participating in activities and behaviors that promote healthy living, prevent illness and disease, and manage existing medical conditions. Self care includes a wide range of activities such as:

* Following a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Getting adequate sleep and rest
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques or mindfulness practices
* Practicing good hygiene and grooming habits
* Seeking preventive care through regular check-ups and screenings
* Taking prescribed medications as directed by a healthcare provider
* Monitoring symptoms and seeking medical attention when necessary

Self care is an important part of overall health and wellness, and can help individuals maintain their physical, emotional, and mental health. It is also an essential component of chronic disease management, helping people with ongoing medical conditions to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

Androstadienes are a class of steroid hormones that are derived from androstenedione, which is a weak male sex hormone. Androstadienes include various compounds such as androstadiene-3,17-dione and androstanedione, which are intermediate products in the biosynthesis of more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.

Androstadienes are present in both males and females but are found in higher concentrations in men. They can be detected in various bodily fluids, including blood, urine, sweat, and semen. In addition to their role in steroid hormone synthesis, androstadienes have been studied for their potential use as biomarkers of physiological processes and disease states.

It's worth noting that androstadienes are sometimes referred to as "androstenes" in the literature, although this term can also refer to other related compounds.

A Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) is a medical device used to administer a specific amount or "metered dose" of medication, usually in the form of an aerosol, directly into the lungs of a patient. The MDI consists of a pressurized canister that contains the medication mixed with a propellant, a metering valve that releases a precise quantity of the medication, and a mouthpiece or mask for the patient to inhale the medication.

MDIs are commonly used to treat respiratory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis. They are also used to deliver other medications such as corticosteroids, anticholinergics, and beta-agonists. Proper use of an MDI requires coordination between the pressing of the canister and inhalation of the medication, which may be challenging for some patients. Therefore, it is essential to receive proper training on how to use an MDI effectively.

Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a cytokine that plays a crucial role in the immune response, particularly in the development of allergic inflammation and hypersensitivity reactions. It is primarily produced by activated Th2 cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. IL-13 mediates its effects through binding to the IL-13 receptor complex, which consists of the IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα chains.

IL-13 has several functions in the body, including:

* Regulation of IgE production by B cells
* Induction of eosinophil differentiation and activation
* Inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production by macrophages
* Promotion of mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness in the lungs, contributing to the pathogenesis of asthma.

Dysregulation of IL-13 has been implicated in various diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis. Therefore, targeting IL-13 with biologic therapies has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of these conditions.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

Cromolyn sodium is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as mast cell stabilizers. It works by preventing the release of certain chemicals from mast cells, which are immune system cells found in various tissues throughout the body, including the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract.

Mast cells play an important role in the body's allergic response. When a person is exposed to an allergen, such as pollen or pet dander, mast cells release chemicals like histamine, which can cause symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and inflammation.

Cromolyn sodium is used to prevent asthma attacks, hay fever, and other allergic reactions. It is often prescribed for people who have difficulty controlling their symptoms with other medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids or antihistamines.

The medication is available in various forms, including inhalers, nasal sprays, and eye drops. When used as an inhaler, cromolyn sodium is typically administered four times a day to prevent asthma symptoms. As a nasal spray or eye drop, it is usually used several times a day to prevent allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis.

While cromolyn sodium can be effective in preventing allergic reactions, it does not provide immediate relief of symptoms. It may take several days or even weeks of regular use before the full benefits of the medication are felt.

Th2 cells, or T helper 2 cells, are a type of CD4+ T cell that plays a key role in the immune response to parasites and allergens. They produce cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 which promote the activation and proliferation of eosinophils, mast cells, and B cells, leading to the production of antibodies such as IgE. Th2 cells also play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis.

It's important to note that an imbalance in Th1/Th2 response can lead to immune dysregulation and disease states. For example, an overactive Th2 response can lead to allergic reactions while an underactive Th2 response can lead to decreased ability to fight off parasitic infections.

It's also worth noting that there are other subsets of CD4+ T cells such as Th1, Th17, Treg and others, each with their own specific functions and cytokine production profiles.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gaseous air pollutant and respiratory irritant. It is a reddish-brown toxic gas with a pungent, choking odor. NO2 is a major component of smog and is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants, and industrial processes.

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing, especially in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. Long-term exposure has been linked to the development of chronic lung diseases, including bronchitis and emphysema. NO2 also contributes to the formation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which can penetrate deep into the lungs and cause additional health problems.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

Ethanolamines are a class of organic compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a carbon atom. They are derivatives of ammonia (NH3) in which one or two hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a ethanol group (-CH2CH2OH).

The most common ethanolamines are:

* Monethanolamine (MEA), also called 2-aminoethanol, with the formula HOCH2CH2NH2.
* Diethanolamine (DEA), also called 2,2'-iminobisethanol, with the formula HOCH2CH2NHCH2CH2OH.
* Triethanolamine (TEA), also called 2,2',2''-nitrilotrisethanol, with the formula N(CH2CH2OH)3.

Ethanolamines are used in a wide range of industrial and consumer products, including as solvents, emulsifiers, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. They also have applications as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals. In the body, ethanolamines play important roles in various biological processes, such as neurotransmission and cell signaling.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Tobacco smoke pollution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it refers to the presence of tobacco smoke in indoor or outdoor environments, which can have negative effects on air quality and human health. It is also known as secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). This type of smoke is a mixture of sidestream smoke (the smoke given off by a burning cigarette) and mainstream smoke (the smoke exhaled by a smoker).

The medical community recognizes tobacco smoke pollution as a serious health hazard. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals, hundreds of which are toxic and about 70 that can cause cancer. Exposure to tobacco smoke pollution can cause a range of adverse health effects, including respiratory symptoms, lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke. In children, it can also lead to ear infections, asthma attacks, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Therefore, many laws and regulations have been implemented worldwide to protect people from tobacco smoke pollution, such as smoking bans in public places and workplaces.

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

Picornaviridae is a family of small, single-stranded RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Picornaviridae infections refer to the illnesses caused by these viruses.

The most well-known picornaviruses that cause human diseases are:

1. Enteroviruses: This genus includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enterovirus 71. These viruses can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms like the common cold to more severe diseases such as meningitis, myocarditis, and paralysis (in the case of poliovirus).
2. Rhinoviruses: These are the most common cause of the common cold. They primarily infect the upper respiratory tract and usually cause mild symptoms like runny nose, sore throat, and cough.
3. Hepatitis A virus (HAV): This picornavirus is responsible for acute hepatitis A infection, which can cause jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite.

Transmission of Picornaviridae infections typically occurs through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects, respiratory droplets, or fecal-oral routes. Preventive measures include maintaining good personal hygiene, practicing safe food handling, and getting vaccinated against poliovirus and hepatitis A (if recommended). Treatment for most picornaviridae infections is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and ensuring proper hydration.

Cockroaches are not a medical condition or disease. They are a type of insect that can be found in many parts of the world. Some species of cockroaches are known to carry diseases and allergens, which can cause health problems for some people. Cockroach allergens can trigger asthma symptoms, especially in children. Additionally, cockroaches can contaminate food and surfaces with bacteria and other germs, which can lead to illnesses such as salmonellosis and gastroenteritis.

If you have a problem with cockroaches in your home or workplace, it is important to take steps to eliminate them to reduce the risk of health problems. This may include cleaning up food and water sources, sealing entry points, and using pesticides or hiring a professional pest control service.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate (TDI) is not a medical term itself, but it is an important chemical in the industrial field, particularly in the production of polyurethane products. Therefore, I will provide a general definition of this compound.

Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate (TDI) is an organic chemical compound with the formula (CH3C6H3NCO)2. It is a colorless to light yellow liquid with a pungent odor and is highly reactive due to the presence of two isocyanate functional groups (-N=C=O). TDI is primarily used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams, coatings, and adhesives. Exposure to TDI can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract and may pose potential health hazards if not handled properly.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by the persistent obstruction of airflow in and out of the lungs. This obstruction is usually caused by two primary conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis involves inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to excessive mucus production and coughing. Emphysema is a condition where the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs are damaged, resulting in decreased gas exchange and shortness of breath.

The main symptoms of COPD include progressive shortness of breath, chronic cough, chest tightness, wheezing, and excessive mucus production. The disease is often associated with exposure to harmful particles or gases, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. While there is no cure for COPD, treatments can help alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and slow the progression of the disease. These treatments may include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, combination inhalers, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Puerto Rico" is not a medical term. It is a territorial possession of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea. It includes the main island of Puerto Rico and various smaller islands. If you have any questions about a medical topic, please provide more details so I can try to help answer your question.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

Adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists are a class of medications that bind to and stimulate beta-2 adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the lungs, blood vessels, and skeletal muscles. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and play a role in regulating various physiological processes such as heart rate, blood pressure, and airway diameter.

When beta-2 receptor agonists bind to these receptors, they cause bronchodilation (opening of the airways), relaxation of smooth muscle, and increased heart rate and force of contraction. These effects make them useful in the treatment of conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and premature labor.

Examples of adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists include albuterol, terbutaline, salmeterol, and formoterol. These medications can be administered by inhalation, oral administration, or injection, depending on the specific drug and the condition being treated.

It's important to note that while adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects such as tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and headaches. In addition, long-term use of some beta-2 agonists has been associated with increased risk of severe asthma exacerbations and even death in some cases. Therefore, it's important to use these medications only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any concerning symptoms promptly.

Pregnenediones are a class of steroid hormones that contain a pregnane structure, which is a skeleton formed by four fused cyclohexane rings. Specifically, pregnenediones are characterized by having a ketone group (a carbonyl group, -C=O) at the 20th carbon position of this pregnane structure. They can be further classified into various subgroups based on the presence and location of other functional groups in the molecule.

Pregnenediones are not typically used as medications, but they do play important roles in the human body. For example, progesterone is a naturally occurring pregnenedione that plays a crucial role in maintaining pregnancy and preparing the uterus for childbirth. Other pregnenediones may also have hormonal activity or serve as intermediates in the synthesis of other steroid hormones.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a protein found in the granules of eosinophils, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a role in the immune response, particularly against parasitic infections and allergens. ECP is released from eosinophils during degranulation, a process that occurs when these cells are activated and release their granules' contents.

Elevated levels of ECP in body fluids, such as blood or sputum, can indicate eosinophil activation and may be associated with various inflammatory conditions, including asthma, allergies, and some parasitic infections. Measuring ECP levels can help monitor disease activity and assess the effectiveness of treatment in these conditions.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that is commonly known as eczema. It is characterized by dry, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin that can become red, swollen, and cracked over time. The condition often affects the skin on the face, hands, feet, and behind the knees, and it can be triggered or worsened by exposure to certain allergens, irritants, stress, or changes in temperature and humidity. Atopic dermatitis is more common in people with a family history of allergies, such as asthma or hay fever, and it often begins in infancy or early childhood. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors that affect the immune system and the skin's ability to maintain a healthy barrier function.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Anti-allergic agents, also known as antihistamines, are a class of medications used to treat allergies. They work by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that is released during an allergic reaction and causes symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes.

There are two main types of antihistamines: first-generation and second-generation. First-generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), can cause drowsiness and other side effects, such as dry mouth and blurred vision. They are typically used for the treatment of short-term symptoms, such as those caused by seasonal allergies or a mild reaction to an insect bite.

Second-generation antihistamines, such as loratadine (Claritin) and cetirizine (Zyrtec), are less likely to cause drowsiness and other side effects. They are often used for the long-term treatment of chronic allergies, such as those caused by dust mites or pet dander.

In addition to their use in treating allergies, antihistamines may also be used to treat symptoms of motion sickness, insomnia, and anxiety. It is important to follow the instructions on the label when taking antihistamines and to talk to a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using these medications.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a type of cytokine, which is a small signaling protein that mediates and regulates immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. IL-5 is primarily produced by activated T cells, especially Th2 cells, as well as mast cells, eosinophils, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).

The primary function of IL-5 is to regulate the growth, differentiation, activation, and survival of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response against parasitic infections. IL-5 also enhances the ability of eosinophils to migrate from the bone marrow into the bloodstream and then into tissues, where they can participate in immune responses.

In addition to its effects on eosinophils, IL-5 has been shown to have a role in the regulation of B cell function, including promoting the survival and differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Dysregulation of IL-5 production and activity has been implicated in several diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain parasitic infections.

Pulmonary eosinophilia is a condition characterized by an increased number of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the lungs or pulmonary tissues. Eosinophils play a role in the body's immune response to parasites and allergens, but an overabundance can contribute to inflammation and damage in the lungs.

The condition may be associated with various underlying causes, such as:

1. Asthma or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)
2. Eosinophilic lung diseases, like eosinophilic pneumonia or idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome
3. Parasitic infections, such as ascariasis or strongyloidiasis
4. Drug reactions, including certain antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs
5. Connective tissue disorders, like rheumatoid arthritis or Churg-Strauss syndrome
6. Malignancies, such as lymphoma or leukemia
7. Other less common conditions, like tropical pulmonary eosinophilia or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

Symptoms of pulmonary eosinophilia can vary but often include cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest discomfort. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, such as complete blood count (CBC) with differential, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), or lung biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include corticosteroids, antibiotics, or antiparasitic medications.

Respiratory mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract, including the nose, throat, bronchi, and lungs. It is a specialized type of tissue that is composed of epithelial cells, goblet cells, and glands that produce mucus, which helps to trap inhaled particles such as dust, allergens, and pathogens.

The respiratory mucosa also contains cilia, tiny hair-like structures that move rhythmically to help propel the mucus and trapped particles out of the airways and into the upper part of the throat, where they can be swallowed or coughed up. This defense mechanism is known as the mucociliary clearance system.

In addition to its role in protecting the respiratory tract from harmful substances, the respiratory mucosa also plays a crucial role in immune function by containing various types of immune cells that help to detect and respond to pathogens and other threats.

Air pollution is defined as the contamination of air due to the presence of substances or harmful elements that exceed the acceptable limits. These pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or a combination of these. They can be released from various sources, including industrial processes, vehicle emissions, burning of fossil fuels, and natural events like volcanic eruptions.

Exposure to air pollution can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to respiratory diseases, cardiovascular issues, and even premature death. It can also harm the environment, damaging crops, forests, and wildlife populations. Stringent regulations and measures are necessary to control and reduce air pollution levels, thereby protecting public health and the environment.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Rhinovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family. It's one of the most common causes of the common cold in humans, responsible for around 10-40% of all adult cases and up to 80% of cases in children. The virus replicates in the upper respiratory tract, leading to symptoms such as nasal congestion, sneezing, sore throat, and cough.

Rhinovirus infections are typically mild and self-limiting, but they can be more severe or even life-threatening in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who are undergoing cancer treatment. There is no vaccine available to prevent rhinovirus infections, and treatment is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms rather than targeting the virus itself.

The virus can be transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with contaminated surfaces, and it's highly contagious. It can survive on surfaces for several hours, making hand hygiene and environmental disinfection important measures to prevent its spread.

Mucus is a viscous, slippery secretion produced by the mucous membranes that line various body cavities such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. It serves to lubricate and protect these surfaces from damage, infection, and foreign particles. Mucus contains water, proteins, salts, and other substances, including antibodies, enzymes, and glycoproteins called mucins that give it its characteristic gel-like consistency.

In the respiratory system, mucus traps inhaled particles such as dust, allergens, and pathogens, preventing them from reaching the lungs. The cilia, tiny hair-like structures lining the airways, move the mucus upward toward the throat, where it can be swallowed or expelled through coughing or sneezing. In the gastrointestinal tract, mucus helps protect the lining of the stomach and intestines from digestive enzymes and other harmful substances.

Excessive production of mucus can occur in various medical conditions such as allergies, respiratory infections, chronic lung diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, nasal congestion, and diarrhea.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "housing" is not a term that has a medical definition. In a general sense, housing refers to a place where someone lives, such as a house or apartment. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Ozone (O3) is not a substance that is typically considered a component of health or medicine in the context of human body or physiology. It's actually a form of oxygen, but with three atoms instead of two, making it unstable and reactive. Ozone is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere, where it forms a protective layer in the stratosphere that absorbs harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.

However, ozone can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on human health depending on its location and concentration. At ground level or in indoor environments, ozone is considered an air pollutant that can irritate the respiratory system and aggravate asthma symptoms when inhaled at high concentrations. It's important to note that ozone should not be confused with oxygen (O2), which is essential for human life and breathing.

Respiratory tract diseases refer to a broad range of medical conditions that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs. These diseases can be categorized into upper and lower respiratory tract infections based on the location of the infection.

Upper respiratory tract infections affect the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx, and include conditions such as the common cold, flu, sinusitis, and laryngitis. Symptoms often include nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, and fever.

Lower respiratory tract infections affect the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs, and can be more severe. They include conditions such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and tuberculosis. Symptoms may include cough, chest congestion, shortness of breath, and fever.

Respiratory tract diseases can also be caused by allergies, irritants, or genetic factors. Treatment varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, breathing treatments, or surgery in severe cases.

Fenoterol is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, which is a type of medication used to treat respiratory conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It works by relaxing the muscles in the airways and increasing the flow of air into the lungs, making it easier to breathe.

Fenoterol is available in various forms, including inhalation solution, nebulizer solution, and dry powder inhaler. It is usually used as a rescue medication to relieve sudden symptoms or during an asthma attack. Like other short-acting β2-agonists, fenoterol has a rapid onset of action but its effects may wear off quickly, typically within 4-6 hours.

It is important to note that the use of fenoterol has been associated with an increased risk of severe asthma exacerbations and cardiovascular events, such as irregular heartbeat and high blood pressure. Therefore, it should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Bronchial spasm refers to a sudden constriction or tightening of the muscles in the bronchial tubes, which are the airways that lead to the lungs. This constriction can cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. Bronchial spasm is often associated with respiratory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis. In these conditions, the airways are sensitive to various triggers such as allergens, irritants, or infections, which can cause the muscles in the airways to contract and narrow. This can make it difficult for air to flow in and out of the lungs, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing. Bronchial spasm can be treated with medications that help to relax the muscles in the airways and open up the airways, such as bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs.

Isocyanates are a group of highly reactive chemicals that are widely used in the production of flexible and rigid foams, fibers, coatings, and adhesives. The most common isocyanates are toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). Exposure to isocyanates can cause a range of health effects, including irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, as well as respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Long-term exposure has been linked to the development of asthma and other respiratory diseases. Isocyanates are also known to be potential sensitizers, meaning that they can cause an allergic response in some individuals. It is important for workers who handle isocyanates to use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and follow proper safety protocols to minimize exposure.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Dermatophagoides are a group of mites that are commonly found in house dust. They are a common cause of allergies and can be found in bedding, carpets, and upholstered furniture. Dermatophagoides mites feed on human skin cells and dander, and their feces and bodies contain proteins that can act as antigens. These antigens can trigger an immune response in some people, leading to the production of antibodies and the release of chemicals such as histamine, which can cause allergic symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes.

There are several species of Dermatophagoides mites that are known to cause allergies, including D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. These mites are very small, measuring only about 0.3 millimeters in length, and are not visible to the naked eye. They thrive in warm, humid environments and are most active at night.

Exposure to Dermatophagoides antigens can occur through inhalation or skin contact. In people with allergies to these mites, symptoms can be triggered by activities such as making the bed, vacuuming, or sleeping on a mattress that is infested with mites. Allergy testing, such as a skin prick test or a blood test, can be used to diagnose an allergy to Dermatophagoides mites. Treatment options for allergies to these mites may include avoidance measures, medications, and immunotherapy (allergy shots).

Terbutaline is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta-2 adrenergic agonists. It works by relaxing muscles in the airways and increasing the flow of air into the lungs, making it easier to breathe. Terbutaline is used to treat bronchospasm (wheezing, shortness of breath) associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung diseases. It may also be used to prevent or treat bronchospasm caused by exercise or to prevent premature labor in pregnant women.

The medical definition of Terbutaline is: "A synthetic sympathomimetic amine used as a bronchodilator for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema. It acts as a nonselective beta-2 adrenergic agonist, relaxing smooth muscle in the airways and increasing airflow to the lungs."

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Quinolines are a class of organic compounds that consist of a bicyclic structure made up of a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring. They have a wide range of applications, but they are perhaps best known for their use in the synthesis of various medications, including antibiotics and antimalarial drugs.

Quinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, work by inhibiting the bacterial enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair. They are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and skin infections.

Quinoline-based antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, work by inhibiting the parasite's ability to digest hemoglobin in the red blood cells. They are commonly used to prevent and treat malaria.

It is important to note that quinolines have been associated with serious side effects, including tendinitis and tendon rupture, nerve damage, and abnormal heart rhythms. As with any medication, it is important to use quinolines only under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and to follow their instructions carefully.

Sinusitis, also known as rhinosinusitis, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located within the skull near the nose. The inflammation can be caused by viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, as well as allergies, structural issues, or autoimmune disorders.

In sinusitis, the mucous membranes lining the sinuses become swollen and may produce excess mucus, leading to symptoms such as nasal congestion, thick green or yellow nasal discharge, facial pain or pressure, reduced sense of smell, cough, fatigue, and fever.

Sinusitis can be classified into acute (lasting less than 4 weeks), subacute (lasting 4-12 weeks), chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks), or recurrent (multiple episodes within a year). Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms, and may include antibiotics, nasal corticosteroids, decongestants, saline irrigation, and in some cases, surgery.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Bronchoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the inside of the airways and lungs with a flexible or rigid tube called a bronchoscope. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to directly visualize the airways, take tissue samples for biopsy, and remove foreign objects or secretions. Bronchoscopy can be used to diagnose and manage various respiratory conditions such as lung infections, inflammation, cancer, and bleeding. It is usually performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and risks associated with the procedure.

'Vehicle Emissions' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in a broader context, it refers to the gases and particles released into the atmosphere by vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, and airplanes. The main pollutants found in vehicle emissions include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Exposure to these pollutants can have negative health effects, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Therefore, vehicle emissions are a significant public health concern.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Urban health is a branch of public health that focuses on the unique health challenges and disparities faced by urban populations. It encompasses the physical, mental, and social well-being of people living in urban areas, which are characterized by high population density, diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds, and unique environmental exposures.

Urban health addresses a range of issues, including infectious diseases, chronic conditions, injuries, violence, and mental health disorders, as well as the social determinants of health such as housing, education, income, and access to healthcare services. It also considers the impact of urbanization on health, including the effects of pollution, noise, crowding, and lack of green spaces.

The goal of urban health is to promote health equity and improve the overall health outcomes of urban populations by addressing these challenges through evidence-based interventions, policies, and programs that are tailored to the unique needs of urban communities.

Ipratropium is an anticholinergic bronchodilator medication that is often used to treat respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. It works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a chemical messenger in the body that causes muscles around the airways to tighten and narrow. By preventing this effect, ipratropium helps to relax the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe.

Ipratropium is available in several forms, including an aerosol spray, nebulizer solution, and dry powder inhaler. It is typically used in combination with other respiratory medications, such as beta-agonists or corticosteroids, to provide more effective relief of symptoms. Common side effects of ipratropium include dry mouth, throat irritation, and headache.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory diseases characterized by airflow limitation that causes difficulty in completely emptying the alveoli (tiny air sacs) of the lungs during exhaling. This results in the trapping of stale air and prevents fresh air from entering the alveoli, leading to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and decreased exercise tolerance.

The most common obstructive lung diseases include:

1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive disease that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, often caused by smoking or exposure to harmful pollutants.
2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by variable airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and an underlying inflammation. Symptoms can be triggered by various factors such as allergens, irritants, or physical activity.
3. Bronchiectasis: A condition in which the airways become abnormally widened, scarred, and thickened due to chronic inflammation or infection, leading to mucus buildup and impaired clearance.
4. Cystic Fibrosis: An inherited genetic disorder that affects the exocrine glands, resulting in thick and sticky mucus production in various organs, including the lungs. This can lead to chronic lung infections, inflammation, and airway obstruction.
5. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: A genetic condition characterized by low levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin protein, which leads to uncontrolled protease enzyme activity that damages the lung tissue, causing emphysema-like symptoms.

Treatment for obstructive lung diseases typically involves bronchodilators (to relax and widen the airways), corticosteroids (to reduce inflammation), and lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation programs. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or even lung transplantation may be considered.

Allergic conjunctivitis is a type of conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva, the membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids) caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander. It is often characterized by redness, itching, watering, and swelling of the eyes. In some cases, the eyes may also become sensitive to light. Allergic conjunctivitis is not contagious and can be treated with medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, or mast cell stabilizers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or, less commonly, fungi.

RTIs are classified into two categories based on their location: upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). URTIs include infections of the nose, sinuses, throat, and larynx, such as the common cold, flu, laryngitis, and sinusitis. LRTIs involve the lower airways, including the bronchi and lungs, and can be more severe. Examples of LRTIs are pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of RTIs depend on the location and cause of the infection but may include cough, congestion, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Treatment for RTIs varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection. For viral infections, treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, while antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections.

A leukocyte count, also known as a white blood cell (WBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood. Leukocytes are a vital part of the body's immune system and help fight infection and inflammation. A high or low leukocyte count may indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder. The normal range for a leukocyte count in adults is typically between 4,500 and 11,000 cells per microliter (mcL) of blood. However, the normal range can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual's age and sex.

Acetates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to compounds that contain the acetate group, which is an functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom (-COO-). An example of an acetate is sodium acetate (CH3COONa), which is a salt formed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) and is often used as a buffering agent in medical solutions.

Acetates can also refer to a group of medications that contain acetate as an active ingredient, such as magnesium acetate, which is used as a laxative, or calcium acetate, which is used to treat high levels of phosphate in the blood.

In addition, acetates can also refer to a process called acetylation, which is the addition of an acetyl group (-COCH3) to a molecule. This process can be important in the metabolism and regulation of various substances within the body.

Forced expiratory flow rates (FEFR) are measures of how quickly and efficiently air can be exhaled from the lungs during a forced breath maneuver. These measurements are often used in pulmonary function testing to help diagnose and monitor obstructive lung diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

FEFR is typically measured during a forced expiratory maneuver, where the person takes a deep breath in and then exhales as forcefully and quickly as possible into a mouthpiece connected to a spirometer. The spirometer measures the volume and flow rate of the exhaled air over time.

There are several different FEFR measurements that can be reported, including:

* Forced Expiratory Flow (FEF) 25-75%: This is the average flow rate during the middle half of the forced expiratory maneuver.
* Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR): This is the maximum flow rate achieved during the first second of the forced expiratory maneuver.
* Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second (FEV1): This is the volume of air exhaled in the first second of the forced expiratory maneuver.

Abnormal FEFR values can indicate obstruction in the small airways of the lungs, which can make it difficult to breathe out fully and quickly. The specific pattern of abnormalities in FEFR measurements can help doctors differentiate between different types of obstructive lung diseases.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Disease management is a proactive, planned approach to identify and manage patients with chronic medical conditions. It involves a systematic and coordinated method of delivering care to patients with the goal of improving clinical outcomes, enhancing quality of life, and reducing healthcare costs. This approach typically includes elements such as evidence-based care guidelines, patient education, self-management support, regular monitoring and follow-up, and collaboration between healthcare providers and specialists.

The objective of disease management is to improve the overall health and well-being of patients with chronic conditions by providing them with the necessary tools, resources, and support to effectively manage their condition and prevent complications. By implementing a comprehensive and coordinated approach to care, disease management can help reduce hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and other costly healthcare services while improving patient satisfaction and overall health outcomes.

Desensitization, Immunologic is a medical procedure that aims to decrease the immune system's response to an allergen. This is achieved through the controlled exposure of the patient to gradually increasing amounts of the allergen, ultimately leading to a reduction in the severity of allergic reactions upon subsequent exposures. The process typically involves administering carefully measured and incrementally larger doses of the allergen, either orally, sublingually (under the tongue), or by injection, under medical supervision. Over time, this repeated exposure can help the immune system become less sensitive to the allergen, thereby alleviating allergic symptoms.

The specific desensitization protocol and administration method may vary depending on the type of allergen and individual patient factors. Immunologic desensitization is most commonly used for environmental allergens like pollen, dust mites, or pet dander, as well as insect venoms such as bee or wasp stings. It is important to note that this procedure should only be performed under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as there are potential risks involved, including anaphylaxis (a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction).

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) is a biological mediator derived from the arachidonic acid pathway, which plays a significant role in the inflammatory response. It is a type of leukotriene that is synthesized from leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and leukotriene D4 (LTD4) via the action of enzymes such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and dipeptidases.

LTE4 is a potent bronchoconstrictor, meaning it can cause narrowing of the airways in the lungs, and it also has chemotactic properties that attract inflammatory cells such as eosinophils to sites of inflammation. It is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases, where it contributes to bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and mucus production.

LTE4 can be measured in urine as a biomarker of airway inflammation, particularly in patients with asthma. Increased levels of LTE4 in the urine have been associated with more severe asthma symptoms, poorer lung function, and increased risk of exacerbations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Zealand" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, known for its stunning landscapes, unique wildlife, and as the filming location for the "Lord of the Rings" films. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Michigan" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, referring to the state of Michigan in the United States. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Guideline adherence, in the context of medicine, refers to the extent to which healthcare professionals follow established clinical practice guidelines or recommendations in their daily practice. These guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to assist practitioners and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines can help improve the quality of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote optimal patient outcomes. Factors that may influence guideline adherence include clinician awareness, familiarity, agreement, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the complexity of the recommendation.

Absenteeism is a term used in the medical and occupational health fields to describe the habitual pattern of absence from work or school. It refers to an employee or student's repeated failure to show up for scheduled work or classes without a valid reason or excuse. Absenteeism can have various causes, including physical illness or injury, mental health issues, stress, burnout, disengagement, and poor job or school satisfaction. Chronic absenteeism can lead to negative consequences such as decreased productivity, increased healthcare costs, and reduced academic performance.

Dyspnea is defined as difficulty or discomfort in breathing, often described as shortness of breath. It can range from mild to severe, and may occur during rest, exercise, or at any time. Dyspnea can be caused by various medical conditions, including heart and lung diseases, anemia, and neuromuscular disorders. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing dyspnea, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition.

Leukotrienes are a type of lipid mediator derived from arachidonic acid, which is a fatty acid found in the cell membranes of various cells in the body. They are produced by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway and play an essential role in the inflammatory response. Leukotrienes are involved in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, including bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and recruitment of immune cells to sites of injury or infection.

There are four main types of leukotrienes: LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. These molecules differ from each other based on the presence or absence of specific chemical groups attached to their core structure. Leukotrienes exert their effects by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) found on the surface of various cells.

LTB4 is primarily involved in neutrophil chemotaxis and activation, while LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 are collectively known as cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). CysLTs cause bronchoconstriction, increased mucus production, and vascular permeability in the airways, contributing to the pathogenesis of asthma and other respiratory diseases.

In summary, leukotrienes are potent lipid mediators that play a crucial role in inflammation and immune responses. Their dysregulation has been implicated in several disease states, making them an important target for therapeutic intervention.

Food hypersensitivity is an umbrella term that encompasses both immunologic and non-immunologic adverse reactions to food. It is also known as "food allergy" or "food intolerance." Food hypersensitivity occurs when the body's immune system or digestive system reacts negatively to a particular food or food component.

Immunologic food hypersensitivity, commonly referred to as a food allergy, involves an immune response mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. Upon ingestion of the offending food, IgE antibodies bind to the food antigens and trigger the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils, leading to symptoms such as hives, swelling, itching, difficulty breathing, or anaphylaxis.

Non-immunologic food hypersensitivity, on the other hand, does not involve the immune system. Instead, it is caused by various mechanisms, including enzyme deficiencies, pharmacological reactions, and metabolic disorders. Examples of non-immunologic food hypersensitivities include lactose intolerance, gluten sensitivity, and histamine intolerance.

It's important to note that the term "food hypersensitivity" is often used interchangeably with "food allergy," but it has a broader definition that includes both immunologic and non-immunologic reactions.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule made up of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom. In the body, it is a crucial signaling molecule involved in various physiological processes such as vasodilation, immune response, neurotransmission, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. It is produced naturally by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from the amino acid L-arginine. Inhaled nitric oxide is used medically to treat pulmonary hypertension in newborns and adults, as it helps to relax and widen blood vessels, improving oxygenation and blood flow.

Goblet cells are specialized epithelial cells that are located in various mucosal surfaces, including the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. They are named for their goblet-like shape, which is characterized by a narrow base and a wide, rounded top that contains secretory granules. These cells play an essential role in producing and secreting mucins, which are high molecular weight glycoproteins that form the gel-like component of mucus.

Mucus serves as a protective barrier for the underlying epithelial cells by trapping foreign particles, microorganisms, and toxins, preventing them from coming into contact with the epithelium. Goblet cells also help maintain the hydration of the mucosal surface, which is important for normal ciliary function in the respiratory tract and for the movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract.

In summary, goblet cells are secretory cells that produce and release mucins to form the mucus layer, providing a protective barrier and maintaining the homeostasis of mucosal surfaces.

An inhalation spacer is a medical device used in conjunction with metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) to improve the delivery and effectiveness of respiratory medications. It creates a space or chamber between the MDI and the patient's airways, allowing the medication to be more evenly distributed in a fine mist. This helps reduce the amount of medication that may otherwise be deposited in the back of the throat or lost in the air, ensuring that more of it reaches the intended target in the lungs. Inhalation spacers are particularly useful for children and older adults who may have difficulty coordinating their breathing with the activation of the MDI.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling molecule that mediates communication between cells in the immune system. Specifically, IL-4 is produced by activated T cells and mast cells, among other cells, and plays an important role in the differentiation and activation of immune cells called Th2 cells.

Th2 cells are involved in the immune response to parasites, as well as in allergic reactions. IL-4 also promotes the growth and survival of B cells, which produce antibodies, and helps to regulate the production of certain types of antibodies. In addition, IL-4 has anti-inflammatory effects and can help to downregulate the immune response in some contexts.

Defects in IL-4 signaling have been implicated in a number of diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain types of cancer.

Medication adherence, also known as medication compliance, refers to the degree or extent of conformity to a treatment regimen as prescribed by a healthcare provider. This includes taking medications at the right time, in the correct dosage, and for the designated duration. Poor medication adherence can lead to worsening health conditions, increased hospitalizations, and higher healthcare costs.

Chemokine CCL11, also known as eotaxin-1, is a small chemotactic cytokine that belongs to the CC subfamily of chemokines. Chemokines are a group of proteins that play crucial roles in immunity and inflammation by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue injury.

CCL11 specifically attracts eosinophils, a type of white blood cell that is involved in allergic reactions and the immune response to parasitic worm infections. It does this by binding to its specific receptor, CCR3, which is expressed on the surface of eosinophils and other cells.

CCL11 is produced by a variety of cells, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells such as macrophages and Th2 lymphocytes. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain neurological disorders.

"Cost of Illness" is a medical-economic concept that refers to the total societal cost associated with a specific disease or health condition. It includes both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are those that can be directly attributed to the illness, such as medical expenses for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and medications. Indirect costs include productivity losses due to morbidity (reduced efficiency while working) and mortality (lost earnings due to death). Other indirect costs may encompass expenses related to caregiving or special education needs. The Cost of Illness is often used in health policy decision-making, resource allocation, and evaluating the economic impact of diseases on society.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is a type of genetic variation that occurs when a single nucleotide (A, T, C, or G) in the DNA sequence is altered. This alteration must occur in at least 1% of the population to be considered a SNP. These variations can help explain why some people are more susceptible to certain diseases than others and can also influence how an individual responds to certain medications. SNPs can serve as biological markers, helping scientists locate genes that are associated with disease. They can also provide information about an individual's ancestry and ethnic background.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

Nasal polyps are benign (noncancerous) growths that originate from the lining of your nasal passages or sinuses. They most often occur in the area where the sinuses open into the nasal cavity. Small nasal polyps may not cause any problems. But if they grow large enough, they can block your nasal passages and lead to breathing issues, frequent infections and loss of smell.

Nasal polyps are associated with chronic inflammation due to conditions such as asthma, allergic rhinitis or chronic sinusitis. Treatment typically includes medication to reduce the size of the polyps or surgery to remove them. Even after successful treatment, nasal polyps often return.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

NIOSH: Prevention of Occupational Asthma Occupational asthma and work aggravated asthma (UK) Archived 2015-06-24 at the Wayback ... It is an occupational lung disease and a type of work-related asthma. Agents that can induce occupational asthma can be grouped ... Occupational asthma is one of the most common occupational lung disease. Approximately 17% of all adult-onset asthma cases are ... Occupational asthma is new onset asthma or the recurrence of previously quiescent asthma directly caused by exposure to an ...
Mapp CE, Boschetto P, Maestrelli P, Fabbri LM (2005). "Occupational Asthma". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care ... In essence, asthma is the result of an immune response in the bronchial airways. The airways of asthma patients are " ... However, asthma is rarely the only symptom, and not all people with food or other allergies have asthma Sulfite sensitivity ... GERD may be common in difficult-to-control asthma, but according to one study, treating it does not seem to affect the asthma. ...
Therefore, asthma patients should be cautious and inform their physicians of their asthma conditions. Occupational asthma ... "Allergens causing occupational asthma: an evidence-based evaluation of the literature". International Archives of Occupational ... Thickett, K.M.; McCoach, J.S.; Gerber, J.M.; Sadhra, S.; Burge, P.S. (2002-05-01). "Occupational asthma caused by chloramines ... Although the primary cause for occupational asthma varies from situation to situation, common agents such as metal, diesel, ...
... occupational acne; tracheitis; esophagitis; bronchitis; asthma; allergy; hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP); and worsening of ... Occupational exposure is associated with increases in cardiovascular disease. These mechanisms are based on the external (skin ... "Occupational health and safety - chemical exposure". www.sbu.se. Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment ... Salt Lake City: U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. "General Soluble Cutting Oil - Water ...
"Occupational Asthma". www.hopkinsmedicine.org. Retrieved 2021-06-02. "Occupational asthma - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. ... Workplace asthmagens induce what is called occupational asthma. A 2016 study of occupational asthmagens in Australia identified ... ". "Occupational Asthmagens - HSE". "List of substances that can cause occupational asthma". AOEC list of asthmagens v t e ( ... Carcinogen Mutagen Particulates Currie, G. P.; Ayres, J. G. (2005). "Occupational asthmagens". Primary Care Respiratory Journal ...
Development of occupational asthma is often preceded by occupational rhinitis. Among the causative agents are flours, enzymes ... Accordingly, prognosis of occupational asthma is contingent on early diagnosis and the adoption of protective measures for ... Scherer Hofmeier K, Bircher A, Tamm M, Miedinger D (April 2012). "[Occupational rhinitis and asthma]". Therapeutische Umschau. ... It is an umbrella term of rhinitis of multiple causes, such as occupational (chemical), smoking, gustatory, hormonal, senile ( ...
"Substances causing/worsening asthma". UK Occupational Health and Safety. WorkSafe Victoria. Archived from the original on 31 ... allergies and asthma". The available data are restricted to these occupational environments. Exposure of the general public to ... a possible cause of asthma) in workplace settings and determined that containers of it should be labeled with "May cause ...
Occupational asthma Vandenplas O, Malo JL (November 1997). "Inhalation challenges with agents causing occupational asthma". Eur ... Occupational asthma--the past 50 years". Can Respir J. 11 (1): 21-6. doi:10.1155/2004/861745. PMID 15010728. Cloutier Y, Lagier ... The specific inhalation challenges has been considered as the gold standard in confirming the diagnosis of occupational asthma ... "Validation of an exposure system to particles for the diagnosis of occupational asthma". Chest. 102 (2): 402-7. doi:10.1378/ ...
"Airborne seafood allergens as a cause of occupational allergy and asthma". Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. 13 (3): 288-297 ... Another occupational food allergy that involves respiratory symptoms is "baker's asthma," which commonly develops in food ... Jeebhay MF, Robins TG, Lehrer SB, Lopata AL (September 2001). "Occupational seafood allergy: a review". Occupational and ... Those with asthma or an allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, or seafood are at greater risk for anaphylaxis. Allergic reactions are ...
Yokohama Asthma). Preliminary Report". Arch. Indust. Hyg. & Occupational Med. 10 (5): 399-408. PMID 13206438. Andrews, Sharron ...
Tarlo, S. M.; Wong, L.; Roos, J.; Booth, N. (March 1, 1990). "Occupational asthma caused by latex in a surgical glove ... Orfan, Nicholas A.; Reed, Roberta; Dykewicz, Mark S.; Ganz, Michael; Kolski, Gerald B. (November 1, 1994). "Occupational asthma ... Occupational settings where employees are frequently putting on and pulling off powdered latex gloves, such as hospitals and ... The American Latex Allergy Association UK Latex Allergy Support Group Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (Articles with ...
Mapp CE (2001). "Agents, old and new, causing occupational asthma". Occup. Environ. Med. 58 (5): 354-60. doi:10.1136/oem.58.5. ... Kanerva L, Keskinen H, Autio P, Estlander T, Tuppurainen M, Jolanki R (May 1995). "Occupational respiratory and skin ...
Merget, R. (2005). "Metabisulphite-induced occupational asthma in a radiographer". European Respiratory Journal. 25 (2): 386- ... These agents can cause asthma and other health issues. Theoretically, the strong static magnetic fields of MRI scanners can ... Zhang, Zhe; Lu, Yaoqin; Yong, Xianting; Li, Jianwen; Liu, Jiwen (24 December 2020). "Effects of Occupational Radiation Exposure ... "Breast cancer risk and protracted low-to-moderate dose occupational radiation exposure in the US Radiologic Technologists ...
... may cause occupational asthma". Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 76 (3): 175-177. doi:10.1136/oemed-2018-105295. PMC ... Evidence suggests that PMDA causes occupational asthma. F. Röhrscheid (2012). "Carboxylic Acids, Aromatic". Ullmann's ...
Mapp CE (May 2001). "Agents, old and new, causing occupational asthma". Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 58 (5): 354- ... Factory workers who work with amylase for any of the above uses are at increased risk of occupational asthma. Five to nine ... "Alpha amylase is a major allergenic component in occupational asthma patients caused by porcine pancreatic extract". The ... Bakers with long exposure to amylase-enriched flour are at risk of developing dermatitis or asthma. In molecular biology, the ...
Mapp CE (2001). "Agents, old and new, causing occupational asthma". Occup. Environ. Med. 58 (5): 354-60. doi:10.1136/oem.58.5. ... Kanerva L, Keskinen H, Autio P, Estlander T, Tuppurainen M, Jolanki R (May 1995). "Occupational respiratory and skin ... 0274". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Weast, Robert C.; et al. (1978). CRC Handbook of ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Gilchrist, T.L. (1987). Heterocyclic chemistry. ISBN 978-0-582- ...
"Rhinitis caused by ninhydrin develops into occupational asthma". Eur Respir J. 10 (8): 1918-1921. doi:10.1183/09031936.97. ... Ninhydrin may cause allergic, IgE-mediated rhinitis and asthma. A case has been described in which a 41 year old forensic ...
GINA and GOLD joint guidelines, GINA and GOLD task force members (2014). "Asthma COPD and asthma COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS ... Substances implicated in occupational exposure and listed in the UK, include organic and inorganic dusts such as cadmium, ... asthma, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, obliterative bronchiolitis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. The distinction between asthma ... Asthma and tuberculosis are also recognized as risk factors, as the comorbidity of COPD is reported to be 12 times higher in ...
Platts-Mills TA, Longbottom J, Edwards J, Cockroft A, Wilkins S (March 1987). "Occupational asthma and rhinitis related to ... "Effect of mouse allergen and rodent environmental intervention on asthma in inner-city children". Annals of Allergy, Asthma & ... Exposure and sensitization to rodent Mup proteins is considered a risk factor for childhood asthma and is a leading cause of ... Gaffin JM, Phipatanakul W (April 2009). "The role of indoor allergens in the development of asthma". Current Opinion in Allergy ...
"Occupational asthma in professional cleaning work: a clinical study". Occupational Medicine. 61 (2): 121-126. doi:10.1093/ ... The allergic symptoms caused by U. botrytis are compatible with rhinitis and asthma; however, U. botrytis was also found in ... Asthma & Immunology Research. 8 (5): 428-37. doi:10.4168/aair.2016.8.5.428. PMC 4921697. PMID 27334781. Simmons, Emory G. ( ...
Occupational asthma has a variety of causes, including sensitization to a specific substance, causing an allergic response; or ... Approximately 2 million people in the US have occupational asthma. Bronchiolitis obliterans, also known as constrictive ... It includes a broad group of diseases, including occupational asthma, industrial bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary ... "Respiratory Diseases: Occupational Risks". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 21 December 2012. Retrieved ...
Occupational asthma Polymer fume fever Chastain, Steve (2004). Metal Casting: A Sand Casting Manual for the Small Foundry. ... Cain and Fletcher (2010) report a case of metal fume fever that was diagnosed only by taking a full occupational history and by ... Diagnosis is primarily anecdotal, that is, it depends upon a good occupational history. Diagnosis of metal fume fever can be ... Cain, J. R; Fletcher, R. M (2010). "Diagnosing metal fume fever--an integrated approach". Occupational Medicine. 60 (5): 398- ...
Occupational asthma has a vast number of occupations at risk. Bad indoor air quality may predispose for diseases in the lungs ... Occupational skin diseases are ranked among the top five occupational diseases in many countries. Occupational skin diseases ... Industrial and organizational psychology Occupational health psychology Occupational medicine Occupational safety and health " ... List of Occupational Disease. Geneva: ILO, 2010. Kim E. A., Kang S. K. Historical review of the List of Occupational Diseases ...
... including the development of occupational asthma, exacerbation of existing asthma, reduction of lung function, and eye ... This leads to occupational asthma in woodworkers that are exposed to western redcedar wood dust. Thujaplicins serve as natural ... Chan-Yeung, Moira (January 1994). "Mechanism of occupational asthma due to western redcedar (Thuja plicata)". American Journal ... The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set a permissible exposure limit for western redcedar dust of 2.5 mg/ ...
... and performed by pulmonology or occupational medicine physicians. Occupational asthma is much like asthma in that it causes ... Occupational asthma is a worrisome outcome of respiratory sensitization to isocyanates as it can be acutely fatal. Diagnosis of ... These limits are set to protect workers from chronic health effects such as occupational asthma, contact dermatitis, or ... A quarterly training session on recognizing symptoms of occupational asthma or proper respirator use would be examples of ...
ISBN 071762675X MayoClinic --> Occupational asthma May 23, 2009 "Disposal of 2 part epoxy". April 2013. Look up epoxy in ... Epoxy use is a main source of occupational asthma among users of plastics. Safe disposal also needs considering but usually ... Holness, D. Linn; Nethercott, James R. (1989). "Occupational Contact Dermatitis Due to Epoxy Resin in a Fiberglass Binder". ... Holness, D. Linn; Nethercott, James R. (1989). "Occupational Contact Dermatitis Due to Epoxy Resin in a Fiberglass Binder". ...
Exposure to mould and yeast within a military hospital in Finland lead to an outbreak of asthma, alveolitis and rhinitis. The ... Linaker, C.; Smedley, J (1 December 2002). "Respiratory illness in agricultural workers". Occupational Medicine. 52 (8): 451- ... S. salmonicolor is also considered a type 1 allergen and has been known to cause asthma, nosocomial allergic alveolitis, and ... ISBN 978-3-540-85462-3. Chapman, Jean A. (1 September 1999). "Update on airborne mold and mold allergy". Allergy and Asthma ...
"Airborne seafood allergens as a cause of occupational allergy and asthma". Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 13 (3): 288-97. doi:10.1007 ... Prevalence of seafood-induced adult asthma is reported as in the range of 7% to 36% (higher for crustaceans and lower for bony ... Tong WS, Yuen AW, Wai CY, Leung NY, Chu KH, Leung PS (October 2018). "Diagnosis of fish and shellfish allergies". J Asthma ... In addition to reacting to oral consumption, skin and asthma reactions can be triggered by inhallation or contact if there are ...
"Airborne seafood allergens as a cause of occupational allergy and asthma". Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 13 (3): 288-97. doi:10.1007 ... Tong WS, Yuen AW, Wai CY, Leung NY, Chu KH, Leung PS (2018). "Diagnosis of fish and shellfish allergies". J Asthma Allergy. 11 ... In addition to reacting to oral consumption, skin and asthma reactions can be triggered by inhalation or contact if there are ... Prevalence of seafood-induced adult asthma is on the order of 10% (higher for crustaceans and lower for fish). Prevalence of ...
"For asthma sufferers:the facts about sulphites in food". Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). Archived from the ... Occupational exposure to sulfites has been reported to cause persistent skin symptoms. Breathing difficulty can commence within ... Asthmatics may experience asthma attacks from sulfite fumes as well. Other potential symptoms include sneezing, swelling of the ... 324-339 "Everything You Need to Know About Asthma & Food". Archived from the original on 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2009-06-07. ...
Occupational asthma is a lung disorder in which substances found in the workplace cause the airways of the lungs to swell and ... Many substances in the workplace can trigger asthma symptoms, leading to occupational asthma. The most common triggers are wood ... Occupational asthma is a lung disorder in which substances found in the workplace cause the airways of the lungs to swell and ... Occupational asthma may keep getting worse if you continue to be exposed to the substance that is causing the problem, even if ...
NIOSH: Prevention of Occupational Asthma Occupational asthma and work aggravated asthma (UK) Archived 2015-06-24 at the Wayback ... It is an occupational lung disease and a type of work-related asthma. Agents that can induce occupational asthma can be grouped ... Occupational asthma is one of the most common occupational lung disease. Approximately 17% of all adult-onset asthma cases are ... Occupational asthma is new onset asthma or the recurrence of previously quiescent asthma directly caused by exposure to an ...
Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Occupational Asthma from Inhaled Egg Protein -- Iowa In January 1984, workers at an Iowa egg ... the physician diagnosed five employees as having occupational asthma. All five were in Group 1. Results of antibody and skin- ... occupational exposure to dust of organic origin. The only enforceable standard applicable to this situation is the Occupational ... Ninety-four employees completed a screening questionnaire covering demographics, occupational history, personal habits, past ...
... Am J Ind Med. 2000 May;37(5):451-8. doi: 10.1002/(sici) ... Background: Systematic research on occupation or industry-specific incidence of occupational asthma (OA) is sparse. We ... Methods: The numbers of cases of reported OA were retrieved from the Finnish Registry of Occupational Diseases for the ... 1 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. antti.karjalainen@ ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
This study examined the incidence of respiratory symptoms and asthma in an 11-year Norwegian community cohort stu … ... Several prevalence studies have suggested an association between occupational exposure and respiratory symptoms and asthma, but ... Occupational airborne exposure and the incidence of respiratory symptoms and asthma Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Oct 1;166(7 ... In conclusion, airborne occupational exposure increases the incidence of respiratory symptoms and asthma, independent of sex, ...
To describe the characteristics of individuals with work-related asthma associated with exposure to ... Cleaning Products and Work-Related Asthma : Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. ... Eighty percent of the reports were of new-onset asthma and 20% were work-aggravated asthma. Among the new-onset cases, 22% were ... and New Jersey state-based surveillance systems of work-related asthma were used to identify cases of asthma associated with ...
Diagnosing occupational asthma: use of induced sputum. C Lemiere, MM Pizzichini, R Balkissoon, L Clelland, A Efthimiadis, D ... Diagnosing occupational asthma: use of induced sputum. C Lemiere, MM Pizzichini, R Balkissoon, L Clelland, A Efthimiadis, D ... Diagnosing occupational asthma: use of induced sputum. C Lemiere, MM Pizzichini, R Balkissoon, L Clelland, A Efthimiadis, D ... Diagnosing occupational asthma: use of induced sputum Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from European ...
Occupational Asthma - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Symptoms of Occupational Asthma Occupational asthma may cause shortness of breath, tightness in the chest, wheezing, and ... Occupational asthma is different from occupationally aggravated asthma in which people who have a history of asthma have an ... Prevention of Occupational Asthma Industries using substances that can cause asthma must have dust and vapor control measures, ...
Occupational" by people in this website by year, and whether "Asthma, Occupational" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Asthma, Occupational" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Asthma, Occupational" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Asthma, Occupational". ...
Occupational exposure to irritants during the current or last held job was assessed by the updated occupational asthma-specific ... Association between occupational exposure to irritant agents and a distinct asthma endotype in adults ... Association between occupational exposure to irritant agents and a distinct asthma endotype in adults ... NLM and OD were involved in the update of the occupational asthma-specific job exposure matrix (OAsJEM); BD and DO-G (experts ...
Helping Employers/Employees Fight Back Against Occupational Asthma Seasonal Cleaning, Office Health ... Americans miss 24.5 million workdays each year due to "occupational asthma." Unfortunately, employees are literally becoming ...
Occupational asthma is the commonest occupational lung disease, accounting for 5% of all cases of asthma, and incidence is ... The blood cells present in the phlegm of some work-related asthma patients may differ from those found in common asthma. Little ... Whilst the clinical and laboratory features of asthma are generally well known, those seen in work-related asthma are not the ... It will then evaluate whether any of these can predict prognosis in patients with occupational asthma. The pattern of breathing ...
PubMed databases were searched for articles pertaining to farming, agriculture, asthma, occupational asthma, airway ... Adaptive Adult Agriculture Animals Article Asthma Dust Farm Humans Immunology Inflammation Innate Lung Occupational Exposure ... Occupational agriculture organic dust exposure and its relationship to asthma and airway inflammation in adults. ... Occupational agriculture organic dust exposure and its relationship to asthma and airway inflammation in adults ...
National Occupational Respiratory Mortality System. n.o.s.. not otherwise specified. OA. Occupational asthma. ...
Environmental Triggers of Asthma: Environmental Triggers of Asthma ... Occupational Asthma. Occupational asthma (OA) is defined as a variable airflow limitation and/or airway hyperresponsiveness due ... Occupational asthma is the most common occupational disease in industrialized countries.. *Allergens or irritants in the work ... Identify five outdoor triggers of an acute asthma episode, and. *Describe the impact of occupational exposures on adult asthma ...
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by hyper-responsiveness of airways to various stimuli. This complex ... 2017 Asthma, COPD, and Asthma-COPD overlap: A joint project of GINA and GOLD. April 2017. Global Initiative for Asthma. ... Asthma Facts: CDCs National Asthma Control Program Grantees. July 2013. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/asthma/pdfs/asthma_ ... There has been an upward trend in the prevalence of asthma across all age groups. [11] The prevalence of asthma in adults older ...
However, many questions remain regarding occupational asthma and work-exacerbated asthma and the indoor environment. What are ... Work-related asthma is the most common respiratory disease treated in occupational health clinics in the United Read More , ... Cleaning for Asthma-Safer Schools Reduces Asthma Risk, Saves Money. A 43-year-old high-school custodian started having ... Work-related asthma (WRA) comprises both new-onset and work-aggravated asthma3. An estimated 15-55% of all adult asthma is ...
Occupational asthma is new onset asthma or the recurrence of previously quiescent asthma directly caused by exposure to an ... Occupational asthma is one of the most common occupational lung disease. Approximately 17% of all adult-onset asthma cases are ... It is an occupational lung disease and a type of work-related asthma. Agents that can induce occupational asthma can be grouped ... Unlike those with sensitizer-induced occupational asthma, subjects with irritant-induced occupational asthma do not develop ...
What Causes Occupational Asthma?. Deleted: There are a variety of known occupational asthma causes, many of which are due to ... Occupational asthma can also surface as an allergic reaction to certain airborne substances such as flour or wood dust. ... Occupational asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways; this is characterized by variable and recurring ... Deleted: Occupational asthma symptoms can develop immediately after exposure to a substance at work. In some cases however, ...
The ebook Occupational Asthma 2010 you usually were found the re-engineered reconstruction. There are specific tolerances that ... Ebook Occupational Asthma 2010. Schmidt ebook Occupational Asthma 2010 is used left to provide at the pattern of Chemist ... The ebook Occupational Asthma 2010 has as the various engineering in the pump. It is an closeness pump through which the such ... The new ebook Occupational Asthma of the Habit brings taught and liquid sample has observed. This tends the last finish from ...
Cutting cooked octopus negative, boiled octopus extract protein 2mg/ml immediate reaction, halibut negative in one atopic control. ...
To meet quality criteria a serial peak flow record must have at least 3 separate periods at work (usually monday to friday) and each period at work must be at least 3 days long. There must also be 4 or more readings per day for at least 75% of the record. The times of waking up, going to bed and of starting and stopping work on each day must be known and the treatment must be kept constant throughout. We reccomend that patients take readings every 2 hours for four weeks. Data input can be by hand or through a logging meter. With practice hand entry is quick, it is designed to go in using the numeric keypad and utilises the right hand. As well as the peak flow reading, the events (waking up, going to bed, starting work, stopping work) can also be entered. Data is entered to the nearest hour. The Symbols "W", "S", "E" and "B" are used to signify the "Waking Up", "Starting Work", "Ending Work" and "Going To Bed" events. Using the times 10 button allows all entries below either 60 or 90 have a "0" ...
Asthma results from complex interactions among inflammatory cells, their mediators, airway epithelium and smooth muscle, and ... Asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by episodic reversible airway obstruction, increased bronchial reactivity, and ... For patient education information, see eMedicineHealths Asthma Center, as well as Asthma, Asthma FAQ, Occupational Asthma, and ... Allergic asthma is considered a T2-high form of asthma. Less is known about non-T2 asthma, but it is marked by the absence of ...
... asthma; dust; exposure; IgE; IgG; occupational; respiratory; soy; workplace ... High molecular weight soybean storage allergens, Gly m 5 and Gly m 6, may be respiratory sensitizers in occupational exposed ... Background: Exposure to soy antigens has been associated with asthma in community outbreaks and in some workplaces. Recently, ... Allergy and Clinical Immunology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and ...
Occupational Asthma tool is intended for use by clinicians in the evaluation and management of work-related asthma. ... This Toolkit received unrestricted funding from Astra Zeneca and builds upon the asthma and COPD program at the Lung Health ... Supporting Evidence: Occupational Lung Disease, in Goldman-Cecil Medicine, 2-Volume Set, 26th Edition ... To assess or diagnosis patients with occupational asthma. *To determine strategies to manage occupational asthma ...
Find out if you are owed compensation for occupational asthma , No win, no fee service ... Occupational Asthma Claims. Claims for occupational asthma compensation are commonplace with a predicted 2 million workers in ... What Causes Occupational Asthma?. Asthma and breathing problems can be caused by various harmful particles in many different ... HomeOur ServicesPersonal Injury ClaimsIndustrial Illnesses & Occupational DiseasesOccupational Asthma Claims ...
... management of occupational asthma: Evidence review & recommendations. British Occupational Health Research Foundation. London. ... management of occupational asthma: Evidence review & recommendations. British Occupational Health Research Foundation. London. ... management of occupational asthma: Evidence review & recommendations. British Occupational Health Research Foundation. London. ... Brian Kazer, Chief Executive of the British Occupational Health Research Foundation. *Sharon McDonald of Procter & Gamble who ...
  • Avoiding exposure to the substance that is causing your asthma is the best treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration inspection, cal examination was performed during the evaluation for the which included a worksite exposure assessment, coworker and second test. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational asthma is new onset asthma or the recurrence of previously quiescent asthma directly caused by exposure to an agent at workplace. (wikipedia.org)
  • Irritant-induced (occupational) asthma is a non-immunologic form of asthma that results from a single or multiple high dose exposure to irritant products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike those with sensitizer-induced occupational asthma, subjects with irritant-induced occupational asthma do not develop work-related asthma symptoms after re-exposure to low concentrations of the irritant that initiated the symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms may develop over many years as in sensitizer induced asthma or may occur after a single exposure to a high-concentration agent as in case of RADS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, no standard exists for occupational exposure to egg protein, and no generic standard has been established for occupational exposure to dust of organic origin. (cdc.gov)
  • Several prevalence studies have suggested an association between occupational exposure and respiratory symptoms and asthma, but there has been a lack of incidence studies to verify this. (nih.gov)
  • Between 5.7% and 19.3% of the incidence of respiratory symptoms and 14.4% of the incidence of asthma were attributable to dust or fumes exposure after adjustment for sex, age, educational level, and smoking. (nih.gov)
  • To describe the characteristics of individuals with work-related asthma associated with exposure to cleaning products, data from the California-, Massachusetts-, Michigan-, and New Jersey state-based surveillance systems of work-related asthma were used to identify cases of asthma associated with exposure to cleaning products at work. (lww.com)
  • From 1993 to 1997, 236 (12%) of the 1915 confirmed cases of work-related asthma identified by the four states were associated with exposure to cleaning products. (lww.com)
  • Examples of workers at risk for occupational asthma due to exposure to allergens include animal handlers and bakers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • To make a diagnosis of occupational asthma, doctors ask about the symptoms and about exposure to any substances known to cause asthma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE. (umassmed.edu)
  • We investigated the associations between occupational exposure to irritants and respiratory endotypes previously identified among never asthmatics (NA) and current asthmatics (CA) integrating clinical characteristics and biomarkers related to oxidative stress and inflammation. (bmj.com)
  • Occupational exposure to irritants during the current or last held job was assessed by the updated occupational asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (levels of exposure: no/medium/high). (bmj.com)
  • Results Prevalence of high occupational exposure to irritants was 7% in NA1, 6% in NA2, 16% in CA1, 7% in CA2 and 10% in CA3. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion Occupational exposure to irritants was associated with a distinct respiratory endotype suggesting oxidative stress and neutrophilic inflammation as potential associated biological mechanisms. (bmj.com)
  • Title : Occupational agriculture organic dust exposure and its relationship to asthma and airway inflammation in adults Personal Author(s) : Wunschel, Javen;Poole, Jill A. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to many environmental factors can trigger and exacerbate asthma. (cdc.gov)
  • Medical and nursing education programs often do not fully incorporate environmental questions and an exposure history into asthma management. (cdc.gov)
  • In children and adults, sensitive to indoor allergens, the severity of asthma symptoms may vary with the level of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Taken together, these studies make a strong argument for the importance of allergen and irritant exposure as aggravating factors in asthma in both children and adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Deleted: Occupational asthma symptoms can develop immediately after exposure to a substance at work. (beaconlaw.co.uk)
  • Deleted: There are a variety of known occupational asthma causes, many of which are due to hazardous substance exposure. (beaconlaw.co.uk)
  • Risk factors for asthma include a family history of allergic disease, the presence of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), viral respiratory illnesses , exposure to aeroallergens , cigarette smoke, obesity , and lower socioeconomic status. (medscape.com)
  • [ 7 ] Using a cross-sectional design, the authors compared children living on farms to those in a reference group with respect to the prevalence of asthma and to the diversity of microbial exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Background: Exposure to soy antigens has been associated with asthma in community outbreaks and in some workplaces. (cdc.gov)
  • At the time of selecting them, the literature referred to them all as chemicals that cause asthma, although some have questioned the strength of association between exposure and asthma and the mechanism of action-irritation and/or sensitization. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, the World Health Organization states that in children, "some case control and cross sectional studies have indicated a possible association between low formaldehyde exposure and asthma or sensitization to certain allergens. (cdc.gov)
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health assessed the acute respiratory effects of smoke exposure in 20 members of a National Park Service Interagency "Hotshot" Crew from Colorado. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational asthma is a type of asthma caused by exposure to specific substances in the workplace. (wyndly.com)
  • Some common causes of occupational asthma include exposure to chemicals, dust, pet dander, and other irritants commonly found in certain workplaces such as factories, farms, hospitals, and salons. (wyndly.com)
  • Yes, occupational asthma can be prevented by reducing exposure to the substances that trigger it. (wyndly.com)
  • If people continue to exposure themselves like this gent I've just talked about it could have caused him fatal or exceeding severe asthma if it was not picked up. (hse.gov.uk)
  • If you continue to exposure yourself you are likely to have troublesome continuing asthma symptoms. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Dust control may also reduce worker exposure to asthma. (washington.edu)
  • Occupational asthma arises from exposure to specific substances or particles present in the air at a person's workplace, resulting in asthma attacks. (healthomni.com)
  • 4 mg/ml after a 2 minute inhalation (this is likely to exclude around 50% of those diagnosed without a requirement for non-specific hyperresponsiveness) and all subjects deteriorating at work with any pre-existing asthma were classed as work agravated asthma (most would include those with a latent interval between exposure and work-relatedness and exposure to a known sensiting agent as occupational asthma). (occupationalasthma.com)
  • OA is a form of WRA induced by exposure to airborne dusts, vapors, or fumes in working environment, in subjects with or without pre-existing asthma. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • Asthma symptoms occur right after exposure to high levels of an irritant in the workplace. (wa.gov)
  • Occupational asthma is a lung disorder in which substances found in the workplace cause the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many substances in the workplace can trigger asthma symptoms, leading to occupational asthma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lemière C, Vandenplas O. Asthma in the workplace. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Another type of work-related asthma is work-exacerbated asthma (WEA) which is asthma worsened by workplace conditions but not caused by it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other types of asthma, it is characterized by airway inflammation, reversible airways obstruction, and bronchospasm, but it is caused by something in the workplace environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the most common cause of occupational asthma in the workplace are isocyanates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on medical examinations and clinical histories showing temporal association with workplace exposures*, the physician diagnosed five employees as having occupational asthma. (cdc.gov)
  • Sensitizer-Induced As thm a Occupational asthma can be caused by a specific workplace sensitizer, defined as an agent that induces asthma through a mechanism that is associated with a specific immunologic response. (cdc.gov)
  • Over 300 workplace substances have been identified to cause new-onset asthma and the list continues to grow 1, 2. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational asthma is a type of asthma caused by specific substances in the workplace, while occupational allergies are allergic reactions to these substances that affect the skin, eyes, and nose. (wyndly.com)
  • Dr David Fishwick Well to give you an example I saw a case a few months ago of a worker working in a food processing plant who had become so unwell on nightshift that he had to be dragged out of the workplace by by his colleagues desperately ill with asthma. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Normally in the workplace this will be a nurse or an occupational health provider. (hse.gov.uk)
  • A worker who develops an allergy or hypersensitivity to a workplace substance that results in an asthmatic reaction, or who shows signs and symptoms of contact dermatitis, is considered to have an occupational disease. (worksafebc.com)
  • WEA is defined as a pre-existing or coincidental new-onset asthma worsened by non-specific factors in the workplace, such as cold and dry air, exertion, dust and fumes [3,4]. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • Workers will be less likely to report asthma symptoms in the workplace if they are concerned that this will have a negative impact on their income or employment progression. (asthmawa.org.au)
  • About 15 percent of adult asthma can be linked to workplace exposures. (wa.gov)
  • Pre-existing asthma made worse by substances in the workplace. (wa.gov)
  • Dear Editor, Of all hand injuries encountered at an emergency department, 54% are sustained in the workplace,1 in part contributed by occupational injuries among food. (annals.edu.sg)
  • Sensitizer-induced occupational asthma is an immunologic form of asthma which occurs due to inhalation of specific substances (i.e., high-molecular-weight proteins from plants and animal origins, or low-molecular-weight agents that include chemicals, metals and wood dusts) and occurs after a latency period of several weeks to years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common Causative Agents in Sensitizer-Induced Occupational Asthma. (cdc.gov)
  • She reported that she did not have asthma but irritants) and work-related exacerbation of preexisting asthma, stated that she might be allergic to something at work because worsened by work exposures ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • WEA is present in about a fifth of patients with asthma and a wide variety of conditions at work, including irritant chemicals, dusts, second-hand smoke, common allergens that may be present at work, as well as other "exposures" such as emotional stress, worksite temperature, and physical exertion can exacerbate asthma symptoms in these patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a person is sensi- tized, very low exposures can induce asthma, which is often associated with rhino- conjunctivitis.6 Common examples are listed in Table 1. (cdc.gov)
  • Describe the impact of occupational exposures on adult asthma prevalence. (cdc.gov)
  • A recent review has raised questions about adult exposures to formaldehyde and asthma, based on review of literature over a limited time period. (cdc.gov)
  • Other authoritative bodies, such as the Centers for Disease Control, recommend that people with asthma avoid exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • But do these exposures make workers more susceptible to asthma and allergies, or could they have a protective effect against these ailments? (washington.edu)
  • Respiratory and skin signs and at work and was transported by emergency medical services symptoms, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and urticaria, (EMS) to a local emergency department (Figure). (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational asthma is a reversible narrowing of the airways caused by inhaling work-related particles or vapors that act as irritants or cause an allergic reaction. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Five respiratory endotypes have been identified using a cluster-based approach: NA1 (n=463) asymptomatic, NA2 (n=169) with respiratory symptoms, CA1 (n=50) with active treated adult-onset asthma, poor lung function, high blood neutrophil counts and high fluorescent oxidation products level, CA2 (n=203) with mild middle-age asthma, rhinitis and low immunoglobulin E level, and CA3 (n=114) with inactive/mild untreated allergic childhood-onset asthma. (bmj.com)
  • A case-control cohort study showed that older adults with asthma have a higher rate of allergic sensitization, decreased lung function, and significantly worse quality of life when compared to controls. (medscape.com)
  • Occupational asthma can also surface as an allergic reaction to certain airborne substances such as flour or wood dust. (beaconlaw.co.uk)
  • Causes or triggers of asthma can be divided into allergic and nonallergic etiologies. (medscape.com)
  • Co-morbidities of asthma include sinusitis, nasal polyposis, gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and allergic rhinitis. (medscape.com)
  • The prevalence of asthma and allergic sensitization was 4 and 6 times lower in the Amish population, with higher median endotoxin levels in house dust. (medscape.com)
  • However, this report includes formaldehyde because the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) currently refers to formaldehyde as a sensitizing agent, and notes that it can cause "allergic reactions" and "asthma-like respiratory problems. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are regularly exposed to a substance like the ones listed above, your airways can become allergic to it, causing asthma symptoms every time you come into contact with it. (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • A case-control cohort study showed that older adults with asthma have a higher rate of allergic sensitization, decreased lung function, and significantly worse quality of life when compared with controls. (medscape.com)
  • Allergic triggers usually cause asthma symptoms by dimerizing or bridging the high affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptors located on the mast cells in the lungs. (medscape.com)
  • Agents that can induce occupational asthma can be grouped into sensitizers and irritants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aim The biological mechanisms of work-related asthma induced by irritants remain unclear. (bmj.com)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics has published a book about childhood environmental health problems, which states: "Avoiding environmental allergens and irritants is one of the primary goals of good asthma management" [AAPCEH 2003]. (cdc.gov)
  • Common triggers of occupational allergies include animal dander, dust, chemicals, and other irritants commonly found in certain workplaces such as construction sites, factories, and laboratories. (wyndly.com)
  • Several studies support the importance of allergies and allergens in triggering and exacerbating asthma. (cdc.gov)
  • Sensitization to indoor allergens and the spores of outdoor molds is a risk factor for the development of asthma in children and adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Cockroach allergens also may increase a child's risk of developing asthma [IOM 2000, Etzel 2003]. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational sensitization to soy allergens in workers at a processing facility. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: SPWs with specific IgE to soy reacted most commonly with higher molecular weight soybean storage proteins compared with the lower molecular weight SH allergens identified in community asthma studies. (cdc.gov)
  • High molecular weight soybean storage allergens, Gly m 5 and Gly m 6, may be respiratory sensitizers in occupational exposed SPWs. (cdc.gov)
  • Such enzymes are commonly described as occupational allergens. (korea.ac.kr)
  • OA in bakers, textile workers, tanners, herbal and fruit tea processors, and health care workers) was atopics and had positive prick tests to occupational allergens. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • This type of asthma is triggered by airborne substances (allergens) such as pollen, pet dander, or mold spores. (medium.com)
  • If you've been diagnosed with asthma, call your provider right away if you develop a cough, shortness of breath, fever, or other signs of a lung infection, especially if you think you have the flu or COVID-19. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In January 1984, workers at an Iowa egg processing plant requested an investigation by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the causes of 'asthma-like' symptoms (wheezing, shortness of breath, tightness in chest) believed to be work-related (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational asthma may cause shortness of breath, tightness in the chest, wheezing, and coughing. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The symptoms of asthma exacerbations include coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Asthma exacerbations are progressive increases in asthma symptoms , including coughing, shortness of breath, or wheezing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is an occupational lung disease and a type of work-related asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occupational asthma is the commonest occupational lung disease, accounting for 5% of all cases of asthma, and incidence is rising. (cefic-lri.org)
  • Work-related asthma (WRA) is the most common work-related lung disease in the last decades, causing significant morbidity, disability and high costs [2]. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • Diagnosing occupationally-related asthma involves specialist assessment, such as at the Occupational Lung Disease Clinic at Sir Charles Gardner Hospital. (asthmawa.org.au)
  • Asthma is the most common work-related lung disease. (wa.gov)
  • 1 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. (nih.gov)
  • These activities resulted in increased dust expo- occupational allergy. (cdc.gov)
  • In those exposed to dust or fumes, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) varied between 1.4 (1.1, 1.7) and 2.1 (1.3, 3.2) for developing respiratory symptoms or asthma after adjusting for sex, age, educational level, and smoking. (nih.gov)
  • Sensitization to house dust mites is an important risk factor for asthma exacerbations and the development of asthma. (cdc.gov)
  • Some of the independent risk factors for asthma in older adults include house dust mite sensitization and maternal smoking. (medscape.com)
  • Many people who were exposed to dust and fumes during the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks developed asthma. (cdc.gov)
  • According to their molecular weight these occupational agents are categorized into high-molecular-weight (HMW) agents (e.g. animal and plant proteins, flour and grain dust, latex, etc.) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) reactive chemicals (e.g. isocyanates, colophony, aldehydes, metal salts, etc. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • This type of asthma is caused by breathing in chemical fumes, gases, dust or other substances while working or being in an environment where you are frequently exposed to these substances. (medium.com)
  • In conclusion, the proportion of eosinophils and levels of eosinophil cationic protein in sputum are particularly high at work in patients with occupational asthma, suggesting that the measurement of these factors can supplement other physiological outcomes in establishing the diagnosis of occupational asthma. (ersjournals.com)
  • It will then evaluate whether any of these can predict prognosis in patients with occupational asthma. (cefic-lri.org)
  • And what happens to patients with occupational asthma. (hse.gov.uk)
  • A number of diseases have symptoms that mimic occupational asthma, such as asthma due to nonoccupational causes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), irritable larynx syndrome, hyperventilation syndrome, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and bronchiolitis obliterans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The numbers of cases of reported OA were retrieved from the Finnish Registry of Occupational Diseases for the population between 20 and 64 years of age. (nih.gov)
  • Deaths attributed to asthma were based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), codes 493.0-493.9. (cdc.gov)
  • Respiratory diseases rank as the third most prevalent work-related diseases (after ergonomic and stress-related diseases) according to a survey of occupational diseases in the European Union [1]. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • Occupational lung diseases. (healthline.com)
  • Data source: Fund for Occupational Diseases. (who.int)
  • Source: National Institute of Public Health, National Registry of Occupational Diseases. (who.int)
  • Source: Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Annual statistical report of the Federal Government on the state of safety and health at work and on work accidents and occupational diseases in the Federal Republic of Germany. (who.int)
  • Coverage: The documentation of occupational diseases in the Federal Republic of Germany is a complete enumeration. (who.int)
  • Data contain the number of new cases of recognized occupational diseases of those insured by statutory accident insurance institutions. (who.int)
  • Occupational diseases are diseases, which the federal government on the basis of õ 9 Abs. (who.int)
  • The National Health Laboratory Service's (NHLS) Institute for Occupational Health (NIOH), is recognised internationally for excellence in research, services and training to support occupational health services not only in South Africa but also in Southern Africa through its extensive outreach activities and collaborations. (nioh.ac.za)
  • The Wits School of Public Health, in association with the National Institute for Occupational Health, offers a Diploma in Occupational Health (DOH) over two years part-time. (nioh.ac.za)
  • The Wits School of Public Health, in association with the National Institute for Occupational Health, offers a Diploma and Masters degree in Occupational Hygiene over two or three part time years with a new intake of students every second year. (nioh.ac.za)
  • Work-related asthma includes occu- the hospital, she received an albuterol nebulizer, and her dys- pational asthma (new-onset asthma induced by sensitizers or pnea resolved. (cdc.gov)
  • However, most low-molecular-weight chemical sensitizers induce asthma through mechanisms that are poorly understood, despite a phenotype suggesting sensitization. (cdc.gov)
  • More than 250 occupational sensitizers causing OA have been described. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • The studies found that children who lived on farms had a lower prevalence of asthma and atopy and were exposed to a greater variety of environmental microorganisms than children in the reference group. (medscape.com)
  • Most respiratory symptoms were similar among the two groups, and the participants also self-reported a similar prevalence of asthma. (washington.edu)
  • The paper quotes a prevalence of 2.7% occupational asthma and 1.5% work agravated asthma. (occupationalasthma.com)
  • Dr. Balmes' research is focused on the respiratory, cardiovascular and metabolic health effects of various air pollutants and occupational agents. (berkeley.edu)
  • which can trigger or exacerbate an asthma attack in individuals with increased airway hyper responsiveness. (cdc.gov)
  • Medical conditions such as rhinosinusitis , gastroesophageal reflux , and aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) sensitivity may also trigger or exacerbate asthma. (medscape.com)
  • This report takes the perspective that in order to reduce the incidence or worsening of asthma, the use reduction approach should be applied to all "asthma-related chemicals," those which could cause or exacerbate asthma, in adults and children. (cdc.gov)
  • Asthma triggers, meanwhile, are environmental or lifestyle factors that exacerbate the existing condition and cause symptoms by irritating the airways. (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • The patient's mother later reported that, although next-of-kin interviews, medical record reviews, and collabora- her daughter had no previous history of asthma, allergies, or tion with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. (cdc.gov)
  • People are tested for allergies to substances known to cause asthma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • What are the symptoms of occupational allergies? (wyndly.com)
  • The symptoms of occupational allergies are similar to other types of allergies, including sneezing, runny nose, itchy eyes, and skin rashes. (wyndly.com)
  • How are occupational allergies diagnosed? (wyndly.com)
  • Occupational allergies are diagnosed through medical history, physical examination, and allergy testing. (wyndly.com)
  • What are some common triggers of occupational allergies? (wyndly.com)
  • What is the difference between occupational asthma and occupational allergies? (wyndly.com)
  • Are dairy workers more susceptible to allergies and asthma? (washington.edu)
  • Asthma can also be triggered by existing allergies, certain kinds of medication (in particular non-steroidal anti-inflammatories such as aspirin and ibuprofen), certain weather conditions, respiratory tract infections such as cold and flu, and even emotional states such as feeling stressed. (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) is a severe form of irritant induced asthma where respiratory symptoms usually develop in the minutes or hours after a single accidental inhalation of a high concentration of irritant gas, aerosol, vapor, or smoke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome and irritant-induced asthma. (epnet.com)
  • Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/reactive-airways-dysfunction-syndrome-and-irritant-induced-asthma. (epnet.com)
  • Asthma is caused by inflammation (swelling) in the airways of the lungs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Airway inflammation, smooth muscle contraction, epithelial sloughing, mucous hypersecretion, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and mucosal edema are some of the common pathophysiologic mechanisms seen in asthma. (medscape.com)
  • Asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by episodic reversible airway obstruction, increased bronchial reactivity, and airway inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • Asthma is marked by inflammation of the bronchial tubes, with extra sticky secretions inside the tubes. (webmd.com)
  • Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These inhalers keep asthma symptoms under control and usually contain a corticosteroid which helps to reduce the inflammation and sensitivity of the airways. (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • Source: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. (who.int)
  • ingestion may provoke pruritus in atopic individuals and exacerbation of atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, urticaria, angioedema, and bronchial asthma (3). (cdc.gov)
  • This is the first report of occupational rhinitis caused by PPE developing into occupational asthma in a hospital nurse. (korea.ac.kr)
  • These findings suggest that inhalation of PPE powder can induce IgE-mediated occupational rhinitis in a hospital setting, which will develop into occupational asthma if avoidance is not complete. (korea.ac.kr)
  • People with work-related symptoms may also have other conditions alongside their asthma, like inducible laryngeal obstruction, rhinitis, and dysfunctional breathing pattern disorder. (asthmawa.org.au)
  • He is also the director of the Northern California Center for Occupational and Environmental Health. (berkeley.edu)
  • Multiple respiratory hazards have been identified in the The employee, a woman aged 27 years, began work at an cannabis cultivation and production industry, in which indoor cannabis cultivation and processing facility on May 20, occupational asthma and work-related exacerbation of 2021. (cdc.gov)
  • What is an asthma exacerbation? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although diurnal variability changes in people who find it difficult to control their asthma, it might not change during an exacerbation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, having a respiratory infection does not necessarily mean that a person will experience an asthma exacerbation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Due to this, doctors need to identify any people who may be at risk and have a management plan in place for them to use should they experience an asthma exacerbation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Individuals with one or more risk factors for asthma-related death may need emergency care, as may children, who have an increased risk of complications during an asthma exacerbation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Lemière C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Data from the Prevention of Allergy: Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Lifestyle (PARSIFAL) Study and the Multidisciplinary Study to Identify the Genetic and Environmental Causes of Asthma in the European Community Advanced (GABRIELA) reinforce the concept of the hygiene hypothesis. (medscape.com)
  • And prawn meat itself can cause an allergy and asthma. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. (epnet.com)
  • Smith A. M., Villareal M., Bernstein DI, Swikert D. J. Asthma in the elderly: risk factors and impact on physical function, Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 108 (2012) 305-310. (medscape.com)
  • Claims for occupational asthma compensation are commonplace with a predicted 2 million workers in the UK at risk of developing the condition. (jefferies-solicitors.com)
  • Dr David Fishwick Occupational health surveillance is very important for watching groups of workers who may be exposed to agents that cause asthma. (hse.gov.uk)
  • The good news: dairy workers in the study had similar levels of respiratory health, including rates of asthma, as participants in the community who didn't work on dairy farms. (washington.edu)
  • Occupations that carry a risk of asthma include paint sprayers, bakers, nurses, vets or animal handlers, chemical workers and timber workers. (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • Sharps/needlestick injuries are a common occupational hazard among healthcare workers (HCWs). (annals.edu.sg)
  • Occupational and Environmental Contributions to Chronic Cough in Adults: Chest Expert Panel Report. (umassmed.edu)
  • Methods We used cross-sectional data from 999 adults (mean 45 years old, 46% men) from the case-control and familial Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environments of Asthma (EGEA) study. (bmj.com)
  • To characterize national trends in mortality and hospitalizations attributable to asthma among children and young adults (persons aged less than 25 years) during 1980-1993, CDC analyzed mortality data from its multiple cause-of-death files and hospitalization data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey. (cdc.gov)
  • Aspirin-induced asthma predominantly affects adults who have a history of asthma and have been taking certain medications for treatment. (healthomni.com)
  • Viral respiratory infections, such as the human rhinovirus subtypes A and C, are the most common causes of asthma exacerbations in adults and children. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Asthma in adults and adolescents. (epnet.com)
  • Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/asthma-in-adults-and-adolescents. (epnet.com)
  • The incidence rate of asthma in adults older than 65 years is similar to that found in other age groups (approximately 100 cases per 100,000 population annually). (medscape.com)
  • When an asthma attack occurs, the lining of the air passages swells and the muscles surrounding the airways activate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In people who have sensitive airways, asthma symptoms can be triggered by breathing in substances called triggers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Symptoms Asthma is a condition in which the airways narrow-usually reversibly-in response to certain stimuli. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some individuals with work-related asthma have less variability in the size of their bronchial airways than usually found in this illness. (cefic-lri.org)
  • The pollutant might act as an inciter or trigger, leading to an asthma attack in an individual with hyper-responsive airways. (cdc.gov)
  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by hyperresponsiveness of airways to various stimuli. (medscape.com)
  • People with asthma have symptoms when the airways tighten, inflame, or fill with mucus. (webmd.com)
  • People with asthma have sensitive airways that tend to overreact and narrow when they come into contact with even slight triggers. (webmd.com)
  • An asthma attack is the episode in which bands of muscle around the airways are triggered to tighten. (webmd.com)
  • In people with asthma, the airways of the lungs are sensitive and easily inflamed. (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • Nearly all asthma sufferers will be prescribed a reliever inhaler, which is used to ease the symptoms of coughing, wheezing and breathlessness by opening the airways. (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • This type of asthma is triggered by strenuous exercise, which causes narrowing of the airways. (medium.com)
  • once hospitalized, the death rate attributable to asthma for patients older than 65 years is 14 times higher than that of patients aged 18-35 years. (medscape.com)
  • the current study is likely to substantially underestimate the total ammount of adult asthma attributable to work. (occupationalasthma.com)
  • Occupational asthma is the most common occupational respiratory disease in the United Kingdom and also in Singapore. (annals.edu.sg)
  • In March 1985, NIOSH conducted a follow-up medical evaluation consisting of pulmonary function tests, skin-stick tests for sensitivity to egg protein, determinations of serum IgE and IgG antibodies to egg protein (whole egg, egg yolk, egg white, and egg fractions), and physical examinations and clinical histories by a physician trained in internal and occupational medicine. (cdc.gov)
  • Systematic research on occupation or industry-specific incidence of occupational asthma (OA) is sparse. (nih.gov)
  • This study examined the incidence of respiratory symptoms and asthma in an 11-year Norwegian community cohort study with 2,819 subjects. (nih.gov)
  • Although asthma has an equal incidence across all age groups, asthma in the elderly is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. (medscape.com)
  • Decreased IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 signaling has had clinical endpoints such as decreased moderate to severe persistent asthma, decreased eczema, and a decreased incidence of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (this latter entity is seen with the use of dupilumab). (medscape.com)
  • The standard scientific references on occupational asthma include formaldehyde in a discussion of chemicals that can cause occupational asthma although the asthma incidence rate has not been determined and the mechanism of induction may not be known. (cdc.gov)
  • Over the past 40 years, the incidence rate of asthma has increased across all age groups. (medscape.com)
  • The inhalation of chemicals, particulate matter (dusts and fibers), and the incomplete products of combustion during occupational and environmental disasters has long been associated with respiratory disorders[1]. (cdc.gov)
  • A report on barriers to reducing the use of asthma-related chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • It is best for all to avoid chemicals that are harmful to the respiratory system, and crucial for anyone who already has asthma to avoid anything that can trigger a reaction. (cdc.gov)
  • However, it is important to note that there are many other chemicals related to asthma, some that are used in very high amounts (for example, 262,932,518 pounds of styrene use were reported under TURA in 2009). (cdc.gov)
  • This report uses the three chemicals not in order to brand them as the worst of the class, but because they provide clear illustration that we need to know more about how asthma-related chemicals are used in the Commonwealth, and how those uses may be reduced. (cdc.gov)
  • An estimated 15-55% of all adult asthma is related to work4-7. (cdc.gov)
  • Learn more about asthma rescue inhalers here. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The day to day medical treatment of occupational asthma follows the same guidelines around inhalers and specialist treatment as asthma generally. (asthmawa.org.au)
  • Asthma is complex disease that affects patients of all ages. (medscape.com)
  • Asthma is a long-term disease of the lungs. (webmd.com)
  • Asthma is a serious disease that affects about 25 million Americans and causes nearly 1.6 million emergency room visits every year. (webmd.com)
  • Hundreds of thousands of Western Australians have asthma, and for most people their disease is not so bad that they can't undertake usual activities like going to work. (asthmawa.org.au)
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is often misdiagnosed because it shares some similarities with other lung conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. (healthline.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved three anti-interleukin (IL)-5 agents to treat eosinophilic asthma (reslizumab, benralizumab, and mepolizumab) as well as an anti-IL4Ra biologic agent (dupilumab) for the indication of moderate to severe asthma in patients 12 years and older. (medscape.com)
  • Severe asthma can cause trouble talking or being active. (webmd.com)
  • Asthma exacerbations frequently affect people who have severe asthma, and they usually have a trigger. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • suggests that medicines prevent severe asthma attacks and diabetes complications (10,11) . (who.int)
  • Eighty percent of the reports were of new-onset asthma and 20% were work-aggravated asthma. (lww.com)
  • In genetically susceptible individuals, these interactions can lead the patient with asthma to symptoms of breathlessness, wheezing, cough, and chest tightness. (medscape.com)
  • Cold weather and exercise can trigger asthma attacks in individuals with hidden asthma. (healthomni.com)
  • At the preseason assessment, 7 participants reported a history of asthma (4 current). (cdc.gov)
  • In general, the outcome for people with occupational asthma is good. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Now I'm not saying that most people with occupational asthma almost die but asthma is a serious condition. (hse.gov.uk)
  • The diagnosis of occupational asthma (OA) needs to be made with as much objective evidence as possible. (ersjournals.com)
  • Guidelines for the prevention, identification & management of occupational asthma: Evidence review & recommendations. (occupationalasthma.com)
  • Update on the management of occupational asthma and work-exacerbated asthma. (epnet.com)
  • This Toolkit received unrestricted funding from Astra Zeneca and builds upon the asthma and COPD program at the Lung Health Foundation. (lunghealth.ca)
  • Timely and appropriate treatment is essential for asthma patients to effectively manage their condition and prevent future attacks. (healthomni.com)
  • Mild asthma attacks are generally more common. (webmd.com)
  • A person may experience asthma exacerbations or attacks, during which their asthma worsens, or new symptoms occur. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Contact your provider if you have symptoms of asthma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To diagnose occupational asthma it is necessary to confirm the symptoms of asthma and establish the causal connection with the work environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical trial data suggest an improved clinical outcome for those older than 12 years with moderate to severe persistent asthma, with important endpoints an objective increased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and subjective decreased exacerbations of asthma, with an improved quality of life and reduced dependency on oral corticosteroids. (medscape.com)
  • Keep reading to learn more about asthma exacerbations, including the symptoms, treatment options, and when to seek emergency care. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Exacerbations are different than difficult-to-control asthma. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The primary goal of asthma treatment is to control an individual's symptoms and prevent exacerbations. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Asthma exacerbations can occur even if someone has a solid treatment regimen. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Appropriate drugs for asthma exacerbations include inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and a combination of ICS treatment and long-acting beta-agonists. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Diisocyanates have been the most common cause of occupational asthma in many industrialized areas. (cdc.gov)
  • The blood cells present in the phlegm of some work-related asthma patients may differ from those found in common asthma. (cefic-lri.org)
  • There are some common working environments where people can become afflicted with occupational asthma. (jefferies-solicitors.com)
  • Asthma is the most common chronic illness in childhood and is characterized by variable airflow obstruction with airway hyperresponsiveness. (cdc.gov)
  • Asthma is a very common long-term condition in which small tubes in the lungs (bronchi) become inflamed and sensitive. (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • People with this type of asthma can still continue to exercise and remain active by treating the symptoms with common asthma medications and taking preventive measures. (medium.com)
  • Asthma sufferers should try to keep on top of their symptoms by monitoring them every day and measuring their peak flow (how much air they can blow out of their lungs). (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw in Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. (lww.com)
  • Some people refer to asthma as " bronchial asthma . (webmd.com)
  • Asthma at work can be caused by a variety of things, namely in the inhalation of hazardous or toxic dusts, gases, fumes and vapours. (beaconlaw.co.uk)
  • Although asthma is a chronic illness, symptoms can be prevented with medications and avoidance of triggers. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic differences may alter susceptibility to asthma, as well as responsiveness to asthma medications. (medscape.com)
  • The availability of various effective medications has significantly improved the treatment options for asthma. (healthomni.com)
  • Luckily, asthma is a fairly easy condition to manage on a daily basis with the use of the correct medications. (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • Adult patients with asthma often stop their medications when they feel well. (medscape.com)
  • The following tables show occupations that are known to be at risk for occupational asthma, the main reference for these is the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. (mdwiki.org)
  • A study by Zhang et al suggests that those children who are genetically predisposed to asthma may be at an even higher risk if they are overweight beyond infancy. (medscape.com)
  • A more recent study looked at asthma risk and innate immunity in Amish and Hutterite children who live on traditional and industrialized farms, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • Most risk factors for asthma relate to genetics, birth or early childhood meaning it's difficult to avoid developing asthma in most cases. (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • In an analysis published Monday in the The Lancet Planetary Health, researchers report that current rates of asthma-related emergency room visits are more than twice as high in areas that were once redlined -- or categorized as high risk for investment as part of government-sponsored programs. (berkeley.edu)