The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Drugs that are used to treat asthma.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Asthmatic adverse reaction (e.g., BRONCHOCONSTRICTION) to conventional NSAIDS including aspirin use.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)
A sudden intense and continuous aggravation of a state of asthma, marked by dyspnea to the point of exhaustion and collapse and not responding to the usual therapeutic efforts.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.
Agents that prevent clotting.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
The act of BREATHING out.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The contamination of indoor air.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
A uricosuric drug that is used to reduce the serum urate levels in gout therapy. It lacks anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
A form of encephalopathy with fatty infiltration of the LIVER, characterized by brain EDEMA and VOMITING that may rapidly progress to SEIZURES; COMA; and DEATH. It is caused by a generalized loss of mitochondrial function leading to disturbances in fatty acid and CARNITINE metabolism.
An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil cationic protein is a 21-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. Although eosinophil cationic protein is considered a member of the RNAse A superfamily of proteins, it has only limited RNAse activity.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)

Effect of in vitro aspirin stimulation on basophils in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. (1/27)

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Update on recent advances in the management of aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease. (2/27)

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Diagnosis of aspirin-induced asthma combining the bronchial and the oral challenge tests: a pilot study. (3/27)

BACKGROUND: We investigated the usefulness of the bronchial challenge (BC) with lysine-acetylsalicylate (L-ASA) in the diagnosis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) using a protocol that combined both the oral challenge (OC) and the BC tests. METHODS: Adult asthmatic patients with suspected AERD who underwent BC with L-ASA were included in the study. If the BC result with L-ASA was negative, an OC was carried out to establish the diagnosis. AERD was ruled out if both the BC and the OC results were negative (nonresponders). Both responders and nonresponders were compared for age, gender, a personal or family history of atopy, underlying disease, current asthma treatment, and presence of nasal polyps. Six patients with asthma but no suggestive history of AERD were included as controls. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients completed the study. Ten patients tested positive to the BC and/or OC (responders), whereas 12 did not (nonresponders). Seven out of the 10 responders had a positive BC result and 3 a positive OC result. After BC, 4 patients had an early asthmatic response, 1 had a dual response, and 2 had isolated late responses. No significant differences were observed in the aforementioned variables between responders and nonresponders. The results of both challenges were negative in the 6 controls. CONCLUSIONS: The BC had a high positive predictive value, was safe, and when negative, the subsequent OC did not result in any severe adverse reactions. The BC elicited an isolated late asthmatic response that has not been previously described in the literature.  (+info)

Positive association between aspirin-intolerant asthma and genetic polymorphisms of FSIP1: a case-case study. (4/27)

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Airway responsiveness to inhaled aspirin is influenced by airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic patients. (5/27)

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Association of CACNG6 polymorphisms with aspirin-intolerance asthmatics in a Korean population. (6/27)

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Increase in salivary cysteinyl-leukotriene concentration in patients with aspirin-intolerant asthma. (7/27)

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Nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor in fibroblasts of asthmatic patients with nasal polyposis insensitive to glucocorticoid treatment. (8/27)

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Aspirin is the common name for acetylsalicylic acid, which is a medication used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX), which is involved in the production of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that cause inflammation and pain. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet effect, which means it can help prevent blood clots from forming. This makes it useful for preventing heart attacks and strokes.

Aspirin is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and chewable tablets. It is also available in prescription strengths for certain medical conditions. As with any medication, aspirin should be taken as directed by a healthcare provider, and its use should be avoided in children and teenagers with viral infections due to the risk of Reye's syndrome, a rare but serious condition that can affect the liver and brain.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Anti-asthmatic agents are a class of medications used to prevent or alleviate the symptoms of asthma, such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. These medications work by reducing inflammation, relaxing muscles in the airways, and preventing allergic reactions that can trigger an asthma attack.

There are several types of anti-asthmatic agents, including:

1. Bronchodilators: These medications relax the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe. They can be short-acting or long-acting, depending on how long they work.
2. Inhaled corticosteroids: These medications reduce inflammation in the airways and help prevent asthma symptoms from occurring.
3. Leukotriene modifiers: These medications block the action of leukotrienes, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
4. Combination therapies: Some anti-asthmatic agents combine different types of medications, such as a bronchodilator and an inhaled corticosteroid, into one inhaler.
5. Biologics: These are newer types of anti-asthmatic agents that target specific molecules involved in the inflammatory response in asthma. They are usually given by injection.

It's important to note that different people with asthma may require different medications or combinations of medications to manage their symptoms effectively. Therefore, it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to determine the best treatment plan for each individual.

Platelet aggregation inhibitors are a class of medications that prevent platelets (small blood cells involved in clotting) from sticking together and forming a clot. These drugs work by interfering with the ability of platelets to adhere to each other and to the damaged vessel wall, thereby reducing the risk of thrombosis (blood clot formation).

Platelet aggregation inhibitors are often prescribed for people who have an increased risk of developing blood clots due to various medical conditions such as atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, stroke, or a history of heart attack. They may also be used in patients undergoing certain medical procedures, such as angioplasty and stenting, to prevent blood clot formation in the stents.

Examples of platelet aggregation inhibitors include:

1. Aspirin: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that irreversibly inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is involved in platelet activation and aggregation.
2. Clopidogrel (Plavix): A P2Y12 receptor antagonist that selectively blocks ADP-induced platelet activation and aggregation.
3. Prasugrel (Effient): A third-generation thienopyridine P2Y12 receptor antagonist, similar to clopidogrel but with faster onset and greater potency.
4. Ticagrelor (Brilinta): A direct-acting P2Y12 receptor antagonist that does not require metabolic activation and has a reversible binding profile.
5. Dipyridamole (Persantine): An antiplatelet agent that inhibits platelet aggregation by increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in platelets, which leads to decreased platelet reactivity.
6. Iloprost (Ventavis): A prostacyclin analogue that inhibits platelet aggregation and causes vasodilation, often used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
7. Cilostazol (Pletal): A phosphodiesterase III inhibitor that increases cAMP levels in platelets, leading to decreased platelet activation and aggregation, as well as vasodilation.
8. Ticlopidine (Ticlid): An older P2Y12 receptor antagonist with a slower onset of action and more frequent side effects compared to clopidogrel or prasugrel.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is a type of asthma that is triggered by physical activity or exercise. Officially known as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), this condition causes the airways in the lungs to narrow and become inflamed, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. These symptoms typically occur during or after exercise and can last for several minutes to a few hours.

EIA is caused by the loss of heat and moisture from the airways during exercise, which leads to the release of inflammatory mediators that cause the airways to constrict. People with EIA may have underlying asthma or may only experience symptoms during exercise. Proper diagnosis and management of EIA can help individuals maintain an active lifestyle and participate in physical activities without experiencing symptoms.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) is a measurement of how quickly a person can exhale air from their lungs. It is often used as a quick test to assess breathing difficulties in people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PEFR is measured in liters per minute (L/min) and the highest value obtained during a forceful exhalation is recorded as the peak expiratory flow rate. Regular monitoring of PEFR can help to assess the severity of an asthma attack or the effectiveness of treatment.

Occupational asthma is a type of asthma that is caused or worsened by exposure to specific agents in the workplace. These agents, known as occupational sensitizers, can cause an immune response that leads to airway inflammation and narrowing, resulting in classic asthma symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness.

Occupational asthma can develop in individuals who have no prior history of asthma, or it can worsen pre-existing asthma. The onset of symptoms may be immediate (within hours) or delayed (up to several days) after exposure to the sensitizer. Common occupational sensitizers include isocyanates (found in certain paints and spray foam insulation), flour and grain dust, wood dust, animal dander, and various chemicals used in manufacturing processes.

Prevention of occupational asthma involves minimizing or eliminating exposure to known sensitizers through proper engineering controls, personal protective equipment, and workplace practices. If occupational asthma is suspected, individuals should consult with a healthcare professional for appropriate diagnosis and management strategies.

Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) is a medical term used to describe the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs in one second. It is often measured during pulmonary function testing to assess lung function and diagnose conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

FEV is typically expressed as a percentage of the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), which is the total volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking a deep breath in. The ratio of FEV to FVC is used to determine whether there is obstruction in the airways, with a lower ratio indicating more severe obstruction.

There are different types of FEV measurements, including FEV1 (the volume of air exhaled in one second), FEV25-75 (the average volume of air exhaled during the middle 50% of the FVC maneuver), and FEV0.5 (the volume of air exhaled in half a second). These measurements can provide additional information about lung function and help guide treatment decisions.

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) or bronchial hyperreactivity (BH) is a medical term that refers to the increased sensitivity and exaggerated response of the airways to various stimuli. In people with BHR, the airways narrow (constrict) more than usual in response to certain triggers such as allergens, cold air, exercise, or irritants like smoke or fumes. This narrowing can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

BHR is often associated with asthma and other respiratory conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis. It is typically diagnosed through a series of tests that measure the degree of airway narrowing in response to various stimuli. These tests may include spirometry, methacholine challenge test, or histamine challenge test.

BHR can be managed with medications such as bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs, which help to relax the muscles around the airways and reduce inflammation. It is also important to avoid triggers that can exacerbate symptoms and make BHR worse.

Bronchodilators are medications that relax and widen the airways (bronchioles) in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. They work by relaxing the smooth muscle around the airways, which allows them to dilate or open up. This results in improved airflow and reduced symptoms of bronchoconstriction, such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.

Bronchodilators can be classified into two main types: short-acting and long-acting. Short-acting bronchodilators are used for quick relief of symptoms and last for 4 to 6 hours, while long-acting bronchodilators are used for maintenance therapy and provide symptom relief for 12 hours or more.

Examples of bronchodilator agents include:

* Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, levalbuterol, and pirbuterol
* Long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) such as salmeterol, formoterol, and indacaterol
* Anticholinergics such as ipratropium, tiotropium, and aclidinium
* Combination bronchodilators that contain both a LABA and an anticholinergic, such as umeclidinium/vilanterol and glycopyrrolate/formoterol.

Respiratory sounds are the noises produced by the airflow through the respiratory tract during breathing. These sounds can provide valuable information about the health and function of the lungs and airways. They are typically categorized into two main types: normal breath sounds and adventitious (or abnormal) breath sounds.

Normal breath sounds include:

1. Vesicular breath sounds: These are soft, low-pitched sounds heard over most of the lung fields during quiet breathing. They are produced by the movement of air through the alveoli and smaller bronchioles.
2. Bronchovesicular breath sounds: These are medium-pitched, hollow sounds heard over the mainstem bronchi and near the upper sternal border during both inspiration and expiration. They are a combination of vesicular and bronchial breath sounds.

Abnormal or adventitious breath sounds include:

1. Crackles (or rales): These are discontinuous, non-musical sounds that resemble the crackling of paper or bubbling in a fluid-filled container. They can be heard during inspiration and are caused by the sudden opening of collapsed airways or the movement of fluid within the airways.
2. Wheezes: These are continuous, musical sounds resembling a whistle. They are produced by the narrowing or obstruction of the airways, causing turbulent airflow.
3. Rhonchi: These are low-pitched, rumbling, continuous sounds that can be heard during both inspiration and expiration. They are caused by the vibration of secretions or fluids in the larger airways.
4. Stridor: This is a high-pitched, inspiratory sound that resembles a harsh crowing or barking noise. It is usually indicative of upper airway narrowing or obstruction.

The character, location, and duration of respiratory sounds can help healthcare professionals diagnose various respiratory conditions, such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and bronchitis.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

Ticlopidine is defined as a platelet aggregation inhibitor drug, which works by preventing certain types of blood cells (platelets) from sticking together to form clots. It is used to reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack in patients who have already had a stroke or have peripheral arterial disease.

Ticlopidine is a thienopyridine derivative that selectively inhibits platelet activation and aggregation by blocking the ADP (adenosine diphosphate) receptor on the platelet surface. This action prevents the formation of platelet plugs, which can lead to the development of blood clots in the arteries.

Ticlopidine is available in oral form as tablets and is typically taken twice daily. Common side effects include diarrhea, skin rash, and itching. More serious side effects, such as neutropenia (low white blood cell count), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), and aplastic anemia, are rare but can be life-threatening.

Due to the risk of serious side effects, ticlopidine is usually reserved for use in patients who cannot tolerate or have failed other antiplatelet therapies, such as aspirin or clopidogrel. It is important to monitor patients taking ticlopidine closely for signs of adverse reactions and to follow the prescribing instructions carefully.

Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) is a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which is a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator synthesized by activated platelets. TXA2 has a very short half-life, quickly undergoing spontaneous conversion to the more stable TXB2.

TXB2 itself does not have significant biological activity but serves as a marker for TXA2 production in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as thrombosis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. It can be measured in blood or other bodily fluids to assess platelet activation and the status of hemostatic and inflammatory processes.

Hypersensitivity is an exaggerated or inappropriate immune response to a substance that is generally harmless to most people. It's also known as an allergic reaction. This abnormal response can be caused by various types of immunological mechanisms, including antibody-mediated reactions (types I, II, and III) and cell-mediated reactions (type IV). The severity of the hypersensitivity reaction can range from mild discomfort to life-threatening conditions. Common examples of hypersensitivity reactions include allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylaxis.

Aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) is a specific form of asthma that is characterized by the worsening of respiratory symptoms after ingesting aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). AIA is also known as NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) or aspirin-sensitive asthma.

People with AIA typically experience bronchoconstriction, nasal congestion, and rhinorrhea after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs that inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1). These symptoms can range from mild to severe and may occur within a few minutes to several hours after ingesting the medication.

In addition to respiratory symptoms, some people with AIA may also develop skin reactions, such as hives or angioedema, and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain or diarrhea. The exact mechanism by which aspirin and other NSAIDs trigger these symptoms in people with AIA is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to an imbalance in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, two types of lipid mediators that play a role in inflammation.

Avoiding aspirin and other NSAIDs is the primary treatment for AIA. In some cases, medications such as corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, or antihistamines may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. Desensitization therapy, which involves gradually increasing the dose of aspirin under medical supervision, may also be an option for some people with AIA who are unable to avoid NSAIDs altogether.

Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever.

There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is produced continuously in various tissues throughout the body and helps maintain the normal function of the stomach and kidneys, among other things. COX-2, on the other hand, is produced in response to inflammation and is involved in the production of prostaglandins that contribute to pain, fever, and inflammation.

COX inhibitors can be non-selective, meaning they block both COX-1 and COX-2, or selective, meaning they primarily block COX-2. Non-selective COX inhibitors include drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, while selective COX inhibitors are often referred to as coxibs and include celecoxib (Celebrex) and rofecoxib (Vioxx).

COX inhibitors are commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. However, long-term use of non-selective COX inhibitors can increase the risk of gastrointestinal side effects such as ulcers and bleeding, while selective COX inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of COX inhibitors before using them.

Platelet aggregation is the clumping together of platelets (thrombocytes) in the blood, which is an essential step in the process of hemostasis (the stopping of bleeding) after injury to a blood vessel. When the inner lining of a blood vessel is damaged, exposure of subendothelial collagen and tissue factor triggers platelet activation. Activated platelets change shape, become sticky, and release the contents of their granules, which include ADP (adenosine diphosphate).

ADP then acts as a chemical mediator to attract and bind additional platelets to the site of injury, leading to platelet aggregation. This forms a plug that seals the damaged vessel and prevents further blood loss. Platelet aggregation is also a crucial component in the formation of blood clots (thrombosis) within blood vessels, which can have pathological consequences such as heart attacks and strokes if they obstruct blood flow to vital organs.

Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Also known as Type I hypersensitivity, it is an exaggerated and abnormal immune response that occurs within minutes to a few hours after exposure to a second dose of an allergen (a substance that triggers an allergic reaction). This type of hypersensitivity is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies, which are produced by the immune system in response to the first exposure to the allergen. Upon subsequent exposures, these IgE antibodies bind to mast cells and basophils, leading to their degranulation and the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins. These mediators cause a variety of symptoms, including itching, swelling, redness, and pain at the site of exposure, as well as systemic symptoms such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, and hypotension (low blood pressure). Examples of immediate hypersensitivity reactions include allergic asthma, hay fever, anaphylaxis, and some forms of food allergy.

Rhinitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and irritation of the nasal passages, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, and postnasal drip. It can be caused by various factors, including allergies (such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander), infections (viral or bacterial), environmental irritants (such as smoke or pollution), and hormonal changes. Depending on the cause, rhinitis can be classified as allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis, infectious rhinitis, or hormonal rhinitis. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause but may include medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, nasal sprays, and immunotherapy (allergy shots).

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Salicylates are a group of chemicals found naturally in certain fruits, vegetables, and herbs, as well as in some medications like aspirin. They are named after willow bark's active ingredient, salicin, from which they were derived. Salicylates have anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain-relieving), and antipyretic (fever-reducing) properties.

In a medical context, salicylates are often used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. High doses of salicylates can have blood thinning effects and may be used in the prevention of strokes or heart attacks. Commonly prescribed salicylate medications include aspirin, methylsalicylate, and sodium salicylate.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to salicylates, and overuse can lead to side effects such as stomach ulcers, ringing in the ears, and even kidney or liver damage.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Albuterol is a medication that is used to treat bronchospasm, or narrowing of the airways in the lungs, in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is a short-acting beta-2 agonist, which means it works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe. Albuterol is available in several forms, including an inhaler, nebulizer solution, and syrup, and it is typically used as needed to relieve symptoms of bronchospasm. It may also be used before exercise to prevent bronchospasm caused by physical activity.

The medical definition of Albuterol is: "A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. It works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe."

Methacholine chloride is a medication that is used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and assess the severity of asthma or other respiratory conditions that cause airway hyperresponsiveness. It is a synthetic derivative of acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter that causes smooth muscle contraction in the body.

When methacholine chloride is inhaled, it stimulates the muscarinic receptors in the airways, causing them to constrict or narrow. This response is measured and used to determine the degree of airway hyperresponsiveness, which can help diagnose asthma and assess its severity.

The methacholine challenge test involves inhaling progressively higher doses of methacholine chloride until a significant decrease in lung function is observed or until a maximum dose is reached. The test results are then used to guide treatment decisions and monitor the effectiveness of therapy. It's important to note that this test should be conducted under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it carries some risks, including bronchoconstriction and respiratory distress.

Platelet function tests are laboratory tests that measure how well platelets, which are small blood cells responsible for clotting, function in preventing or stopping bleeding. These tests are often used to investigate the cause of abnormal bleeding or bruising, or to monitor the effectiveness of antiplatelet therapy in patients with certain medical conditions such as heart disease or stroke.

There are several types of platelet function tests available, including:

1. Platelet count: This test measures the number of platelets present in a sample of blood. A low platelet count can increase the risk of bleeding.
2. Bleeding time: This test measures how long it takes for a small cut to stop bleeding. It is used less frequently than other tests due to its invasiveness and variability.
3. Platelet aggregation tests: These tests measure how well platelets clump together (aggregate) in response to various agents that promote platelet activation, such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, or epinephrine.
4. Platelet function analyzer (PFA): This test measures the time it takes for a blood sample to clot under shear stress, simulating the conditions in an injured blood vessel. The PFA can provide information about the overall platelet function and the effectiveness of antiplatelet therapy.
5. Thromboelastography (TEG) or rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM): These tests measure the kinetics of clot formation, strength, and dissolution in whole blood samples. They provide information about both platelet function and coagulation factors.

These tests can help healthcare providers diagnose bleeding disorders, assess the risk of bleeding during surgery or other invasive procedures, monitor antiplatelet therapy, and guide treatment decisions for patients with abnormal platelet function.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Allergic rhinitis, perennial type, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the nasal passages caused by an allergic response to environmental allergens that are present throughout the year. Unlike seasonal allergic rhinitis, which is triggered by specific pollens or molds during certain times of the year, perennial allergic rhinitis is a persistent condition that occurs year-round.

Common allergens responsible for perennial allergic rhinitis include dust mites, cockroaches, pet dander, and indoor mold spores. Symptoms may include sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, itchy eyes, ears, throat, or roof of the mouth. Treatment options typically involve avoiding exposure to the offending allergens, if possible, as well as medications such as antihistamines, nasal corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists to manage symptoms. Immunotherapy (allergy shots) may also be recommended for long-term management in some cases.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Spirometry is a common type of pulmonary function test (PFT) that measures how well your lungs work. This is done by measuring how much air you can exhale from your lungs after taking a deep breath, and how quickly you can exhale it. The results are compared to normal values for your age, height, sex, and ethnicity.

Spirometry is used to diagnose and monitor certain lung conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory diseases that cause narrowing of the airways. It can also be used to assess the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions. The test is non-invasive, safe, and easy to perform.

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the body's immune response. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they can travel to different tissues and organs throughout the body. Eosinophils are characterized by their granules, which contain various proteins and enzymes that are toxic to parasites and can contribute to inflammation.

Eosinophils are typically associated with allergic reactions, asthma, and other inflammatory conditions. They can also be involved in the body's response to certain infections, particularly those caused by parasites such as worms. In some cases, elevated levels of eosinophils in the blood or tissues (a condition called eosinophilia) can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as a parasitic infection, autoimmune disorder, or cancer.

Eosinophils are named for their staining properties - they readily take up eosin dye, which is why they appear pink or red under the microscope. They make up only about 1-6% of circulating white blood cells in healthy individuals, but their numbers can increase significantly in response to certain triggers.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

Budesonide is a corticosteroid medication that is used to reduce inflammation in the body. It works by mimicking the effects of hormones produced naturally by the adrenal glands, which help regulate the immune system and suppress inflammatory responses. Budesonide is available as an inhaler, nasal spray, or oral tablet, and is used to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), rhinitis, and Crohn's disease.

When budesonide is inhaled or taken orally, it is absorbed into the bloodstream and travels throughout the body, where it can reduce inflammation in various tissues and organs. In the lungs, for example, budesonide can help prevent asthma attacks by reducing inflammation in the airways, making it easier to breathe.

Like other corticosteroid medications, budesonide can have side effects, particularly if used at high doses or for long periods of time. These may include thrush (a fungal infection in the mouth), hoarseness, sore throat, cough, headache, and easy bruising or skin thinning. Long-term use of corticosteroids can also lead to more serious side effects, such as adrenal suppression, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider when taking budesonide or any other medication, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Beclomethasone is a corticosteroid medication that is used to treat inflammation and allergies in the body. It works by reducing the activity of the immune system, which helps to prevent the release of substances that cause inflammation. Beclomethasone is available as an inhaler, nasal spray, and cream or ointment.

In its inhaled form, beclomethasone is used to treat asthma and other lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It helps to prevent symptoms such as wheezing and shortness of breath by reducing inflammation in the airways.

As a nasal spray, beclomethasone is used to treat allergies and inflammation in the nose, such as hay fever or rhinitis. It can help to relieve symptoms such as sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, and itching.

Beclomethasone cream or ointment is used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, dermatitis, and psoriasis. It works by reducing inflammation in the skin and relieving symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, and irritation.

It's important to note that beclomethasone can have side effects, especially if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include thrush (a fungal infection in the mouth), coughing, hoarseness, sore throat, and easy bruising or thinning of the skin. It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using beclomethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

Leukotriene antagonists are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of leukotrienes, which are chemicals released by the immune system in response to an allergen or irritant. Leukotrienes cause airway muscles to tighten and inflammation in the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. By blocking the action of leukotrienes, leukotriene antagonists can help relieve these symptoms and improve lung function. These medications are often used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Examples of leukotriene antagonists include montelukast, zafirlukast, and pranlukast.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

Nebulizer: A nebulizer is a medical device that delivers medication in the form of a mist to the respiratory system. It is often used for people who have difficulty inhaling medication through traditional inhalers, such as young children or individuals with severe respiratory conditions. The medication is placed in the nebulizer cup and then converted into a fine mist by the machine. This allows the user to breathe in the medication directly through a mouthpiece or mask.

Vaporizer: A vaporizer, on the other hand, is a device that heats up a liquid, often water or essential oils, to produce steam or vapor. While some people use vaporizers for therapeutic purposes, such as to help relieve congestion or cough, it is important to note that vaporizers are not considered medical devices and their effectiveness for these purposes is not well-established.

It's worth noting that nebulizers and vaporizers are different from each other in terms of their purpose and usage. Nebulizers are used specifically for delivering medication, while vaporizers are used to produce steam or vapor, often for non-medical purposes.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Blood platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, colorless cell fragments in our blood that play an essential role in normal blood clotting. They are formed in the bone marrow from large cells called megakaryocytes and circulate in the blood in an inactive state until they are needed to help stop bleeding. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets become activated and change shape, releasing chemicals that attract more platelets to the site of injury. These activated platelets then stick together to form a plug, or clot, that seals the wound and prevents further blood loss. In addition to their role in clotting, platelets also help to promote healing by releasing growth factors that stimulate the growth of new tissue.

Sodium Salicylate is a type of salt derived from salicylic acid, which is a naturally occurring compound found in willow bark and wintergreen leaves. It is often used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic agent to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever.

In its pure form, sodium salicylate appears as a white crystalline powder with a slightly bitter taste. It is highly soluble in water and alcohol, making it easy to formulate into various pharmaceutical preparations such as tablets, capsules, and solutions for oral or topical use.

Sodium Salicylate works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that play a key role in inflammation and pain. By reducing the levels of prostaglandins in the body, Sodium Salicylate helps to alleviate pain, swelling, and redness associated with various medical conditions such as arthritis, muscle strains, and headaches.

It is important to note that high doses of Sodium Salicylate can cause stomach upset, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and even kidney damage. Therefore, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, who can monitor its safe and effective use.

Status asthmaticus is a severe, potentially life-threatening exacerbation of asthma that does not respond to standard treatments with bronchodilators and corticosteroids. It is characterized by persistent bronchospasm, air trapping, and hypoxemia, despite the administration of beta-agonists and systemic steroids. Prolonged respiratory acidosis and muscular fatigue may also occur due to the increased work of breathing. Status asthmaticus can lead to respiratory failure and may require mechanical ventilation in severe cases. It is a medical emergency that requires immediate evaluation and treatment in a hospital setting.

Bronchoconstrictor agents are substances that cause narrowing or constriction of the bronchioles, the small airways in the lungs. This can lead to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Bronchoconstrictor agents include certain medications (such as some beta-blockers and prostaglandin F2alpha), environmental pollutants (such as tobacco smoke and air pollution particles), and allergens (such as dust mites and pollen).

In contrast to bronchodilator agents, which are medications that widen the airways and improve breathing, bronchoconstrictor agents can make it more difficult for a person to breathe. People with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be particularly sensitive to bronchoconstrictor agents and may experience severe symptoms when exposed to them.

Airway remodeling is a term used to describe the structural changes that occur in the airways as a result of chronic inflammation in respiratory diseases such as asthma. These changes include thickening of the airway wall, increased smooth muscle mass, and abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix components. These alterations can lead to narrowing of the airways, decreased lung function, and increased severity of symptoms. Airway remodeling is thought to be a major contributor to the persistent airflow obstruction that is characteristic of severe asthma.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Bronchoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (the bronchi and bronchioles) due to the contraction of the smooth muscles surrounding them. This constriction can cause difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath, which are common symptoms of asthma and other respiratory conditions.

Bronchoconstriction can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, cold air, exercise, and emotional stress. In some cases, it may also be caused by certain medications, such as beta-blockers or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Treatment for bronchoconstriction typically involves the use of bronchodilators, which are medications that help to relax the smooth muscles around the airways and widen them, making it easier to breathe.

Bronchitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead to the lungs. This inflammation can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Bronchitis can be either acute or chronic.

Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu, and typically lasts for a few days to a week. Symptoms may include a productive cough (coughing up mucus or phlegm), chest discomfort, and fatigue. Acute bronchitis often resolves on its own without specific medical treatment, although rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications to manage symptoms may be helpful.

Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is characterized by a persistent cough with mucus production that lasts for at least three months out of the year for two consecutive years. Chronic bronchitis is typically caused by exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. It is often associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Treatment for chronic bronchitis may include medications to help open the airways, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, as well as lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and avoiding irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.

Fibrinolytic agents are medications that dissolve or break down blood clots by activating plasminogen, which is converted into plasmin. Plasmin is a proteolytic enzyme that degrades fibrin, the structural protein in blood clots. Fibrinolytic agents are used medically to treat conditions such as acute ischemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and myocardial infarction (heart attack) by restoring blood flow in occluded vessels. Examples of fibrinolytic agents include alteplase, reteplase, and tenecteplase. It is important to note that these medications carry a risk of bleeding complications and should be administered with caution.

Adrenergic beta-agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and mediate the effects of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) and the hormone epinephrine (also called adrenaline).

When beta-agonists bind to these receptors, they stimulate a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways, increased heart rate and contractility, and increased metabolic rate. As a result, adrenergic beta-agonists are often used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis, as they can help to dilate the airways and improve breathing.

There are several different types of beta-agonists, including short-acting and long-acting formulations. Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) are typically used for quick relief of symptoms, while long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) are used for more sustained symptom control. Examples of adrenergic beta-agonists include albuterol (also known as salbutamol), terbutaline, formoterol, and salmeterol.

It's worth noting that while adrenergic beta-agonists can be very effective in treating respiratory conditions, they can also have side effects, particularly if used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. These may include tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. As with any medication, it's important to use adrenergic beta-agonists only as directed by a healthcare professional.

Respiratory hypersensitivity, also known as respiratory allergies or hypersensitive pneumonitis, refers to an exaggerated immune response in the lungs to inhaled substances or allergens. This condition occurs when the body's immune system overreacts to harmless particles, leading to inflammation and damage in the airways and alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.

There are two types of respiratory hypersensitivity: immediate and delayed. Immediate hypersensitivity, also known as type I hypersensitivity, is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and results in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and asthma-like symptoms within minutes to hours of exposure to the allergen. Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type III or type IV hypersensitivity, is mediated by other immune mechanisms and can take several hours to days to develop after exposure to the allergen.

Common causes of respiratory hypersensitivity include mold spores, animal dander, dust mites, pollen, and chemicals found in certain occupations. Symptoms may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves avoiding the allergen, if possible, and using medications such as corticosteroids, bronchodilators, or antihistamines to manage symptoms. In severe cases, immunotherapy (allergy shots) may be recommended to help desensitize the immune system to the allergen.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

Ovalbumin is the major protein found in egg white, making up about 54-60% of its total protein content. It is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of around 45 kDa and has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Ovalbumin is a single polypeptide chain consisting of 385 amino acids, including four disulfide bridges that contribute to its structure.

Ovalbumin is often used in research as a model antigen for studying immune responses and allergies. In its native form, ovalbumin is not allergenic; however, when it is denatured or degraded into smaller peptides through cooking or digestion, it can become an allergen for some individuals.

In addition to being a food allergen, ovalbumin has been used in various medical and research applications, such as vaccine development, immunological studies, and protein structure-function analysis.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Hemorrhage is defined in the medical context as an excessive loss of blood from the circulatory system, which can occur due to various reasons such as injury, surgery, or underlying health conditions that affect blood clotting or the integrity of blood vessels. The bleeding may be internal, external, visible, or concealed, and it can vary in severity from minor to life-threatening, depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment to prevent further blood loss, organ damage, and potential death.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pyroglyphidae" is not a medical term. It is actually a family of small arthropods, specifically mites, that are often found in houses and other buildings. These mites are commonly known as dust mites or storage mites, and some species are associated with allergies and asthma symptoms in humans. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'll be happy to help!

Anticoagulants are a class of medications that work to prevent the formation of blood clots in the body. They do this by inhibiting the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot. Anticoagulants can be given orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously, depending on the specific drug and the individual patient's needs.

There are several different types of anticoagulants, including:

1. Heparin: This is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is often used in hospitalized patients who require immediate anticoagulation. It works by activating an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of clots.
2. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH): LMWH is a form of heparin that has been broken down into smaller molecules. It has a longer half-life than standard heparin and can be given once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection.
3. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs): These are newer oral anticoagulants that work by directly inhibiting specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Examples include apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
4. Vitamin K antagonists: These are older oral anticoagulants that work by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the formation of clotting factors. Warfarin is an example of a vitamin K antagonist.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. It is important to note that anticoagulants can increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used with caution and regular monitoring of blood clotting times may be required.

Warfarin is a anticoagulant medication that works by inhibiting the vitamin K-dependent activation of several coagulation factors (factors II, VII, IX, and X). This results in prolonged clotting times and reduced thrombus formation. It is commonly used to prevent and treat blood clots in conditions such as atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Warfarin is also known by its brand names Coumadin and Jantoven.

It's important to note that warfarin has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic one is small. Therefore, it requires careful monitoring of the patient's coagulation status through regular blood tests (INR) to ensure that the dosage is appropriate and to minimize the risk of bleeding complications.

Enteric-coated tablets are a pharmaceutical formulation in which a tablet is coated with a polymeric material that is resistant to stomach acid. This coating allows the tablet to pass through the stomach intact and dissolve in the small intestine, where the pH is more neutral.

The enteric coating serves two main purposes:

1. It protects the active ingredient(s) from degradation by stomach acid, which can be particularly important for drugs that are unstable in acidic environments or that irritate the stomach lining.
2. It controls the release of the drug into the body, ensuring that it is absorbed in the small intestine rather than the stomach. This can help to improve the bioavailability of the drug and reduce side effects.

Enteric-coated tablets are commonly used for drugs that treat conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, such as ulcers or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). They may also be used for drugs that have a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic dose is small. By controlling the release of these drugs into the body, enteric coating can help to ensure that they are absorbed at a consistent rate and reduce the risk of adverse effects.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is a type of enzyme belonging to the cyclooxygenase family, which is responsible for the production of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and prostacyclins. These are important signaling molecules that play a role in various physiological processes such as inflammation, pain perception, blood clotting, and gastric acid secretion.

COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues, including the stomach, kidneys, and platelets, where it performs housekeeping functions. For example, in the stomach, COX-1 produces prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining from acid and digestive enzymes. In the kidneys, COX-1 helps regulate blood flow and sodium balance. In platelets, COX-1 produces thromboxane A2, which promotes blood clotting.

COX-1 is a target of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. These medications work by inhibiting the activity of COX enzymes, reducing the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, and thereby alleviating pain, inflammation, and fever. However, long-term use of NSAIDs can lead to side effects such as stomach ulcers and bleeding due to the inhibition of COX-1 in the stomach lining.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Pulmonary medicine is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and conditions affecting the respiratory system, including the lungs, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. Pulmonologists are specialists who treat a wide range of respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, lung cancer, sleep-disordered breathing, tuberculosis, and interstitial lung diseases. They use various diagnostic techniques including chest X-rays, CT scans, pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopy, and sleep studies to evaluate and manage respiratory disorders. Pulmonologists also provide care for patients who require long-term mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy.

Vital capacity (VC) is a term used in pulmonary function tests to describe the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath. It is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. In other words, it's the total amount of air you can forcibly exhale after inhaling as deeply as possible. Vital capacity is an important measurement in assessing lung function and can be reduced in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory disorders.

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal gland, or can be synthetically manufactured. They play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticoids suppress immune responses and inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators from various cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They are frequently used in medical treatment for a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological disorders, and certain cancers. Prolonged use or high doses of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, osteoporosis, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases (PTGS), also known as Cyclooxygenases (COX), are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin G2 and H2, which are further metabolized to produce various prostaglandins and thromboxanes. These lipid mediators play crucial roles in several physiological processes such as inflammation, pain, fever, and blood clotting. There are two major isoforms of PTGS: PTGS-1 (COX-1) and PTGS-2 (COX-2). While COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues and involved in homeostatic functions, COX-2 is usually induced during inflammation and tissue injury. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their therapeutic effects by inhibiting these enzymes, thereby reducing the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes.

Platelet activation is the process by which platelets (also known as thrombocytes) become biologically active and change from their inactive discoid shape to a spherical shape with pseudopodia, resulting in the release of chemical mediators that are involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. This process is initiated by various stimuli such as exposure to subendothelial collagen, von Willebrand factor, or thrombin during vascular injury, leading to platelet aggregation and the formation of a platelet plug to stop bleeding. Platelet activation also plays a role in inflammation, immune response, and wound healing.

Thromboxanes are a type of lipid compound that is derived from arachidonic acid, a type of fatty acid found in the cell membranes of many organisms. They are synthesized in the body through the action of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX).

Thromboxanes are primarily produced by platelets, a type of blood cell that plays a key role in clotting. Once formed, thromboxanes act as powerful vasoconstrictors, causing blood vessels to narrow and blood flow to decrease. They also promote the aggregation of platelets, which can lead to the formation of blood clots.

Thromboxanes are involved in many physiological processes, including hemostasis (the process by which bleeding is stopped) and inflammation. However, excessive production of thromboxanes has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, such as heart attacks, strokes, and pulmonary hypertension.

There are several different types of thromboxanes, including thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2). TXA2 is the most biologically active form and has a very short half-life, while TXB2 is a more stable metabolite that can be measured in the blood to assess thromboxane production.

Bleeding time is a medical test that measures the time it takes for a small blood vessel to stop bleeding after being cut. It's used to evaluate platelet function and the effectiveness of blood clotting. The most common method used to measure bleeding time is the Ivy method, which involves making a standardized incision on the forearm and measuring the time it takes for the bleeding to stop. A normal bleeding time ranges from 2 to 9 minutes, but this can vary depending on the specific method used. Prolonged bleeding time may indicate an impairment in platelet function or clotting factor deficiency.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. The bleeding can range from mild to severe and can produce symptoms such as vomiting blood, passing black or tarry stools, or having low blood pressure.

GI hemorrhage can be classified as either upper or lower, depending on the location of the bleed. Upper GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs above the ligament of Treitz, which is a point in the small intestine where it becomes narrower and turns a corner. Common causes of upper GI hemorrhage include gastritis, ulcers, esophageal varices, and Mallory-Weiss tears.

Lower GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs below the ligament of Treitz. Common causes of lower GI hemorrhage include diverticulosis, colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and vascular abnormalities such as angiodysplasia.

The diagnosis of GI hemorrhage is often made based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, CT scan, or radionuclide scanning. Treatment depends on the severity and cause of the bleeding and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Sputum is defined as a mixture of saliva and phlegm that is expelled from the respiratory tract during coughing, sneezing or deep breathing. It can be clear, mucoid, or purulent (containing pus) depending on the underlying cause of the respiratory issue. Examination of sputum can help diagnose various respiratory conditions such as infections, inflammation, or other lung diseases.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a type of clinical specimen obtained through a procedure called bronchoalveolar lavage. This procedure involves inserting a bronchoscope into the lungs and instilling a small amount of saline solution into a specific area of the lung, then gently aspirating the fluid back out. The fluid that is recovered is called bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

BAL fluid contains cells and other substances that are present in the lower respiratory tract, including the alveoli (the tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs). By analyzing BAL fluid, doctors can diagnose various lung conditions, such as pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and lung cancer. They can also monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions by comparing the composition of BAL fluid before and after treatment.

BAL fluid is typically analyzed for its cellular content, including the number and type of white blood cells present, as well as for the presence of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. The fluid may also be tested for various proteins, enzymes, and other biomarkers that can provide additional information about lung health and disease.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

A cough is a reflex action that helps to clear the airways of irritants, foreign particles, or excess mucus or phlegm. It is characterized by a sudden, forceful expulsion of air from the lungs through the mouth and nose. A cough can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term), and it can be accompanied by other symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or fever. Coughing can be caused by various factors, including respiratory infections, allergies, asthma, environmental pollutants, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchitis. In some cases, a cough may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as heart failure or lung cancer.

Exhalation is the act of breathing out or exhaling, which is the reverse process of inhalation. During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards, while the chest muscles also relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size. This decrease in size puts pressure on the lungs, causing them to deflate and expel air.

Exhalation is a passive process that occurs naturally after inhalation, but it can also be actively controlled during activities such as speaking, singing, or playing a wind instrument. In medical terms, exhalation may also be referred to as expiration.

Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) often used for its analgesic (pain-relieving), antipyretic (fever-reducing), and anti-inflammatory effects. It works by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is involved in the production of prostaglandins that cause inflammation and induce pain and fever. Ibuprofen is commonly used to alleviate symptoms of various conditions such as headaches, menstrual cramps, arthritis, mild fever, and minor aches and pains. It is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suspensions, and topical creams or gels.

Acetaminophen is a medication used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is a commonly used over-the-counter drug and is also available in prescription-strength formulations. Acetaminophen works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals.

Acetaminophen is available in many different forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and suppositories. It is often found in combination with other medications, such as cough and cold products, sleep aids, and opioid pain relievers.

While acetaminophen is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause serious liver damage or even death if taken in excessive amounts. It is important to follow the dosing instructions carefully and avoid taking more than the recommended dose, especially if you are also taking other medications that contain acetaminophen.

If you have any questions about using acetaminophen or are concerned about potential side effects, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional.

Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is a potent prostanoid, a type of lipid compound derived from arachidonic acid. It is primarily produced and released by platelets upon activation during the process of hemostasis (the body's response to stop bleeding). TXA2 acts as a powerful vasoconstrictor, causing blood vessels to narrow, which helps limit blood loss at the site of injury. Additionally, it promotes platelet aggregation, contributing to the formation of a stable clot and preventing further bleeding. However, uncontrolled or excessive production of TXA2 can lead to thrombotic events such as heart attacks and strokes. Its effects are balanced by prostacyclin (PGI2), which is produced by endothelial cells and has opposing actions, acting as a vasodilator and inhibiting platelet aggregation. The balance between TXA2 and PGI2 helps maintain vascular homeostasis.

Airway obstruction is a medical condition that occurs when the normal flow of air into and out of the lungs is partially or completely blocked. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including swelling of the tissues in the airway, the presence of foreign objects or substances, or abnormal growths such as tumors.

When the airway becomes obstructed, it can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally. They may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. In severe cases, airway obstruction can lead to respiratory failure and other life-threatening complications.

There are several types of airway obstruction, including:

1. Upper airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the upper part of the airway, such as the nose, throat, or voice box.
2. Lower airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the lower part of the airway, such as the trachea or bronchi.
3. Partial airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is partially blocked, allowing some air to flow in and out of the lungs.
4. Complete airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is completely blocked, preventing any air from flowing into or out of the lungs.

Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, removing the obstruction may be as simple as clearing the airway of foreign objects or mucus. In other cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery may be necessary.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Indoor air pollution refers to the contamination of air within buildings and structures due to presence of particles, gases, or biological materials that can harmfully affect the health of occupants. These pollutants can originate from various sources including cooking stoves, heating systems, building materials, furniture, tobacco products, outdoor air, and microbial growth. Some common indoor air pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and mold. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can cause a range of health issues, from respiratory problems to cancer, depending on the type and level of exposure. Effective ventilation, air filtration, and source control are some of the strategies used to reduce indoor air pollution.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

Eosinophilia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high concentration of eosinophils in the circulating blood. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in fighting off parasitic infections and regulating allergic reactions. However, when their numbers become excessively high, they can contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.

Eosinophilia is typically defined as a count of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood. Mild eosinophilia (up to 1,500 cells/μL) may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered during routine blood tests. However, higher levels of eosinophilia can lead to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, skin rashes, and organ damage, depending on the underlying cause.

The causes of eosinophilia are varied and can include allergic reactions, parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, certain medications, and some types of cancer. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilia require identification and management of the underlying cause.

Drug hypersensitivity is an abnormal immune response to a medication or its metabolites. It is a type of adverse drug reaction that occurs in susceptible individuals, characterized by the activation of the immune system leading to inflammation and tissue damage. This reaction can range from mild symptoms such as skin rashes, hives, and itching to more severe reactions like anaphylaxis, which can be life-threatening.

Drug hypersensitivity reactions can be classified into two main types: immediate (or IgE-mediated) and delayed (or non-IgE-mediated). Immediate reactions occur within minutes to a few hours after taking the medication and are mediated by the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators from mast cells and basophils. Delayed reactions, on the other hand, can take several days to develop and are caused by T-cell activation and subsequent cytokine release.

Common drugs that can cause hypersensitivity reactions include antibiotics (such as penicillins and sulfonamides), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), monoclonal antibodies, and chemotherapeutic agents. It is important to note that previous exposure to a medication does not always guarantee the development of hypersensitivity reactions, as they can also occur after the first administration in some cases.

The diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and sometimes skin or laboratory tests. Treatment typically includes avoiding the offending medication and managing symptoms with antihistamines, corticosteroids, or other medications as needed. In severe cases, emergency medical care may be required to treat anaphylaxis or other life-threatening reactions.

Mites are tiny arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida, which also includes spiders and ticks. They are characterized by their small size, usually measuring less than 1 mm in length, and their lack of obvious segmentation on their bodies. Many mites are parasitic, feeding on the skin cells, blood, or fluids of plants and animals, including humans. Some common mite infestations in humans include scabies, caused by the itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), and dust mites (e.g., Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae), which are commonly found in household dust and can cause allergic reactions in some people. It's worth noting that the majority of mites are not harmful to humans and play important roles in ecosystems as decomposers and predators.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

Lipoxins are a group of naturally occurring, short-lived signaling molecules called eicosanoids that are derived from arachidonic acid, a type of omega-6 fatty acid. They were first discovered in the 1980s and are produced by cells involved in the inflammatory response, such as white blood cells (leukocytes).

Lipoxins have potent anti-inflammatory effects and play a crucial role in regulating and resolving the inflammatory response. They work by modulating the activity of various immune cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, and promoting the resolution of inflammation through the activation of anti-inflammatory pathways.

Lipoxins have been shown to have potential therapeutic applications in a variety of inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. However, further research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

Cromolyn sodium is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as mast cell stabilizers. It works by preventing the release of certain chemicals from mast cells, which are immune system cells found in various tissues throughout the body, including the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract.

Mast cells play an important role in the body's allergic response. When a person is exposed to an allergen, such as pollen or pet dander, mast cells release chemicals like histamine, which can cause symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and inflammation.

Cromolyn sodium is used to prevent asthma attacks, hay fever, and other allergic reactions. It is often prescribed for people who have difficulty controlling their symptoms with other medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids or antihistamines.

The medication is available in various forms, including inhalers, nasal sprays, and eye drops. When used as an inhaler, cromolyn sodium is typically administered four times a day to prevent asthma symptoms. As a nasal spray or eye drop, it is usually used several times a day to prevent allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis.

While cromolyn sodium can be effective in preventing allergic reactions, it does not provide immediate relief of symptoms. It may take several days or even weeks of regular use before the full benefits of the medication are felt.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors are a class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that specifically target and inhibit the COX-2 enzyme. This enzyme is responsible for the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever.

COX-2 inhibitors were developed to provide the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of NSAIDs without the gastrointestinal side effects associated with non-selective NSAIDs that inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. However, some studies have suggested an increased risk of cardiovascular events with long-term use of COX-2 inhibitors, leading to restrictions on their use in certain populations.

Examples of COX-2 inhibitors include celecoxib (Celebrex), rofecoxib (Vioxx, withdrawn from the market in 2004 due to cardiovascular risks), and valdecoxib (Bextra, withdrawn from the market in 2005 due to cardiovascular and skin reactions).

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

A breath test is a medical or forensic procedure used to analyze a sample of exhaled breath in order to detect and measure the presence of various substances, most commonly alcohol. The test is typically conducted using a device called a breathalyzer, which measures the amount of alcohol in the breath and converts it into a reading of blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

In addition to alcohol, breath tests can also be used to detect other substances such as drugs or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may indicate certain medical conditions. However, these types of breath tests are less common and may not be as reliable or accurate as other diagnostic tests.

Breath testing is commonly used by law enforcement officers to determine whether a driver is impaired by alcohol and to establish probable cause for arrest. It is also used in some healthcare settings to monitor patients who are being treated for alcohol abuse or dependence.

Nedocromil is not a medication that has direct therapeutic use, but it is the active ingredient in a prescription eye drop and inhaler medication called "nedocromil sodium." Therefore, I will provide you with the definition of nedocromil sodium.

Nedocromil sodium is a medication used to prevent asthma symptoms and allergic rhinitis (hay fever) symptoms. It belongs to a class of medications called mast cell stabilizers, which work by preventing the release of chemicals from certain cells in the body that cause inflammation and allergic reactions.

Nedocromil sodium is available as an eye drop solution for the prevention of itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis and as a metered-dose inhaler for the prevention of asthma symptoms. It is typically used on a regular basis to help prevent symptoms from occurring, rather than to treat acute symptoms.

It's important to note that nedocromil sodium is not a bronchodilator or a steroid medication and should not be used as a replacement for these types of medications if they have been prescribed by your healthcare provider.

Dipyridamole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called antiplatelet agents. It works by preventing platelets in your blood from sticking together to form clots. Dipyridamole is often used in combination with aspirin to prevent stroke and other complications in people who have had a heart valve replacement or a type of irregular heartbeat called atrial fibrillation.

Dipyridamole can also be used as a stress agent in myocardial perfusion imaging studies, which are tests used to evaluate blood flow to the heart. When used for this purpose, dipyridamole is given intravenously and works by dilating the blood vessels in the heart, allowing more blood to flow through them and making it easier to detect areas of reduced blood flow.

The most common side effects of dipyridamole include headache, dizziness, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. In rare cases, dipyridamole can cause more serious side effects, such as allergic reactions, abnormal heart rhythms, or low blood pressure. It is important to take dipyridamole exactly as directed by your healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Self care is a health practice that involves individuals taking responsibility for their own health and well-being by actively seeking out and participating in activities and behaviors that promote healthy living, prevent illness and disease, and manage existing medical conditions. Self care includes a wide range of activities such as:

* Following a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Getting adequate sleep and rest
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques or mindfulness practices
* Practicing good hygiene and grooming habits
* Seeking preventive care through regular check-ups and screenings
* Taking prescribed medications as directed by a healthcare provider
* Monitoring symptoms and seeking medical attention when necessary

Self care is an important part of overall health and wellness, and can help individuals maintain their physical, emotional, and mental health. It is also an essential component of chronic disease management, helping people with ongoing medical conditions to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

Androstadienes are a class of steroid hormones that are derived from androstenedione, which is a weak male sex hormone. Androstadienes include various compounds such as androstadiene-3,17-dione and androstanedione, which are intermediate products in the biosynthesis of more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.

Androstadienes are present in both males and females but are found in higher concentrations in men. They can be detected in various bodily fluids, including blood, urine, sweat, and semen. In addition to their role in steroid hormone synthesis, androstadienes have been studied for their potential use as biomarkers of physiological processes and disease states.

It's worth noting that androstadienes are sometimes referred to as "androstenes" in the literature, although this term can also refer to other related compounds.

A Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) is a medical device used to administer a specific amount or "metered dose" of medication, usually in the form of an aerosol, directly into the lungs of a patient. The MDI consists of a pressurized canister that contains the medication mixed with a propellant, a metering valve that releases a precise quantity of the medication, and a mouthpiece or mask for the patient to inhale the medication.

MDIs are commonly used to treat respiratory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis. They are also used to deliver other medications such as corticosteroids, anticholinergics, and beta-agonists. Proper use of an MDI requires coordination between the pressing of the canister and inhalation of the medication, which may be challenging for some patients. Therefore, it is essential to receive proper training on how to use an MDI effectively.

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes in the body, including cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays a role in producing prostaglandins, chemicals involved in the inflammatory response.

Indomethacin is available in various forms, such as capsules, suppositories, and injectable solutions, and is used to treat a wide range of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, and bursitis. It may also be used to relieve pain and reduce fever in other conditions, such as dental procedures or after surgery.

Like all NSAIDs, indomethacin can have side effects, including stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, it is important to use indomethacin only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a cytokine that plays a crucial role in the immune response, particularly in the development of allergic inflammation and hypersensitivity reactions. It is primarily produced by activated Th2 cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. IL-13 mediates its effects through binding to the IL-13 receptor complex, which consists of the IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα chains.

IL-13 has several functions in the body, including:

* Regulation of IgE production by B cells
* Induction of eosinophil differentiation and activation
* Inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production by macrophages
* Promotion of mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness in the lungs, contributing to the pathogenesis of asthma.

Dysregulation of IL-13 has been implicated in various diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis. Therefore, targeting IL-13 with biologic therapies has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of these conditions.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

Th2 cells, or T helper 2 cells, are a type of CD4+ T cell that plays a key role in the immune response to parasites and allergens. They produce cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 which promote the activation and proliferation of eosinophils, mast cells, and B cells, leading to the production of antibodies such as IgE. Th2 cells also play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis.

It's important to note that an imbalance in Th1/Th2 response can lead to immune dysregulation and disease states. For example, an overactive Th2 response can lead to allergic reactions while an underactive Th2 response can lead to decreased ability to fight off parasitic infections.

It's also worth noting that there are other subsets of CD4+ T cells such as Th1, Th17, Treg and others, each with their own specific functions and cytokine production profiles.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gaseous air pollutant and respiratory irritant. It is a reddish-brown toxic gas with a pungent, choking odor. NO2 is a major component of smog and is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants, and industrial processes.

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing, especially in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. Long-term exposure has been linked to the development of chronic lung diseases, including bronchitis and emphysema. NO2 also contributes to the formation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which can penetrate deep into the lungs and cause additional health problems.

Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition characterized by the death of a segment of heart muscle (myocardium) due to the interruption of its blood supply. This interruption is most commonly caused by the blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot formed on the top of an atherosclerotic plaque, which is a buildup of cholesterol and other substances in the inner lining of the artery.

The lack of oxygen and nutrients supply to the heart muscle tissue results in damage or death of the cardiac cells, causing the affected area to become necrotic. The extent and severity of the MI depend on the size of the affected area, the duration of the occlusion, and the presence of collateral circulation.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, and sweating. Immediate medical attention is necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. Treatment options for MI include medications, such as thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, and pain relievers, as well as procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

Ethanolamines are a class of organic compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a carbon atom. They are derivatives of ammonia (NH3) in which one or two hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a ethanol group (-CH2CH2OH).

The most common ethanolamines are:

* Monethanolamine (MEA), also called 2-aminoethanol, with the formula HOCH2CH2NH2.
* Diethanolamine (DEA), also called 2,2'-iminobisethanol, with the formula HOCH2CH2NHCH2CH2OH.
* Triethanolamine (TEA), also called 2,2',2''-nitrilotrisethanol, with the formula N(CH2CH2OH)3.

Ethanolamines are used in a wide range of industrial and consumer products, including as solvents, emulsifiers, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. They also have applications as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals. In the body, ethanolamines play important roles in various biological processes, such as neurotransmission and cell signaling.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Tobacco smoke pollution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it refers to the presence of tobacco smoke in indoor or outdoor environments, which can have negative effects on air quality and human health. It is also known as secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). This type of smoke is a mixture of sidestream smoke (the smoke given off by a burning cigarette) and mainstream smoke (the smoke exhaled by a smoker).

The medical community recognizes tobacco smoke pollution as a serious health hazard. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals, hundreds of which are toxic and about 70 that can cause cancer. Exposure to tobacco smoke pollution can cause a range of adverse health effects, including respiratory symptoms, lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke. In children, it can also lead to ear infections, asthma attacks, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Therefore, many laws and regulations have been implemented worldwide to protect people from tobacco smoke pollution, such as smoking bans in public places and workplaces.

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

Picornaviridae is a family of small, single-stranded RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Picornaviridae infections refer to the illnesses caused by these viruses.

The most well-known picornaviruses that cause human diseases are:

1. Enteroviruses: This genus includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enterovirus 71. These viruses can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms like the common cold to more severe diseases such as meningitis, myocarditis, and paralysis (in the case of poliovirus).
2. Rhinoviruses: These are the most common cause of the common cold. They primarily infect the upper respiratory tract and usually cause mild symptoms like runny nose, sore throat, and cough.
3. Hepatitis A virus (HAV): This picornavirus is responsible for acute hepatitis A infection, which can cause jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite.

Transmission of Picornaviridae infections typically occurs through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects, respiratory droplets, or fecal-oral routes. Preventive measures include maintaining good personal hygiene, practicing safe food handling, and getting vaccinated against poliovirus and hepatitis A (if recommended). Treatment for most picornaviridae infections is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and ensuring proper hydration.

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever. COX-2 is primarily expressed in response to stimuli such as cytokines and growth factors, and its expression is associated with the development of inflammation.

COX-2 inhibitors are a class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that selectively block the activity of COX-2, reducing the production of prostaglandins and providing analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects. These medications are often used to treat pain and inflammation associated with conditions such as arthritis, menstrual cramps, and headaches.

It's important to note that while COX-2 inhibitors can be effective in managing pain and inflammation, they may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke, particularly when used at high doses or for extended periods. Therefore, it's essential to use these medications under the guidance of a healthcare provider and to follow their instructions carefully.

Primary prevention in a medical context refers to actions taken to prevent the development of a disease or injury before it occurs. This is typically achieved through measures such as public health education, lifestyle modifications, and vaccinations. The goal of primary prevention is to reduce the risk of a disease or injury by addressing its underlying causes. Examples of primary prevention strategies include smoking cessation programs to prevent lung cancer, immunizations to prevent infectious diseases, and safety regulations to prevent accidents and injuries.

Cockroaches are not a medical condition or disease. They are a type of insect that can be found in many parts of the world. Some species of cockroaches are known to carry diseases and allergens, which can cause health problems for some people. Cockroach allergens can trigger asthma symptoms, especially in children. Additionally, cockroaches can contaminate food and surfaces with bacteria and other germs, which can lead to illnesses such as salmonellosis and gastroenteritis.

If you have a problem with cockroaches in your home or workplace, it is important to take steps to eliminate them to reduce the risk of health problems. This may include cleaning up food and water sources, sealing entry points, and using pesticides or hiring a professional pest control service.

Sulfinpyrazone is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as uricosurics. It works by increasing the amount of uric acid that is removed from the body through urine, which helps to lower the levels of uric acid in the blood. This makes it useful for the treatment of conditions such as gout and kidney stones that are caused by high levels of uric acid.

In addition to its uricosuric effects, sulfinpyrazone also has antiplatelet properties, which means that it can help to prevent blood clots from forming. This makes it useful for the prevention of heart attacks and strokes in people who are at risk.

Sulfinpyrazone is available by prescription and is typically taken by mouth in the form of tablets. It may be used alone or in combination with other medications, depending on the individual patient's needs and medical condition. As with any medication, sulfinpyrazone should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and patients should follow their provider's instructions carefully to ensure safe and effective use.

Prostaglandins are naturally occurring, lipid-derived hormones that play various important roles in the human body. They are produced in nearly every tissue in response to injury or infection, and they have diverse effects depending on the site of release and the type of prostaglandin. Some of their functions include:

1. Regulation of inflammation: Prostaglandins contribute to the inflammatory response by increasing vasodilation, promoting fluid accumulation, and sensitizing pain receptors, which can lead to symptoms such as redness, heat, swelling, and pain.
2. Modulation of gastrointestinal functions: Prostaglandins protect the stomach lining from acid secretion and promote mucus production, maintaining the integrity of the gastric mucosa. They also regulate intestinal motility and secretion.
3. Control of renal function: Prostaglandins help regulate blood flow to the kidneys, maintain sodium balance, and control renin release, which affects blood pressure and fluid balance.
4. Regulation of smooth muscle contraction: Prostaglandins can cause both relaxation and contraction of smooth muscles in various tissues, such as the uterus, bronchioles, and vascular system.
5. Modulation of platelet aggregation: Some prostaglandins inhibit platelet aggregation, preventing blood clots from forming too quickly or becoming too large.
6. Reproductive system regulation: Prostaglandins are involved in the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and labor induction by promoting uterine contractions.
7. Neurotransmission: Prostaglandins can modulate neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability, affecting pain perception, mood, and cognition.

Prostaglandins exert their effects through specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) found on the surface of target cells. There are several distinct types of prostaglandins (PGs), including PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2 (prostacyclin), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Each type has unique functions and acts through specific receptors. Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from membrane phospholipids, by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, inhibit COX activity, reducing prostaglandin synthesis and providing analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects.

Gastric mucosa refers to the innermost lining of the stomach, which is in contact with the gastric lumen. It is a specialized mucous membrane that consists of epithelial cells, lamina propria, and a thin layer of smooth muscle. The surface epithelium is primarily made up of mucus-secreting cells (goblet cells) and parietal cells, which secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, and chief cells, which produce pepsinogen.

The gastric mucosa has several important functions, including protection against self-digestion by the stomach's own digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid. The mucus layer secreted by the epithelial cells forms a physical barrier that prevents the acidic contents of the stomach from damaging the underlying tissues. Additionally, the bicarbonate ions secreted by the surface epithelial cells help neutralize the acidity in the immediate vicinity of the mucosa.

The gastric mucosa is also responsible for the initial digestion of food through the action of hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. The intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells plays a crucial role in the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

The gastric mucosa is constantly exposed to potential damage from various factors, including acid, pepsin, and other digestive enzymes, as well as mechanical stress due to muscle contractions during digestion. To maintain its integrity, the gastric mucosa has a remarkable capacity for self-repair and regeneration. However, chronic exposure to noxious stimuli or certain medical conditions can lead to inflammation, erosions, ulcers, or even cancer of the gastric mucosa.

Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate (TDI) is not a medical term itself, but it is an important chemical in the industrial field, particularly in the production of polyurethane products. Therefore, I will provide a general definition of this compound.

Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate (TDI) is an organic chemical compound with the formula (CH3C6H3NCO)2. It is a colorless to light yellow liquid with a pungent odor and is highly reactive due to the presence of two isocyanate functional groups (-N=C=O). TDI is primarily used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams, coatings, and adhesives. Exposure to TDI can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract and may pose potential health hazards if not handled properly.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to deprivation of oxygen and nutrients to brain cells. This can result in the death of brain tissue and cause permanent damage or temporary impairment to cognitive functions, speech, memory, movement, and other body functions controlled by the affected area of the brain.

Strokes can be caused by either a blockage in an artery that supplies blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts only a few minutes and does not cause permanent damage.

Symptoms of a stroke may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; and confusion or disorientation. Immediate medical attention is crucial for stroke patients to receive appropriate treatment and prevent long-term complications.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by the persistent obstruction of airflow in and out of the lungs. This obstruction is usually caused by two primary conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis involves inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to excessive mucus production and coughing. Emphysema is a condition where the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs are damaged, resulting in decreased gas exchange and shortness of breath.

The main symptoms of COPD include progressive shortness of breath, chronic cough, chest tightness, wheezing, and excessive mucus production. The disease is often associated with exposure to harmful particles or gases, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. While there is no cure for COPD, treatments can help alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and slow the progression of the disease. These treatments may include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, combination inhalers, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule made up of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom. In the body, it is a crucial signaling molecule involved in various physiological processes such as vasodilation, immune response, neurotransmission, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. It is produced naturally by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from the amino acid L-arginine. Inhaled nitric oxide is used medically to treat pulmonary hypertension in newborns and adults, as it helps to relax and widen blood vessels, improving oxygenation and blood flow.

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

Reye Syndrome is a rare but serious condition that primarily affects children and teenagers, particularly those who have recently recovered from viral infections such as chickenpox or flu. It is characterized by rapidly progressive encephalopathy (brain dysfunction) and fatty degeneration of the liver.

The exact cause of Reye Syndrome remains unknown, but it has been linked to the use of aspirin and other salicylate-containing medications during viral illnesses. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends avoiding the use of aspirin in children and teenagers with chickenpox or flu-like symptoms due to this association.

Early symptoms of Reye Syndrome include persistent vomiting, diarrhea, and listlessness. As the condition progresses, symptoms can worsen and may include disorientation, seizures, coma, and even death in severe cases. Diagnosis is typically based on clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and sometimes a liver biopsy.

Treatment for Reye Syndrome involves supportive care, such as fluid and electrolyte management, addressing metabolic abnormalities, controlling intracranial pressure, and providing ventilatory support if necessary. Early recognition and intervention are crucial to improving outcomes in affected individuals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Puerto Rico" is not a medical term. It is a territorial possession of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea. It includes the main island of Puerto Rico and various smaller islands. If you have any questions about a medical topic, please provide more details so I can try to help answer your question.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

Adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists are a class of medications that bind to and stimulate beta-2 adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the lungs, blood vessels, and skeletal muscles. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and play a role in regulating various physiological processes such as heart rate, blood pressure, and airway diameter.

When beta-2 receptor agonists bind to these receptors, they cause bronchodilation (opening of the airways), relaxation of smooth muscle, and increased heart rate and force of contraction. These effects make them useful in the treatment of conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and premature labor.

Examples of adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists include albuterol, terbutaline, salmeterol, and formoterol. These medications can be administered by inhalation, oral administration, or injection, depending on the specific drug and the condition being treated.

It's important to note that while adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects such as tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and headaches. In addition, long-term use of some beta-2 agonists has been associated with increased risk of severe asthma exacerbations and even death in some cases. Therefore, it's important to use these medications only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any concerning symptoms promptly.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Sinusitis, also known as rhinosinusitis, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located within the skull near the nose. The inflammation can be caused by viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, as well as allergies, structural issues, or autoimmune disorders.

In sinusitis, the mucous membranes lining the sinuses become swollen and may produce excess mucus, leading to symptoms such as nasal congestion, thick green or yellow nasal discharge, facial pain or pressure, reduced sense of smell, cough, fatigue, and fever.

Sinusitis can be classified into acute (lasting less than 4 weeks), subacute (lasting 4-12 weeks), chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks), or recurrent (multiple episodes within a year). Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms, and may include antibiotics, nasal corticosteroids, decongestants, saline irrigation, and in some cases, surgery.

Desensitization, Immunologic is a medical procedure that aims to decrease the immune system's response to an allergen. This is achieved through the controlled exposure of the patient to gradually increasing amounts of the allergen, ultimately leading to a reduction in the severity of allergic reactions upon subsequent exposures. The process typically involves administering carefully measured and incrementally larger doses of the allergen, either orally, sublingually (under the tongue), or by injection, under medical supervision. Over time, this repeated exposure can help the immune system become less sensitive to the allergen, thereby alleviating allergic symptoms.

The specific desensitization protocol and administration method may vary depending on the type of allergen and individual patient factors. Immunologic desensitization is most commonly used for environmental allergens like pollen, dust mites, or pet dander, as well as insect venoms such as bee or wasp stings. It is important to note that this procedure should only be performed under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as there are potential risks involved, including anaphylaxis (a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction).

Pregnenediones are a class of steroid hormones that contain a pregnane structure, which is a skeleton formed by four fused cyclohexane rings. Specifically, pregnenediones are characterized by having a ketone group (a carbonyl group, -C=O) at the 20th carbon position of this pregnane structure. They can be further classified into various subgroups based on the presence and location of other functional groups in the molecule.

Pregnenediones are not typically used as medications, but they do play important roles in the human body. For example, progesterone is a naturally occurring pregnenedione that plays a crucial role in maintaining pregnancy and preparing the uterus for childbirth. Other pregnenediones may also have hormonal activity or serve as intermediates in the synthesis of other steroid hormones.

A stomach ulcer, also known as a gastric ulcer, is a sore that forms in the lining of the stomach. It's caused by a breakdown in the mucous layer that protects the stomach from digestive juices, allowing acid to come into contact with the stomach lining and cause an ulcer. The most common causes are bacterial infection (usually by Helicobacter pylori) and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Stomach ulcers may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, heartburn, and nausea. If left untreated, they can lead to more serious complications like internal bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

Bronchial spasm refers to a sudden constriction or tightening of the muscles in the bronchial tubes, which are the airways that lead to the lungs. This constriction can cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. Bronchial spasm is often associated with respiratory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis. In these conditions, the airways are sensitive to various triggers such as allergens, irritants, or infections, which can cause the muscles in the airways to contract and narrow. This can make it difficult for air to flow in and out of the lungs, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing. Bronchial spasm can be treated with medications that help to relax the muscles in the airways and open up the airways, such as bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

Dinoprostone is a prostaglandin E2 analog used in medical practice for the induction of labor and ripening of the cervix in pregnant women. It is available in various forms, including vaginal suppositories, gel, and tablets. Dinoprostone works by stimulating the contraction of uterine muscles and promoting cervical dilation, which helps in facilitating a successful delivery.

It's important to note that dinoprostone should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as its use is associated with certain risks and side effects, including uterine hyperstimulation, fetal distress, and maternal infection. The dosage and duration of treatment are carefully monitored to minimize these risks and ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a protein found in the granules of eosinophils, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a role in the immune response, particularly against parasitic infections and allergens. ECP is released from eosinophils during degranulation, a process that occurs when these cells are activated and release their granules' contents.

Elevated levels of ECP in body fluids, such as blood or sputum, can indicate eosinophil activation and may be associated with various inflammatory conditions, including asthma, allergies, and some parasitic infections. Measuring ECP levels can help monitor disease activity and assess the effectiveness of treatment in these conditions.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

Naproxen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used for its analgesic (pain-relieving), antipyretic (fever-reducing), and anti-inflammatory properties. It works by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which leads to reduced prostaglandin production, thereby alleviating pain, inflammation, and fever.

Medical professionals prescribe Naproxen for various conditions such as:

1. Pain management: Naproxen can be used to treat mild to moderate pain caused by conditions like headaches, menstrual cramps, muscle aches, and dental issues.
2. Inflammatory conditions: It is effective in reducing inflammation associated with arthritis (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile arthritis), gout, bursitis, and tendonitis.
3. Fever reduction: Naproxen can help lower fever caused by infections or other medical conditions.

Common side effects of Naproxen include stomach upset, heartburn, nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Serious side effects, although rare, may include gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and increased risk of cardiovascular events (e.g., heart attack or stroke). Patients should consult their healthcare provider for appropriate dosage and potential risks before starting Naproxen therapy.

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that is commonly known as eczema. It is characterized by dry, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin that can become red, swollen, and cracked over time. The condition often affects the skin on the face, hands, feet, and behind the knees, and it can be triggered or worsened by exposure to certain allergens, irritants, stress, or changes in temperature and humidity. Atopic dermatitis is more common in people with a family history of allergies, such as asthma or hay fever, and it often begins in infancy or early childhood. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors that affect the immune system and the skin's ability to maintain a healthy barrier function.

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

Anti-allergic agents, also known as antihistamines, are a class of medications used to treat allergies. They work by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that is released during an allergic reaction and causes symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes.

There are two main types of antihistamines: first-generation and second-generation. First-generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), can cause drowsiness and other side effects, such as dry mouth and blurred vision. They are typically used for the treatment of short-term symptoms, such as those caused by seasonal allergies or a mild reaction to an insect bite.

Second-generation antihistamines, such as loratadine (Claritin) and cetirizine (Zyrtec), are less likely to cause drowsiness and other side effects. They are often used for the long-term treatment of chronic allergies, such as those caused by dust mites or pet dander.

In addition to their use in treating allergies, antihistamines may also be used to treat symptoms of motion sickness, insomnia, and anxiety. It is important to follow the instructions on the label when taking antihistamines and to talk to a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using these medications.

"Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced reactions and desensitization". The Journal of Asthma. 41 (4): 375-84. doi:10.1081/ ... As such, further research is required to clarify the role of aspirin in this context. Aspirin can induce swelling of skin ... Complicating the use of aspirin for prevention is the phenomenon of aspirin resistance. For people who are resistant, aspirin's ... the aspirin had been taken in combination with another NSAID-induced drug when angioedema appeared. Aspirin causes an increased ...
Lee TH, Christie PE (1993). "Leukotrienes and aspirin induced asthma". Thorax. 48 (12): 1189-1190. doi:10.1136/thx.48.12.1189. ... and urinary LTE4 levels are increased during severe asthma attacks and are especially high in people with aspirin-exacerbated ... "Leukotriene E4-induced pulmonary inflammation is mediated by the P2Y12 receptor". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 206 (11 ... "Cysteinyl leukotriene overproduction in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease is driven by platelet-adherent leukocytes". ...
"Natural history of aspirin-induced asthma. AIANE Investigators. European Network on Aspirin-Induced Asthma". The European ... Aspirin-induced asthma Aspirin-intolerant asthma NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) Samter's triad (named for Max ... triad Aspirin triad Aspirin-induced asthma and rhinitis (AIAR) The first adverse reactions to aspirin were described in 1902 in ... The first published report of an aspirin-induced asthma attack was in 1911. Initial reports on the linkage between asthma, ...
Aspirin induced asthma, or aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, refers to situations where the use of aspirin worsen the ... Exercise induced asthma is common in most asthma patients. Although the mechanism for such a phenomenon is still unclear, ... Szczeklik, Andrew; Stevenson, Donald D. (2003). "Aspirin-induced asthma: Advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management". ... Therefore, asthma patients should be cautious and inform their physicians of their asthma conditions. Occupational asthma ...
Szczeklik, Andrew; Stevenson, Donald D (2003). "Aspirin-induced asthma: Advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management". ... He is perceived as an expert on aspirin-sensitive asthma. For the research on asthma he received "Lancet Investigators Award" ... aspirin-induced asthma, chemical mediators in diseases of circulatory and respiratory systems with special reference to ... In 2001 he was awarded the gold medal and "The Robert A. Cook Memorial Lectureship" by American Academy Allergy Asthma and ...
... allergen-induced asthma and rhinitis; aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease; exercise- and cold-air induced asthma (see ... in aspirin-sensitive and aspirin-tolerant chronic rhinosinusitis". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 115 (2): 316 ... "A review on leukotrienes and their receptors with reference to asthma". The Journal of Asthma. 50 (9): 922-31. doi:10.3109/ ... Kanaoka Y, Boyce JA (2014). "Cysteinyl leukotrienes and their receptors; emerging concepts". Allergy, Asthma & Immunology ...
June 2005). "Functional promoter polymorphism in the TBX21 gene associated with aspirin-induced asthma". Human Genetics. 117 (1 ... Asthma is a disease of chronic inflammation, and it is known that transgenic mice born without TBX21 spontaneously develop ... It is thought that TBX21, therefore, may play a role in the development of asthma in humans as well. Initially it was thought ... December 2004). "TBX21: a functional variant predicts improvement in asthma with the use of inhaled corticosteroids". ...
... see aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease); exercise- and cold-air induced asthma (see Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction ... or aspirin-treated COX2 to form the lipoxins and epi-lipoxins or with P450 oxygenases or aspirin-treated COX2 to form Resolvin ... are used clinically as maintenance treatment for allergen-induced asthma and rhinitis; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug- ... Aspirin and NSAIDS-drugs that block the COX pathways and stop prostanoid synthesis-limit fever or the heat of localized ...
Jenkins C, Costello J, Hodge L (2004). "Systematic review of prevalence of aspirin induced asthma and its implications for ... In essence, asthma is the result of an immune response in the bronchial airways. The airways of asthma patients are " ... However, asthma is rarely the only symptom, and not all people with food or other allergies have asthma Sulfite sensitivity ... GERD may be common in difficult-to-control asthma, but according to one study, treating it does not seem to affect the asthma. ...
"Comparison of plasma eotaxin family level in aspirin-induced and aspirin-tolerant asthma patients". Chest. 128 (5): 3127-32. ... induce recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, and macrophages as well as features of early- and late-phase ... "Analysis of the polymorphisms in eotaxin gene family and their association with asthma, IgE, and eosinophil". Biochem. Biophys ...
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), also known as aspirin-induced asthma, affects up to 9% of asthmatics. AERD ... It occurs in most people with asthma and up to 20% of people without asthma. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is common in ... Brittle asthma is a kind of asthma distinguishable by recurrent, severe attacks. Type 1 brittle asthma is a disease with wide ... "Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention" (PDF). Global Initiative for Asthma. 2011. Archived Reports. Asthma at ...
... see Aspirin-induced asthma). Subsequent reports, however, have varied in results: studies focusing on the allergen and non- ... In consequence, GPR17 attracted attention as a potential mediator of reactions caused by LTC4 and LTD4 viz., asthma, rhinitis, ... Kanaoka Y, Boyce JA (2014). "Cysteinyl leukotrienes and their receptors; emerging concepts". Allergy, Asthma & Immunology ... GPR17 expression is induced in dying neurons within and on the borders of injury, in infiltrating microglia and macrophages, ...
... such as asthma. People with lower plasma levels of eotaxin-2 have not been showing tendency to develop aspirin inducible asthma ... CCL24 interacts with chemokine receptor CCR3 to induce chemotaxis in eosinophils. This chemokine is also strongly chemotactic ... Elevated levels of eotaxin-2 has been seen in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), ... "Genetic variability in CRTH2 polymorphism increases eotaxin-2 levels in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease ...
... and studies on the pathogenesis and treatment of aspirin-induced bronchial asthma. Antoni Zygmund, Polish mathematician, ... Andrzej Szczeklik, Polish immunologist; credited with discovering the anti-thrombotic properties of aspirin, ...
Stevens W, Buchheit K, Cahill KN (December 2015). "Aspirin-Exacerbated Diseases: Advances in Asthma with Nasal Polyposis, ... Pravettoni, V; Incorvaia, C (2016). "Diagnosis of exercise-induced anaphylaxis: current insights". Journal of Asthma and ... It can sometimes be difficult to distinguish anaphylaxis from asthma, syncope, and panic attacks. Asthma however typically does ... "Alcohol-induced respiratory symptoms are common in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease". J Allergy Clin ...
... in a Korean population have been associated with an increased incidence of Aspirin-induced asthma. Prostanoid receptors ... "Prostaglandin E2 receptors in asthma and in chronic rhinosinusitis/nasal polyps with and without aspirin hypersensitivity". ... allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, particularly aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD); glaucoma; various ... Desai S, April H, Nwaneshiudu C, Ashby B (December 2000). "Comparison of agonist-induced internalization of the human EP2 and ...
... aspirin-induced asthma attacks, and perhaps other allergic reactions. A subsequent study found that eoxin levels in the exhaled ... "Exhaled Eicosanoids following Bronchial Aspirin Challenge in Asthma Patients with and without Aspirin Hypersensitivity: The ... breath of aspirin-sensitive and aspirin-intolerant asthmatic individuals did not rise after aspirin challenge and did not ... Eoxins have been implicated in inflammation of the airways in asthma patients, and in those with Hodgkin lymphoma, a malignant ...
Jogging is the most common exercise to cause EU, but it is not induced by a hot shower, fever, or with fretfulness. This ... Risk factors include having conditions such as hay fever or asthma. Diagnosis is typically based on appearance. Patch testing ... Drugs that have caused allergic reactions evidenced as hives include codeine, sulphate of morphia, dextroamphetamine, aspirin, ... The occurrence of drug-induced solar urticaria may be associated with porphyrias. This may be caused by IgG binding, not IgE. ...
... aspirin-induced asthma attacks, and perhaps other allergic reactions. The production of eoxins by Reed-Sternburg cells has also ... When pretreated with aspirin, however, COX-1 is inactive while COX-2 attacks arachidonic acid to produce almost exclusively 15( ... Some of the inhibitory effects of 15(S)-HpETE and 15(S)-HETE, particularly when induced by high concentrations (e.g. >1-10 ... Serhan, C. N.; Takano, T; Maddox, J. F. (1999). "Aspirin-Triggered 15-Epi-Lipoxin A4 and Stable Analogs of Lipoxin A4 are ...
... or aspirin-induced asthma. Variant angina is also the major complication of eosinophilic coronary periarteritis, an extremely ... In addition, aspirin should be used with caution and at low doses since at high doses it inhibits the production of the ... A positive test to these inducing agents is defined as a ≥90% (some experts require lesser, e.g. ≥70%) constriction of involved ... While acetylcholine induces vasoconstriction of vascular smooth muscle cells through a direct mechanism, acetylcholine also ...
In a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced asthma, a selective EP3 agonist reduced airway cellularity, mucus, and ... "Prostaglandin E2 receptors in asthma and in chronic rhinosinusitis/nasal polyps with and without aspirin hypersensitivity". ... Furthermore, a selective EP3 agonist, ONO-AE-248, induces hyperalgesia pain in wild type but not EP3-deficient mice. While pain ... Genetic polymorphism in the EP3 receptor (rs11209716), has been associated with ACE inhibitor-induce cough in humans. The use ...
... human allergen-induced asthma, aspirin-induced asthma, and perhaps other allergic diseases. In colorectal, breast, and kidney ... Neighbour H (2014). "Mechanisms of aspirin-intolerant asthma: identifying inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of asthma ... and other pathogen-induced inflammatory responses; in eczema, arthritis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, atherosclerosis, and adipose ... which have pro-inflammatory actions and contribute to severe asthma, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease attacks, and other ...
The most severe response is exercise/aspirin-induced anaphylaxis attributed to one omega gliadin that is a relative of the ... Because many of the symptoms associated with wheat allergies, such as eczema and asthma, may be related or unrelated to a wheat ... As with exercise induced anaphylaxis, aspirin (also: tartrazine, sodium benzoate, sodium glutamate (MSG), sodium metabisulfite ... However two conditions, exercise/aspirin induced anaphylaxis and urticaria, occur more frequently with wheat allergies.[ ...
Drinking alcohol may cause rhinitis as well as worsen asthma (see alcohol-induced respiratory reactions). In certain ... Alcohol-exacerbated rhinitis is more frequent in individuals with a history of rhinitis exacerbated by aspirin. Aspirin and ... In these cases, alcohol-induced rhinitis may be of the mixed rhinitis type and, it seems likely, most cases of alcohol-induced ... "Alcohol-induced respiratory symptoms are common in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease". The Journal of ...
AERD may refer to: Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, also known aspirin-induced asthma Atheroembolic renal disease, a ...
Allergic and autoimmune diseases such as severe asthma, rhinitis, or urticarial, chronic sinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated ... These causes are classified as primary (i.e. a defect intrinsic to the eosinophil cell line), secondary (induced by an ... Before cardiac symptoms are detected, some 66% of cases have symptoms of a common cold and 33% have symptoms of asthma, ... Sentürk T, Özdemir B, Keçebaş M, Beşli F, Yesilbursa D, Serdar OA (2012). "Ascaris-induced eosinophilic myocarditis presenting ...
... and hands Yellowing of skin Rash Ecchymosis Hypersensitivity to aspirin/NSAID-induced asthma (AERD) or urticaria 3rd trimester ... "New Metabolic Pathway Reveals Aspirin-Like Compound's Anti-Cancer Properties. June 2016". Archived from the original on 2016-06 ... after showing promise in a research project studying more potent chemical analogs of aspirin. It was first sold under the brand ... Impaired liver function Impaired kidney function Dehydration Fluid retention History of gastrointestinal bleeds/PUD Asthma ...
... a South Korean test group was found to be elevated in patients suffering a type of severe asthma termed Aspirin-induced asthma ... For example, prostacyclin I2 (PGI2)-induced activation of its prostacyclin receptor (IP) and prostaglandin D2-induced ... prevented from developing angiotensin II-induced and N-Nitroarginine methyl ester-induced hypertension along with associated ... These findings suggest that TP contributes to asthma in animal models at least in part by mediating the actions of LTC4. ...
... history of aspirin-induced asthma and other hypersensitivity reactions to analgesics. In 2018, the European Medicines Agency ... It is suggested that some populations are more prone to suffer from metamizole induced agranulocytosis than others. As an ... August 2014). "Dipyrone metabolite 4-MAA induces hypothermia and inhibits PGE2 -dependent and -independent fever while 4-AA ... especially in those with asthma. Serious side effects include agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia, hypersensitivity reactions ( ...
The rare SNP variant 795C of 794T in the PTGIR gene is associated with an increased incidence of Aspirin-induced asthma and a ... or bradykinin-induced paw edema. IP antagonists likewise reduce experimentally-induced capillary permeability and swelling in ... These IP-induced responses likely contribute to its apparent function in inhibiting certain mouse inflammation responses as ... IP(-/-) mice exhibit little or no writhing responses in an acetic acid-induced pain model. The mouse IP receptor also appears ...
Aspirin-induced asthma is one such example. Aspirin-induced asthma is a severe inflammatory disease, which affects patients ... Isnt Aspirin-Induced Asthma The Result Of A Drug-Induced Vitamin C Deficiency?. Posted June 26, 2012: by Bill Sardi ... It is interesting to learn that aspirin-induced asthma was first described in 1922, about the time aspirin was aggressively ... could be the underlying cause of aspirin-induced asthma. While aspirin as an acid increases the absorption of vitamin C from ...
Symptoms occur 30 minutes to 3 hours after the drug is ingested.… Aspirin-Induced Asthma (Asthma NSAID Induced): Read more ... and asthma attacks caused by aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibiting drugs. The ... Aspirin-induced asthma is a specific syndrome affecting asthmatic patients, consisting of chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps ... Keywords: Aspirin-Induced Asthma, Rhinitis, Bronchial asthma, aspirin induced asthma aia, ltc4 synthase, cox-2 inhibitors, ...
Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is a condition of respiratory difficulty that is related to histamine release, triggered by ... For patient education information, see the Asthma Center, as well as Asthma, Asthma FAQ, and Exercise-Induced Asthma. ... encoded search term (Exercise-Induced Asthma) and Exercise-Induced Asthma What to Read Next on Medscape ... Go to Asthma, Pediatric Asthma, Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis, Angioedema, and Urticaria for more information on these topics. ...
"Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced reactions and desensitization". The Journal of Asthma. 41 (4): 375-84. doi:10.1081/ ... As such, further research is required to clarify the role of aspirin in this context. Aspirin can induce swelling of skin ... Complicating the use of aspirin for prevention is the phenomenon of aspirin resistance. For people who are resistant, aspirins ... the aspirin had been taken in combination with another NSAID-induced drug when angioedema appeared. Aspirin causes an increased ...
Learn more about the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment of asthma at WebMD. ... Asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory system that causes narrowing of the airways resulting in shortness of breath and ... Nocturnal asthma. Your asthma symptoms get worse at night.. *Aspirin-induced asthma. You have asthma symptoms when you take ... Medscape: "Aspirin and Asthma," "Asthma Guidelines.". American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology: "Asthma Cough," " ...
Asthma, Aspirin-Induced * Chronic Disease * Endoscopy * Humans * Hypersensitivity / immunology* * Immunization * Lung / ...
1396 Cysteinyl-leukotriens overproduction and the asthma severity in patients with aspirin-induced asthma Monday, 6 December ... Background: The unique pathophysiology of aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) is cysteinyl-leukotriens (CysLT) overproduction. Almost ... Methods: Forty AIA patients, whose aspirin sensitivity was determined by the aspirin challenge test, and twenty healthy ... patients with AIA show severe asthma, but some of them have mild asthma. The mechanisms underlying asthma severity in AIA ...
... asthma, and nasal polyposis was first described by Widal et al [1] in 1922. Aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) refers to the ... and asthma when exposed to the offending drugs. This syndrome is referred to as aspirin-induced asthma (AIA). The pathogenesis ... Aspirin and Asthma. K. Suresh Babu, MD, DNB; and Sundeep S. Salvi, MD, DNB, PhD, From the Department of Respiratory Cell and ... The prevalence of aspirin intolerance is around 5 to 6%. Up to 20% of the asthmatic population is sensitive to aspirin and ...
Aspirin-induced asthma: advances in pathogenesis and management. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991; 104:5-13.. Sincerely,. Phil ... Cross sensitivity with acetaminophen in aspirin-sensitive subjects with asthma. Journal of allergy and clinical immunology ... To interpret the question I would need to know what is meant by aspirin or NSAID allergy. Aspirin exacerbated respiratory ... Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease-new prime suspects. New England Journal of Medicine 374.5 (2016): 484-488.. Question: ...
Clinical updates in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. Allergy Asthma Proc 2019; 40: 4-6. doi: 10.2500/aap.2019.40.4188. ... Cimbollek S, Ávila-Castellano MR, Labella M, Baynova K, Aramburu T, Quiralte J. Recall Urticaria: Aspirin Also Induces It. J ... Safety of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor rofecoxib in patients with NSAID-induced cutaneous reactions. Ann Allergy Asthma ... 3.2 NSAID-induced urticaria/angioedema. Patients with NSAID-induced urticaria and/or angioedema (NIUA) do not have spontaneous ...
Aspirin-induced asthma: advances in pathogenesis and management. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104:5-13. ... Natural history of aspirin-induced asthma. Eur Respir J 2000;16:432-436. ... increased airway neutrophils have been shown in virus-induced exacerbations of asthma 24 and in sudden onset fatal asthma 25. ... and had no asthma exacerbations in the past year. Inclusion in the severe asthma group required one asthma exacerbation in the ...
Natural history of aspirin-induced asthma. AIANE Investigators. European Network on Aspirin-Induced Asthma ... Induced sputum provides a safe tool for the investigation of the inflammatory effects of diesel exhaust, but care must be taken ... The 12-month prevalence of wheeze was 8.3%, as compared to 9.4% in 1992-1993 (NS) and of asthma was 2.5 versus 3.2% (NS). The ... This study demonstrates that exposure to diesel exhaust induces inflammatory response in healthy human airways, represented by ...
These findings suggest that pendrin can induce mucus production and that periostin can induce tissue fibrosis and remodeling in ... and aspirin-induced asthma. These findings suggest that pendrin can induce mucus production and that periostin can induce ... and aspirin-induced asthma. Prospective control study conducted at Yamagata University, Japan. ... and additionally for periostin in nasal polyp tissue in chronic rhinosinusitis and aspirin-induced asthma. ...
Non-allergic asthma. *Aspirin-sensitive asthma. *Occupational asthma. *Exercise-induced asthma. *Cough-variant asthma ... These medications keep asthma under control on a day-to-day basis and make it less likely youll have an asthma attack. ... Determine the Specific Course of Treatment in Asthma. Although physicians are aware that "all that wheezes is not asthma," ... Long-term asthma control medications, generally taken daily, are the cornerstone of asthma treatment. ...
aspirin induced bronchospasm asthma. - triad, seen in 10 percent of asthamtic adults ... This leads to histamine induced vasodilation and histamine induced vascular permeability. This is the early phase. ... IL-4 - induces class switching of plasma cell to IgE. IL-5 - recruits eosinophils Il-10 - ability to inhibit the production of ... TGF-beta released from cyclical injury of pneumocytes that induces fibrosis.. interstitial pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by ...
... aspirin/oxycodone), from common to rare, for consumers and healthcare professionals. ... Aspirin-induced depression of glomerular filtration rate in normal humans: role of sodium balance. Ann Intern Med. 1981;94:317- ... Mechanism of bronchospasm in aspirin-sensitive asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;148:1442-3. ... Eldar M, Aderka D, Shoenfeld Y, Livni E, Pinkhas J. Aspirin-induced aplastic anaemia. S Afr Med J. 1979;55:318. ...
Juhlin L, Michaelson G, Zetterstrom O: Urticaria and asthma induced by food and drug additives in patients with aspirin ... Freedman BJ: Asthma induced by sulphur dioxide, benzoate and tartazine contained in orange drinks. Clin Allergy, 7:407-415. ... Chafee FH and Settipane GA: Asthma caused by F D and C approved dyes. J of Allergy, 40:65-72, 1967. ... Michaelsson G and Juhlin L: Urticaria induced by preservatives and dye additives in foods and drugs. Br J Dermatology, 88:525- ...
Aspirin (MeSH) * Asthma, Aspirin-Induced (MeSH) * Cyclooxygenase 1 (MeSH) * Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors (MeSH) ... Mechanisms of Aspirin-Intolerant Asthma: Identifying Inflammatory Pathways in the Pathogenesis of Asthma Academic Article ...
People who are severely allergic to aspirin (e.g. those with aspirin-induced asthma or anaphylaxes, which is ... but when used as the entire herb it has been found to be much safer than aspirin and quite effective. The active ingredient is ... Willow bark is the original source of aspirin, ... those with aspirin-induced asthma or anaphylaxes, which is very ... Willow bark is the original source of aspirin, but when used as the entire herb it has been found to be much safer than aspirin ...
Asthma - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional Version ... Aspirin-sensitive asthma The primary treatment for aspirin-sensitive asthma is avoidance of aspirin and other NSAIDs. Celecoxib ... Exercise-induced asthma Exercise-induced asthma can generally be prevented by prophylactic inhalation of a short-acting beta-2 ... Aspirin is a trigger in up to 30% of patients with severe asthma and in , 10% of all patients with asthma. Aspirin-sensitive ...
Asthma - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional Version ... Aspirin-sensitive asthma The primary treatment for aspirin-sensitive asthma is avoidance of aspirin and other NSAIDs. Celecoxib ... Exercise-induced asthma Exercise-induced asthma can generally be prevented by prophylactic inhalation of a short-acting beta-2 ... Aspirin is a trigger in up to 30% of patients with severe asthma and in , 10% of all patients with asthma. Aspirin-sensitive ...
Asthma is a common chronic disease worldwide and affects approximately 24 million persons in the United States. It is the most ... Aspirin-induced asthma. The triad of asthma, aspirin sensitivity, and nasal polyps affects 5-10% of patients with asthma. Most ... Exercise-induced asthma. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA), or exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB), is an asthma variant defined as ... Immune-mediated asthma has a latency of months to years after exposure. Non-immune-mediated asthma, or irritant-induced asthma ...
Sulfite-induced asthma: most patients with sulfite-asthma have severe chronic asthma, often corticosteroid-dependent. Usually, ... These individuals are differentiated from aspirin-sensitive asthma because they lack nasal polyps and eosinophilia. However, ... sulfite-induced asthma. It appears that patients with severe asthma, such as steroid-dependent bronchial asthma present a ... It explicitly stated, however, that "a numerical ADI would not prevent the occurrence of sulfite-induced asthma" and that it ...
Asthma, Aspirin-Induced. A significant increase in patients with aspirin-Induced asthma in 5-HETE, 12-HETE, and 15-HETE levels ... Aspirin Sensitive Asthma. MeSH: Asthma, Aspirin-Induced Asthmatic adverse reaction (e.g., BRONCHOCONSTRICTION) to conventional ... The effect of the novel phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor MEM 1414 on the allergen induced responses in mild asthma.. BMC Pulm Med ... The effect of the novel phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor MEM 1414 on the allergen induced responses in mild asthma.. BR. Leaker, D ...
It is important to get asthma treatment at the right time. ... Are you wondering what is asthma? Well, It is a very common ... 5. Aspirin-induced Asthma. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin can also cause severe asthma among adults ... asthma Asthma Attack asthma Inhalers erectile dysfunction iverheal 12mg iverheal 3mg Iverheal 6mg prevent asthma ... 1. Nonallergic Asthma. Nonallergic asthma or nonatopic asthma is a rare type of asthma. It usually affects individuals in their ...
O Aspirin-induced asthma,O Asplenia,O Astasia,O Astereognosia,O Asterixis,O Asternia,O Asteroid hyalosis,O Asthenia,O ... O Exercise-induced U wave inversion,O Exercise-induced asthma,O Exercise-induced hemolysis,O Exercise-induced lactic acidemia,O ... O Cold-induced hand cramps,O Cold-induced hemolysis,O Cold-induced muscle cramps,O Cold-induced sweating,O Cold-sensitive ... O Exercise-induced muscle cramps,O Exercise-induced muscle fatigue,O Exercise-induced muscle stiffness,O Exercise-induced ...
... from exercise-induced to occupational asthma. Learn about their triggers, symptoms, and available treatments. Expand your ... knowledge of asthma and empower yourself to manage this respiratory condition effectively. ... exercise-induced asthma, hidden asthma, aspirin-induced asthma, and occupational asthma. By understanding these variations, we ... Aspirin-Induced Asthma: Uncovering Medication Triggers. Aspirin-induced asthma predominantly affects adults who have a history ...
However, in cases where aspirin-induced asthma is a concern, they can be quite effective. It is also worth noting that while ... danger of these compounds must also be considered alongside with the risk of prostate cancer which has been shown to be induced ...
Asthma is classified into 2 categories; extrinsic (allergic asthma) and intrinsic (non-allergic asthma). ... Psychological and physiologic stress can induce an attack. The stress of disciplinary action by a parent or entering the ... Drugs and chemicals such as penicillin, vaccines, aspirin, and sulfites can trigger an allergic asthmatic attack. Approximately ... Approximately 9.5% of children in the United States suffer from asthma. Asthma is the most chronic childhood disease that ...
  • Acetaminophen is the medicine most often used for fever and pain relief for people who cannot take aspirin and NSAIDs. (symptoma.com)
  • Aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen and other NSAIDS help stop pain and fever because they block an enzyme called cyclooxygenase that is critical in creating other chemicals that cause inflammation. (symptoma.com)
  • Aspirin works similarly to other NSAIDs but also suppresses the normal functioning of platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Up to 20% of the asthmatic population is sensitive to aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and present with a triad of rhinitis, sinusitis, and asthma when exposed to the offending drugs. (medscape.com)
  • The attacks may be precipitated following the ingestion of small amounts of aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). (medscape.com)
  • There are other reactions to aspirin or NSAID and these include nonspecific exacerbation of chronic spontaneous urticaria, urticaria due to ingestion of specific NSAIDs and anaphylaxis from a specific NSAID. (aaaai.org)
  • In contrast, atopy may be less important in patients with adult asthma and other factors such as intolerance to aspirin and related nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as well as occupational exposures have been suggested to play an important role in adults with more severe asthma 1 , 8 . (ersjournals.com)
  • There is clearly a combination of other elements in willow bark that markedly enhance its effectiveness and safety - which can be a major benefit over aspirin and NSAIDs (e.g. (vitality101.com)
  • Unfortunately aspirin and NSAIDs cause an enormous amount of gastritis and ulcer bleeding to the extent of killing 15,000 to 20,000 Americans yearly! (vitality101.com)
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin can also cause severe asthma among adults. (medicscales.com)
  • Naproxen-containing products should not be used by patients who have had allergic reactions to any product containing naproxen, nor in patients with asthma and nasal polyps in whom aspirin or other NSAIDs may induce an exacerbation of asthma. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
  • Salsalate tablets, USP should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. (nih.gov)
  • [3] Other potential triggers include medications such as aspirin and other NSAIDs , beta blockers , and ACE inhibitors . (mdwiki.org)
  • BRONCHOCONSTRICTION) to conventional NSAIDS including aspirin use. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is an acquired inflammatory condition characterized by the presence of asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis, and respiratory hypersensitivity reactions on ingestion of aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). (jmir.org)
  • Some people with AERD may eventually be able to safely take NSAIDs through a process called aspirin desensitization. (ovragard.se)
  • Antigen presentation by the dendritic cell with the lymphocyte and cytokine response leading to airway inflammation and asthma symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Some small studies of severe asthma, using induced sputum toassess the airway inflammatory response, have shown thatdespite the regular use of high-dose inhaled and oral corticosteroids, eosinophilia persists. (ersjournals.com)
  • Asthma is a disease of diffuse airway inflammation caused by a variety of triggering stimuli resulting in partially or completely reversible bronchoconstriction. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The pathophysiology of asthma is complex and involves airway inflammation, intermittent airflow obstruction, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (medscape.com)
  • The mechanism of inflammation in asthma may be acute, subacute, or chronic, and the presence of airway edema and mucus secretion also contributes to airflow obstruction and bronchial reactivity. (medscape.com)
  • Airway hyperresponsiveness or bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma is an exaggerated response to numerous exogenous and endogenous stimuli. (medscape.com)
  • The direct effects of LTB4 on human airway smooth muscle (ASM) have also been studied and suggested a role for a LTB4-BLT1 signaling in ASM responses contributing to the pathogenesis of airway remodeling in asthma. (cmdm.tw)
  • Asthma is a condition in which the airway of the person becomes narrow and inflamed that produces extra mucus. (icliniq.com)
  • Foremost, these agents decrease airway hyper-responsiveness, airway response to allergens, and exercise-induced asthma. (medicalbrandnames.com)
  • Asthma is a heterogeneous lung disorder characterized by airway obstruction, inflammation and eosinophil infiltration into the lung. (cdc.gov)
  • Numerous phenotypes of asthma have inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness and mucus produc- been described, and a better understanding of the pathophysio- tion. (cdc.gov)
  • GLP-1R agonists decrease lung IL-33 release and airway hyperresponsiveness in mouse asthma models. (bvsalud.org)
  • We tested the effect of the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide on lysine-aspirin (Lys-ASA)-induced changes in airway resistance, and platelet-derived mediator release in a murine AERD model. (bvsalud.org)
  • A single dose of liraglutide inhibited Lys-ASA-induced increases in airway resistance and decreased markers of platelet activation and recruitment to the lung in AERD-like mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some of the common allergens that can trigger asthma are pollen, dust, mold, animal dander, and other substances. (medicscales.com)
  • Asthma attacks occur in response to certain triggers such as physical factors like exercise or allergens like pollen. (allergy-testing-and-treatment.com)
  • If allergens trigger your asthma, antihistamines or immunotherapy (allergy shots) might be beneficial. (medical.ky)
  • Symptoms of asthma are usually associated with irritants-allergens. (vsebolezni.com)
  • To allergens in bronchial asthma includes certain medications, perfumes and household chemicals, dust, wool of Pets. (vsebolezni.com)
  • The external factors that provoke the symptoms of asthma are strong allergens (certain foods, pollen, and animal dander). (vsebolezni.com)
  • Micro- array data from the ovalbumin and TMA model of asthma were also compared to previous data using Aspergillus as allergen to identify putative asthma `signature genes', i.e. genes up-regulated with all 3 allergens. (cdc.gov)
  • Clearly this definition of asthma pational allergens are generally categorized as either high or does not include a cause. (cdc.gov)
  • Examples of high molecular environmental factors are known to influence the development weight occupational allergens include proteases used in the and expression of asthma, and a vast array of triggers of asthma detergent industry, laboratory animal allergens, and ovalbumin have been identified. (cdc.gov)
  • Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to reduce pain, fever, and/or inflammation, and as an antithrombotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Have had asthma, hives or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other nsaid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs medicines. (teleradiosciacca.it)
  • About three percent of asthma patients report severe and even fatal exacerbations of asthma after taking aspirin or certain other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (medicalbrandnames.com)
  • Some people refer to asthma as " bronchial asthma . (webmd.com)
  • Asthma is marked by inflammation of the bronchial tubes, with extra sticky secretions inside the tubes. (webmd.com)
  • Asthma causes red, swollen bronchial tubes in your lungs. (webmd.com)
  • Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways associated with airflow obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness that varies in severity across the spectrum of the disease. (ersjournals.com)
  • It is also known as bronchial asthma. (icliniq.com)
  • During an asthma attack, the airways (bronchial tubes) swell, close up, and produce excess mucus, making it difficult to breathe. (allergy-testing-and-treatment.com)
  • Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory tract. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Complications of bronchial asthma lead to chronic rinita, which are accompanied by formation of polyps. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Cough form of bronchial asthma. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Bronchial asthma in adults and children are divided according to the severity of symptoms in some forms. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Such bronchial asthma observed in most cases in the elderly. (vsebolezni.com)
  • The endogenous form of the disease develops due to external factors and exogenous bronchial asthma occurs due to reasons caused by the condition within the body. (vsebolezni.com)
  • The patient with bronchial asthma, especially during attacks, this stress, it is necessary to ensure peace. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Among non-asthmatic children, a shortage of vitamin C was found to be associated with nasal sinus inflammation , which is a characteristic of aspirin-induced asthma. (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • Aspirin-induced asthma is a specific syndrome affecting asthmatic patients, consisting of chronic rhinosinusitis , nasal polyps , and asthma attacks caused by aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibiting drugs. (symptoma.com)
  • Aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) refers to the development of bronchoconstriction in asthmatic individuals following the ingestion of aspirin. (medscape.com)
  • These more severe asthmatics, which account for ∼10% of the asthmatic population, have a disproportionate impact on healthcare utilisation, accounting for up to at least half of the direct and indirect costs for asthma 2 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Higher concentrations of leukotriene B4 in EBC of asthmatic patients in comparison with healthy control subjects increase asthma severity in adults. (cmdm.tw)
  • LTB4 concentrations were also increased in asthmatic children compared to healthy subjects, with differences detected for 2 degrees of asthma severity. (cmdm.tw)
  • Drugs and chemicals such as penicillin, vaccines, aspirin, and sulfites can trigger an allergic asthmatic attack. (dentalcare.com)
  • Approximately 50% of asthmatic children outgrow extrinsic asthma by late teens or early twenties. (dentalcare.com)
  • Avoiding asthmatic triggers can help to reduce asthma symptoms. (icliniq.com)
  • Prolonged asthma can also lead to asthmatic attacks. (icliniq.com)
  • Common symptoms that characterize aspirin-intolerant asthma are nasal polyps (often the first sign of the problem) accompanied by nasal sinusitis (inflammation in the nasal cavities). (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • The major biological mechanism behind aspirin-induced asthma is an imbalance of anti-inflammatory molecules - namely the inhibition of cycyloxygenase-2 (COX-2), which then triggers inflammation in airways and results in spasm in the bronchus (a passageway into the lungs). (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • Females dominated the severe asthma group (female/male ratio 4.4:1 versus 1.6:1 in the controlled asthmatics), and compared with controlled asthmatics, they had a predominantly neutrophilic inflammation (sputum neutrophils, 36 versus 28%) and evidence of ongoing mediator release but less atopy. (ersjournals.com)
  • Like aspirin and Celebrex®, it acts as a COX (Cyclooxygenase enzyme) inhibitor, decreasing inflammation. (vitality101.com)
  • Asthma attack leads to inflammation and constriction of your airways. (medicscales.com)
  • While the exact causes of asthma are not known, it is usually a result of inflammation in the airways. (medicscales.com)
  • Narrowing and inflammation of airways in the lungs cause symptoms of asthma which can be a combination of wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. (icliniq.com)
  • This medicine permeates from the skin, suppresses prostaglandin formation that causes inflammation, and acts to ease swelling/pain induced by inflammation. (dejima-pharmacy-japan.com)
  • These data advance the GLP-1R axis as a new target for platelet-mediated inflammation warranting further study in asthma. (bvsalud.org)
  • LT-modifying drugs are effective in blocking the bronchoconstriction provoked by aspirin and are used in the treatment of this condition. (medscape.com)
  • Besides causing symptoms of asthma, aspirin can cause nasal congestion and abdominal pains in susceptible individuals. (symptoma.com)
  • The chest radiograph remains the initial imaging evaluation in most individuals with symptoms of asthma, but in most patients with asthma, chest radiography findings are normal or may indicate hyperinflation. (medscape.com)
  • However, in order to identify the condition, it is vital to know the signs and symptoms of asthma. (medicscales.com)
  • In addition to that, there are several other symptoms of asthma . (medicscales.com)
  • The symptoms of asthma may differ from person to person based on the type of asthma they are suffering from. (medicscales.com)
  • What Are the Symptoms of Asthma? (icliniq.com)
  • Symptoms of asthma vary from one person to another. (icliniq.com)
  • The symptoms of asthma can range from mild to severe and may vary from one individual to another. (medical.ky)
  • These inflammatory changes underlie the physiological alterations and symptoms of asthma. (medicalbrandnames.com)
  • Aspirin-induced asthma is a severe inflammatory disease, which affects patients after ingestion of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen). (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • Another review found that willow bark extract has comparable anti-inflammatory activities as higher doses of acetylsalicylic acid/aspirin (ASS) and it reduces pain and fever as well. (vitality101.com)
  • Aspirin may increase the incidence of abruption, and other anti-inflammatory agents could cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus. (teleradiosciacca.it)
  • Occupational asthma is caused by a hypersensitivity to chemical substances, usually plastics. (holisticblends.com)
  • The asthma episode is accompanied by acute rhinosinusitis. (symptoma.com)
  • Even mild, intermittent asthma patients may have acute episodes induced by aspirin consumption and up to one-quarter of patients that need to be admitted to the hospital due to a crisis have ingested non-steroidal anti-inflammatories during the last 3 hours [5]. (symptoma.com)
  • Treatment of the athlete who is experiencing an acute attack of exercise-induced asthma is the same as in any asthma attack situation and includes immediately removing the patient from competition or play. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with AIA, acute symptoms are superimposed on a background of chronic severe asthma. (medscape.com)
  • Pulse oximetry measurement is desirable in all patients with acute asthma to exclude hypoxemia. (medscape.com)
  • Indeed, DPPI deficient mice were protected against acute arthritis induced by passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies against type II collagen (Adkison et al. (justia.com)
  • Endotoxin-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in nitric oxide-deficient rats. (krakow.pl)
  • Salicylate poisoning, also known as aspirin poisoning, is the acute or chronic poisoning with a salicylate such as aspirin. (ovragard.se)
  • At present, they are not indicated for patients with very mild, intermittent asthma, and are not used to treat acute exacerbations of asthma. (medicalbrandnames.com)
  • The image below illustrates the pathogenesis of asthma. (medscape.com)
  • Pathogenesis of asthma. (medscape.com)
  • Aspirin-induced asthma: advances in pathogenesis and management. (aaaai.org)
  • Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) or NSAID exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) is not an allergy in that there is no causal immunologic response. (aaaai.org)
  • Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease-new prime suspects. (aaaai.org)
  • The most frequently diagnosed chronic respiratory disease states are asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) , and cystic fibrosis (CF). 1 Asthma affects roughly 300 million individuals worldwide, with an estimated 25 million of those individuals in the United States. (ashp.org)
  • Platelets are key contributors to allergic asthma and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), an asthma phenotype involving platelet activation and IL-33-dependent mast cell activation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Modern medicine says it has no clue why aspirin can provoke a sudden and severe invasion of white blood cells (eosinophils) that block the upper and lower airways. (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • People with asthma have symptoms when the airways tighten, inflame, or fill with mucus. (webmd.com)
  • People with asthma have sensitive airways that tend to overreact and narrow when they come into contact with even slight triggers. (webmd.com)
  • An asthma attack is the episode in which bands of muscle around the airways are triggered to tighten. (webmd.com)
  • This study demonstrates that exposure to diesel exhaust induces inflammatory response in healthy human airways, represented by an early increase in interleukin-6 and methylhistamine concentration and the percentage of neutrophils. (kb.se)
  • Wheezing and Asthma in Infants and Young Children Wheezing is a relatively high-pitched whistling noise produced by movement of air through narrowed or compressed small airways. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, engaging in strenuous exercises may constrict your airways and give rise to asthma problems. (medicscales.com)
  • When the mucus builds up and constricts the airways, people experience asthma attacks. (medicscales.com)
  • Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disorder that is characterized by reversible obstruction of the airways. (dentalcare.com)
  • Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs . (mdwiki.org)
  • Asthma is a lung disease that occurs when the airways become swollen and narrow or are blocked by the presence of excess mucus. (icliniq.com)
  • People develop asthma after exposure to substances that cause irritation to the airways. (icliniq.com)
  • The effects of asthma cause the airways to narrow and the mucous to thicken, making it difficult to breathe and often causing a wheezing sound and shortness of breath. (pa2allergy.com)
  • Asthma is a lifelong disease of the airways that affects approximately 25 million Americans, including 7 million children. (allergy-testing-and-treatment.com)
  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the airways in the lungs. (medical.ky)
  • This is a treatment for severe asthma where heat is used to reduce the muscle inside the airways. (medical.ky)
  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in treatment of this heterogeneous lung disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • While asthma itself is a well-known term, it's important to recognize that there are different kinds of asthma, each with its own unique characteristics and triggers. (healthomni.com)
  • [15] Some people with asthma rarely experience symptoms, usually in response to triggers, whereas others may react frequently and readily and experience persistent symptoms. (mdwiki.org)
  • What Are Common Triggers of Asthma Attacks? (icliniq.com)
  • There are many potential asthma triggers, and each asthma patient may have a different set of triggers. (allergy-testing-and-treatment.com)
  • There exist several types of asthma, categorized by their triggers. (allergy-testing-and-treatment.com)
  • many healthcare providers and asthma centers help patients develop an asthma action plan that focuses on identifying triggers and learning how to avoid them, as well as determining if you need medication and outlining how and when to use it. (allergy-testing-and-treatment.com)
  • Dyes and preservatives-can be asthma triggers. (holisticblends.com)
  • Aspirin-induced asthma predominantly affects adults who have a history of asthma and have been taking certain medications for treatment. (healthomni.com)
  • Intrinsic asthma usually develops in adults older than age 35 years. (dentalcare.com)
  • Asthma is a non- communicable disease that affects both children and adults. (icliniq.com)
  • It is a severe form of asthma marked by increased levels of white blood cells known as eosinophilic cells and usually occurs in adults between 35 and 50 years of age. (icliniq.com)
  • Why do adults get asthma? (pa2allergy.com)
  • From 1980 to 1995, adult-onset asthma rates in the US for adults between the ages of 35 and 64 increased over 60 percent. (holisticblends.com)
  • Plus the CDC has reported that from 2001 to 2009 asthma cases among adults grew by 4.3 million. (holisticblends.com)
  • The criteria required subjects to have undergone at least one asthma exacerbation in the past year requiring oral steroid treatment. (ersjournals.com)
  • [13] During recovery from an asthma attack (exacerbation), it may appear pus-like due to high levels of white blood cells called eosinophils . (mdwiki.org)
  • However, it can be serious in comparison to allergic asthma. (medicscales.com)
  • extrinsic (allergic asthma) and intrinsic (non-allergic asthma). (dentalcare.com)
  • Allergic asthma can be observed in the atopic form. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Non-allergic asthma is associated with all factors that are not allergic in nature (for example, women during menstruation). (vsebolezni.com)
  • Anaphylaxis, whether among asthmatics or non-asthmatics, is characterized by hives, (itchy red welts on the surface of the skin, aka urticaria), rapid swelling of the skin (angioedema), and more acutely, a sudden, severe allergic reaction accompanied by a sharp drop in blood pressure and breathing difficulties that are also characteristic of aspirin-induced asthma. (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • Severe asthma can cause trouble talking or being active. (webmd.com)
  • Your symptoms may also vary from one asthma attack to the next, being mild during one and severe during another. (webmd.com)
  • It is important to recognize and treat even mild asthma symptoms to help you prevent severe episodes and keep asthma under better control. (webmd.com)
  • Almost patients with AIA show severe asthma, but some of them have mild asthma. (confex.com)
  • AIA patients were classified into three groups, 1) patients with mild to moderate asthma which was controlled at less than GINA Step 3 treatment,2) patients with stable but severe asthma which was well controlled at GINA Step 4 treatment, and 3) patients with difficult-to-treat asthma which was not controlled at GINA Step 4 treatment. (confex.com)
  • On the other hand, the concentrations of U-LTE4 in patients with severe but stable AIA patients and difficult-to-treat AIA patients significantly increased according to asthma severity as compared with AIA patients with mild to moderate asthma. (confex.com)
  • Since severe asthma is a poorly understood, major health problem, 12 clinical specialist centres in nine European countries formed a European Network For Understanding Mechanisms Of Severe Asthma (ENFUMOSA). (ersjournals.com)
  • In a cross-sectional observational study, a total of 163 subjects with severe asthma were compared with 158 subjects whose asthma was controlled by low doses of inhaled corticosteroids (median dose of beclomethasone equivalents 666 µg). (ersjournals.com)
  • Despite being treated with higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids (median dose 1773 µg) and for a third of the severe asthmatics also being treated with regular, oral-steroid therapy (median daily dose 19 mg), the subjects with severe asthma met the inclusion criteria. (ersjournals.com)
  • From these findings and other physiological and clinical data reported in this paper, it is suggested that severe asthma might be a different form of asthma rather than an increase in asthma symptoms. (ersjournals.com)
  • The findings prompt for longitudinal studies and interventions to define the mechanisms in severe asthma. (ersjournals.com)
  • There is little information on the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for severe and persistent asthma. (ersjournals.com)
  • However, the numbers of cells and their state of activation, seem to show little difference between patients with severe asthma compared to patients with the mild-to-moderate form of the disease 3 - 5 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Patients with more severe disease are increasingly likely to have impaired lung function as studies have shown that despite the use of high doses of inhaled and oral corticosteroids, severe asthma is associated with a component of airflow obstruction that appears either nonreversible or at best difficult to reverse 1 , 6 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Additionally, many patients with adult-onset asthma have a poor prognosis, with a faster decline in lung function and more severe persistent airflow limitation. (pa2allergy.com)
  • People with new-onset adult severe asthma have compromised lung function even if they have asthma of short duration, which suggests that significant loss of lung function occurs at or soon after the initial diagnosis. (pa2allergy.com)
  • As severe asthma symptoms can constitute a medical emergency, it is important to treat symptoms when they first become apparent. (allergy-testing-and-treatment.com)
  • Severe persistent asthma is characterized by constant attacks at any time of the day. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Antileukotrienes are most effective in patients with moderate to severe asthma and may reduce the amount of inhaled or oral corticosteroids needed to control the disease. (medicalbrandnames.com)
  • In such cases, poor initial response to treatment may result in the administration of increased doses of asthma medications, including repeated courses of oral corticosteroids. (use-inhalers.com)
  • People with asthma can learn to identify and avoid the things that trigger an episode, and educate themselves about medications and other asthma management strategies. (use-inhalers.com)
  • Long-term asthma control medications, generally taken daily, are the cornerstone of asthma treatment. (use-inhalers.com)
  • These medications keep asthma under control on a day-to-day basis and make it less likely you'll have an asthma attack. (use-inhalers.com)
  • Quick-relief (rescue) medications are used as needed for rapid, short-term symptom relief during an asthma attack - or before exercise if your doctor recommends it. (use-inhalers.com)
  • Allergy medications may help if your asthma is triggered or worsened by allergies. (use-inhalers.com)
  • Asthma medications should be added or deleted as the frequency and severity of the patient's symptoms change. (medscape.com)
  • Asthma is a serious lung disease that can be life-threatening if asthma medications are not taken on time. (medicscales.com)
  • The availability of various effective medications has significantly improved the treatment options for asthma. (healthomni.com)
  • Without a diagnosis, individuals will lack opportunities to receive effective treatments, such as aspirin desensitization or biologic medications. (jmir.org)
  • Unfortunately, although they can provide some relief, asthma medications can also cause a Pandora's Box of health challenges. (holisticblends.com)
  • Medications the patient carries that you can help administer Metered-dose inhaler (MDI): asthma and other patients with respiratory diseases have this. (ovragard.se)
  • Well, after decades of research, a new class of asthma medications known as "antileukotrienes" have hit the North American market. (medicalbrandnames.com)
  • State generic and brand names of medications used to treat asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis. (ashp.org)
  • The mechanisms underlying asthma severity in AIA patients remain unclarified. (confex.com)
  • Mechanisms of aspirin-induced asthma. (krakow.pl)
  • An operational definition of asthma developed by experts logical mechanisms of different asthma phenotypes, including in the field (1) describes major attributes of the disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is among these, but its role is still controversial. (g6pd.org)
  • Asthma is a serious disease that affects about 25 million Americans and causes nearly 1.6 million emergency room visits every year. (webmd.com)
  • Asthma is a common chronic disease worldwide and affects approximately 24 million persons in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • Asthma is a respiratory condition that affects millions of people worldwide. (healthomni.com)
  • Asthma is the most chronic childhood disease that affects around 7.1 million children in the United States. (dentalcare.com)
  • According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, asthma affects over 9 million children in the US alone. (holisticblends.com)
  • Although asthma affects people of all ages, it often starts in childhood 1 . (medical.ky)
  • The patient has intolerance to aspirin and other drugs that have the color yellow. (vsebolezni.com)
  • By inhibiting the COX pathway, aspirin diverts arachidonic acid metabolites to the LO pathway. (medscape.com)
  • The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the time kinetics of the inflammatory response following exposure to DE using induced sputum from healthy volunteers. (kb.se)
  • Induced sputum provides a safe tool for the investigation of the inflammatory effects of diesel exhaust, but care must be taken when interpreting results from repeated sputum inductions. (kb.se)
  • Exercise spirometry is the standard method for assessing patients with exercise-induced bronchospasm. (medscape.com)
  • So, if you need to control pain or fever for someone who has an Aspirin and Asthma problem, see the individual pages on Tylenol Side Effects and Ibuprofen Side Effects to get more details. (symptoma.com)
  • In pharmacologically active doses, no adverse effects on the stomach lining (e.g. indigestion, ulcers, etc) were observed, in contrast to aspirin. (vitality101.com)
  • if you have a history of ulcers or take large doses of aspirin or other arthritis medication. (teleradiosciacca.it)
  • Studies have shown that none of these are serious contraindications for the administration of a one-time aspirin dose of 240 mg. (ovragard.se)
  • Aspirin is also used long-term to help prevent further heart attacks, ischaemic strokes, and blood clots in people at high risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mild asthma attacks are generally more common. (webmd.com)
  • Apart from its analgesic and antipyretic properties, aspirin also possesses antiplatelet activity and is, therefore, used in the prophylaxis of thromboembolism, the prevention of transient ischemic attacks, and the reduction of the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with unstable angina and myocardial infarction. (medscape.com)
  • However, following a number of initial episodes of asthma attacks, you can easily identify the warning signs. (medicscales.com)
  • Cold weather and exercise can trigger asthma attacks in individuals with hidden asthma. (healthomni.com)
  • Occupational asthma arises from exposure to specific substances or particles present in the air at a person's workplace, resulting in asthma attacks. (healthomni.com)
  • Timely and appropriate treatment is essential for asthma patients to effectively manage their condition and prevent future attacks. (healthomni.com)
  • Excessive exercise may trigger asthma attacks in patients with a previous history of asthma. (icliniq.com)
  • Aspirin can help prevent heart attacks in people with coronary artery disease and in those who have a higher than average risk. (ovragard.se)
  • When it comes to types of asthma, there are many. (medicscales.com)
  • In this comprehensive guide, we will explore four distinct types of asthma: exercise-induced asthma, hidden asthma, aspirin-induced asthma, and occupational asthma. (healthomni.com)
  • What Are the Different Types of Asthma? (icliniq.com)
  • The different types of asthma are based on the severity and causes of the symptoms. (icliniq.com)
  • encouraging your body to produce more "helpful T cells" and to react more appropriately to environmental factors without the typical inflammatory response seen with asthma and allergies. (holisticblends.com)
  • This study investigated the expression of pendrin and periostin in sinonasal tissue of patients with allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and aspirin-induced asthma. (nih.gov)
  • Further significant increases in periostin expression were noted in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and in those with aspirin-induced asthma. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed positive staining for pendrin in epithelial cells and submucosal glands and for periostin in the basement membrane in all three disorders, and additionally for periostin in nasal polyp tissue in chronic rhinosinusitis and aspirin-induced asthma. (nih.gov)
  • Production of pendrin and periostin is upregulated in allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin-induced asthma. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, these mediators may be therapeutic target candidates for allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin-induced asthma. (nih.gov)
  • In another laboratory experiment, when guinea pigs were subjected to chemically-induced anaphylactic shock, 8 of 20 animals succumbed whereas only 2 of 18 animals given intravenous vitamin C died . (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • It is interesting to learn that aspirin-induced asthma was first described in 1922 , about the time aspirin was aggressively marketed by Bayer around the world. (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • The association of aspirin sensitivity, asthma, and nasal polyposis was first described by Widal et al [ 1 ] in 1922. (medscape.com)
  • These findings suggest that pendrin can induce mucus production and that periostin can induce tissue fibrosis and remodeling in the nasal mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • Exercise-induced asthma is generally a clinical diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Imaging studies are often not indicated in the evaluation of routine exercise-induced asthma. (medscape.com)
  • Postexercise laryngoscopy can be used to evaluate for vocal cord dysfunction, a condition often mistaken for exercise-induced asthma. (medscape.com)
  • Exercise-induced asthma is a condition characterized by breathing difficulties that occur after strenuous physical exercise. (healthomni.com)
  • However, individuals with exercise-induced asthma can still continue to exercise, as long as they manage their symptoms effectively. (healthomni.com)
  • Well, Asthma is one of the very common lung diseases that affect thousands of people around the globe. (medicscales.com)
  • An asthma doctor in Sherman Oaks may also give a patient asthma medicine for a trial period and perform tests afterward to see if lung condition has improved. (allergy-testing-and-treatment.com)
  • Asthma is a lung disorder characterized by symptoms of substantial and includes both direct costs (hospitalization and cough, wheezing and chest tightness. (cdc.gov)
  • Unfortunately, comparatively little has been published in peer reviewed journals although a wide range of food intolerance symptoms from children's behaviour to asthma, eczema, urticaria, irritable bowel symptoms, migraine and depression have been found to improve on diet. (fedup.com.au)
  • Answer: I personally am not aware of any documentation that a salicylate-free diet has a beneficial effect in patients with asthma-exacerbated respiratory tract disease. (aaaai.org)
  • Some studies suggest a possible association between the development of Reye's Syndrome and the use of medicines containing salicylate or aspirin. (nih.gov)
  • The inhibition of both EMT and KATs by salicylate presents a little explored activity that could explain some of the anti-cancer effects of aspirin. (ovragard.se)
  • Dissimilar to childhood-onset asthma, less is known about the prevalence and factors associated with adult-onset asthma. (pa2allergy.com)
  • Regardless, adult-onset asthma is largely under-researched and far from completely understood. (pa2allergy.com)
  • Platelets lack a nucleus, thus low-dose aspirin (75-162.5 mg) treatment may exert a long-lasting effect on the inhibition of COX-1-related EMT. (ovragard.se)
  • The aspirin has an anti-clotting effect that inhibits platelets from doing their little plateletty jobs. (ovragard.se)
  • We conducted a prospective cohort study comparing the effect of pretreatment with liraglutide or vehicle on thromboxane receptor agonist-induced in vitro activation of platelets from patients with AERD and nonasthmatic controls. (bvsalud.org)
  • Liraglutide attenuated thromboxane receptor agonist-induced activation as measured by CXCL7 release in plasma from patients with AERD and CD62P expression in platelets from both patients with AERD (n = 31) and nonasthmatic, healthy controls (n = 11). (bvsalud.org)
  • One of Max Samter's earliest theories as to why patients continued to have AERD with nasal polyps, even though they were avoiding aspirin, was that they were each day ingesting either natural food salicylates or yellow dye #5. (aaaai.org)
  • At first glance it appears that vitamin C is problematic, because it further inhibits COX-2, but by a different mechanism - by reduction of oxygen free radicals and increased sensitivity of COX-2 to be inhibited by aspirin, thus allowing a lower dose of aspirin to be used. (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • If you have had a heart attack or stroke, your doctor may want you to take a daily low dose of aspirin to help prevent another. (ovragard.se)
  • While your doctor watches, you start by taking a small dose of aspirin. (ovragard.se)
  • State the dose of aspirin to be administered and the route of administration. (ovragard.se)
  • Chronic asthma may have any severity. (symptoma.com)
  • Conclusion: CysLT overproduction may be related to the asthma severity in AIA patients. (confex.com)
  • Since asthma severity can change over time, it is important to detect and treat the condition early on. (allergy-testing-and-treatment.com)
  • Occupational asthma is the type of asthma that is caused due to exposure to a hazardous substance at the workplace. (medicscales.com)
  • Occupational asthma can cause flu-like symptoms, persistent wheezing, and coughing. (healthomni.com)
  • Numerous asthma phenotypes have been described, including occupational asthma, and therapeutic strategies for asthma control are similar regardless of phenotype. (cdc.gov)
  • It is important that people with aspirin sensitivity read labels of all over-the-counter drugs used to treat pain, colds and flu, and fever . (symptoma.com)
  • Specific inflammatory conditions which aspirin is used to treat include Kawasaki disease, pericarditis, and rheumatic fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hidden asthma, also known as cough variant asthma, is a form of asthma where persistent coughing serves as the primary symptom. (healthomni.com)
  • This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of asthma, including its etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. (medical.ky)
  • Background: The unique pathophysiology of aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) is cysteinyl-leukotriens (CysLT) overproduction. (confex.com)
  • Recall the pathophysiology of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis. (ashp.org)
  • An EMT may administer aspirin to a patient if: A. the patient is currently experiencing hypotension. (ovragard.se)
  • In some instances, aspirin-induced asthma may provoke a violent spasm in the bronchus with loss of consciousness and respiratory arrest . (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • The increase in asthma prevalence has been mirrored by an increase in obesity. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 1 , 2 Although prevalence rates of asthma increased significantly from 2001 to 2010, the rates remained relatively stable from 2010 to 2017. (ashp.org)
  • Estimates of the prevalence of What is Asthma? (cdc.gov)
  • A number of other health conditions occur more frequently in people with asthma, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), rhinosinusitis , and obstructive sleep apnea . (mdwiki.org)
  • We have a board-certified asthma specialist and caring staff who are experienced in treating patients with asthma, so you know you're in good hands. (pa2allergy.com)
  • The symptoms in all patients with asthma are different, but all are associated with difficulty breathing. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Patients with asthma should always carry a pocket inhaler. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Aspirin is not only one of the best-documented medicines in the world, but also one of the most frequently used drugs of all times. (medscape.com)
  • This syndrome is referred to as aspirin-induced asthma (AIA). (medscape.com)
  • This syndrome encompasses classic symptoms of chronic rhinoconjunctivitis, nasal polyps, and asthma akin to a protracted viral respiratory infection. (medscape.com)
  • 69-75 Aspirin is available without medical prescription as a proprietary or generic medication in most jurisdictions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asthmatics whose disease is inadequately controlled have more extensive use of asthma medication. (ersjournals.com)
  • Inhalational medication can be used to control asthma in order to lead an active and normal life. (icliniq.com)
  • Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing , shortness of breath , chest tightness , and coughing . (mdwiki.org)
  • In the subsequent history there were several episodes of asthma. (g6pd.org)
  • And corticosteroids are useless during an actual asthma attack, so they're usually used alongside an inhaler. (holisticblends.com)
  • They may be used by patients with mild to moderate asthma only when corticosteroids pose a problem. (medicalbrandnames.com)
  • In chronic asthma, the antileukotrienes seem to be as effective as cromoglycate, nedocromil, theophylline and low-dose inhaled corticosteroids. (medicalbrandnames.com)