Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Infant, Premature, DiseasesLung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Ureaplasma Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus UREAPLASMA.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Bronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Ureaplasma urealyticum: A species of gram-negative bacteria found in the human genitourinary tract (UROGENITAL SYSTEM), oropharynx, and anal canal. Serovars 1, 3, 6, and 14 have been reclassed into a separate species UREAPLASMA parvum.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ductus Arteriosus, Patent: A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Hyaline Membrane Disease: A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bronchioles: The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Chorioamnionitis: INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.High-Frequency Ventilation: Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Leukomalacia, Periventricular: Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Ventilator Weaning: Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Adrenal Cortex HormonesBirth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Lung Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mice, Inbred C57BLRespiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Asthma, Occupational: Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.United StatesPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Bronchopneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Respiratory Tract DiseasesRespiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
"Asthma, Cystic Fibrosis, Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease". Dead Sea Research Center. Retrieved May 22, 2007. Cohen, Arnon D.; ... For example, persons experiencing reduced respiratory function from diseases such as cystic fibrosis seem to benefit from the ...
Obesity is associated with a number of chronic lung diseases, including asthma and COPD. It is believed that a systemic pro- ... Obesity is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is defined as the combination of obesity ... Obesity increases one's risk of chronic kidney disease by three to four times. In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome both ... April 2006). "The effect of obesity on chronic respiratory diseases: pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies". CMAJ. 174 (9 ...
Advances in chronic obstructive lung disease : proceedings of the World Congress on Asthma, Bronchitis & Conditions Allied. ... Asthma and Chronic Bronchitis Foundation of India. p. 288. R. Viswanathan, O. P. Jaggi (editors) (1977). ... Viswanathan, R. (1975). While the Light Lives - Reminiscences of a Medical Scientist (PDF). Asthma and Chronic Bronchitis ... His researches also covered several other diseases such as cerebral malaria, basal tuberculosis, lung atelectasis, ...
1989 Ben Yehuda biography An overview of medical tourism in Israel "Asthma, Cystic Fibrosis, Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease ... For example, persons suffering reduced respiratory function from diseases such as cystic fibrosis seem to benefit from the ...
Some of the main respiratory diseases caused by air pollution include asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung ... Soil pollution also causes numerous diseases. Some of the most prominent are cancer, kidney disease, liver disease, dysentery, ... Lung tissue can be damaged with direct exposure to air pollutants such as ozone, potentially causing lung inflammation and ... "Diseases Caused by Air Pollution". Livestrong. Retrieved 15 November 2012. "Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke". American ...
... s are also overexpressed in lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or ... Two membrane mucins, MUC1 and MUC4 have been extensively studied in relation to their pathological implication in the disease ... Mucins are under investigation as possible diagnostic markers for malignancies and other disease processes in which they are ... Increased mucin production occurs in many adenocarcinomas, including cancers of the pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, colon and ...
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease showed there is an overall decrease in HDAC activity with unchanged levels ... "Molecular basis of chronic inflammation in lung diseases: new therapeutic approach". Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 58 ... gene expression data demonstrated increased activity of HAT and decreased level of HDAC activity in patients with Asthma. ... Inflammatory lung diseases are characterized by expression of specific inflammatory genes such as NF-κB and AP-1 transcription ...
They are most useful in obstructive lung diseases, of which asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are the most ... anticholinergic bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Only available as an ... They are often prescribed but of unproven significance in restrictive lung diseases. Bronchodilators are either short-acting or ... It will not stop an asthma attack already in progress. Because it has no effect on asthma symptoms when used alone, it is most ...
... which can increase chances of lung disease. Risks to lung health include asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, lung ... Allergic Asthma is a chronic disease that affects individual's inflammatory system when they are exposed to allergens resulting ... The increase of temperatures results in putting a strain on the respiratory system often causing asthma and other lung diseases ... and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Hamilton steel mill region has had higher levels of air pollution than the rest ...
... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, also known as chronic obstructive lung disease) and asthma. Like other bronchodilators, ... is a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( ... A 2013 systematic review of the drug's use as a treatment for acute asthma found that it "was not superior to albuterol ... Schreck DM, Babin S (November 2005). "Comparison of racemic albuterol and levalbuterol in the treatment of acute asthma in the ...
It is observed in obstructive lung diseases such as asthma, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary ... On arising from a deep depth, these air-trapped areas of lung expand. This places great pressure on the lung tissue which can ... In the classic presentation, the lung will appear normal at inspiration, but on exhalation, the diseased portions of the lung ... the hallmark imaging diagnosis of interstitial lung disease) in which there is no change with inspiration and expiration. ...
... been shown to be at higher risk for poor pulmonary function or development and progression of chronic obstructive lung disease ... Cystic fibrosis ΔF508 heterozygotes may be overrepresented among individuals with asthma and may have poorer lung function than ... "Role of airway surface liquid and submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease". American Journal of Physiology. Cell ... Carriers of a single CF mutation have a higher prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis than the general population. Because this ...
... in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 22 (5): 395-402. doi:10.1007/ ... Enprofylline (3-propylxanthine) is a xanthine derivative used in the treatment of asthma, which acts as a bronchodilator. It ...
... and obstructive lung disease (e.g. asthma, COPD). The paradox in pulsus paradoxus is that, on physical examination, one can ... especially with severe asthma exacerbations) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Non-pulmonary and non-cardiac: anaphylactic ... Pulsus paradoxus occurs not only with severe cardiac tamponade, but also with asthma, obstructive sleep apnea and croup. The ... and decreased blood to the left heart due to lung hyperinflation (e.g. asthma, COPD) and anaphylactic shock. Cardiac: ...
... particularly in people with obstructive lung disease such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). iPEEP has ... If the underlying disease or injurious factor is not removed, the quantity of inflammatory mediators released by the lungs in ... The result is a critical illness in which the 'endothelial disease' of severe sepsis or SIRS is worsened by the lung ... a lung right-to-left shunting occurs within the lungs since some blood from the right side of the heart will enter capillaries ...
Setileuton (MK-0633) has completed a Phase II clinical trial for the treatment of asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and ... These drugs are in common use as prophalaxis and chronic treatment of allergic and non-allergic asthma and rhinitis diseases ... for the prophylaxis and chronic treatment of allergic asthma; it is also used to treat chronic non-allergic reactions such as ... chronic inflammatory conditions such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Atherosclerosis, Inflammatory bowel disease, Autoimmune diseases ...
... interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or psychogenic causes,[2][3] such ... Asthma is the most common reason for presenting to the emergency room with shortness of breath.[2] It is the most common lung ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease[edit]. People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), most commonly emphysema ... "Pulmonary rehabilitation following exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ...
She hopes to apply her research to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, cystic fibrosis, chronic asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, ... in the basal stem cells of the mouse trachea as a model for human basal lung cells that are often affected by disease. ... Her lab studies the lung, due to it developing through "branching morphogenesis". To facilitate this, she has created mouse ... and premature babies with inadequate lung development. 1986 - European Molecular Biology Organization member 1993-2002 - Howard ...
A number of DPB symptoms resemble those found with other obstructive lung diseases such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, and ... In the early 1960s, a relatively new chronic lung disease was being observed and described by physicians in Japan. In 1969, the ... Yamanaka, A.; Saiki, S.; Tamura, S.; Saito, K. (Mar 1969). "Problems in chronic obstructive bronchial diseases, with special ... and other obstructive lung disease with inflammation. Between 1978 and 1980, results of a nationwide survey initiated by the ...
... might be useful for treating asthma and other airway constriction syndromes such as chronic obstructive lung diseases in humans ... Claar D, Hartert TV, Peebles RS (2015). "The role of prostaglandins in allergic lung inflammation and asthma". Expert Review of ... other cardiovascular diseases including heart attack, stroke, and peripheral artery diseases; uterine contraction in childbirth ... LTC4 also stimulated lung expression of the pro-inflammatory intracellular adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by a TP ...
... in the changing tissue extracellular matrix in inflammatory lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD ... asthma and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Cells (myofibroblasts, macrophages and other inflammatory cells) can ... Versican is required for Lewis lung carcinoma in mice to metastasize to lung, liver and adrenal glands, acting via TLR2 to ... Kenagy RD, Plaas AH, Wight TN (2006). "Versican degradation and vascular disease". Trends Cardiovasc. Med. 16 (6): 209-15. doi: ...
The condition is often misdiagnosed as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The first pneumothorax precedes the ... Pulmonary rehabilitation seems to be particularly rewarding in young, motivated patients with obstructive lung disease, but ... Lung transplant remains the last resort for patients with advanced disease. Pneumothoraces in LAM patients tend to recur, ... Disease progression is usually accompanied by a progressive obstructive ventilatory defect. Decline in FEV1 is the most ...
It is mainly used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Zanamivir, used to treat influenza, ... The aerosolized medication is drawn into the lungs by continuing to inhale deeply before holding the breath for 10 seconds to ... "Asthma Group Concerned "Green" Inhalers May Not be as Effective , ksdk.com , St. Louis, MO". ksdk.com. Retrieved 2010-11-21. ... Some inhalers are made to act instantly in case of an asthma attack, and others are made to act later. Dry powder inhalers ...
... asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other lung diseases. The organization serves people living with lung ... Today, the association fights lung disease and promotes healthy lungs through research, advocacy and educational efforts on ... Respiratory Health Association's mission is to promote healthy lungs and fight lung disease through research, advocacy and ... National TB and Respiratory Disease Association formally changed its name to American Lung Association. 1988 Chicago Lung ...
... chronic heart and lung diseases hypertension asthma and chronic bronchitis liver and pancreatic diseases anxiety and depression ... acute somatic and viral diseases chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD-II and COPD-III) chronic diseases with symptoms of ... IHT can be beneficial for the treatment of a wide range of degenerative diseases, including: ... "Effects of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on blood lipid concentrations in male coronary heart disease patients". High Altitude ...
Inhaled corticosteroids (e.g., for treatment of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), are not intended to be ... It is possible for candidiasis to spread to/from the mouth, from sites such as the pharynx, esophagus, lungs, liver, anogenital ... or immunocompromising diseases. However, sometimes it can be chronic and intermittent, even lasting for many years. Chronicity ... It is often described as being "a disease of the diseased", occurring in the very young, the very old, or the very sick. ...
... difficulty breathing and chest tightness caused by lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ...
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. - Pneumonia and Tuberculosis. - Lung tumours. - Chronic cough. - Diseases of ... Chronic cough. - Breathlessness. - Wheezing. - Asthma. - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). - Emphysema. - Lung ... Obstructive Airway Disease like Asthma * Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). * Invasive Mechanical Ventilation for ... Asthma. - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease & Emphysema. - Pneumonia. - Suspected Lung Cancer. - Tuberculosis. - Pleural ...
... acid.RESEARCH Open Access V0162 a new long-acting bronchodilator for treatment of chronic obstructive lung diseases: ... What is herbal treatment for asthma and weak lungs?.albuterol sulfate/ipratropium. ipratropium bromide levalbuterol HCl ... Prescribing CFC-free lung medicines. and for ipratropium bromide in patients. Clinical trials of ipratropium in patients with ... difference was found between the 2 formulations.Improve lung function, reduce zadyshka, reduce the frequency and duration of ...
Lung Diseases. Lung Diseases, Obstructive. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive. Respiratory Aspiration. Chronic Disease. ... Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients for Inhalation Profile, Pharyngometry, Spirometric Indices and Lung ... Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients for Inhalation Profile, Pharyngometry, Spirometric Indices and Lung ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive Procedure: Inhalation Profiling Phase ...
Conclusions The study found no evidence of reductions in lung function, or increased risk of COPD or asthma, from recent or ... Objectives We investigated associations of H2S with lung function, COPD and asthma in this population. Methods 1,204 of 1,639 ... Suggestions of improved lung function associated with recent ambient H2S exposures require confirmation in other studies. ... Separate models examined participants with and without evidence of asthma or COPD, and never- and ever-smokers. Logistic ...
2018 © Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, All Rights Reserved. Legal Policy , Privacy Policy , Sitemap , ... The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) works with health care professionals and public health ... It provides an approach to distinguishing between asthma, COPD and the overlap of asthma and COPD, for which the term Asthma ... proportion of adult patients over age 40 who present with symptoms of a chronic airways disease have features of both asthma ...
Asthma, acute lung damage (ALI), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are lung inflammatory disorders having a ... Asthma, acute lung damage (ALI), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). February 11, 2019. G???? ... PARP-1 in Asthma Asthma is usually a chronic inflammatory lung disorder seen as a airway swelling, hyper-reactivity, and ... asthma and ALI. Furthermore, PARP activation appears to be from the development of COPD. Furthermore, PARP-14 appears to play ...
... sound generation or transmission due to structural changes of the bronchi and the surrounding lung tissue in these diseases. ... CONCLUSIONS The observed differences in frequency content of breath sounds in patients with asthma and COPD may reflect altered ... analysis of breath sounds may provide a new non-invasive method for differential diagnosis of obstructive pulmonary diseases. ... METHODS Flow standardised inspiratory breath sounds in patients with COPD (n = 17) and stable asthma (n = 10) with significant ...
... we can provide the best possible options to diagnose and treat virtually any lung-related condition. ... Our physicians are experts on the latest and most advanced asthma treatments, some of which are very effective. With our ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Specialists prescribe various treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ... Asthma and Other Lung Disease Programs. Asthma. The program provides a comprehensive approach to managing asthma in adults and ...
Asthma. Lung Diseases. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive. Bronchial Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Lung Diseases, ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive Procedure: Spirometry Other: ACOS ... Utility of a Clinical Questionnaire to Identify Subjects With Features of Both Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ... Classification of respiratory diseases by Spirometry will be performed to differentiate subjects between Asthma only, ACOS, and ...
Types of obstructive lung disease include; asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD) or chronic airflow ... Following is an overview of the main obstructive lung diseases. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is mainly a combination ... "GOLD - the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease". Retrieved 2008-05-06. "What is chronic obstructive ...
... obstructive pulmonary disease. NHLBI/WHO Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Workshop summary. Am J ... 0.39 for chronic and unspecified bronchitis, and 1.05 for all chronic lower respiratory diseases, which includes asthma (26). ... Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2002. Available at http ... If one assumes that persons with moderate obstructive lung disease have clinically significant COPD, using chronic bronchitis ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by chronically poor airflow. ... finds link between vitamin D deficiency and decline in lung function among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... "Severe vitamin D deficiency predicted later decline in lung function in COPD patients, an important parameter of COPD disease ... It typically worsens over time (chronic), but progression of the disease varies greatly. The main symptoms include shortness of ...
asthma. COPD. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. lung disease. chronic airways disease. obstructive lung disease. ... Asthma. Anti-Asthmatic Agents. Lung Diseases. Lung Diseases, Obstructive. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive. Bronchial ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Asthma COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Procedure: Blood draw Procedure: ... of asthma and/or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Patients will undergo clinical assessments and receive standard ...
... asthma, and other respiratory issues. Read more about our care at Stormont Vail. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This disease blocks airflow from the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. It ... 189,350 adults in Kansas are living with asthma.. *More than 134,000 adults in Kansas have chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Interstitial Lung Disease. Your lungs become scarred or inflamed, making it difficult to get enough oxygen into your ...
Despite lung disease killing 4 million people every year, the Forum of International Respiratory Societies (FIRS) revealed ... Given that research shows that the mortality rate caused by COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) has almost doubled in ... asthma, and other lung problems early on, when treatment is most effective. Lung diseases and exercise. 70% of respondents ... Lung diseases. There are three main kinds of lung disease: * Lung circulation diseases - the blood vessels in the lungs are ...
WebMD breaks down the information and describes the types and causes of some common lung diseases. ... Allergies, infections, or pollution can trigger asthma symptoms.. * Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With this ... Various lung diseases affect the interstitium:. * Interstitial lung disease (ILD). This is a group of lung conditions that ... Lung diseases are some of the most common medical conditions in the world. Tens of millions of people have lung disease in the ...
There are three main types of lung disease: ... disease is any problem in the lungs that prevents the lungs ... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). *Lung cancer. *Lung infection (pneumonia). *Abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs ( ... Airway diseases include asthma, COPD and bronchiectasis. People with airway diseases often say they feel as if theyre "trying ... Lung disease is any problem in the lungs that prevents the lungs from working properly. There are three main types of lung ...
... and lung cancer are major lung diseases affecting millions worldwide. Both diseases have links to cigarette smoking and exert a ... Mechanisms and treatments for severe, steroid-resistant allergic airway disease and asthma. Immunol Rev. 2017;278(1):41-62. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are major lung diseases affecting millions worldwide. Both ... Rooney C, Sethi T. The epithelial cell and lung cancer: the link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer ...
Interstitial lung disease --. Congestive heart failure --. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease --. Intrathoracic ... Interstitial lung disease -- Congestive heart failure -- Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease -- Intrathoracic ... diseases> # Lung Diseases a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Lung Diseases"@en ;. . ... schema:about lung_diseases> ; # Lung Diseases schema:about < ...
"Asthma, Cystic Fibrosis, Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease". Dead Sea Research Center. Retrieved May 22, 2007.. ... For example, persons experiencing reduced respiratory function from diseases such as cystic fibrosis seem to benefit from the ...
... and asthma are the major causes of pulmonary disability in the United States, with at least 10 million Americans suffering form ... COPD and up to 5% of the population afflicted with asthma. Over the past 20 years, major strides have been made in our understa ... Lung Diseases, Obstructive / diagnosis* * Lung Diseases, Obstructive / rehabilitation * Lung Diseases, Obstructive / therapy ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are the major causes of pulmonary disability in the United States, with ...
Obstructive lung disease (OLD), including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is associated with ... Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Curr Opin ... The cytokine network in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Clin Invest 2008;118:3546-56. ... CD8+ T-lymphocytes in peripheral airways of smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; ...
Purchase Clinical Manifestations and Assessment of Respiratory Disease - 8th Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780323553698, ... PART II: Obstructive Lung Disease. 13. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema 14. Asthma 15. ... Chronic Lung Disease of Infancy. 41. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. 42. Congenital Heart Disease. 43. Croup and Croup-like ... A realistic look at treating respiratory diseases! Clinical Manifestations and Assessment of Respiratory Disease, 8th Edition ...
COPD, which includes smoking-induced emphysema, chronic bronchitis and non-reversible asthma, is the third-leading cause of ... Smokers with Normal Lung Function Test May Still Be at Risk for Developing Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. ... If used more widely, doctors will be able to better predict who will develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is a ... Genetic Medicine staff conducts pulmonary function testing to assist in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ...
  • A follow up control will be performed every three months to all patients, consisting in medical record, lung function tests, blood and serum collection, sputum analysis and culture, and collection of exhaled air for analysis using an electronic nose. (checkorphan.org)
  • Asthma causes recurring episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing, particularly at night or in the early morning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluid builds up between your chest cavity and lungs. (stormontvail.org)
  • The pleura is the thin lining that surrounds your lung and lines the inside of your chest wall. (webmd.com)
  • The lung diseases are diagnosed and treated by the physician with the use of imaging modalities like chest X-Ray, CT scans and the required medications. (igi-global.com)
  • A pneumothorax refers to the collection of air in the chest cavity surrounding the lung that causes the lung to collapse. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • If the lung continues to leak air into the chest cavity and results in compression of the chest structures, this is referred to as a tension pneumothorax and must be treated immediately because it may compress the vessels that return blood to the heart. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Asthma and Allergy of Nevada office coordinator Lynn Hansen said, "We have seen a lot of people coming in with burning eyes, throat problems and chest tightness due to the smoke. (elkodaily.com)
  • People with asthma experience episodes of wheezing, breathlessness and chest tightness due to widespread narrowing of the airways. (health.gov.au)
  • Occupational asthma may cause shortness of breath, tightness in the chest, wheezing, and coughing. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Our Pulmonologists treat diseases of the lungs, airways and chest, including deficiencies and abnormalities of the cardiopulmonary system. (christushealth.org)
  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • About half of states have laws banning smoking in all indoor public spaces , according to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (npr.org)
  • Most causes of shortness of breath are due to heart and lung conditions. (lung.org)
  • Smoking is a major risk factor as it causes diseases that result in shortness of breath. (lung.org)
  • Lung transplant recipients who participated in a three-month structured exercise regime when they left hospital were found to have significantly superior quality of life and a lower chance of developing cardiovascular problems, compared to those who didn't, Belgian researchers reported in the American Journal of Transplantation . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The death toll of the Ground Zero heroes - firefighters, cops, EMTs, construction workers, immigrant laborers and others - is climbing, and a growing number are dying of heart attacks and cardiovascular disease. (nypost.com)
  • Heart and cardiovascular problems such as angina, a previous heart attack, heart failure, high blood pressure, or valvular heart disease. (rexhealth.com)
  • The lung is an organ constantly exposed to microbiota either through inhalation or subclinical microaspiration from birth. (jimmunol.org)
  • Join the fight for healthy lungs and healthy air. (lung.org)
  • This offers intriguing opportunities, not only for promotion of healthy lungs, but also for interventions for development of healthier lungs by accelerating growth and/or slowing decline. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Blanc added that the authors hope that the statement will cause clinicians to consider not just the respiratory condition but also the patient's occupation and "will move policy makers to take seriously the prevention of such diseases among working women and men around the globe. (news-medical.net)
  • allowing readers to easily grasp the prevention good way to stay away from the disease. (iberlibro.com)
  • 3. Goal of the WHO strategy against CRDs is for Prevention and Control of to support Member States in their efforts to Chronic Respiratory Diseases reduce the toll of morbidity, disability and (CRDs)1 that was drafted after the expert consultation premature mortality related to chronic held in January 20012. (who.int)
  • The NHLBI Lung Division convened a workshop in September 2013, at which pulmonary experts provided state-of-the-art status of prevention for several specific lung diseases, identified key questions, and considered approaches to facilitate prevention. (nih.gov)
  • Workshop participants distinguished two major concepts as uniquely important to primary prevention of lung disease: the promotion of lung health and the prevention of lung disease. (nih.gov)
  • Likewise, successful prevention of lung diseases requires clear demarcation of the pre-disease state from the onset of disease. (nih.gov)
  • In this context, a major barrier to health promotion and disease prevention is the current lack of biomarkers or proxy measures of lung health or disease. (nih.gov)
  • There was consensus that to achieve prevention, it is essential to more fully and comprehensively define what is lung health across the life course. (nih.gov)
  • Generally, the recommendations from the workshop describe an approach to identify both the at-risk patient and the response that marks a shift from health to disease, as well as providing general strategies to begin to implement primary prevention interventions. (nih.gov)
  • A number of key points emerged during the workshop, which were common across disease areas, and had broad directive influence to establish programs of prevention. (nih.gov)
  • In a bold step for precision medicine, researchers at the National, Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) today announced they are releasing for study nearly 9,000 whole genomes, courtesy of participants in the Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program (TOPMed). (nih.gov)
  • NHLBI/WHO Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Workshop summary. (cdc.gov)
  • To gauge for anti-fibrotic activity, collagen deposition and pro-fibrotic growth factor gene expression was analysed in isolated lungs. (ersjournals.com)