Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
The structural parts of the VIRION.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A federally administered division of Canada. Its capital is Yellowknife. The former northern and eastern-most parts of the Territory comprise the new territory of Nunavut, effective April 1, 1999.
Devices for accelerating charged particles in a spiral path by a constant-frequency alternating electric field. This electric field is synchronized with the movement of the particles in a constant magnetic field.
A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.
A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.
Figures or symbols identifying or representing organizations or societies.
A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. The common name of tea tree is also used for MELALEUCA and KUNZEA.
A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.
Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.

211At- and 131I-labeled bisphosphonates with high in vivo stability and bone accumulation. (1/53)

Bisphosphonates were synthesized for use as carriers for astatine and iodine radioisotopes to target bone neoplasms. METHODS: Radiohalogenated activated esters were coupled to the amino group in the side chain of the bisphosphonate. The bisphosphonate 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene bisphosphonate was combined with four different acylation agents: N-succinimidyl 3-[211At]astatobenzoate, N-succinimidyl 3-[131I]iodobenzoate, N-succinimidyl-5-[211At]astato-3-pyridinecarboxylate and N-succinimidyl-5-[131I]iodo-5-pyridinecarboxylate. The products, 3-[131I]iodobenzamide-N-3-hydroxypropylidene-3,3-bisphosphonate (IBPB), 3-[211At]astato-benzamide-N-3-hydroxypropylidene-3,3-bisphosphonat e (ABPB), 5-[131I]iodopyridine-3-amide-N-3-hydroxypropylidene-3,3-bisphospho nate (IPPB) and 5-[211At]astatopyridine-3-amide-N-3-hydroxypropylidene-3,3-bisphos phonate (APPB), were injected intravenously into Balb/c mice. MIRD and Monte Carlo methods were used on the basis of cumulated activity calculated from biodistribution data to estimate dose to organs and bone segments. RESULTS: All 131I- and 211At-labeled analogs were strongly incorporated into osseous tissue and retained there at stable levels, while a rapid clearance from blood was observed. The bone uptake was found to be similar for 211At- and 131I-labeled bisphosphonate when compared in paired label experiments. Bone uptake and bone-to-tissue ratios were better for IBPB compared with IPPB, and ABPB compared with APPB. All four compounds appeared to be highly resistant to in vivo dehalogenation as indicated by low uptake of 131I/211At in the thyroid gland and stomach. According to dosimetric estimates, the bone surface-to-bone marrow ratio was three times higher with 211At than with 131I. CONCLUSION: Both the beta-particle- and alpha-particle-emitting compounds showed high in vivo stability and excellent affinity for osseous tissue. Further preclinical evaluation is therefore warranted.  (+info)

Demonstration of highly specific toxicity of the alpha-emitting radioimmunoconjugate(211)At-rituximab against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells. (2/53)

The ability of an alpha-emitter conjugated to a chimaeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody to kill selectively human B-lymphoma cells in vitro is reported. Two B-lymphoma cell lines RAEL and K422, and normal haematopoietic progenitor cells from human bone marrow aspirates were incubated with(211)At-rituximab (Rituxan(R) or MabTheratrade mark) and plated in clonogenic assays for survival analyses. Following 1 h incubation with(211)At-rituximab, in concentrations which gave an initial activity of 50 kBq ml(-1), a high tumour cell to normal bone marrow cell toxicity ratio was obtained; 4.1 to 1.0 log cell kill. Biodistribution studies of(211)At-rituximab in Balb/c mice showed similar stability as that of the iodinated analogue. The data indicate that testing of(211)At-rituximab in human patients is warranted.  (+info)

High-level production of alpha-particle-emitting (211)At and preparation of (211)At-labeled antibodies for clinical use. (3/53)

In vitro and in vivo studies in human glioma models suggest that the antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 labeled with the 7.2-h-half-life alpha-particle emitter (211)At might be a valuable endoradiotherapeutic agent for the treatment of brain tumors. The purpose of this study was to develop methods for the production of high levels of (211)At and the radiosynthesis of clinically useful amounts of (211)At-labeled human/mouse chimeric 81C6 antibody. METHODS: (211)At was produced through the (209)Bi(alpha, 2n)(211)At reaction using an internal target system and purified by a dry distillation process. Antibody labeling was accomplished by first synthesizing N-succinimidyl 3-[(211)At]astatobenzoate from the corresponding tri-n-butyl tin precursor and reacting it with the antibody in pH 8.5 borate buffer. Quality control procedures consisted of methanol precipitation, size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and pyrogen and sterility assays, as well as determination of the immunoreactive fraction by a rapid procedure using a recombinant tenascin fragment coupled to magnetic beads. RESULTS: A total of 16 antibody labeling runs were performed. Using beam currents of 50-60 microA alpha-particles and irradiation times of 1.5-4.5 h, the mean (211)At production yield was 27.75 +/- 2.59 MBq/microA.h, and the maximum level of (211)At produced was 6.59 GBq after a 4-h irradiation at 55 microA. The decay-corrected distillation yield was 67% +/- 16%. The yield for the coupling of the (211)At-labeled active ester to the antibody was 76% +/- 8%. The fraction of (211)At activity that eluted with a retention time corresponding to intact IgG on HPLC was 96.0% +/- 2.5%. All preparations had a pyrogen level of <0.125 EU/mL and were determined to be sterile. The mean immunoreactive fraction for these 16 preparations was 83.3% +/- 5.3%. Radiolysis did not interfere with labeling chemistry or the quality of the labeled antibody product. CONCLUSION: These results show that it is feasible to produce clinically relevant activities of (211)At-labeled antibodies and have permitted the initiation of a phase I trial of (211)At-labeled chimeric 81C6 administered directly into the tumor resection cavities of brain tumor patients.  (+info)

Comparative cellular catabolism and retention of astatine-, bismuth-, and lead-radiolabeled internalizing monoclonal antibody. (4/53)

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) labeled with alpha-emitting radionuclides such as (211)At, (212)Bi, (213)Bi, and (212)Pb (which decays by beta-emission to its alpha-emitting daughter, (212)Bi) are being evaluated for their potential applications for cancer therapy. The fate of these radionuclides after cells are targeted with mAbs is important in terms of dosimetry and tumor detection. METHODS: In this study, we attached various radionuclides that result in alpha-emissions to T101, a rapidly internalizing anti-CD5 mAb. We then evaluated the catabolism and cellular retention and compared them with those of (125)I- and (111)In-labeled T101. T101 was labeled with (211)At, (125)I, (205,6)Bi, (111)In, and (203)Pb. CD5 antigen-positive cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC), and MOLT-4 leukemia cells were used. The labeled T101 was incubated with the cells for 1 h at 4 degrees C for surface labeling. Unbound activity was removed and 1 mL medium added. The cells were then incubated at 37 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h. The activity on the cell surface that internalized and the activity on the cell surface remaining in the supernatant were determined. The protein in the supernatant was further precipitated by methanol for determining protein-bound and non-protein-bound radioactivity. Sites of internal cellular localization of radioactivity were determined by Percoll gradient centrifugation. RESULTS: All radiolabeled antibodies bound to the cells were internalized rapidly. After internalization, (205,6)Bi, (203)Pb, and (111)In radiolabels were retained in the cell, with little decrease of cell-associated radioactivity. However, (211)At and (125)I were released from cells rapidly ((211)At < (125)I) and most of the radioactivity in the supernatant was in a non-protein-bound form. Intracellular distribution of radioactivity revealed a transit of the radiolabel from the cell surface to the lysosome. The catabolism patterns of MOLT-4 cells and PBMNC were similar. CONCLUSION: (211)At catabolism and release from cells were somewhat similar to that of (125)I, whereas (205,6)Bi and (203)Pb showed prolonged cell retention similar to that of (111)In. These catabolism differences may be important in the selection of alpha-radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy.  (+info)

Microdosimetric analysis of alpha-particle-emitting targeted radiotherapeutics using histological images. (5/53)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and limitations of alpha-particle-emitting radiolabeled compounds by means of 2-dimensional histological images and distribution of activity on a microscopic level. METHODS: A microdosimetric approach based on histological images is used to analyze the therapeutic effectiveness of alpha-particle-emitting (211)At and (213)Bi conjugated to 201B monoclonal antibody (mAb), which is reactive with murine lung blood vessels for the treatment of EMT-6 lung tumor colonies in nude mice. Autoradiography images were used to define the tissue morphology and activity distribution within lung tissues. Two animal groups were studied: Group A consisted of animals bearing small tumors (<130 micro m) and group B consisted of larger tumors (<600 micro m). Probability density functions (pdf) described the variability in average absorbed dose and survival probability among normal and tumor target cells and, in turn, were used to assess the survival fraction of tumor and normal tissue. RESULTS: The average absorbed dose to tumor cells per unit cumulated activity concentration for animals in group A was 1.10 x 10(-3) and 1.37 x 10(-3) Gy g MBq(-1) s(-1) for (211)At and (213)Bi, respectively, and for animals in group B was 3.8 x 10(-4) and 5.6 x 10(-4) Gy g MBq(-1) s(-1) for (211)At and (213)Bi, respectively. The fraction of tumor cells that received a zero absorbed dose for animals in group A was 0.04% for (213)Bi and 0.2% for (211)At and for animals in group B was 25% for (213)Bi and 31% for (211)At. Both (213)Bi- and (211)At-labeled 201B mAb were effective therapies for animals with small tumors, where predicted therapeutic effectiveness was consistent with experimental findings; however, they were ineffective for animals with larger tumors. CONCLUSION: Microdosimetric methods based on knowledge of tissue morphology and activity distribution on a small-scale level can be a useful tool for evaluating a priori the therapeutic efficacy and limitations of targeted alpha-particle endoradiotherapeutic strategies.  (+info)

(211)At-labeled and biotinylated effector molecules for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy using poly-L- and poly-D-Lysine as multicarriers. (6/53)

Poly-L- and poly-D-lysine were evaluated as carriers of astatine and biotin for prospective use as effector molecules in pretargeted radioimmunotherapy of micrometastases. The precursor polylysine was derivatized in a three-step, single-pot procedure, including biotinylation with biotin amidocaproic N-hydroxysuccinimide, astatination via the intermediate reagent N-succinimidyl 3-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate, and, finally, charge modification using succinic anhydride. The chemistry was shown to be very facile, with a biotinylation efficiency of 75 +/- 5%, and overall radiochemical yields in the range of 50-70%. After charge modification, no amines could be detected in the final product. The biotin function was unaffected by the chemistry and the radiation, as confirmed by almost complete binding of the effector molecule to avidin beads using a convenient filter tube assay. The effector molecules were evaluated in tumor-free female nude mice with regard to whole-body retention and tissue distribution after i.p. administration. The distribution of the L-isomer effector molecule showed rapid whole-body clearance with low uptake in all tissues, whereas the D-isoform showed whole-body clearance related to uptake in the kidneys. Both D-isomer and L-isomer showed faster blood clearance and generally lower tissue uptakes than labeled antibodies. The normal tissue distribution after the peritoneal administration implies that pretargeting using L-structure polylysine as the effector molecule may give a higher therapeutic index than that achieved in conventional radioimmunotherapy.  (+info)

Astatine-211-labeled antibodies for treatment of disseminated ovarian cancer: an overview of results in an ovarian tumor model. (7/53)

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to establish and refine a preclinical model to alpha-immunoradiotherapy of ovarian cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: At-211 was produced by cyclotron irradiation of a bismuth-209 target and isolated using a novel dry distillation procedure. Monoclonal antibodies were radiohalogenated with the intermediate reagent N-succinimidyl 3-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate and characterized in terms of radiochemical yield and in vitro binding properties. In vitro OVCAR-3 cells were irradiated using an external Cobalt-60 beam, as reference, or At-211-albumin and labeled antibody. Growth assays were used to establish cell survival. A Monte Carlo program was developed to simulate the energy imparted and the track length distribution. Nude mice were used for studies of WBC depression, with various activities of Tc-99m antibodies, as reference, and At-211 antibodies. In efficacy studies, OVCAR-3 cells were inoculated i.p., and animals were treated 2 weeks later. The animals were either dissected 6 weeks later or followed-up for long-term survival. RESULTS: A rapid distillation procedure, as well as a rapid and high-yield, single-pot labeling procedure, was achieved. From growth inhibition data, the relative biological effectiveness of the alpha-emission for OVCAR-3 cells was estimated to be approximately 5, which is in the same range as found in vivo for hematological toxicity. At-211 MOv18 was found to effectively inhibit the development of tumors and ascites, also resulting in long-term survival without significant toxic effect. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the short-range, high-linear energy transfer alpha-emitter At-211 conjugated to a surface epitope-recognizing monoclonal antibody appears to be highly efficient without significant toxicity in a mouse peritoneal tumor model, urging a Phase I clinical trial.  (+info)

In vitro cytotoxicity of (211)at-astatide and (131)I-iodide to glioma tumor cells expressing the sodium/iodide symporter. (8/53)

The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) has been identified as an attractive target for cancer therapy. The efficacy of (131)I-iodide for NIS-expressing tumor therapy may be limited by a combination of poor cellular retention and unfavorable physical characteristics (long physical half-life and low linear-energy-transfer [LET] radiative emissions). On the other hand, (211)At-astatide is also transported by NIS and offers several therapeutic advantages over (131)I-iodide due to its physical characteristics (short half-life, high LET alpha-particle emissions). The objective of this study was to directly compare the radiotoxicity of both radionuclides using a NIS-transfected cultured cell model. METHODS: Cytotoxicity was determined by colony-forming assays. Also, a first-order pharmacokinetic model was used to simulate the closed compartmental system between the medium and cells. Experimental data were then fitted to this model and used to estimate the transfer coefficients between medium and cells, k(m)(c), and between cells and medium, k(c)(m). Using the pharmacokinetic model, the cumulated activity concentrations in the medium and cells were calculated. Monte Carlo transport methods were then used to assess absorbed doses from (131)I and (211)At. RESULTS: (211)At-Astatide was significantly more cytotoxic than (131)I-iodide in this closed compartmental system. For (211)At-astatide, absorbed doses per unit administered activity were 54- to 65-fold higher than for (131)I-iodide. Both NIS-expressing and control cells showed increased sensitivity to (211)At over (131)I, with significantly lower D(0) (absorbed dose required to reduce the survival fraction to e(-1)) and SF(2) (2-Gy survival fraction) values, highlighting the higher intrinsic cytotoxicity of alpha-particles. However, NIS-independent (nonspecific) binding of (211)At-astatide was higher than that of (131)I-iodide, therefore, yielding a lower absorbed dose ratio between NIS-transfected and -nontransfected cells. CONCLUSION: Treatment of NIS-expressing cells with (211)At-astatide resulted in higher absorbed doses and increased cytotoxicity per unit administered activity than that observed with (131)I-iodide. These results suggest that (211)At-astatide may be a promising treatment strategy for the therapy of NIS-expressing tumors.  (+info)

There are 39 known isotopes of astatine, with atomic masses (mass numbers) of 191-229. Theoretical modeling suggests that 37 more isotopes could exist.[104] No stable or long-lived astatine isotope has been observed, nor is one expected to exist.[105]. Astatines alpha decay energies follow the same trend as for other heavy elements.[105] Lighter astatine isotopes have quite high energies of alpha decay, which become lower as the nuclei become heavier. Astatine-211 has a significantly higher energy than the previous isotope, because it has a nucleus with 126 neutrons, and 126 is a magic number corresponding to a filled neutron shell. Despite having a similar half-life to the previous isotope (8.1 hours for astatine-210 and 7.2 hours for astatine-211), the alpha decay probability is much higher for the latter: 41.81% against only 0.18%.[7][j] The two following isotopes release even more energy, with astatine-213 releasing the most energy. For this reason, it is the shortest-lived astatine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of astatine-210. T2 - Evaluation of astatine distribution and effect of pre-injected iodide in whole body of normal rats. AU - Ikeda, Hayato. AU - Hayashi, Yoshihiko. AU - Takahashi, Naruto. AU - Watabe, Tadashi. AU - Kanai, Yasukazu. AU - Shinohara, Atsushi. AU - Kato, Hiroki. AU - Watabe, Hiroshi. AU - Shimosegawa, Eku. AU - Hatazawa, Jun. PY - 2018/9. Y1 - 2018/9. N2 - We proposed use of astatine-210 in preclinical study. Astatine-210 has higher yield of production and is easier to quantify than astatine-211. We produced astatine-210 with Bi target and 40 MeV alpha beam accelerated by cyclotron, free astatine-210 was separated and injected to normal rats. Three male rats (blocking group) were injected non-radioactive iodide before injection of astatine-210. Compared with the control group, the astatine-210 accumulations in the blocking group decreased to 24% in the thyroid.. AB - We proposed use of astatine-210 in preclinical study. Astatine-210 has higher yield of ...
Comprehensive information for the element Astatine - At is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides and technical terms are linked to their definitions.
Compare Copper vs Astatine of the Periodic Table on all their Facts, Electronic Configuration, Chemical, Physical, Atomic properties. Our Periodic Element comparison tool allows you to compare Periodic Elements properties side by side for all 118 elements | SchoolMyKids Interactive Dynamic Periodic Table, Periodic Table Element Comparison tool, Element Property trends
For many years scientists had noticed that in Mendeleev published periodic table was a space underneath iodine known theoretically as eka-iodine but no one could identified in nature this element. In 1940, finally, the element was detected and produced by Americans physicts D.R Corson(1914-2012), K R Mackenzie (1912-2002), E Segre (1905-1989) in California by bombarding bismuth-209 with alpha particles in a cyclotron ...
BIS(TRIMETHYLSTANNYL)ACETYLENE 2117-50-2 safety info, BIS(TRIMETHYLSTANNYL)ACETYLENE chemical safety search, Chemical BIS(TRIMETHYLSTANNYL)ACETYLENE safety technical specifications ect.
A method of making a radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is described. In the method, a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is contacted in an aqueous solution with a radioactive iodide, bromide, chlorine or astatine ion in the presence of an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing solution comprising at least a 3:1 ratio of 30% hydrogen peroxide to 1N acid (v/v), whereby a water soluble pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide labeled with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine is formed. Kits suitable for practicing the method are also disclosed.
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In this report we describe the development of an alternative approach to arylstannane chemistry for radiolabeling antibodies with radioiodine or astatine based on aryliodonium salts precursors. Bifunctional aryliodonium salts were designed and tested for the synthesis of (125)I and (211)At labeled prosthetic groups for bioconjugation. The nature of the electron rich aryl group was varied and its impact on the regioselectivity of radiohalogenation was evaluated. Unexpectedly, whereas the 2-thienyl group provided the best regioselectivity towards the radioiodination of the aryl moiety of interest (98:2), it was less selective for astatination (87:13); the anisyl group providing the best regioselectivity of astatination (94:6 ...
Elements Ending with s2p5 = Halogens The halogens are an interesting group. Halogens are members of Group 7A, which is also referred to as 17. It is the only group in the Periodic Table that contains all of the states of matter at room temperature. Fluorine, F2, is a gas, as is chlorine, Cl2. Bromine, Br2, is a liquid and iodine, I2, and astatine, At2, are both solids. What else is neat about Group 7A is that it houses four (4) of the seven (7) diatomic compounds. Remember the diatomics are H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2. Notice that the latter four are Group 17 elements. The word halogen comes from the Greek meaning salt forming. French chemists discovered that the majority of halogen ions will form salts when combined with metals. We all know some of these already: LiF, NaCl, KBr, and NaI. Taking a look at Group 7A in the figure, we can find the same pattern of similar electron configurations as found with group 1A, 2A, and 8A. It is the 17th group in the Periodic Table and it contains only ...
Halogens are a group of highly reactive elements including fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. When products containing halogens are burned, they produce very dangerous gasses. Public awareness of these dangers began after several tragic fires claimed the lives of victims who inhaled deadly halogenated fumes.. Several fires, including those at the Beverley Hills Supper Club, Londons Kings Cross Underground Station and Germanys Düsseldorf Airport, have lead to important changes that significantly limit where cables containing halogens may be used. Many organizations, local authorities and governments have undertaken broad initiatives to eliminate the production of halogenated material. In Asia, the United Kingdom and many European communities, the use of wire and cable containing halogens is highly regulated, and in some areas completely prohibited.. ...
What does an older refrigerator, bleach,toothpaste and pesticides have in common? All contain one or more halogens, the Group VII elements of the Periodic Table: fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. (Astatine is radioactive and does not behave like the other halogens.) Today we shall study these very reactive elements, sitting so close to the most…
Sergentu D-C, D Teze, A Sabatié-Gogova, C Alliot, N Guo, F Bassal, I Da Silva, D Deniaud, R Maurice, J Champion, N Galland, and G Montavon. 2016. Advances on the Determination of the Astatine Pourbaix Diagram: Predomination of AtO(OH)2− over At− in Basic Conditions. Chemistry - A European Journal 22:2964-2971 ...
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In a recent study, Texas A&M University researchers have described a new process to purify astatine-211, a promising radioactive isotope for targeted cancer treatment. Unlike other elaborate purification methods, their technique can extract astatine-211 from bismuth in minutes rather than hours, which can greatly reduce the time between production and delivery to the patient.. Astatine-211 is currently under evaluation as a cancer therapeutic in clinical trials. But the problem is that the supply chain for this element is very limited because only a few places worldwide can make it, said Jonathan Burns, research scientist in the Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Stations Nuclear Engineering and Science Center. Texas A&M University is one of a handful of places in the world that can make astatine-211, and we have delineated a rapid astatine-211 separation process that increases the usable quantity of this isotope for research and therapeutic purposes.. The researchers added that this ...
In a recent study, Texas A&M University researchers have described a new process to purify astatine-211, a promising radioactive isotope for targeted cancer treatment. Unlike other elaborate purification methods, their technique can extract astatine-211 from bismuth in minutes rather than hours, which can greatly reduce the time between production and delivery to the patient.. Astatine-211 is currently under evaluation as a cancer therapeutic in clinical trials. But the problem is that the supply chain for this element is very limited because only a few places worldwide can make it, said Jonathan Burns, research scientist in the Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Stations Nuclear Engineering and Science Center. Texas A&M University is one of a handful of places in the world that can make astatine-211, and we have delineated a rapid astatine-211 separation process that increases the usable quantity of this isotope for research and therapeutic purposes.. The researchers added that this ...
February 11, 2021. Dear American National Election Studies (ANES) user community:. We are pleased to announce the preliminary release of pre-election data for the 2020 Time Series Study.. The data and documentation can be downloaded from the study page at: https://electionstudies.org/data-center/2020-time-series-study/. The 2020 Time Series survey used a contactless, mixed-mode design that was created in response to challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. You can read more about the Sample Design in the User Guide and Codebook . New content for 2020 includes variables on sexual harassment and misconduct, health insurance, identity politics, immigration, media trust and misinformation, institutional legitimacy, campaigns, party images, trade tariffs and tax policy.. Post-election survey data are still being prepared. Follow us on Twitter or watch for ANES email to receive updates.. Thank you for your support and use of the ANES! Best wishes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sulfur cation radicals. AU - Glass, Richard S.. AU - Radspinner, Amanda M.. AU - Singh, Waheguru Pal. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgment. The authors gratefully acknowledge support of this work by the U.S. Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Grant No. HL15104 and thank Professor Dennis Lichtenberger and Dr. Mark Jatcho for measurement of the PES of 5, R=R=Me3Sn.. PY - 1996/4. Y1 - 1996/4. N2 - The oxidation potentials of 2-silylated and 2-stannylated 1,3-dithianes have been determined by cyclic voltammetry. There is substantial, geometry-dependent, lowering of the oxidation potential by tin substituants as illustrated by 2,2-bis(trimethylstannyl)-1,3-dithiane whose oxidation potential of 0.19V is almost IV lower than that of 1,3-dithiane itself. The UV He I photoelectron spectrum of this compound shows that its two lowest ionization potentials of 7.48 and 7.97 eV are about 1 eV lower than those of 1,3-dithiane. X-ray crystallographic structure studies on ...
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6120-2683 ...
1. Bergers G, Benjamin LE. Tumorigenesis and the angiogenic switch. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003;3:401-10 2. Carmeliet P, Jain RK. Angiogenesis in cancer and other diseases. Nature. 2000;407:249 3. Sharma RA, Harris AL, Dalgleish AG, Steward WP, OByrne KJ. Angiogenesis as a biomarker and target in cancer chemoprevention. Lancet Oncol. 2001;2:726-32 4. Folkman J. Angiogenesis in cancer, vascular, rheumatoid and other disease. Nat Med. 1995;1:27-31 5. Cai W, Niu G, Chen X. Imaging of integrins as biomarkers for tumor angiogenesis. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14:2943-73 6. Hynes RO. Integrins: bidirectional, allosteric signaling machines. Cell. 2002;110:673-87 7. Cai W, Wu Y, Chen K, Cao Q, Tice DA, Chen X. In vitro and in vivo characterization of 64Cu-labeled Abegrin, a humanized monoclonal antibody against integrin αvβ3. Cancer Res. 2006;66:9673-81 8. Cooper CR, Chay CH, Pienta KJ. The role of αvβ3 in prostate cancer progression. Neoplasia. 2002;4:191-4 9. Hood JD, Cheresh DA. Role of integrins in cell ...
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Francium is one of the most unstable of the naturally occurring elements: its longest-lived isotope, francium-223, has a half-life of only 22 minutes. The only comparable element is astatine, whose most stable natural isotope, astatine-219 (the alpha daughter of francium-223), has a half-life of 56 seconds, although synthetic astatine-210 is much longer-lived with a half-life of 8.1 hours.[5] All isotopes of francium decay into astatine, radium, or radon.[5] Francium-223 also has a shorter half-life than the longest-lived isotope of each synthetic element up to and including element 105, dubnium.[6] Francium is an alkali metal whose chemical properties mostly resemble those of caesium.[6] A heavy element with a single valence electron,[7] it has the highest equivalent weight of any element.[6] Liquid francium-if created-should have a surface tension of 0.05092 N/m at its melting point.[8] Franciums melting point was estimated to be around 8.0 °C (46.4 °F, 281.0 K).[1] The melting point is ...
Just print, cut, and arrange this bulletin board sign that spells out "Science Matters" in letters in the style of the Periodic Table! Each box is 5 in. x 5 in. and once arranged as shown, it creates a 30 in. x 10 in. sign. Comes with 10 squares to be arranged to read ScIENCe MAtTeRS: Seven squares depict real period table boxes and are black with white writing: - Scandium (Sc) - Iodine (I) - Nitrogen (N) - Cerium (Ce) - Astatine (At) - Tellurium (Te) - Sulfur (S)
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ANES 203. Evaluating New Health Care Ventures: An Everyone Included¿ Approach. 1-2 Unit.. With ever-growing innovation in healthcare, how do investors evaluate and fund new ventures in one of the most diverse, operationally complex and regulated industries? Health care investment is unique in its dynamic evolution across decades of scientific, business and regulatory development. How might patients, providers, technologists, and investors¿which we define as our Stanford Medicine X Everyone Included¿ team model ¿help identify the best opportunities for the health care investor? This course focuses on how health care investors think and make strategic decisions, incorporating both changing financial metrics and qualitative investment theses. This colloquium will feature guest speakers including senior investment professionals, visionary business leaders and passionate new voices such as patient experts that have traditionally been absent from investment decisions. Students enrolling for 2 ...
This is a tour that goes around the Serra del Molar, crossing Rec del Gorg Negre and the Rierra Gavaressa river twice.. It makes a triangle between Perafita, Santa Eulàlia de Puig-Oriol and Sant Martí dAlbars, passing through la Blava and Beulaigua. The tour is generally over dirt tracks and the tarmac part has very little traffic on it.. The maximum steepness is 17% for a few metres and with the burricleta can be done without too much effort.. We recommend that you take your time and enjoy the landscape and if you can, the gastronomy of the area in Perafita and in Santa Eulàlia.. ...
From the call room, 6th straight overnight, so forgive the grammar, typo, conceptual errors of an exhausted brain. One fellow to another, this attempt at an answer from the perspective of seeing some light near the end of 2 ccm fellowships after 10 years of EM attending practice, first was anes, then internal med.. So, 2 pieces of advice, one from the best EM doc, if not the best doc, period, I know, Rick Bruno. The other from my former fellowship director Jean Charchaflieh, ie from the anes ccm program, but much built in from other wise folks.. From Rick Bruno when I asked him as a new 4th year EM res, how to run a complicated trauma or medical or peds resus,Rick, whats in your brain as background noise, he said: what am I missing, what am I missing, what am I missing?.. From Jean Charchaflieh, my anes-ccm fellowship director: Seth this world is too complex, and youre not Spiro (a pulm-ccm mentor from that first fellowship), so no ER attending or 30-year unit veteran one sentence ...
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effect of the alpha-particle-emitting isotope astatine-211 on the human cell line Colo-205 and to compare it with that of low-dose-rate gamma-radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plastic (PMMA) rotating phantoms were constructed, allowing precise dosimetry on a cellular level for both types of radiation. Growth assays using 96-well plates were used to estimate apparent cell survival for the two types of radiation. From this, the relative biological effect (RBE) could be estimated. RESULTS: Irradiation of the cells with 211At resulted in an RBE of 25.1 +/- 6.7 at 37% survival, and 17.3 +/- 2.5 at 10% survival, when compared with low-dose-rate gamma-irradiation. The absorbed dose at 37% survival, 0.12 Gy, corresponds to 2.2 traversals of alpha-particles through the cell nuclei. For cells irradiated with gamma-radiation (1 and 2 Gy), an apparent cell survival above unity was observed up to 50 hours post-irradiation, indicating a ...
The ranges of the alpha-particles proceeding from the 334-, 867-, 927-, 1220-, and 1363-kev resonances in the bombardment of fluorine with protons were measured. The Qs of those particles obtained at 334, 867, 927, and 1363 kev were found to be identical, and have the value 1.81 ± 0.04 Mev. The Q of the low energy alpha-particles obtained at the 1220-kev resonance was found to be 1.93±0.07 Mev. The two values thus yield an energy separation of 0.12±0.08 Mev for the two corresponding states of O16. In addition it was shown that at least one of the two resonances which are in the neighborhood of 900 kev must yield short range alpha-particles whose angular distribution is not spherically symmetric. ...
The data suggest that alpha-particle immunotherapy to neovasculature, alone or in combination with sequential chemotherapy, is an effective approach to cancer therapy.
Resonances in the yield of ground-state protons from alpha-particle bombardment of 31P were investigated in the energy range Eα = 1.7 − 3.3 MeV. Fourteen resonances were observed, none of which was known before. Resonance energies and strengths are presented. Angular distribution measurements lead to unique values of the resonance ... read more spin in all cases but one. The exception is the strong resonance at Eα = 3.302 MeV, which shows a deviation from forward-backward symmetry in the angular distribution, to be explained by assuming interference with some unknown broad resonance(s) with opposite parity, probably at higher energy. show less ...
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Fidler, J. v t e Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Error_bar&oldid=746427703 Categories: Statistical charts and diagramsStatistics stubsHidden categories: All stub articles Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces Article Talk Variants Views Read Confidence Interval Error Bars Now click on the Custom button as the method for entering the Error amount. 95 Confidence Interval Error Bars Combining that relation with rule 6 for SE bars gives the rules for 95% CIs, which are illustrated in Fig. 6. http://www.ehow.com/how_2049858_make-tinfoil-hat.html #14 mweed August 5, 2008 The tradition to use SEM in psychology is unfortunate because you cant just look at the graph and determine significance, but you do get some weblink Both cases are in molecular biology, unsurprisingly. #9 Michael Anes August 1, 2008 Frederick, You state Personally I think standard error is a bad choice because its only well defined for We could ...
When Chávez took office in 1999, one dollar was worth 5.6 bolivars. 19 years later, the amount of zeros is so long, its confusing. Today, regrettably, we reach the one billion later benchmark.. Frank Muci ...
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On 20 consecutive eyes with cataract before the stage of capsulorrhexsis a specially designed silicone ring (Verus Capsulorhexis Device, Mile High Ophthalmics) was implanted in the anterior chamber. Along its inner edge serving as a guide a continuous round capsulorrhexis was performed ...
Students continue to learn the theory and concepts of the surgical environment as it relates to anesthesia. Topics of discussion will include basic case set-up utilizing anesthesia supplies and equipment. Lastly, there will be an in-depth exploration of the function and handling of anesthesia equipment, supplies for various surgical procedures including general cases, regional anesthesia, and procedural sedation. Prerequisite: Anesthesia Technology 1501 with a grade of C or better, or equivalent.Admission to the program and consent of instructor is required. (9 lecture hours, 4 lab hours) ...
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"85 Astatine". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. Close, Frank E. (2004). Particle Physics: A Very Short ...
... 아스타틴 Astatine), Epiclog, 2017. Uriui sowoneun jeonjaeng (우리의 소원은 전쟁 Our wish is war), Wisdom House, 2016. Daetgeulbudae (댓글부대 ...
King, R. Bruce (2005). "Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, & Astatine: Inorganic Chemistry". Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry (2nd ...
Alabamine, a former name of Astatine. AB Class amplifier, a classification of electric amplifier The category of abelian groups ...
The group, dubbed The Astatine Collective, consists of Freeze as DJ, Sub Z on MPC and audio engineering, Deesarono as a ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Hitt, Christine (October 25, 2014). "Maryanne Ito and the Astatine Collective". ... and in October 2014 she and local group The Astatine Collective performed at Hallowbaloo. She was also a performer at the Great ... She has toured Hawaii with The Astatine Collective as support, and in the summer of 2015 she toured Europe, performing at ...
Attempts to synthesize astatine fluoride have been met with failure. The second longest-living astatine-211 is the only one to ... the most stable astatine-210 and the industrially used astatine-211 are not. Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and ... astatine is the least abundant element in Earth's crust among non-transuranium elements. Among astatine isotopes, six (with ... Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with the symbol At and atomic number 85. It occurs on the Earth only as the result ...
... it has been presumed that astatine would be a metal if it could form a condensed phase. Astatine may be metallic in the liquid ... complexes of astatine cations ... complex anions of trivalent astatine ... as well as complexes with a variety of organic ... A further option is to include astatine both as a nonmetal and as a metalloid. A visible piece of astatine would be immediately ... Astatine has an IE of 215 kJ/mol (899 kJ/mol) and an EN of 2.2. Its electronic band structure is not known with any certainty. ...
"Kenneth MacKenzie, 90; Helped Discover Astatine, Built UCLA's Atom Smasher". "In Memoriam" (PDF). UCLA Today. 22 (5). October ... synthesized the element astatine, in 1940. MacKenzie received his PhD under Ernest Lawrence at Lawrence Livermore National ...
Astatine, the heaviest halogen, has only formed a few compounds, due to its radioactivity and short half-life, and no reports ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Roza, Greg (2010). The Halogen Elements: Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine. ...
Bulk astatine has been predicted to have a metallic face-centred cubic structure † Hydrogen can also form alloy-like hydrides ... Astatine was synthesised in 1940 by Dale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, and Emilio Segrè. They bombarded bismuth-209 with ... In scheme (1), the halogens are in a category of their own; astatine is classed as a nonmetal, rather than a metalloid; and the ... Astatine has been predicted to have a metallic crystalline structure. Chemically the metalloids generally behave like (weak) ...
Astatine, and Francium. Translated by R. Kondor. Ann Arbor-Humphrey Science Publishers. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-250-39923-9. Not ...
The status of polonium and astatine is not settled. Most authors recognise one or the other, or both, as metalloids; Herman, ... 1686-87, doi:10.1021/ed078p1686 Holt, Rinehart & Wilson c. 2007 'Why polonium and astatine are not metalloids in HRW texts', ... 8, p. 783, doi:10.1021ed100308w Hermann A, Hoffmann R & Ashcroft NW 2013, 'Condensed Astatine: Monatomic and Metallic', ... Hoffmann and Ashcroft, on the basis of relativistic modelling, predict astatine will be a monatomic metal. One or more of ...
Astatine is not well-studied, and although there is a report of a non-volatile astatine monofluoride, its existence is debated ... All of the elements up to einsteinium, element 99, have been checked except for astatine and francium, and fluorine is also ... Gmelin, Leopold (1985-07-03). Gmelin handbook of inorganic chemistry: At-Astatine (8th ed.). Springer-Verlag. p. 224. ISBN ...
Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M. (2013). "Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes". Atomic Data and Nuclear ...
Astatine's main use is in radiotherapy to kill cancer cells. Due to this discovery Karlik was awarded the Haitinger Prize for ... During the Second World War she made her most important discovery, that the element with the atomic number 85, Astatine, was a ... She discovered that the chemical element 85 astatine is a product of the natural decay processes. The element was first ... became provisional director of the institute in 1945 and official director in 1947 upon discovering the existence of astatine. ...
Tin forms dihalides and tetrahalides with all halogens except astatine. Tin forms chalcogenides with one of each naturally ... Germanium forms tetrahalides with all halogens except astatine and forms dihalides with all halogens except bromine and ... astatine. Germanium bonds to all natural single chalcogens except polonium, and forms dioxides, disulfides, and diselenides. ...
The hydroxide of astatine At(OH) is presumed to be amphoteric. Astatine forms covalent compounds with nonmetals, including ... Astatine is a radioactive element that has never been seen; a visible quantity would immediately be vaporised due to its ... Astatine is commonly regarded as a nonmetal, less commonly as a metalloid and occasionally as a metal. Unlike its lighter ... As such, astatine could be expected to have a metallic appearance; show metallic conductivity; and have excellent ductility, ...
Astatine can also be produced by bombarding 209Bi with alpha particles. In the red giant stars of the asymptotic giant branch, ...
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"85 Astatine". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ Close, Frank E. (2004). Particle Physics: A Very Short ... Astatine 1940 R. Corson, R. MacKenzie and E. Segrè Obtained by bombarding bismuth with alpha particles.[135] Later determined ... astatine, and promethium) were eventually found in trace amounts in nature as well.[133] ...
These isotopes are astatine-215, astatine-217, and astatine-219. A total of 31 isotopes of astatine have been discovered, with ... Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium ... There are no stable isotopes of astatine. However, there are three naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of astatine ... Astatine has no biological role.[4] Toxicity[edit]. The halogens tend to decrease in toxicity towards the heavier halogens.[30] ...
Asta-tine85At​[210] Radon86Rn​[222] 7 Fran-cium87Fr​[223] Ra-dium88Ra​[226] Actin-ium89Ac​[227] Ruther-fordium104Rf​[267] Dub- ...
Astatine, An earlier proposed name for astatine was alabamine (Ab) "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved ...
Francium is a highly radioactive metal that decays into astatine, radium, and radon. As an alkali metal, it has one valence ...
Berei K & Vasáros L 1985, 'Astatine compounds', in Kugler & Keller Betke U & Wickleder MS 2011, 'Sulfates of the refractory ... 102-110 Kugler HK & Keller C (eds) 1985, Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic and Organometallic chemistry, 8th ed., 'At, Astatine', ... polonium and astatine in this category. In reviewing Chedd's work, Adler described this choice as arbitrary, given other ... It has been suggested that the astatine cation forms a weak complex with sulfate ions in acidic solutions. Hydrogen forms ...
Since Francium is so rare, it is even more difficult to find than astatine. Were it abundant, its high levels of radiation ...
85 At astatine use. ? 610 K. ? 337 °C. ? 86 Rn radon use. 211.5 K. −61.7 °C. −79.1 °F ...
Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium ...
He also researched radioactive isotopes of halogens, including bromine-82, iodine-131, and astatine-211. Liu's research won ...
... astatine was predicted to be a monatomic metal, with a face-centered cubic crystalline structure.[177] As such, astatine could ... Astatine oxyanions AtO−, AtO−. 3 and AtO−. 4 are known,[182] oxyanion formation being a tendency of nonmetals.[183] The ... Kugler HK & Keller C (eds) 1985, Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic and Organometallic chemistry, 8th ed., 'At, Astatine', system no ... Hawkes SJ 2010, 'Polonium and Astatine are not Semimetals', Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 87, no. 8, p. 783, doi:10.1021 ...
Astatine bromide is produced by the reaction of astatine with an aqueous solution of iodine monobromide: 2 At + 2 IBr → 2 AtBr ... I2 Astatine bromide also can produce by react elemental astatine and bromine: 2 At+Br2→2 AtBr Zuckerman & Hagen 1989, p. 31. ... chemistry of astatine. (Google Book) Zuckerman, J J; Hagen, A P (1989). Inorganic Reactions and Methods, the Formation of Bonds ... Astatine bromide is an interhalogen compound with the chemical formula AtBr. ...
Astatine iodide is produced by the direct combination of astatine and iodine in a 1:1 molar ratio: 2 At + I2 → 2 AtI Zuckerman ... Astatine iodide is an interhalogen compound with the chemical formula AtI. It is the heaviest known interhalogen compound (with ...
From the University of Ottawa, director of the Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Lab, Liam Kieser... from Carleton University, professor Emeritus of chemistry Don Wiles... and from Queens, PhD candidate in chemistry, Alistair Kierulf.
Astatine was discovered by D. Corson and co-workers in 1940 by bombarding a bismuth target with alpha particles. The most ... A second phase of the study of the atomic spectrum of astatine took place at the ISAC radioactive isotope facility of the ... Astatine is of particular interest because its isotopes are interesting candidates for the creation of radiopharmaceuticals for ... Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source of ISOLDE Astatine (At) is of significant interest as its decay properties make it an ...
Element Astatine (At), Group 17, Atomic Number 85, p-block, Mass [210]. Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, ... Astatine can be obtained in a variety of ways, but not in weighable amounts. Astatine-211 is made in nuclear reactors by the ... testing astatine radiotherapy in 18 brain tumour patients. So if astatine does become a successful medicine theres every ... Astatine-211 is not only an alpha emitter, it has also got a very short half life and the fact that it decays to a stable non- ...
astatine synonyms, astatine pronunciation, astatine translation, English dictionary definition of astatine. n. Symbol At A ... Astatine - definition of astatine by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/astatine ... astatine. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. as·ta·tine. (ăs′tə-tēn′, -tĭn). n. ... astatine. (ˈæstəˌtiːn; -tɪn) n. (Elements & Compounds) a radioactive element of the halogen series: a decay product of uranium ...
... astatine-214, and astatine-216m.[7] Astatine-210 and lighter isotopes exhibit beta plus decay (positron emission), astatine-216 ... Astatine-218 was the first astatine isotope discovered in nature.[111] Astatine-219, with a half-life of 56 seconds, is the ... Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium ... and this is still the major route used to create the relatively long-lived isotopes astatine-209 through astatine-211. Astatine ...
Iodine and Astatine - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780080187884, 9781483158327 ... Physical Properties of Astatine and Its Compounds. Chemical Properties of Astatine. Biological Behavior of Astatine. Index. ... 5. Astatine. Introduction. History, Discovery and Natural Occurrence. Isotopes of Astatine. Preparation, Separation and ... The Chemistry of Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astatine 1st Edition. Pergamon Texts in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 7. ...
To see a rotating video of (almost) any of the samples of Astatine from The Elements, click it below. Links will open in a new ...
Fluorine Astatine Hydrogen Erbi Maternity T-Shirt ✓ Unlimited options to combine colours, sizes & styles ✓ Discover Maternity T ...
Comprehensive information for the element Astatine - At is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names ... Astatine Menu. *Astatine Page One*Overview of Astatine*Astatines Name in Other Languages*Atomic Structure of Astatine*Chemical ... Astatine Menu. *Astatine Page One*Overview of Astatine*Astatines Name in Other Languages*Atomic Structure of Astatine*Chemical ... Astatines Name in Other Languages. *Latin: Astatium*Czech: Astat*Croatian: Astat*French: Astatine*German: Astatin - r*Italian: ...
Astatine definition: a radioactive element of the halogen series: a decay product of uranium and thorium that... , Meaning, ... astatine is in the lower 50% of commonly used words in the Collins dictionary ...
of most stable isotope 210; m.p. 302°C; ; b.p. 337°C; ; density unknown;... Explanation of astatine ... Find out information about astatine. semimetallic radioactive chemical element; symbol At; at. no. 85; at. wt. ... astatine. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Acronyms, Wikipedia. astatine. (ăs`tətēn, -tĭn) [Gr.,= ... Small amounts of astatine exist in equilibrium with uranium and thorium in the earths crust, but the total amount of astatine ...
Iodine and Astatine as an eTextbook and get instant access. With VitalSource, you can save up to 80% compared to print. ... The Chemistry of Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astatine Edition by A. J. Downs and Publisher Pergamon. Save up to 80% by ... The Chemistry of Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astatine by A. J. Downs ...
We hypothesized that astatine-211-labeled trastuzumab (211At-trastuzumab or 211At-tras) emitting highly cytotoxic α -particles ... Astatine-211-labeled trastuzumab was injected into the tail vein (s.c. xenograft model) or the peritoneal cavity (both ... We hypothesized that astatine-211-labeled trastuzumab (211At-trastuzumab or 211At-tras) emitting highly cytotoxic α -particles ... Astatine-211 is therefore particularly suited to the targeted killing of disseminated or micrometastatic solid tumors that are ...
Astatine. Just as fluorine has the distinction of being the most reactive, astatine is the rarest of all the elements. Long ... Astatine. Astatine is generally regarded as one of the rarest naturally occurring elements. According to some estimates, no ... astatine may have. The most promising area involves the use of astatine to treat a condition known as hyperthyroidism, related ... However-with the exception of astatine-they are very widespread and abundant in chemical compounds. The most widely known of ...
File:Astatine-iodide-3D-vdW.png Structure of astatine monoiodide, one of the astatine interhalogens and the heaviest known ... Beta decay modes have been found for all astatine isotopes except astatine-213, -214, -215, and -216m.[7] Astatine-210 and ... and this is still the major route used to create the relatively long-lived isotopes astatine-209 through astatine-211. Astatine ... Six astatine isotopes occur naturally (astatine-214 to −219).[105] Because of their short half-lives, they are found only in ...
Astatine is a chemical element with atomic number 85 and atomic mass 210. Astatine is highly radioactive and is only available ... The element named after observation that there are no stable astatine isotopes as the longest lived isotope (astatine-210) has ...
... 아스타틴 Astatine), Epiclog, 2017. Uriui sowoneun jeonjaeng (우리의 소원은 전쟁 Our wish is war), Wisdom House, 2016. Daetgeulbudae (댓글부대 ...
Astatine And Iodine Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibodies Zalutsky, Michael Rod Duke University, Durham, NC, United States ... 2015) Stability and in vivo behavior of Rh[16aneS4-diol]211 at complex: a potential precursor for astatine radiopharmaceuticals ...
What is the chemical symbol of astatine. ?. The chemical symbol of astatine is At ...
astatine. [as´tah-tēn] a chemical element, atomic number 85, atomic weight 210, symbol At. (See Appendix 6.) ...
Does the element astatine have any uses?. * Q: What are some popular medical uses for baking soda?. ...
Does the Element Astatine Have Any Uses?. * Q: What Is the Word Equation for the Chemical Reaction of Burning a Candle?. ...
Labeling of Anti-HER2 Nanobodies with Astatine-211: Optimization and the Effect of Different Coupling Reagents on Their in Vivo ... Labeling of Anti-HER2 Nanobodies with Astatine-211: Optimization and the Effect of Different Coupling Reagents on Their in Vivo ... Labeling of Anti-HER2 Nanobodies with Astatine-211: Optimization and the Effect of Different Coupling Reagents on Their in Vivo ... Labeling of Anti-HER2 Nanobodies with Astatine-211: Optimization and the Effect of Different Coupling Reagents on Their in Vivo ...
Compare Copper vs Astatine of the Periodic Table on all their Facts, Electronic Configuration, Chemical, Physical, Atomic ... The element Astatine was discovered by Dale R. Corson in year 1940 in United States. Astatine derived its name derived its name ... Compare Copper and Astatine. Compare Copper and Astatine on the basis of their properties, attributes and periodic table facts ... You can study the detailed comparison between Copper vs Astatine with most reliable information about their properties, ...
Astatine. A chemical element, At, atomic number 85. Astatine is the heaviest of the halogen groups, filling the place ... Astatine is a highly unstable element existing only in short-lived radioactive… ...
Astatine is said to be more metallic than iodine, and, like iodine, it probably accumulates in the thyroid gland. Workers at ... Astatine can be produced by bombarding bismuth with energetic alpha particles to obtain the relatively long-lived 209-211At, ... The total amount of astatine present in the earths crust, however, is less than 1 oz. ... recently used reactive scattering in crossed molecular beams to identify and measure elementary reactions involving astatine. ...
  • Astatine bromide is produced by the reaction of astatine with an aqueous solution of iodine monobromide: 2 At + 2 IBr → 2 AtBr + I2 Astatine bromide also can produce by react elemental astatine and bromine: 2 At+Br2→2 AtBr Zuckerman & Hagen 1989, p. 31. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astatine iodide is produced by the direct combination of astatine and iodine in a 1:1 molar ratio: 2 At + I2 → 2 AtI Zuckerman & Hagen 1989, p. 31. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mass spectrometer has been used to confirm that astatine behaves chemically like other halogens, particularly iodine. (rsc.org)
  • Iodine and astatine complete the group, but are not the subjects of primary consideration for electronics manufacturers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Group VIIA halogens -- fluorine, iodine and astatine -- are not restricted in the industry-standard, ENV0199 description. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chemically, several anionic species of astatine are known and most of its compounds resemble those of iodine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chemistry of Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astatine is a special edition that contains selected sections and addresses the needs of specialists in their respective fields. (elsevier.com)
  • Astatine is as close to iodine as it is to polonium- that is, it displays properties of both a nonmetal (halogen) and a metal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Chemistry of Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astatine Edition by A. J. Downs and Publisher Pergamon. (vitalsource.com)
  • Known collectively by a term derived from a Greek word meaning "salt-producing," the halogen family consists of five elements: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The same goes for bromine (4s 2 4p 5 ), iodine (4s 2 4p 5 ), and astatine (5s 2 5p 5 ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chemically, astatine can behave like the other halogens (the group of elements including fluorine and chlorine ), specifically as a heavier analog of iodine, as it is expected to form ionic astatides with alkali or alkaline earth metals and is known to form covalent compounds with nonmetals, including other halogens . (omicsgroup.org)
  • Astatine is said to be more metallic than iodine, and, like iodine, it probably accumulates in the thyroid gland. (lanl.gov)
  • all its isotopes have short half-lives of 8.1 hours or less, decaying into other astatine isotopes, bismuth , polonium or radon . (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the first 101 elements in the periodic table, only francium is less stable, and all the astatine isotopes more stable than francium are in any case synthetic and do not occur in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • francium, astatine, promethium and protactinium. (newscientist.com)
  • Most of the physical properties of astatine have been estimated (by interpolation or extrapolation ), using theoretically or empirically derived methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1964, McLaughlin studied a 70 ng sample of artificially produced radioactive isotopes of astatine and was first to observe two spectral lines in the UV region. (york.ac.uk)
  • Four isotopes of astatine were subsequently found to be naturally occurring, although much less than one gram is present at any given time in the Earth's crust. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 30 isotopes of astatine have been identified. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Only after this artificial derivation was it shown that four of the isotopes of astatine ( 215 At, 216 At, 2,8 At, and 219 At) are formed in very low-probability (5 x 10 "'-0.02 percent) branches of three natural series of the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Locoregional therapy with astatine-211 labeled trastuzumab ( 211 At-tras) in a mouse model of peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer (PMGC) and tumor monitoring. (vilber.com)
  • Astatine was discovered by D. Corson and co-workers in 1940 by bombarding a bismuth target with alpha particles. (york.ac.uk)
  • In 1940, Emilio Segré, D. R. Corson, and K. R. Mackenzie produced astatine-211 by bombarding bismuth-209 with alpha particles in the cyclotron at the Univ. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The element Astatine was discovered by Dale R. Corson in year 1940 in United States. (schoolmykids.com)
  • Element 85, now named astatine, was produced successfully in 1940 by Dale R. Corson , K.R. Mackenzie , and Emilio G. Segrè , who bombarded bismuth with alpha particles . (wikipedia.org)
  • Small amounts of astatine exist in equilibrium with uranium and thorium in the earth's crust, but the total amount of astatine is probably less than 1 oz. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The total amount of astatine present in the earth's crust, however, is less than 1 oz. (lanl.gov)
  • The bulk properties of astatine are not known with any certainty. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical properties of astatine are very interesting and unique. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Andreas Hermann and Neil Ashcroft along with Roald Hoffmann from chemistry have developed a theory describing the properties of astatine. (cornell.edu)
  • Astatine-211 ( 211 At) is an alpha particle emitting halogen with almost optimal linear energy transfer for creating DNA double-strand breaks and is thus proposed for radionuclide therapy when bound to tumor-seeking agents. (springeropen.com)
  • We show in a mouse model that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with an α‐particle emitting anti‐Frizzled homolog 10 (FZD10) antibody, synthesized using the α‐emitter radionuclide astatine‐211 (211At‐OTSA101), suppresses the growth of SS xenografts more efficiently than the corresponding β‐particle emitting anti‐FZD10 antibody conjugated with the β‐emitter yettrium‐90 (90Y‐OTSA101). (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • Although this approach allowed sustained marrow engraftment, limited availability, high cost, and short half-life of 213 Bi induced us to investigate an alternative α-emitting radionuclide, astatine-211 ( 211 At), for the same application. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Astatine-211 ( 211 At) is an alternative α-particle-emitting radionuclide for radioimmunotherapy ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • [9] A visible piece of astatine would immediately vaporize itself because of the heat generated by its intense radioactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This research investigates a novel targeted therapy that combines the α-particle emitter astatine-211 ( 211At) and the anti-HER2 Nb 2Rs15d to selectively target HER2+ cancer cells. (vub.be)
  • We produced astatine-210 with Bi target and 40 MeV alpha beam accelerated by cyclotron, free astatine-210 was separated and injected to normal rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Astatine can be found in uranium and thorium minerals as part of the natural decay series, however, the total amount present at any point in time in the entire earth's crust is estimated to be less than 30 grams. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • Their astatine was made by bombarding bismuth with alpha particles. (rsc.org)
  • The successful measurement fills a long-standing gap in Mendeleev's periodic table, since astatine was the last element present in nature for which this fundamental property was unknown. (york.ac.uk)
  • Compare Copper and Astatine on the basis of their properties, attributes and periodic table facts. (schoolmykids.com)
  • Astatine, element 85 on the Periodic Table, is the rarest element on earth. (kickstarter.com)
  • Astatine iodide is an interhalogen compound with the chemical formula AtI. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three male rats (blocking group) were injected non-radioactive iodide before injection of astatine-210. (elsevier.com)
  • The book also explains the biological behavior of astatine that accumulates in the liver or in the thyroid gland depending on the method of administration either as a radiocolloid or as a true solution. (elsevier.com)
  • An international team of scientists, including a University of York researcher, has carried out ground-breaking experiments to investigate the atomic structure of astatine (Z=85), the rarest naturally occurring element on Earth. (york.ac.uk)
  • The experimental value for astatine serves also for benchmarking the theories used to predict the atomic and chemical properties of super-heavy elements, in particular the recently discovered element 117, which is a homologue of astatine. (york.ac.uk)
  • Astatine is a dangerously radioactive element. (rsc.org)
  • Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with symbol At and atomic number 85. (wikipedia.org)
  • including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Astatine. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • Comprehensive information for the element Astatine - At is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides and technical terms are linked to their definitions. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • The element name d after observation that there are no stable astatine isotopes as the longest lived isotope (astatine-210) has a half -life of 8.3 hours. (blogspot.com)
  • symbol for the element astatine . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Does the element astatine have any uses? (reference.com)
  • Elemental astatine has never been viewed, because a mass large enough to be seen by the naked eye would be immediately vaporized by its radioactive heating. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Astatine can be obtained in a variety of ways, but not in weighable amounts. (rsc.org)
  • As for astatine, it is a solid too, but so highly radioactive that it is hard to know much about its properties. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Astatine is highly radioactive and is only available in tiny quantities with no significant influence in biosphere. (blogspot.com)
  • the most stable is astatine-210, with a half-life of 8.1 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most stable isotope, astatine-210, has a half-life of about 8 hours. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Though Argonne provides him the tiny amounts of astatine he needs for in-house work, Atcher says, one of his colleagues at the University of Pittsburgh could never get enough astatine to prove or disprove the therapy's potential" -- even though he had a grant for a human trial. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Astatine is sometimes described as probably being a black solid (assuming it follows this trend), or as having a metallic appearance (if it is a metalloid or a metal). (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of astatine (first called alabamine) was announced in 1931 by Fred Allison and E. J. Murphy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Compared with the control group, the astatine-210 accumulations in the blocking group decreased to 24% in the thyroid. (elsevier.com)
  • The second longest-lived isotope of astatine, astatine-211, is the only one with any commercial application, being used in medicine to diagnose and treat some diseases via its emission of alpha particles . (omicsgroup.org)
  • To see a rotating video of (almost) any of the samples of Astatine from The Elements , click it below. (periodictable.com)
  • Accordingly, much less is known about astatine than most other elements. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source of ISOLDE Astatine (At) is of significant interest as its decay properties make it an ideal short-range radiation source for targeted alpha therapy in cancer treatment. (york.ac.uk)
  • Professor Andreyev, who moved to York from the University of West of Scotland last year, said: "Astatine is of particular interest because its isotopes are interesting candidates for the creation of radiopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment by targeted alpha therapy. (york.ac.uk)
  • The first laser-ionized ions of astatine were observed and identified by its characteristic alpha-decay in these experiments. (york.ac.uk)
  • The presence of astatine is determined by characteristic alpha emission. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Astatine can be produced by bombarding bismuth with energetic alpha particles to obtain the relatively long-lived 209-211 At, which can be distilled from the target by heating in air. (lanl.gov)
  • abstract = "We proposed use of astatine-210 in preclinical study. (elsevier.com)