A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
Any of several Old World finches of the genus Serinus.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The practice of nursing in the work environment.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Animals that have no spinal column.
A geographical area of the United States with no definite boundaries but comprising northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, West Virginia, western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and southern New York.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE. Members contain prenylated quinones.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.

A cell-surface superoxide dismutase is a binding protein for peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase in crayfish. (1/713)

Peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase (homologous to human myeloperoxidase), from the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, was shown by immuno-fluorescence to bind to the surface of crayfish blood cells (haemocytes). In order to identify a cell surface receptor for peroxinectin, labelled peroxinectin was incubated with a blot of haemocyte membrane proteins. It was found to specifically bind two bands of 230 and 90 kDa; this binding was decreased in the presence of unlabelled peroxinectin. Purified 230/90 kDa complex also bound peroxinectin in the same assay. In addition, the 230 kDa band binds the crayfish beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein. The 230 kDa band could be reduced to 90 kDa, thus showing that the 230 kDa is a multimer of 90 kDa units. The peroxinectin-binding protein was cloned from a haemocyte cDNA library, using immuno-screening or polymerase chain reaction based on partial amino acid sequence of the purified protein. It has a signal sequence, a domain homologous to CuZn-containing superoxide dismutases, and a basic, proline-rich, C-terminal tail, but no membrane-spanning segment. In accordance, the 90 and 230 kDa bands had superoxide dismutase activity. Immuno-fluorescence of non-permeabilized haemocytes with affinity-purified antibodies confirmed that the crayfish CuZn-superoxide dismutase is localized at the cell surface; it could be released from the membrane with high salt. It was thus concluded that the peroxinectin-binding protein is an extracellular SOD (EC-SOD) and a peripheral membrane protein, presumably kept at the cell surface via ionic interaction with its C-terminal region. This interaction with a peroxidase seems to be a novel function for an SOD. The binding of the cell surface SOD to the cell-adhesive/opsonic peroxinectin may mediate, or regulate, cell adhesion and phagocytosis; it may also be important for efficient localized production of microbicidal substances.  (+info)

Simultaneous measurement of evoked release and [Ca2+]i in a crayfish release bouton reveals high affinity of release to Ca2+. (2/713)

The opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish was used to determine the affinity of the putative Ca2+ receptor(s) responsible for evoked release. Evoked, asynchronous release, and steady-state intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]ss, were measured concomitantly in single release boutons. It was found that, as expected, asynchronous release is highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. Surprisingly, evoked release was also found to be highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. The quantal content (m) and the rate of asynchronous release (S) showed sigmoidal dependence on [Ca2+]ss. The slope log m/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 1.6 and 3.3; the higher slope observed at the lower [Ca2+]o. The slope log S/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 3 and 4 and was independent of [Ca2+]o. These results are consistent with the assumption that evoked release is controlled by the sum of [Ca2+]ss and the local elevation of Ca2+ concentration near the release sites resulting from Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Y). On the basis of the above, we were able to estimate Y. We found Y to be significantly <10 microM even for [Ca2+]o = 13.5 mM. The dissociation constant (Kd) of the Ca2+ receptor(s) associated with evoked release was calculated to be in the range of 4-5 microM. This value of Kd is similar to that found previously for asynchronous release.  (+info)

The crayfish plasma clotting protein: a vitellogenin-related protein responsible for clot formation in crustacean blood. (3/713)

Coagulation in crayfish blood is based on the transglutaminase-mediated crosslinking of a specific plasma clotting protein. Here we report the cloning of the subunit of this clotting protein from a crayfish hepatopancreas cDNA library. The ORF encodes a protein of 1,721 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 15 amino acids. Sequence analysis reveals that the clotting protein is homologous to vitellogenins, which are proteins found in vitellogenic females of egg-laying animals. The clotting protein and vitellogenins are all lipoproteins and share a limited sequence similarity to certain other lipoproteins (e.g., mammalian apolipoprotein B and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein) and contain a stretch with similarity to the D domain of mammalian von Willebrand factor. The crayfish clotting protein is present in both sexes, unlike the female-specific vitellogenins. Electron microscopy was used to visualize individual clotting protein molecules and to study the transglutaminase-mediated clotting reaction. In the presence of an endogenous transglutaminase, the purified clotting protein molecules rapidly assemble into long, flexible chains that occasionally branch.  (+info)

Cryptocyanin, a crustacean molting protein: evolutionary link with arthropod hemocyanins and insect hexamerins. (4/713)

Cryptocyanin, a copper-free hexameric protein in crab (Cancer magister) hemolymph, has been characterized and the amino acid sequence has been deduced from its cDNA. It is markedly similar in sequence, size, and structure to hemocyanin, the copper-containing oxygen-transport protein found in many arthropods. Cryptocyanin does not bind oxygen, however, and lacks three of the six highly conserved copper-binding histidine residues of hemocyanin. Cryptocyanin has no phenoloxidase activity, although a phenoloxidase is present in the hemolymph. The concentration of cryptocyanin in the hemolymph is closely coordinated with the molt cycle and reaches levels higher than hemocyanin during premolt. Cryptocyanin resembles insect hexamerins in the lack of copper, molt cycle patterns of biosynthesis, and potential contributions to the new exoskeleton. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence similarities between cryptocyanin and other members of the hemocyanin gene family shows that cryptocyanin is closely associated with crustacean hemocyanins and suggests that cryptocyanin arose as a result of a hemocyanin gene duplication. The presence of both hemocyanin and cryptocyanin in one animal provides an example of how insect hexamerins might have evolved from hemocyanin. Our results suggest that multiple members of the hemocyanin gene family-hemocyanin, cryptocyanin, phenoloxidase, and hexamerins-may participate in two vital functions of molting animals, oxygen binding and molting. Cryptocyanin may provide important molecular data to further investigate evolutionary relationships among all molting animals.  (+info)

Tonic activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors in the opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish. (5/713)

Release of excitatory transmitter from boutons on crayfish nerve terminals was inhibited by (R,S)-baclofen, an agonist at GABAB receptors. Baclofen had no postsynaptic actions as it reduced quantal content without affecting quantal amplitude. The effect of baclofen increased with concentration producing 18% inhibition at 10 microM; EC50, 50% inhibition at 30 microM; maximal inhibition, 85% at 100 microM and higher. There was no desensitization, even with 200 or 320 microM baclofen. Phaclofen, an antagonist at GABAB receptors, competitively antagonized the inhibitory action of baclofen (KD = 50 microM, equivalent to a pA2 = 4.3 +/- 0.1). Phaclofen on its own at concentrations below 200 microM had no effect on release, whereas at 200 microM phaclofen itself increased the control level of release by 60%, as did 2-hydroxy-saclofen (200 microM), another antagonist at GABAB receptors. This increase was evidently due to antagonism of a persistent level of GABA in the synaptic cleft, since the effect was abolished by destruction of the presynaptic inhibitory fiber, using intra-axonal pronase. We conclude that presynaptic GABAB receptors, with a pharmacological profile similar to that of mammalian GABAB receptors, are involved in the control of transmitter release at the crayfish neuromuscular junction.  (+info)

Coherent oscillations in membrane potential synchronize impulse bursts in central olfactory neurons of the crayfish. (6/713)

Lateral protocerebral interneurons (LPIs) in the central olfactory pathway of the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii reside within the lateral protocerebrum and receive direct input from projection neurons of the olfactory midbrain. The LPIs exhibit periodic (0.5 Hz) changes in membrane potential that are imposed on them synaptically. Acute surgical experiments indicate that the synaptic activity originates from a group of oscillatory neurons lying within the lateral protocerebrum. Simultaneous intracellular recordings from many LPI pairs indicate that this periodic synaptic input is synchronous and coherent among the population of approximately 200 LPIs on each side of the brain. In many LPIs, specific odors applied to antennules in isolated head preparations generate long-lasting excitatory postsynaptic potentials and impulse bursts. The impulse bursts are generated only near the peaks of the ongoing depolarizations, approximately 1 s after stimulus application, and so the periodic baseline activity is instrumental in timing burst generation. Simultaneous recordings from pairs of LPIs show that, when impulse bursts occur in both cells after an odorant stimulus, they are synchronized by the common periodic depolarizations. We conclude that the common, periodic activity in LPIs can synchronize impulse bursts in subsets of these neurons, possibly generating powerful long-lasting postsynaptic effects in downstream target neurons.  (+info)

Cooperative Ca2+ removal from presynaptic terminals of the spiny lobster neuromuscular junction. (7/713)

Stimulation-induced changes in presynaptic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were examined by fluorescent imaging at the spiny lobster excitor motor nerve terminals. The Ca2+ removal process in the terminal was analyzed based on a single compartment model, under the assumption that the Ca2+ removal rate from the terminal cytoplasm is proportional to nth power of [Ca2+]i. During 100 nerve stimuli at 10-100 Hz, [Ca2+]i reached a plateau that increased in a less-than-linear way with stimulation frequency, and the power index, n, was about 2. In the decay time course after stimulation, n changed with the number of stimuli from about 1.4 after 10 stimuli to about 2 after 100 stimuli. With the change of n from 1.4 to 2, the rate became larger at high [Ca2+]i (>1.5 microM), but was smaller at low [Ca2+]i (<1 microM). These results suggest that a cooperative Ca2+ removal mechanism of n = 2, such as mitochondria, may play an important role in the terminal. This view is supported by the gradual increase in the [Ca2+]i plateau during long-term stimulation at 20-50 Hz for 60 s and by the existence of a very slow [Ca2+]i recovery process after this stimulation, both of which may be due to accumulation of Ca2+ in the organelle.  (+info)

Infection status of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in crayfish (Cambaroides similis) collected from Bogildo (Islet), Wando-gun, Chollanam-do, Korea. (8/713)

During the period from October 1996 to November 1998, the infection status of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in freshwater crayfish (Cambaroides similis) collected from Bogildo (islet). Wando-gun, Chollanam-do, which is known for an endemic area of P. westermani in Korea, were examined. The average infection rate of Paragonimus metacercariae in crayfish was 88.6%, and mean number of metacercariae per infected crayfish was 30.2. This metacercarial density was the highest in the group of weight in 7.1-9.0 g. These results suggest that the natural life cycle of P. westermani is still well-preserved in Bogildo.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of genes encoding Ca2+ exporting proteins in freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii during cold exposure. AU - Gao, Yongping. AU - Gillen, Christopher M.. AU - Whalen, Daniel R.. AU - Vigo, Francieli M.. AU - Golshani, Ashkahn E.. AU - Wheatly, Michele G.. PY - 2009/4/1. Y1 - 2009/4/1. N2 - 1.This study examined expression of two primary transmembrane Ca2+ export proteins (plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase, (PMCA); Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX)) in epithelial (antennal gland, kidney) and non-epithelial (axial abdominal muscle) tissues of the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii following exposure (28 days) to 4 °C (compared with control 23 °C).2.Crayfish tissues responded to cold exposure within 5-7 days by upregulating the mRNA (determined through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) for both PMCA and NCX. After 28 days, levels were 4-5× higher in antennal gland and 2-3× higher in muscle. In situ hybridization localized the mRNA increase ...
The red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii is a freshwater species that possesses high adaptability, environmental tolerance, and fecundity. P. clarkii is artificially farmed on a large scale in China. However, the molecular mechanisms of ovarian development in P. clarkii remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified four stages of P. clarkii ovary development, the previtellogenic stage (stage I), early vitellogenic stage (stage II), middle vitellogenic stage (stage III), and mature stage (stage IV) and compared the transcriptomics among these four stages through next-generation sequencing (NGS). The total numbers of clean reads of the four stages ranged from 42,013,648 to 62,220,956. A total of 216,444 unigenes were obtained, and the GC content of most unigenes was slightly less than the AT content. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Anosim analysis demonstrated that the grouping of these four stages was feasible, and each stage could be distinguished from the others. In the expression
ABSTRACT The relationships between hemolymph acidic-basic equivalents (pH, PCO2, and [HCO3, + C032-]), electrolytes (Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Cl), and ecdysone concentration were investigated in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii at 23°C during extracellular acidosis resulting from: (1) 24-h aerial exposure, (2) 96-h hyperoxic exposure (PO2 | 550 mm Hg), or (3) 96-h acid exposure (pH 4.0). A control series failed to reveal any significant effects of repetitive hemolymph sampling. In air, crayfish developed an initial (3-h) respiratory acidosis that was completely compensated within 24 h by metabolic base [HCO3 + CO32 ] accumulation. Circulating Ca and Cl both decreased at 24 h, while K increased. In this case, there was evidence that acid-base balance was corrected by ion exchange with the intracellular compartment. Hyperoxia was characterized by an initial (3-h) respiratory acidosis followed by a metabolic acidosis. The combined acidosis remained uncompensated, and circulating ecdysone decreased after 24 h.
REGENERATION STUDIES OF A SINGLE IDENTIFIABLE MOTONEURON IN THE CRAYFISH PROCAMBARUS CLARKII A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy by William P. Hunt Jr. DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire June 1985 ...
Albrecht, H. 1983. Besiedlungsgeschichte und ursprünglich holozäne Verbreitung der europäischen Flusskrebe. Spixiana 6(1): 61-77.. Alonso, F., Temino, C. and Diéguez-Uribeondo, J. 2000. Status of the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858), in Spain: distribution and legislation. Bull. Fr. Pêche Piscic. 356: 31-54.. Alonso, F., Temino, C. and Diéguez-Uribeondo, J. 2001. Actual conservation status of the white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet) in Spain. Knowledge-based management of European native crayfishes, September 13-15, 2001, Abstracts: 11. Poitiers, France.. Bernardo, J.M. and Ilheu, M. 1997. Present status of Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet) in Portugal. Freshwater crayfish 11: 671-674.. Bertocchi S., Brusconi, S., Gherardi, F., Grandjean, F. and Souty-Grosset, C. 2008. Genetic variability in the threatened crayfish Austropotamobius italicus in Tuscany: implications for its management. Fundamental and Applied Limnology ...
An 8-week experiment was conducted to determine the ability of juvenile red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard) to utilize different levels of cornstarch. Seven isonitrogenous practical diets were formulated with different cornstarch levels (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 g kg(-1)). The growth indices, body composition, a-amylase activity and hepatopancreas histology were examined. Results showed that the survival ranged from 71.1% to 82.2%, and was not significantly affected by dietary cornstarch levels (P > 0.05). Feeding rate (FR) increased with the level of cornstarch (P < 0.05), with no significant differences among the groups fed with cornstarch over 250 g kg(-1) (P > 0.05). Weight gain (WG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly affected by dietary cornstarch levels (P < 0.05), and the highest WG and lowest FCR were observed in the crayfish fed with the 200 g kg(-1) cornstarch diet. Crude lipid and hepatopancreas lipid content increased with increasing dietary ...
Hemocytes (blood cells) are important in the immune defense against pathogens in invertebrates. In crusteacean, the hemocytes and plasma components mount a strong innate immune response against different pathogens including bacteria and virus. This thesis is aimed to identify marker proteins associated with development of different hemocyte types, and to find a protein involved in the phenoloxidase-induced melanization and other innate immune reactions in freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. In crustaceans, the hemocytes are produced and partly differentiated in the hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) before they are released into the hemolymph circulation. To investigate the connection between semigranular cells, granular cells and precursor cells in Hpt of P. leniusculus and possibly also in other crustaceans, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was used to identify specific proteins expressed in different hemocytes. The specific expression ...
Electrical recordings were made from the sensory neurone of the tonic muscle receptor organ in the abdomen of the intact, freely behaving crayfish Cherax destructor. Slow extensions of the abdomen were evoked by lowering a platform from beneath the suspended crayfish, and the movements and tonic sensory neurone activity were video-recorded simultaneously. The recordings showed that the tonic sensory neurone was active when the abdomen was fully flexed prior to the extension. When the extension began, however, the sensory neurone ceased firing shortly after movement was detected, irrespective of the load applied to the abdomen. When the abdomen was physically blocked from extending fully, the sensory neurone did not fire. The tonic muscle receptor organ is considered to be the length-detecting sensor for a load-compensating servo-loop, but the results demonstrate that its activity pattern during extensions evoked by a platform-drop in C. destructor are not consistent with that role. ...
Abstract The karyotype of the Australian crayfish Cherax destructor was studied by examining metaphase chromosome spreads from the testis tissues (TE) and the mitotic cells in division from the regeneration callus of the new forming limb (FL). The sampled tissues showed the same results. A total of 111 mitotic metaphases, 67 TE + 44 FL, were examined and the diploid chromosome number ranged from 179 to 207 per metaphase with a mode at 188, the latter being considered the diploid chromosome number (2n = 188) of the species. The karyotype consisted of 70 metacentric, 42 submetacentric, 48 subtelocentric and 28 telocentric chromosome pairs. The sex chromosomes were cytologically indistinguishable.
Mate choice is often assumed to be a prerogative of females because of their putatively larger reproductive investment than males. However, recent evidence suggests that spermatogenesis is far from being limitless and that males show a high selectivity towards their mates, thus maximizing their reproductive success. We investigated mutual mate choice in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii through two experiments. The first experiment explored the effects of body size, chelar size and chelar symmetry and social status of a potential partner. In the second experiment, we asked whether this species can discriminate between partners of the same body size but with different mating status. We used a binary choice test paradigm, in which two targets with opposing characteristics were simultaneously presented to a test animal, the chooser. The results showed that P. clarkii males are more selective than expected. Similar to the other sex, they were significantly attracted by targets with large body ...
1. The closer and opener muscles in the third walking legs of the three crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii and Astacus leptodactylus are composed of fibres which differ in histochemistry, electrophysiology and morphology. Three major groups of fibres (A, B and C) were distinguished. 2. Group A fibres react weakly to histochemical stains for myofibrillar ATPase (mATPase) activity characteristic of fibres with slow shortening speeds. In the opener muscle, they are innervated by the opener excitor (OE) and the specific opener inhibitor (OI). In the closer muscle, group A fibres are innervated by the common inhibitory neurone (CI) in addition to single (slow closer excitor, SCE) or double excitatory (SCE and fast closer excitor, FCE) innervation. Group A fibres have the largest excitatory junction potentials (EJPs), the longest membrane time constants (tau) and the longest sarcomeres. They are located at the very distal and proximal ends of both muscles. 3. Group B fibres show ...
Knowledge and management of aquatic ecosystems (formerly Bulletin Français de la Pèche et de la Pisciculture), an international journal on freshwater ecosystem
Aphanomyces astaci spreads by means of motile zoospores released from the mature filaments in infected crayfish. The zoospores are attracted to crayfish cuticle, and filaments penetrate immediately. Zoospores can remain motile for up to 3 days and cysts survive for 2 weeks (in distilled water).4 Zoospores can re-encyst three times if they do not encounter a host. It is recommended to wait three months before attempting to re-stock waters in which crayfish have been killed by crayfish plague to allow all zoospores to die out.. Historically, crayfish plague spread to Europe with infected American crayfish brought and then distributed for culture and fishery purposes. The American crayfish are tolerant of infection and can remain carriers for life. Crayfish plague is also spread via contaminated fishing equipment or zoospores in water.5. American crayfish, including red swamp crawfish (Procambarus clarkii) and signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), can carry crayfish plague and may exhibit ...
The cause of Haff disease remains unclear at the moment. It is suspected to be caused by a heat-stable toxin that accumulates in the implicated food. However, chemical analysis of incriminated food (i.e. red swamp crayfish and fish), blood and urine samples from patients so far did not yield any possible toxins, drugs and hazardous elements. Some people suspected the improper use of washing solutions (such as solutions containing oxalic acid or sodium hydroxide) to clean crayfish would lead to rhabdomyolysis; however, oxalic acid or sodium hydroxide would not induce symptoms similar to that of rhabdomyolysis ...
The high-density lipoproteins LPI and LPII were isolated from the hemolymph of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by gradient ultracentrifugation and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both lipoproteins contained a carotenoid moiety. LPI is comprised of a single polypeptide with an approximate molecular mass of 96 kDa. LPII was composed of two similar native components, LPIIa and LPIIb, both having polypeptides of 80 and 177 kDa. Both under natural conditions and after endocrine manipulations, LPI was present in males and in females, regardless of the female reproductive stage. LPII was present only in secondary-vitellogenic females, but not during the winter reproductive arrest period. LPII was also absent from young females that had received androgenic gland implants. LPII also appeared in the hemolymph of intersex individuals from which the androgenic gland had been removed. It is therefore suggested that LPII serves as a marker indicating the onset of secondary vitellogenesis in ...
About 30 years ago, a freshwater crayfish kept in an aquarium in Germany reproduced without a mate - perplexing both its owner and scientists. Since then, clones of the animal have been invading wild ecosystems throughout Europe and Africa.. The genome of the marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis) has now been sequenced by a team from the German Cancer Researcher Center to uncover the animals unique evolution and adaptation skills. The findings may also offer insight into the cloning process of cancerous tumors, the researchers say.. Freshwater crayfish belong to the order of decapod crustaceans, which also includes crabs, lobsters, prawns and shrimps. However, the only crustacean genomes available are for the water flea and sand flea, and there are no genome sequences for decapods, so there is still a lot to be learned about the various species of crustaceans.. The marbled crayfish (called Marmorkrebs in Germany) is believed to have originated when two slough crayfish, imported to Germany ...
Knowledge and management of aquatic ecosystems (formerly Bulletin Français de la Pèche et de la Pisciculture), an international journal on freshwater ecosystem
Conspecific distribution across differing microhabitats may arise due to individual differences in resource requirements, vulnerability to predation, environmental tolerances, and as a direct result of social interaction. The aim of this study was to examine crayfish distributions across habitats with varying resource availability and to examine whether such distributions are correlated with dominance relationships among individuals. Agonistic interactions, habitat use, and shelter use were observed in mixed-sex populations of eight crayfish, Orconectes virilis. Populations were placed in a semi-natural, 4 × 4 m arena for 20 h that was split into shelter-poor (low), shelterrich (high) and shelter-free (free) areas. The presence of shelter was associated with a significant increase in crayfish habitat use. Overall agonism also increased in habitats where shelter was present. Status specific differences in shelter and habitat use were observed and were dependent upon environmental context (e.g., ...
Synonyms for abdominal nerve plexus in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for abdominal nerve plexus. 3 synonyms for abdominal nerve plexus: coeliac plexus, plexus celiacus, solar plexus. What are synonyms for abdominal nerve plexus?
This study assessed the chronic effects of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy (T2H), one of the main terbuthylazine degradation products, on early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis) by means of mortality, growth rate, early ontogeny, oxidative stress, antioxidant defence and histopathology. The crayfish were exposed to four concentrations of the tested substance as follows: 0.75 μg/l (environmental concentration), 75, 375 and 750 μg/l for 62 days. Concentrations over 75 μg/l caused lower weight compared to the control group. T2H at 750 μg/l caused delay in ontogenetic development. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total superoxide dismutase activity were significantly (p , 0.01) lower in groups exposed to 375 and 750 μg/l T2H. Crayfish in these treatments also showed alteration of tubular system including disintegration of tubular epithelium with complete loss of structure in some places of hepatopancreas and wall thinning up to disintegration of ...
The opener muscle of the crayfish leg is presented for its historical importance and experimental versatility in muscle phenotype,...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
When no homology was found with a BLASTx [x] against non-redundant sequences in the public database, BLASTn optimised for highly similar sequences (megablast) [n (h)] was conducted against sequences in database. If no similarity obtained from n (h), then BLASTn optimised for somewhat similar sequences (blastn) [n (s)] was performed. If multiple significant similarities matched with a single cDNA (sequence consensus), only the highest scoring hit was included in the table. Library 1a and 1b were produced from the first SHH trial with amplicon size of 270 bp and 200 bp, respectively. Library 2a was constructed from the second SSH trial with amplicon size of 200 bp. Library 3a, 3b and 3c were constructed from the third SSH trial with amplicon size of 450 bp, 350 bp, and 300 bp respectively. All these bands (amplicons) were cut, purified and cloned to construct the libraries. Library 1, 2 and 3 were constructed from the first, second and third SSH trial respectively, directly purified and inserted ...
This research presents an analysis of two data sets, one consisting of mt16S rRNA sequences from 134 samples and the second a combination of four genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, COI, GAPDH) from a subset of these samples to test species boundaries and establish phylogenetic hypotheses for New Guinean and selected northern Australian species. These data supports the recognition of 25 Cherax species, including three recently described species and five new species discovered in this study from Papua, Indonesia. Two main clades were identified based on phylogenetic analyses. The New Guinean crayfish does not form a monophyletic group but share relationships with northern Australian species at different evolutionary depths, which is consistent with the geological history of the region. The diverse highland Cherax fauna of the Wissel Lakes form a well support monophyletic lineage but show minimal molecular divergence, which is at odds with their high morphological diversity. The results of this study fill ...
Osmotic and ionic regulation was studied in the North American crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana), stepwise acclimated to increasing salinities. Stepwise acclimation involved transferring crayfish at 48 hour intervals from freshwater to 100% seawater in 20% increments. In experiments where 70% seawater was used, animals were moved directly from 40 to 70% seawater. The salinity of the 100% seawater used in this study was 30, 67 parts per thousand (%₀). Two approaches to the study of osmotic and ionic regulation were used: in one, animals were sacrificed at the end of 48 hours in the test salinity, and in the other crayfish were left in the test salinity for prolonged periods of time (up to 32 days). In the latter, animals were sacrificed at various times throughout the experiment. In both approaches the osmotic and ionic concentrations of blood and tissues were studied. Blood samples were analyzed for osmotic, sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium concentrations. In some experiments, ...
1IAD: Refined 1.8 A X-ray crystal structure of astacin, a zinc-endopeptidase from the crayfish Astacus astacus L. Structure determination, refinement, molecular structure and comparison with thermolysin.
1IAC: Refined 1.8 A X-ray crystal structure of astacin, a zinc-endopeptidase from the crayfish Astacus astacus L. Structure determination, refinement, molecular structure and comparison with thermolysin.
The best 3 synonyms for abdominal nerve plexus, including: solar-plexus, coeliac plexus, plexus celiacus and more... Find another word for abdominal nerve plexus at YourDictionary.
Crayfish are small crustaceans that inhabit freshwater streams, creeks, swamps, and ponds throughout North America. Also known as crawfish or mud bugs, these aquatic creatures are sometimes harvested for food or fishing bait.. Fishermen use a variety of methods to catch wild crayfish. In many creeks and streams, crayfish can be caught by hand with small dip nets. Experienced harvesters locate their targets by searching under rocks and other areas where crayfish tend to hide.. In swamps, ponds, and slow moving creeks, traps are the most common tool for harvesting crayfish. A variety of crayfish traps are popular, including square, rectangular, or tube shaped traps. Crayfish traps should have one or more funnels and an access door for adding bait as well as removal of crayfish.. Crayfish are attracted to baits such as fish carcasses, chicken parts, or other easily attainable meat. Baits are usually more effective when placed in a small mesh bag and tied in place within the trap. More elaborate ...
In the Leptodactylus fuscus group of Heyer, 1978, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 29: 1-85. Cei, 1987, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 21: 223-225, noted that the species reviewed by Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 338-340, under the name Leptodactylus mystaceus was of this species. Reviewed by Heyer and Heyer, 2002, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 742: 1-5. Zaracho and Alvarez, 2005, FACENA, 21: 135, provided a record for the Parque Nacional Mburucuy, Corrientes, Argentina. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 13, briefly discussed range in Paraguay. Jansen, Bloch, Schulze, and Pfenninger, 2011, Zool. Scripta, 40: 567-583, suggested on the basis of molecular evidence that at least one unnamed species may exist in Bolivia. In the Leptodactylus fuscus species group, Leptodactylus mystaceus complex, of de Sá, Grant, Camargo, Heyer, Ponssa, and Stanley, 2014, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 9(Spec. Issue 1): 1-123, who provided a summary of the relevant literature of this ...
Tyrosinases, which are widely distributed among animals, plants and fungi, are involved in many biologically essential functions, including pigmentation, sclerotization, primary immune response and host defence. In the present study, we present a structural and physicochemical characterization of two new tyrosinases from the crustaceans Palinurus elephas (European spiny lobster) and Astacus leptodactylus (freshwater crayfish). In vivo, the purified crustacean tyrosinases occur as hexamers composed of one subunit type with a molecular mass of approx. 71kDa. The tyrosinase hexamers appear to be similar to the haemocyanins, based on electron microscopy. Thus a careful purification protocol was developed to discriminate clearly between tyrosinases and the closely related haemocyanins. The physicochemical properties of haemocyanins and tyrosinases are different with respect to electronegativity and hydrophobicity. The hexameric nature of arthropod tyrosinases suggests that these proteins were the ...
The adhesive properties of gastroliths from a freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were quantified by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) between heavily demineralized gastrolith microparticles and gastrolith substrates of different composition. Combined AFM and transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the sequential detachment and large adhesion energies that characterise the adhesive behaviour of a native gastrolith substrate are dominated by sacrificial bonds between chitin fibres and between chitin fibres and CaCO3. The sacrificial bonds were shown to be strongly related to the gastrolith proteins and when the majority of these proteins were removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), the sequential detachment disappeared and the adhesive energy was reduced by more than two orders of magnitude.. ...
The phylogenetic position of the four East Asian freshwater crayfish species of the genus Cambaroides is not settled. Morphological phylogenetic analyses suggest close affinities of Cambaroides with North American Cambaridae. This view is based mainly on characters of the male and female reproductive organs. In contrast, the only molecular phylogenetic analysis so far available leaves the phylogenetic position of Cambaroides unresolved. The question of whether Cambaroides is monophyletic or paraphyletic has so far been neither addressed morphologically nor with molecular data sets. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all four currently described species of Cambaroides in the framework of Northern Hemisphere freshwater crayfish (Astacoidea) relationships based on partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (CO1 and 12S rRNA). Despite some evidence in favour of a monophyletic Cambaroides more data is needed to resolve this question. Our ...
Crandall, Keith A., D. James Harris, James W. Fetzner, Jr. 2000. The Monophyletic Origin of Freshwater Crayfish Estimated from Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA sequences. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (2000) 267, 1679-1686.. Hobbs, H.H., Jr. 1974. Synopsis of the families and genera of crayfishes (Crustacea: Decapoda). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 164:1-32.. Hobbs, H.H., Jr. 1988. Crayfish distribution, adaptive radiation and evolution. Pp. 52-82 in D.M. Holdich and R.S. Lowery (eds), Freshwater crayfish: biology, management and exploitation. Timber Press, Portland. Huxley, T.H. 1880. The crayfish: An introduction to the study of Zoology. D. Appleton, New York. Jamieson, B.G.M. 1991. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of crustacean spermatozoa. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 31:109-142.. Ortmann, A.E. 1902. The geographical distribution of freshwater decapods and its bearing upon ancient geography. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 41:267-400.. Scholtz, G. 1993. Teloblasts in decapod ...
Genes encoding allatostatin CC (AST-CC) were discovered relatively recently following a search of various arthropod genomes (Veenstra, 2009). The gene encoding AST-CC is a paralog of the allatostatin C (AST-C) gene. Both these genes are homologous to the vertebrate somatostatins. Interestingly, AST-CC encoding precursors have a signal anchor instead of the N-terminal signal peptide in several arthropods including Drosophila, tsetse flies, Zootermopsis nevadensis and Procambarus clarkii (Veenstra, 2015). Thus, AST-CC may function in a juxtacrine manner as opposed to an endocrine or paracrine factor in these species. However, AST-CC precursors in other species such as Tribolium castaneum, Rhodnius prolixus and Apis mellifera have a classical signal peptide. Like AST-C, arthropod AST-CCs contains two cysteine residues, which suggests that the peptide becomes cyclized by a disulfide bridge. In T. castaneum, there is a single somatostatin-like GPCR, which is activated by both AST-C and AST-CC; ...
The parthenogenetic all-female marbled crayfish is a novel research model and potent invader of freshwater ecosystems. It is a triploid descendant of the sexually reproducing slough crayfish, Procambarus fallax, but its taxonomic status has remained unsettled. By cross-breeding experiments and parentage analysis we show here that marbled crayfish and P. fallax are reproductively separated. Both crayfish copulate readily, suggesting that the reproductive barrier is set at the cytogenetic rather than the behavioural level. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes of marbled crayfish from laboratory lineages and wild populations demonstrates genetic identity and indicates a single origin. Flow cytometric comparison of DNA contents of haemocytes and analysis of nuclear microsatellite loci confirm triploidy and suggest autopolyploidisation as its cause. Global DNA methylation is significantly reduced in marbled crayfish implying the involvement of molecular epigenetic mechanisms in its origination. ...
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the enzyme which catalyzes the rate determining step of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), controls the production of nucleotide precursor molecules (R5P) and powerful reducing molecules (NADPH) that support multiple biosynthetic functions, including antioxidant defense. G6PDH from hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish (Orconectes virilis) showed distinct kinetic changes in response to 20 h anoxic exposure. Km values for both substrates decreased significantly in anoxic crayfish; Km NADP+ dropped from 0.015 ± 0.008 mM to 0.012 ± 0.008 mM, and Km G6P decreased from 0.13 ± 0.02 mM to 0.08 ± 0.007 mM. Two lines of evidence indicate that the mechanism involved is reversible phosphorylation. In vitro incubations that stimulated protein kinase or protein phosphatase action mimicked the effects on anoxia on Km values, whereas DEAE-Sephadex chromatography showed the presence of two enzyme forms (low- and high-phosphate) whose proportions changed ...
Zoological Science publishes articles, reviews and editorials that cover the broad and increasingly interdisciplinary field of zoology.
Crayfishes are omnivores that are active at twilight and during the night. None of them is truly social in its behaviour, but the species usually seen in the aquarium hobby are normally relatively tolerant of their own kind. Good daytime hiding-places are particularly important for these crays. Each individual maintained in the aquarium should have its own personal hiding-place in the form of the narrowest possible cave. The ideal cave size is one into which the occupant can only just fit.. All crayfishes are extremely sensitive to metals in the water, with copper in particular being exceptionally toxic for crustaceans. This should be borne in mind, particularly where there are new copper water pipes in use. That aside, they have no particular requirements regarding the water, although in some species the hardness of the water has a direct effect on the coloration of the shell. The pH should not be significantly lower than 6 and no higher than 9.. For long-term maintenance it is important for ...
EN ISO 10273 method for the detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in foods was validated in the project Mandate M/381 funded by European Commission. A total of 14 laboratories from five European countries participated in the interlaboratory study (ILS) organized during 2013 and 2014. Before the ILS, the method was revised by an international group of experts and the performance of the revised method was assessed in an ILS study. The results are published as a part of the standard EN ISO 10273 revision. The study included three rounds with different sample types; raw milk, iceberg lettuce and minced meat, inoculated with a low and high level of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains representing major pathogenic bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. The homogeneity and stability of the samples were verified before dispatching them to the laboratories. The results demonstrated the method sensitivity of 96% in raw milk, 97% in minced meat, and 98% in lettuce at high inoculation level of pathogenic ...
Bubb, DH, Lucas, MC & Thom, TJ (2002). Winter movements and activity of signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus in an upland river, determined by radio telemetry. Hydrobiologia 483(1-3): 111-119. ...
Prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and crawfish, Procambarus clarkii, were alternatively grown in ponds to determine if they were compatible and if total production could be increased. Brood crawfish were stocked into replicated ponds at rates of 0, 60, 120 or 180 kg/ha on 18 April.. Water was removed to encourage burrowing. Following this, rice was planted as forage. Post-larval prawns (0.02 g) were stocked 3 July in all ponds at 17,500/ha. Prawns in half the ponds were fed and those in the other ponds were not. Ponds were drained from 7 to 11 October. Prawn production ranged from 157 to 248 kg/ha; survival ranged from 69% to 88%, and average size ranged from 11 to 17 g. There was no significant difference (P , 0.05) between fed and non-fed treatments. The ponds were reflooded and crawfish were harvested by trapping from 15 January to 15. May. The average yield of crawfish ranged from 746 to 1,266 kg/ha.. Stocking rate had no effect on crawfisch yields (P , 0.25). Total yield, with prawns and ...
Buhay, J.E and Crandall, K.A. 2009. Taxonomic Revison of Cave Crayfish in the Genus Cambarus , Subgenus Aviticambarus (Decapoda: Cambaridae) with Descriptions of Two New Species , C.speleocoopi and C. laconensis, Endemic to Alabama, U.S.A. Journal of Crustacean Biology 29(1): 121-134.. Buhay, J.E, Moni, G, Mann, N, Crandall, K.A. 2007. Molecular taxonomy in the dark: Evolutionary history, phylogeography, and diversity of Cave Crayfish in the subgenus Aviticambarus, genus Cambarus. Molecular Phylogentics and Evolution 42: 435-338.. IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).. ...
The plague could arrive with crayfish, fish, or contaminated water from infected areas. It could hitchhike on equipment (such as nets, boots, ropes, clothing, or fishing gear).. MPI has strict measures in place to limit the chances of crayfish plague making it through the border. ...
Aim The sequential break-up of Gondwana is thought to be a dominant process in the establishment of shared biota across landmasses of the Southern Hemisphere. Yet similar distributions are shared by taxa whose radiations clearly post-date the Gondwanan break-up. Thus, determining the contribution of vicariance versus dispersal to seemingly Gondwanan biota is complex. The southern freshwater crayfishes (family Parastacidae) are distributed on Australia and New Guinea, South America, Madagascar and New Zealand and are unlikely to have dispersed via oceans, owing to strict freshwater limitations. We test the hypotheses that the break-up of Gondwana has led to (1) a predominately east-west (((Australia, New Zealand: 80 Ma) Madagascar: 160-121 Ma) South America: 165-140 Ma), or (2) a southern (((Australia, South America: 52-35 Ma) New Zealand: 80 Ma) Madagascar: 160-121 Ma) pattern for parastacid crayfish. Further, we examine the evidence for a complete drowning of New Zealand and subsequent ...
In the Leptodactylus pentadactylus group of Heyer, 1972, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 231: 1-8, and Heyer, 1979, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 301: 1-43. See accounts by Lescure, 1979, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 1: 757-774; and Kaiser, 1994, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 583: 1-3. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 401. Henderson and Powell, 2009, Nat. Hist. Rept. Amph. W. Indies: 93-94, summarized the natural history literature. In the Leptodactylus pentadactylus species group of de Sá, Grant, Camargo, Heyer, Ponssa, and Stanley, 2014, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 9(Spec. Issue 1): 1-123, and who provided a summary of relevant literature on pp. 49-50, and who suggested that no voucher evidence exists supporting the purported former occurrence on Antigua, Guadaloupe, and St Lucia. ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Gan, Zhibin, Li, Xinzheng (2016): Lysmata leptodactylus, a new species of lysmatid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from China. Zootaxa 4138 (1): 181-188, DOI: http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4138.1.9 ...
Unique & High Quality StockStock Pictures of Freshwater Yabby, Freshwater Crayfish and Rifle Shrimp from New South Wales, Australia.
We studied the femur-tibia joint control system of the insect leg, and its switch between resistance reflex in posture control and active reaction in walking. The active reaction is basically a reversal of the resistance reflex. Both responses are elicited by the same sensory input and the same neuronal network (the femur-tibia network). The femur-tibia network was modeled by fitting the responses of model neurons to those obtained in animals. Each implemented neuron has a physiological counterpart. The strengths of 16 interneuronal pathways that integrate sensory input were then assigned three different values and varied independently, generating a database of more than 43 million network variants. The uploaded version contains the model that best represented the resistance reflex. Please see the README for more help. We demonstrate that the combinatorial code of interneuronal pathways determines motor output. A switch between different behaviors such as standing to walking can thus be ...
We studied the femur-tibia joint control system of the insect leg, and its switch between resistance reflex in posture control and active reaction in walking. The active reaction is basically a reversal of the resistance reflex. Both responses are elicited by the same sensory input and the same neuronal network (the femur-tibia network). The femur-tibia network was modeled by fitting the responses of model neurons to those obtained in animals. Each implemented neuron has a physiological counterpart. The strengths of 16 interneuronal pathways that integrate sensory input were then assigned three different values and varied independently, generating a database of more than 43 million network variants. The uploaded version contains the model that best represented the resistance reflex. Please see the README for more help. We demonstrate that the combinatorial code of interneuronal pathways determines motor output. A switch between different behaviors such as standing to walking can thus be ...
The Long-clawed Ground Squirrel is an average sized squirrel species, with a head and body length of 200-280 mm and tail length approximately 70-90 mm. The color of their coat is separated, with the dorsal side a yellow to grayish-yellow tint and the ventral, underside, white. There are no stripes evident on this species. The coat is very short in the summer and long and fuzzy in the winter. With this seasonal change in coat, the squirrel is active throughout the year. The bottom of the tail has a black tint and the top is fringed with yellow and white bristles. The soles of the feet are heavily furred year round (Krapp in Grzimek 1990).. A unique characteristic of S. leptodactylus is the multiple pairs of vibrissae on the underside of its body. Vibrissae are stiff hairs, similar to whiskers on cats, that are very sensitive to surrounding environments. The vibrissae on this squirrel may be helpful when it is climbing through shrubs. The defining features of this species are the long, thick ...
We report herein a case of predation by the ctenid spider Ctenus medius on a leptodactylid frog Leptodactylus marmoratus, observed in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest, municipality of São Vicente, São Paulo state, southeast Brazil. This is the first record of predation by C. medius upon L. marmoratus. Nevertheless, due to the high abundance of both groups, we suggest that the interaction between spiders and amphibians could be very common on the floor of the Atlantic Forest ...
Morgan, G. J., 1997. Freshwater crayfish of the genus Euastacus Clark (Decapoda: Parastacidae) from New South Wales, with a key to all species of the genus, Records of the Australian Museum, Supplement, Vol. 23: 1-110 ...
Video articles in JoVE about ligand gated ion channels include Isolation of Human Atrial Myocytes for Simultaneous Measurements of Ca2+ Transients and Membrane Currents, Whole Cell Recording from an Organotypic Slice Preparation of Neocortex, Synthesis, Characterization, and Functionalization of Hybrid Au/CdS and Au/ZnS Core/Shell Nanoparticles, Measuring TCR-pMHC Binding In Situ using a FRET-based Microscopy Assay, Adhesion Frequency Assay for In Situ Kinetics Analysis of Cross-Junctional Molecular Interactions at the Cell-Cell Interface, Testing Protozoacidal Activity of Ligand-lytic Peptides Against Termite Gut Protozoa in vitro (Protozoa Culture) and in vivo (Microinjection into Termite Hindgut), Coordination Chemistry Complexes, Desensitization and Recovery of Crayfish Photoreceptors Upon Delivery of a Light Stimulus, Genetically-encoded Molecular Probes to Study G Protein-coupled Receptors, Flash-and-Freeze: A Novel Technique to Capture Membrane Dynamics with Electron Microscopy
The alimentary canal provided with the eversible buccal region and protrusible pharynx. n the anterior section of the sternum Metathorax. Annuli: ... paired appendages - numerous setae project from the parapodia, giving them their class name. The coelom is lined with mesoderm and communicates to the exterior through paired nephridia. Definition. Definition: Paired elements of the proboscis, arising posterolaterally between the labrum and the labium (ex McAlpine 1981). A, Typical cuspidate setae from the basis of maxilla 1 of Cherax quadricarinatus. Some of the nymphs are males-both winged and wingless, and others are fe-males. Note clear articulation with general cuticle (arrowheads) and compare with B. In general, however, crustaceans possess paired mandibles with opposing biting and grinding surfaces. ... withdrawal of parapodia and setae - longitudinal muscles fully contract on this side presternum synonyms, presternum pronunciation, presternum translation, English dictionary definition of ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Taxonomic database that provides basic information about all living reptile species, such as turtles, snakes, lizards, and crocodiles, as well as tuataras and amphisbaenians, but does not include dinosaurs.
Postoperative pain is one of the complications of caesarean section. A new Cochrane Review combines the evidence on the effect of using local anaethetics in the wound to reduce this. ...
We have recently described an unusual rhythmic Ca2+ activity rhythm in the developing Hermaphrodite Specific Neurons (Ravi et al. 2018b). This ~50 s rhythm of HSN activity in L4.9 animals resembled the rhythm of the defecation motor program (DMP), prompting us to investigate whether there is a relationship between circuits that regulate reproduction and defecation behaviors. As shown in Figure 1A, the egg-laying HSN command neurons and VC motor neurons make and receive synapses from the excitatory GABAergic AVL and DVB motoneurons that regulate defecation (White, J.G. et al. 1986). Serotonin and Gαo signaling, which regulate egg laying behavior, can also signal to inhibit defecation (Ségalat et al. 1995; Waggoner et al. 1998; Hardaker et al. 2001; Tanis et al. 2008; Brewer et al. 2019). However, the functional relationship between what are thought to be independent motor circuits has not been examined. Because evidence shows that both the egg-laying active state and the DMP are both linked to ...
My current focus is on understanding the role of sensory feedback in motor control. A few years ago, a student, David Cofer, built AnimatLab, a computer program that enables the user to reconstruct the body (skeleton, muscles, body surface) and nervous system of an animal in a computational model that is situated in a virtual physical world. This program makes it possible to test our understanding of the neural control of behavior in a dynamic context where sensorimotor feedback loops are closed. We have used AnimatLab to help understand the neural control of locust jumping (J Exp Biol 213:1060-1068 and 3378-3387, 2010) and more recently crayfish walking. Much is known about the circuits that control a variety of behaviors in these and other animals; AnimatLab makes it possible to put circuit information about one animal together to test whether it is sufficient to account for the animals behavior. When that information falls short (which is most of the time), the simulation still provides ...
250 µCi quantities of [Glutamate-3, 4-3H]-NAAG are available for your research. Application of [3H]NAAG can be found in: regional distribution and pharmacological characteristics of binding sites in rat brain in neurochemistry, synthesis and release by crayfish nerve fibers (implications for axon-glia signaling) in neuroscience, release of endogenous NAAG and uptake in guinea pig cerebellar slices in brain research, effects of N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase) inhibitors on catabolism in vivo in neuroscience, etc.. ...
Crayfish make burrows in mud at the bottom of the streams where they live, so we dug some holes out of our chocolate cake to represent burrow before we frosted everything with chocolate frosting. We went with chocolate in part because it is delicious and in part because we needed the cake to look muddy. We then tucked three of the four crayfish lures into the burrows after we carefully removed the hooks. They have their claws out like they would in the wild so that theyre ready to defend their burrows from challengers. The fourth crayfish didnt have a burrow, so we placed him claw to claw with one of the burrow-holding crayfish to illustrate that it was challenging the resident crayfish to a fight for the burrow. We further decorated the cake with green sprinkles (representing algae) and chocolate sprinkles (representing clumps of mud or small rocks - the piles in front of the burrows are there to represent the materials theyve excavated while digging the burrows) to give the whole thing ...
Haedoxan A (HA) is a major active ingredient in the herbaceous perennial plant lopseed (Phryma leptostachya L.), which is used as a natural insecticide against insect pests in East Asia. Here, we report that HA delayed the decay rate of evoked excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs) and increased the frequency of miniature EJPs (mEJPs) on the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. HA also caused a significant hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage dependence of fast inactivation of insect sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results suggest that HA acts on both axonal conduction and synaptic transmission, which can serve as a basis for elucidating the mode of action of HA for further designing and developing new effective insecticides.
Allozymic, karyological and morphological analyzes confirmed the presence of the Thick-clawed crayfish, Astacus pachypus (Rathke, 1837), in Ukraine. Th is rare species in Ukraine is found only in two small adjacent localities restricted to the Lower Dnieper. It is characterized by a unique set of chromosomes (2n = 116) and a distinct pool of allozymes, allowing, together with morphological features, to clearly distinguish it from the other three species of the Ukrainian fauna. ...
Olive Clouser Crayfish patterns are vital bass flies especially around rocks and other shoreline sructure. Fish this fly for both smallmouth and large mouth bass or even for trout in still or slow water environments.
Here is a list Ive compiled from multiple sources all over the internet. There are likely more than are listed here. If you do not see one here that needs to be listed, Im sure a nice mod would be happy to add it to the list. :) Clownfish False Percula Clownfish - Amphiprion ocellaris Clarks Clownfish - Amphiprion clarkii Tomato Clownfish - Amphiprion frenatus Gold-Stripe Maroon Clownfish - Premnas biaculeatus Cinnamon Clownfish - Amphiprion melanopus Fire Clownfish - Amphiprion
Here is a list Ive compiled from multiple sources all over the internet. There are likely more than are listed here. If you do not see one here that needs to be listed, Im sure a nice mod would be happy to add it to the list. :) Clownfish False Percula Clownfish - Amphiprion ocellaris Clarks Clownfish - Amphiprion clarkii Tomato Clownfish - Amphiprion frenatus Gold-Stripe Maroon Clownfish - Premnas biaculeatus Cinnamon Clownfish - Amphiprion melanopus Fire Clownfish - Amphiprion
Typically, binding of an ion or molecule leads to a conformational change in the protein, which can act like a power-stroke in the motor. Hydrolysis of energy or release of the bound ion then returns the motor to its original state, thereby completing the cycle. Physics provides the best way to characterise these molecular motors: the force-velocity relationship, pioneered by Cambridges own Archibald Hill. Indeed, in recent years optical trapping methods and other biophysical experiments have provided a wealth of quantitative information for the function of such engines - in a way pure biology or chemistry could not have.. Further vital roles of physics in cell biology are in understanding how cells crawl, glide, swim, and twitch; all lumped in under the bracket of cell motility. Physics is indispensable too in the interaction of cells with the environment, the basis of homeostasis. For example, many cells can sense and respond to the stiffness of the surrounding environment, which is known ...
The nervous system is made up of many different types of neurons that all play different roles. You have neurons that transmit commands to your muscles, that respond to touch, pressure, or cold, that respond to pain, and more!. Each neuron has its own speed it transmits impulses at. Muscle command neurons have one of the fastest speeds (80-120 m/s) which makes sense because during running or other physical activities we often need to make quick adjustments to how we are running and what are body is doing. At that speed it would take under 9/1000 (.009 or nine thousandths) of a second for a signal to get from your brain to your hand. Other neuron speeds vary from .05-2.0 m/s for pain/warmth to 3-30 m/s for touch and pressure. If you have ever grabbed something hot on accident and it has taken a second to realize it, that was caused by the slower neuron speed of pain/warmth neurons.. The speed of the neuron likely depends on the importance of a quick response. If a muscle command neuron worked at ...
Probably no Swedish artist produced more work featuring crayfish than Albert Engström. Most famous is his emphatic No! Poster for the Swedish prohibition referendum in 1922: Crayfish require these drinks! Prohibitionist posters, with their starving children and battered wives of drunkards, stood little chance against Engströms simple but pungent slogan. And so it came about that the crayfish, for the first and perhaps last time ever, had a hand - well, claw - in the making of Swedish history ...
Henrys Webiocosm has a cool idea (which I am shamelessly pilfering)! Learn something new about a random organism.I learned about: Cambarus (Glareocola) brachydactylus a plant that inhabits tributaries of the Cumberland River in Tennessee.What did you learn about?
While the QR code still appears with a link to a video of the behaviour, that was purely a backup. Most of the time, the code was covered by my new iPad that I stapled to the spot. I carefully designed the code and the text so that it would not be seen when the iPad was on top of it. This meant that much of the poster was designed around how big my iPad was! The width of the iPad helped determine the column width, and therefore how many columns the poster would get ...
Frank Lyko, a biologist at the German Cancer Research Center, studies the six-inch-long marbled crayfish. Finding specimens is easy: Dr. Lyko can buy the crayfish at pet stores in Germany, or he can head with colleagues to a nearby lake.. ...
While we are ranked among the best childrens hospitals in the country, its our compassionate approach to treatment that makes us truly exceptional. Through a combination of revolutionary treatments and extraordinary patient experiences, our care does more than heal. It brings the entire family together for emotional support and understanding across multiple locations to reach you in the community where you live. Learn more... ...
Ba-bam! Cambarellus Shufeldtii. Picture of him just being awesome. Currently in a tank with a female scarlet badis and bumblee nerite. Apparently theyre supposed to be blue but mine is brown. Maybe
Its early on a Friday morning, and Im standing in front of a crowd of eight-year-olds holding a fistful of dead crayfish. The mudbugs are a biological supply company purchase sorted into sealed sandwich bags - the subject and substrate...
Affiliation:山形大学,理学部,教授, Research Field:Animal physiology/Animal behavior,動物生理・代謝,動物発生・生理学, Keywords:アメリカザリガニ,GABA,シナプス,神経行動学,crayfish,伝達物質,局所回路,学習,可塑性,ザリガニ, # of Research Projects:15, # of Research Products:36, Ongoing Project:オスのアメリカザリガニは対オス、対メスで異なる闘争戦略を取る
Astacoidea Latreille, 1802. *Parastacoidea Huxley, 1879. *Infraorder Glypheidea Winckler, 1882 *Glypheoidea Winckler, 1882 ...
Taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea. They breathe through feather-like gills. ... 1994). "A dictionary of non-scientific names of freshwater crayfishes (Astacoidea and Parastacoidea), including other words and ...
Astacoidea: Cambaridae) in western Pennsylvania: a century of change or stasis? Journal of Crustacean Biology 37(5):1-9. Foltz ...
"The phylogenetic position of the East Asian freshwater crayfish Cambaroides within the Northern Hemisphere Astacoidea ( ...
therefore relied on the form of the telson, which has a diaeresis (division into two halves) in Astacoidea, but none in ... The chief distinction between the Northern Hemisphere superfamily Astacoidea and the Southern Hemisphere superfamily ...
... crayfish and lobsters Superfamily crayfish Astacoidea Latreille, 1802 Family Cambaridae Hobbs, 1942 Sub-family Cambarinae Hobbs ...
... astacoidea MeSH B01.500.131.365.190.110 - brachyura MeSH B01.500.131.365.190.150 - crangonidae MeSH B01.500.131.365.190.550 - ...
The infraorder Astacidea comprises five extant superfamilies, two of crayfish (Astacoidea and Parastacoidea), one of true ... Astacoidea Astacidae Cambaridae Cambaroididae Cricoidoscelosidae † Parastacoidea Parastacidae Gary Poore (2004). "Astacidea - ...
... freshwater crustaceans belonging to the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea This disambiguation page lists articles ...
Astacoidea Latreille, 1802. *Parastacoidea Huxley, 1879. *Infraorder Glypheidea Winckler, 1882 *Glypheoidea Winckler, 1882 ...
Taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea. They breathe through feather-like gills. ... 1994). "A dictionary of non-scientific names of freshwater crayfishes (Astacoidea and Parastacoidea), including other words and ...
KINGDOM: Animalia , PHYLUM: Arthropoda , SUBCLASS: Crustacea , CLASS: Malacostraca , ORDER: Decapoda , SUPERFAMILY: Astacoidea ...
Astacoidea / chemistry* * Crustacea / chemistry* * Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay * Molecular Sequence Data * Muscles ...
The phylogenetic position of the East Asian freshwater crayfish Cambaroides within the Northern Hemisphere Astacoidea ( ...
Taxonavigation: Astacoidea Superregnum: Eukaryota. Regnum: Animalia. Subregnum: Eumetazoa. Cladus: Bilateria. Cladus: Nephrozoa ...
Taxonavigation: Astacoidea Superregnum: Eukaryota. Regnum: Animalia. Subregnum: Eumetazoa. Cladus: Bilateria. Cladus: Nephrozoa ...
Arthropods! - Those creepy things that crawl on you... by Courtney Murphy | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
WoRMS (2018). Astacus tyrrhenus Petagna, 1792. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=478062 on 2018-03-17 ...
Astacoidea Birds Bison Cattle Chiroptera Cormorant, NOS Deer Dogs Elk Foxes Honeybee Horses Human Kangaroos Laridae Lycaon ...
Astacoidea) 4. A brief history of freshwater crab research 5. Adaptation to life in fresh water by decapod crustaceans: ... Astacoidea: Astacidae) 13. Conservation First: Strategic planning to save the critically endangered Singapore freshwater crab, ...
Astacoidea: Cambaridae) in western Pennsylvania: a century of change or stasis? Journal of Crustacean Biology 37(5):1-9. Foltz ...
The phylogeny of the parastacidae (Crustacea: Astacoidea), and description of a new genus of Australian freshwater crayfishes. ...
... superfamily Astacoidea). For the aquarium trade these include the dwarf reef lobsters (superfamily Enoplometopoidea) and the ...
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Anticoagulants/pharmacology, Astacoidea/*physiology, Blood Proteins/drug effects/genetics/ ...
This classification results in two superfamilies (Astacoidea and Parastacoidea), five families, 38 genera, and 669 species (692 ...
Pedraza Lara, Carlos (2015) Patrones de diversificación y procesos evolutivos en cangrejos de río (Crustacea, Astacoidea). [ ...
Crayfish, crawfish, or crawdads - members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea - are freshwater crustaceans ...
Patrones de diversificaci n y procesos evolutivos en cangrejos de rio (Crustacea, Astacoidea), 2011. Tese (Doutoramento Europeu ...
The "other" category included animals such as shrimp and prawns (suborder Dendrobranchiata), crayfish (Astacoidea and ...
Animals; Astacoidea; DNA, Mitochondrial; Ecosystem; Evolution, Molecular; Fresh Water; Phylogeny; Polymerase Chain Reaction ...
Ellis, L. B. M. & Hannigan, G. G., Dec 1 1984, Proceedings - Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care. Cohen, G. S. (ed.). IEEE, p. 995-998 4 p.. Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Conference contribution ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Temperature preference of the crayfish Orconectes obscurus. AU - Hall, Lenwood W.. AU - Cincotta, Daniel A.. AU - Stauffer, Jr., Jay Richard. AU - Hocutt, Charles H.. PY - 1978/12/1. Y1 - 1978/12/1. N2 - Acclimation temperature influenced the acute preferred temperature of the crayfish Orconectes obscurus. This species preferred a higher temperature than its acclimation temperature for those acclimation temperatures ranging from 6° to 26°C. When acclimated to 30° and 33°C, the crayfish preferred a lower temperature than its acclimation temperature. The final temperature preferendum is estimated to be approximately 30°C.. AB - Acclimation temperature influenced the acute preferred temperature of the crayfish Orconectes obscurus. This species preferred a higher temperature than its acclimation temperature for those acclimation temperatures ranging from 6° to 26°C. When acclimated to 30° and 33°C, the crayfish preferred a lower temperature than its acclimation temperature. ...
Astacoidea)/ Estudio en microscopio electronico de barrido sobre el apendice morfologico del Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz ...
The phylogenetic position of the East Asian freshwater crayfish Cambaroides within the Northern Hemisphere Astacoidea ( ...
Astacoidea. CRABS. Brachyura. DRACUNCULUS. Dracunculus Nematode. LOBSTERS. Nephropidae. SETARIA. Setaria Nematode. BARNACLES. ...
Pers, T. H., Karjalainen, J. M., Chan, Y., Westra, H. J., Wood, A. R., Yang, J., Lui, J. C., Vedantam, S., Gustafsson, S., Esko, T., Frayling, T., Speliotes, E. K., Boehnke, M., Raychaudhuri, S., Fehrmann, R. S. N., Hirschhorn, J. N., Franke, L., Wood, AR., Esko, T., Yang, J. & 438 others, Vedantam, S., Pers, TH., Gustafsson, S., Chu, AY., Estrada, K., Luan, J., Kutalik, Z., Amin, N., Buchkovich, ML., Croteau-Chonka, D. C., Day, FR., Duan, Y., Fall, T., Fehrmann, R., Ferreira, T., Jackson, AU., Karjalainen, J., Lo, KS., Locke, AE., Magi, R., Mihailov, E., Porcu, E., Randall, JC., Seherag, A., Vinkhuyzen, A. AE., Westra, HJ., Winkler, TW., Workalemahu, T., Zhao, JH., Absher, D., Albrecht, E., Anderson, D., Baron, J., Beekman, M., Demirkan, A., Ehret, G., Feensta, B., Feitosa, MF., Fischer, K., Fraser, RM., Goel, A., Gong, J., Justice, AE., Kanoni, S., Kleber, ME., Kristiansson, K., Lim, U., Lotay, V., Lui, JC., Mangino, M., Leach, IM., Medina-Gomez, M., Nalls, MA., Nyholt, DR., Palmer, CD., ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cobalt ions cross an electrotonic synapse if cytoplasmic concentration is low. AU - Politoff, A.. AU - Pappas, G. D.. AU - Bennett, Michael V. L.. PY - 1974/8/16. Y1 - 1974/8/16. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0016138697&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0016138697&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0006-8993(74)90466-1. DO - 10.1016/0006-8993(74)90466-1. M3 - Article. C2 - 4844459. AN - SCOPUS:0016138697. VL - 76. SP - 343. EP - 346. JO - Brain Research. JF - Brain Research. SN - 0006-8993. IS - 2. ER - ...
Spurgeon, D. J., Pohl, H. R., Loureiro, S., Løkke, H. & van Gestel, C. A. M., 19 Apr 2016, Mixture Toxicity: Linking Approaches from Ecological and Human Toxicology. CRC Press, p. 1-45 45 p.. Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceeding › Chapter › Academic › peer-review ...
  • Global diversity and conservation of freshwater crayfish (Crustacea: Decapoda: Astacoidea) 4. (bokus.com)
  • Historical and current distribution of Appalachian primary burrowing crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacoidea: Cambaridae) in western Pennsylvania: a century of change or stasis? (wikipedia.org)
  • The phylogenetic position of the East Asian freshwater crayfish Cambaroides within the Northern Hemisphere Astacoidea (Crustacea, Decapoda, Astacida) based on molecular data. (utrgv.edu)
  • Quantitative habitat models for the conservation of the endangered European crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex (Astacoidea: Astacidae) 13. (bokus.com)
  • Taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea. (wikipedia.org)
  • This classification results in two superfamilies (Astacoidea and Parastacoidea), five families, 38 genera, and 669 species (692 including distinct subspecies). (phys.org)
  • Se analiz la composici n histoqu mica de tipos de fibras del m sculo de cierre de las quelas de Cyrtograpsus angulatus y Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851) en condiciones de hiperregulaci n. (bireme.br)