Birth Order: The sequence in which children are born into the family.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Paternal Age: Age of the biological father.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Siblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.AzerbaijanSibling Relations: Interactions and relationships between sisters and/or brothers. The concept also applies to animal studies.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.United StatesSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.NorwaySwedenSocial Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Great BritainTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal: Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.
  • A growing body of research has examined whether birth intervals influence perinatal outcomes and child health as well as long-term educational and socioeconomic outcomes. (springer.com)
  • Overall, we conclude that birth intervals have little independent effect on long-term health outcomes. (springer.com)
  • McLanahan 2004 ), the importance of birth spacing for long-term outcomes has received far less attention. (springer.com)
  • Our study extends the literature on this topic by examining a range of medium- and long-term health outcomes that have not been previously examined in relation to birth spacing, and we do so using a within-family sibling comparison design that allows us to minimize residual confounding and to isolate the net effect of birth interval length on long-term health. (springer.com)
  • There is evidence of a positive association between coresident grandmothers and child nutritional status in Peru, but in several countries households with higher wealth indices appear to buffer children against any negative nutritional outcomes stemming from the burden of coresident grandparents. (upenn.edu)
  • Our aims were to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of folate supplementation on birth weight, placental weight and length of gestation and to assess the dose-response relationship between folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate) and health outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ConclusionBirth order is significantly related to mortality and nutritional status in large African families, with later born children having poorer outcomes. (duhnnae.com)
  • It follows that the nutritional status of the expectant mother is among the most important determinants affecting pregnancy outcomes, including the birth weight of the newborn [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In developing countries, maternal undernutrition is a significant cause of pregnancy-related poor outcomes including maternal mortality, low birth weight and stillbirth [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A proper understanding of the structure and infrastructure of the oral healthcare system in Saudi Arabia is substantial in order to improve the existing oral health policies and the outcomes in the country. (bartleby.com)
  • While the observed associations between DDT and such outcomes might not be causal, the studies are not so flawed that the observations can be dismissed out of hand. (cdc.gov)
  • In many resource-limited settings, increasing the number of ANC visits for women with uncomplicated pregnancies beyond four is not associated with improved birth outcomes ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Many times assumptions are made about where to focus efforts to improve birth outcomes based on observations and informal information. (amchp.org)
  • The association between a single interpregnancy interval (IPI) on birth outcomes has not yet been explored using matched methods. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The association between IPI and birth outcomes was estimated from the interaction between birth order and IPI (with 18-23 months as the reference category), using conditional logistic regression. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The possible adverse birth outcomes of babies born to mothers diagnosed with important diseases have not yet been evaluated in such a material by the same method. (beck-shop.de)
  • The greatest merit of these studies is that by analyzing their data the authors managed to identify some new previously unknown associations between maternal diseases and adverse birth outcomes. (beck-shop.de)
  • The major objective of our studies in the last decade was a systematic analysis of maternal diseases during pregnancy to reveal their possible adverse effects on birth outcomes. (beck-shop.de)
  • With a view to improve neonatal survival, data on birth outcomes are critical for planning maternal and child health care services. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I didn't initially ask participants about how racism impacts infant mortality, but the providers I spoke with believe it plays a major role in why we're seeing disparities that lead to negative outcomes. (ucdavis.edu)
  • She hopes to improve birth and child development outcomes for low-income, first-time moms of all races. (ucdavis.edu)
  • However, comparisons of crude rates can be misleading because of confounding if the populations being compared have different distributions of other determinants of disease, such as age which has an important effect on many heatlh outcomes, such as mortality, heart disease, cancer, infectious diseases, and injury. (unas.cz)
  • This module will focus on a technique called standardization that allows one to compute summary rates of health outcomes that are adjusted to take into account differences in confounding factors like age in order to provide a less distorted comparison. (unas.cz)
  • Research around the world and over time has shown an association between birth order and mortality, with later born children of higher -birth order- generally having higher mortality, in addition to having less education and fewer health services. (duhnnae.com)
  • The consequences of such bias are significant, since the researchers also found higher mortality among patients admitted shortly after their 80th birthday, adjusted for covariates. (nber.org)
  • We hypothesised that declines might be greater for countries with higher mortality in 2004 and disproportionally affect very preterm infants at highest risk. (bmj.com)
  • 7) Higher mortality rate was noted in the group of lower birth weight infant, the group of more shortened gestational period and the group of lower Apgar score. (koreamed.org)
  • Result: The incidence density rate of neonatal mortality was 31.6 per 1,000 neonate days. (who.int)
  • These have previously been reported as opportunistic intra-uterine pathogens, highly correlated with incidence of premature birth and miscarriage. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In order to test this hypothesis, we assessed the relation between the change in prostate cancer incidence in the early 1990s, attributed largely to PSA screening, and the subsequent change in prostate cancer mortality. (cmaj.ca)
  • For each birth cohort, we computed the change in prostate cancer incidence between 1989 and 1993 and the change in prostate cancer mortality between 1995 and 1999. (cmaj.ca)
  • We then assessed the correlation between the changes in prostate cancer incidence and the subsequent changes in prostate cancer mortality by weighted linear regression. (cmaj.ca)
  • We found that even though most birth cohorts showed an increase in prostate cancer incidence and a subsequent decrease in mortality, the sizes of these changes were not inversely correlated (Pearson's r = 0.33, 1-sided p = 0.89). (cmaj.ca)
  • Similarly, in the regional population study, we found that a greater increase in prostate cancer incidence did not indicate a greater decline in mortality (Pearson's r = 0.13, 1-sided p = 0.68). (cmaj.ca)
  • We hypothesized that the changes in prostate cancer incidence between 1989 and 1993 were to a large extent attributable to PSA screening and that, if PSA screening had reduced prostate cancer mortality, an inverse association should be observed between the changes in incidence and mortality. (cmaj.ca)
  • Therefore, we expected to find a negative correlation showing the greater the increase in incidence due to PSA screening, the greater the decrease in prostate cancer mortality. (cmaj.ca)
  • We conducted 2 separate analyses to assess whether the changes in prostate cancer incidence between 1989 and 1993 were related to the changes in prostate cancer mortality that occurred between 1995 and 1999. (cmaj.ca)
  • 2) The incidence of low-birth weitht infant was 8.4% and there was no different distribution between male and female. (koreamed.org)
  • 3) Incidence of low-birth-weight infant by maternal age was in order of the group of 26-30 years old, the group of 20-25 years old and the group of 31-35 years old and the incidence by parity was higher in multiparity than in primiparity. (koreamed.org)
  • 4) Incidence of low-birthpweight infant by the type of delivery was in order of normal vaginal delivery, breech delivery and C-section delivery. (koreamed.org)
  • Calculate standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardiized mortality rate (SMR) for a disease and describe its meaning. (unas.cz)
  • This study was designed to compare the models that have been previously used and identify the appropriate model using standard model selection criteria to analyse risk factors for infant mortality in Nigeria.Methods: The study utilised 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data with a sample size of 7107. (who.int)
  • Trouble is, it hasn't exactly happened that way, and many women, like Mochel, who in the U.S. might have previously been considered a generation of fringe neo-hippies intent on debunking "modern" birth methods, are now at the forefront of a movement to take back the control and responsibility of childbirth. (medium.com)
  • Methods: Cross-sectional survey datasets from Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys between 1995 and 2011 were analyzed using binary logistic regression with 95% confidence interval (CI) and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to examine associations and trends of neonatal mortalities with respect to LBW. (deepdyve.com)
  • To our knowledge, this question has not been examined in a contemporary setting, which is surprising given that previous research has shown that birth interval length is associated with the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and child mortality (Conde-Agudelo et al. (springer.com)
  • This creates a potential for reducing child mortality rates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also it has long been recognized that changes in the demographic characteristics of births are associated with changes in child mortality rates [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The characteristics most closely associated with child mortality rates are: the age of the mother at the time of birth, the birth interval and the birth order. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Data from national household surveys show that child mortality rates are elevated when the age of the mother at the time of the birth is less than 18 or greater than 34, when the interval between one birth and the next is less than 24 months (Figure 1 ) and when the birth order is greater than 3. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous research has shown that the proportion of high risk births is inversely related to contraceptive prevalence and that the proportion of high risk births is directly related to maternal and child mortality rates [ 2 - 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Or there could be a relative weak effect mixed with an association that arises because both the proportion of births that are high risk and child mortality rates are related to other factors, such as poverty, access to services or individual characteristics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Achieving this goal is daunting for many African countries, where child mortality remains high. (duhnnae.com)
  • We aim to investigate how child mortality and nutritional status vary by birth order in Africa. (duhnnae.com)
  • These data suggest that increased attention to family planning initiatives and targeted nutritional interventions provide clear strategies for meeting the child mortality and nutritional status Sustainable Development Goals in African countries. (duhnnae.com)
  • Cancer mortality was obtained from the NHANES III-linked follow-up database (up to December 31, 2006). (aacrjournals.org)
  • There was an increased mortality risk associated with logarithmically transformed UACR for all-cancer (relative risk [HR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.06~1.36), lung cancer (RR= 1.22, 95% CI = 1.05~1.43), and prostate cancer mortality (RR= 1.40, 95% CI = 1.01~1.95) in men. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Physicians have speculated that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening may be responsible for the reduction in prostate cancer mortality observed in the late 1990s. (cmaj.ca)
  • These results suggest that for our study population PSA screening was not associated with, and therefore cannot explain, the decline in prostate cancer mortality. (cmaj.ca)
  • In 1995, however, the prostate cancer mortality rate started to decline. (cmaj.ca)
  • The effectiveness of screening with the PSA test to reduce prostate cancer mortality has not yet been established by randomized controlled trials. (cmaj.ca)
  • Moreover, the 2 studies that have attempted to establish whether the recent decline in prostate cancer mortality seen at the population level could be attributed to PSA screening did not support this hypothesis. (cmaj.ca)
  • Our aim was to test whether the declining trend in the prostate cancer mortality rate seen between 1995 and 1999 in the Quebec population could be attributed to PSA screening. (cmaj.ca)
  • In this case, age is clearly an independent risk factor for cancer mortality, but what we really would like to know is whether there are differences in cancer mortality between the two populations that are not due to age differences, i.e., differences in mortality that are independent of age differences. (unas.cz)
  • For example, Population B might have a greater percentage of older people, and we know that the risk of cancer mortality increases with age regardless of one's environment. (unas.cz)
  • Several birth characteristics are associated with high mortality risk: very young or old mothers, short birth intervals and high birth order. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FRIDAY, July 31, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Bacterial and fungal infections are uncommon in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, but coinfection is associated with high mortality and antibiotic use is widespread, according to a study published in the July issue of Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology . (healthday.com)
  • According to a 2014 CDC report, the US ranked last out of 26 developed countries in terms of infant mortality for all gestational ages. (stylemagazine.com)
  • CNN, the New York Times, numerous outlets across the country report the U.S. as abysmal in terms of infant mortality, without delving into what is behind this ranking. (drwalt.com)
  • Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. (lse.ac.uk)
  • The estimated increases are of the same order of magnitude as the decreases from effective malaria control. (cdc.gov)
  • If, on the other hand, the estimated increases in infant death rates are similar to or larger than the expected benefits, whether the association is causal matters a great deal, and further investigation is warranted, especially in areas where DDT is reintroduced. (cdc.gov)
  • It has assumed for three decades that HCMV upregulates host cell metabolism and increases glucose uptake in order to promote oxidative phosphorylation to supply the virus with ATP . (kenyon.edu)
  • However, note that the risk of mortality increases with age. (unas.cz)
  • 2004. Risk of selected birth defects by maternal residence close to power lines during pregnancy. (uib.no)
  • We hope this report of no association between autism, Rh negativity, and thimerosal exposure during pregnancy will offset some of the decreased compliance with immunization recommendations which is known to increase morbidity and mortality from childhood infectious diseases," Dr. Miles said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • LBW can be a consequence of preterm birth (i.e. birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy), or intrauterine growth restriction, each of which is influenced by many factors related to the mother, the infant, the physical environment or genetics (2,4,5,7). (who.int)
  • The majority of practitioners in the field of pre and perinatal psychology would likely agree that in order for society to change prevalent negative beliefs about pregnancy and childbirth there needs to a paradigm shift in the use of negative language as it refers to pregnancy and childbirth. (birthpsychology.com)
  • American Pregnancy Association. (birthpsychology.com)
  • Full-term births take place in the 39th or 40th week of pregnancy. (stylemagazine.com)
  • It is often used to help assess how far along a pregnancy is and when the baby is likely to be born, according to the American Pregnancy Association. (stylemagazine.com)
  • The investigators also took control samples from the environment, in order to distinguish potential contamination from bacteria that had been present during pregnancy. (medicalxpress.com)
  • If we better understand the involvement of bacteria during pregnancy, we can develop more targeted treatment to hopefully prevent preterm birth and save lives, she said. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Angela is the convenor of the Public Health Association of Australian Women's Health Special Interest group, a member of the Interagency working group of reproductive health in crisis and an Associate Editor of the journal BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. (edu.au)
  • A statistically significant improvement in birth weight of the newborn was observed in the intervention group, where expectant mothers were made aware about desired nutrition during pregnancy. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to support the growing fetus and also to prepare the expectant mother for the upcoming events of childbirth and subsequent feeding, pregnancy leads to a plethora of physiological changes in the mother that converge at ensuring an efficient handling of the requisites emerging subsequent to pregnancy. (hindawi.com)
  • Boston) - Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine's (BUSM) Slone Epidemiology Center and Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) have found that pre-pregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with an increased risk of preterm birth in African American participants from the Black Women's Health Study. (eurekalert.org)
  • In Belgium and France, births at less than 26 weeks of pregnancy are registered as lifeless, and are not counted, Healy says. (drwalt.com)
  • They contended that women's lack of control over both pregnancy and birth represented the greatest hindrance to women's fulfilment of their political rights and a danger to the healthy development of larger society. (bmj.com)
  • 5) Etiology of low-birth-weight infant was in order of multiple pregnancy, toxemia, placenta previa and abruptio placenta, premature repture of membrane and congenital syphilis. (koreamed.org)
  • A holistic strategy of community level interventions such as improved nutrition for pregnant mothers, prevention of teenage pregnancies, use of mosquito nets during pregnancy, antenatal care for all, adequate skilled care during birth to prevent birth asphyxia among LBW babies, and enhanced quality of postnatal care among others could effectively reduce the mortality numbers. (deepdyve.com)
  • This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Over three decades later, her reference to women's 'sufferings in maternity' (particularly resonant for an audience well aware of the era's abysmal maternal mortality rate) would come into the focus of an expanding feminist movement. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Irrespective of education, we find excess mortality in childless mothers with a perinatal loss. (bmj.com)
  • Increased mortality in mothers with one perinatal loss and surviving children was limited to mothers with low education. (bmj.com)
  • When studying mortality in childless mothers with a perinatal loss, women without children and perinatal losses would have been the optimal reference. (bmj.com)
  • The ICM has worked alongside UN agencies and other partners for decades in global initiatives to help reduce the numbers of mothers and babies who die in and around childbirth, and evidence is growing that shows expanding midwifery care is one of the best ways to combat maternal mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • We aimed to compare and contrast the effect of a pragmatic nutrition awareness program for expectant mothers (NAPEM) on birth weight of the newborn with a control group who received no such nutrition awareness activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Currently, most mothers are discharged within the first 12 to 24 hours of giving birth in Malawi. (unicef.org)
  • The risk of neonatal mortality among offspring of women who had a partner co-resident was 18% times lower as compared with offspring of mothers without a partner co-resident in the household (aOR = 0.82: 95% CI = 0.66-0.98). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We need kangaroo mother care right after birth, feeding them mothers' breast-milk, delaying the newborn's bath, and six step hand-washing according to the guidelines of World Health Organization. (thedailystar.net)
  • In this study, we use Swedish population register data to examine the relationship between birth interval length and height, physical fitness, and the probability of falling into different body mass index (BMI) categories measured at ages 17-20 for men, and mortality over ages 30-74 for both men and women. (springer.com)
  • 2010. Maternal genes and facial clefts in offspring: a comprehensive search for genetic associations in two population-based cleft studies from Scandinavia. (uib.no)
  • 2007. Completeness of registration of oral clefts in a medical birth registry: a population-based study. (uib.no)
  • This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Using standard film-screen mammography, we screened 550 women, including 611 pairs of sisters, from the Old Order Amish population of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. (aacrjournals.org)
  • La recherche des facteurs de longévité gagne en intérêt dans le contexte actuel du vieillissement de la population. (umontreal.ca)
  • Thus they are useful to the inhabitants of the population when it becomes necessary to prove a vital event such as birth, nationality, descent, or relationship by marriage. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We divided the adult male population of Quebec aged 50 years and more into 15 birth cohorts. (cmaj.ca)
  • Current data on the infant mortality rate for your targeted population is essential. (amchp.org)
  • In contrast, so-called indirect standardization applies a standard set of age-specific rates of disease to the populations being compared in order to compute the number of cases of disease that would be expected in a given population, based on its size and age-distribution. (unas.cz)
  • In other words, the crude mortality rate for population B might be higher just because it is weighted more heavily with old people. (unas.cz)
  • In other words, population B is more heavily weighted with older people, and age is also associated with risk of mortality, so the comparison of crude rates is unfair, because of the unequal age distributions. (unas.cz)
  • According to the most recent Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) ( 2 ), 62 percent of women who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the 2016 survey had at least one antenatal care visit however, with suboptimal attendance of the recommended visits. (frontiersin.org)
  • Babies with LBW have a 5-30 times higher risk of dying during infancy than normal birth weight (≥ 2500 g) babies (2). (who.int)
  • This article proposes that watching our words can raise awareness of how the language we choose perpetuates society's paradigms or empowers women to give birth more naturally and babies to be welcomed more gently. (birthpsychology.com)
  • And some countries don't reliably register babies who die within the first 24 hours of birth, Healy notes. (drwalt.com)
  • The majority of cases that go beyond the 24 hour window are those delivered through caesarean section or babies born prematurely, or with low birth weight or jaundice. (unicef.org)
  • Babies who assumed the frank breech position in utero may continue to hold their legs in this position for some days after birth - this is normal. (wikidoc.org)
  • The ICM works with midwives and midwifery associations globally to secure women's rights and access to midwifery care before, during and after childbirth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suffragists and women's rights advocates led the Twilight Sleep Association in a quest to encourage doctors and their female patients to widely embrace the practice. (bmj.com)
  • In their arguments for legal contraception, Dennett and Sanger placed women's pain front and centre as the primary reason for changing a law that hindered women's full participation in the public order. (bmj.com)
  • The latter has various adverse effects on children's health, including increased mortality, increased frequency, duration, and severity of infectious diseases, and cognitive deficits. (scielosp.org)
  • BACKGROUND The timing and mechanism of the inverse association between increasing sibling number and atopic disease are not yet understood. (bmj.com)
  • Per capita income displayed a significant and positive association with obesity (p = 0.018), in contrast to an inverse association with stunting (p = 0.038). (scielosp.org)