Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Keratin-8: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Peripherins: Type III intermediate filament proteins expressed mainly in neurons of the peripheral and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS. Peripherins are implicated in neurite elongation during development and axonal regeneration after injury.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Plectin: A cytoskeletal linker protein with a molecular weight of greater than 500 kDa. It binds INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS; MICROTUBULES; and ACTIN CYTOSKELETON and plays a central role in the organization and stability of the CYTOSKELETON. Plectin is phosphorylated by CALMODULIN KINASE; PROTEIN KINASE A; and PROTEIN KINASE C.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lamin Type B: A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.Dipodomys: A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex: A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Nerve Tissue ProteinsLamin Type A: A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.Demecolcine: An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plakins: A family of related proteins that associate with cytoskeletal elements and junctional complexes at INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS. Plakins share a common plakin domain or a plakin repeat domain.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Keratin-17: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-6 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in the gene for keratin-17 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Desmogleins: A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that resemble those of classical CADHERINS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Alexander Disease: Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.gamma Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.Connectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Keratin-1: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Keratin-14: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Plakophilins: Members of the armadillo family of proteins that are found in DESMOSOMES and interact with various proteins including desmocadherins; DESMOPLAKIN; ACTIN FILAMENTS; and KERATINS.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Keratoderma, Palmoplantar: Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Wool: The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Nuclear Lamina: A lattice of fibrils which covers the entire inner surface of the nuclear envelope and interlinks nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Withanolides: Ergostane derivatives of 28 carbons with oxygens at C1, C22, and C26 positions and the side chain cyclized. They are found in WITHANIA plant genus and have cytotoxic and other effects.Keratin-5: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Keratin-10: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.GizzardPolymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Desmocollins: A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that are divergent from those of classical CADHERINS. Their intracytoplasmic domains bind PLAKOGLOBIN; PLAKOPHILINS; and DESMOPLAKINS.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Nuclear Matrix: The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Destrin: A member of the actin depolymerizing factors. Its depolymerizing activity is independent of HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Tropomodulin: An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hagfishes: Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Helix (Snails): A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Caspase 6: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 7; CASPASE 8; and CASPASE 10. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Neurofibrils: The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the CYTOPLASM of the body of a NEURON and extending from one DENDRITE into another or into the AXON.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Actin Capping Proteins: Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.Melanophores: Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.CapZ Actin Capping Protein: An actin capping protein that binds to the barbed-ends of ACTIN filaments. It is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha and a beta subunit. It regulates actin assembly by stabilizing actin oligomers for elongation. In SKELETAL MUSCLE, CapZ is localized to the Z-disk.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.PhosphoproteinsTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic: A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by ERYTHRODERMA and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-1 and KERATIN-10 have been associated with this disorder.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.alpha-Crystallin B Chain: One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Keratoderma, Palmoplantar, Epidermolytic: An autosomal dominant hereditary skin disease characterized by epidermolytic hyperkeratosis that is strictly confined to the palms and soles. It has been associated with mutations in the gene that codes for KERATIN-9.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex: A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Analysis of roles of the head domains of type IV rat neuronal intermediate filament proteins in filament assembly using domain- ... Step 2: the dimers may associate laterally to form antiparallel, unstaggered tetramers or antiparallel, staggered tetramers. ... Neurofilaments Intermediate filament Levavasseur F, Zhu Q, and JP Julien. No requirement of alpha-internexin for nervous system ... In Ching et al., a model of the intermediate filaments assembly is proposed. This model includes the following steps: Step 1: ...
Cytoplasmic IF assemble into non-polar unit-length filaments (ULF). Identical ULF associate laterally into staggered, ... Human Intermediate Filament Database(HIFD), a comprehensive database of human intermediate filament proteins, their associated ... "A high molecular weight intermediate filament-associated protein in BHK-21 cells is nestin, a type VI intermediate filament ... 2006). Intermediate filaments. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-33780-7. Intermediate Filament Proteins at the US National Library of ...
... is an intermediate filament (IF) and, like other IFs, primarily functions to integrate mechanical stress and maintain ... Granger BL, Lazarides E (Dec 1980). "Synemin: a new high molecular weight protein associated with desmin and vimentin filaments ... and desmin to act as a mechanical linker in transmitting force laterally throughout the tissue, especially between the ... Synemin is an intermediate filament (IF) family member. IF proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that confer resistance to ...
Thus they express the intermediate filament protein vimentin, a feature used as a marker to distinguish their mesodermal origin ... Fibroblasts, like the tumor-associated host fibroblasts (TAF), play a crucial role in immune regulation through TAF-derived ... laterally connected true epithelial sheet. This process is seen in many developmental situations (e.g. nephron and notocord ... in intestine may secrete the α-2 chain carrying component of the laminin which is absent only in regions of follicle-associated ...
... , as all intermediate filaments, shows no polarity when assembled. The rod domain consists of 308 amino acids with ... It links the myofibrils laterally by connecting the Z-disks. Through its connection to the sarcomere, desmin connects the ... characterization of the novel DES mutation p.L136P associated with dilated cardiomyopathy reveals a dominant filament assembly ... Desmin is a muscle-specific, type III intermediate filament that integrates the sarcolemma, Z disk, and nuclear membrane in ...
It is composed of intermediate filaments and membrane associated proteins. Besides providing mechanical support, the nuclear ... The linearly elongated polymer is extended laterally by a side-by-side association of polymers, resulting in a 2D structure ... Type V intermediate filaments differ from cytoplasmic intermediate filaments in the way that they have an extended rod domain ( ... The lamins are type V intermediate filaments which can be categorized as either A-type (lamin A, C) or B-type(lamin B1, B2) ...
These α/β-tubulin dimers polymerize end-to-end into linear protofilaments that associate laterally to form a single microtubule ... They are involved in maintaining the structure of the cell and, together with microfilaments and intermediate filaments, they ... Molecular and cellular biology portal Intermediate filament Microfilament Orchestrated objective reduction - a hypothesis ... The two kinetochores associated with a region of the chromosome called the centromere. The polar microtubules from one MTOC ...
... and that some of these filaments organized laterally into bundles, just as eukaryotic intermediate filaments do. The similarity ... To influence the shape of the Caulobacter cells, the helices of crescentin filaments associate with the cytoplasmic side of the ... Eukaryotic intermediate filament proteins assemble into filaments of 8-15 nm within the cell without the need for energy input ... Like eukaryotic intermediate filaments, crescentin organizes into filaments and is present in a helical structure in the cell. ...
... is a type III intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed in mesenchymal cells. IF proteins are found in all ... High levels of DNA methylation in the promotor region have also been associated with markedly decreased survival in hormone ... Vimentin is attached to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria, either laterally or terminally. The dynamic ... A vimentin monomer, like all other intermediate filaments, has a central α-helical domain, capped on each end by non-helical ...
The risk associated with wisdom tooth surgery is commonly accepted to be 2% temporary and 0.2% permanent. Warning patients of ... The submandibular ganglion is suspended by two nerve filaments from the lingual nerve. The most common cause of lingual nerve ... Plan of the facial and intermediate nerves and their communication with other nerves. Hypoglossal nerve, cervical plexus, and ... it finally runs from laterally to medially inferiorly crossing the duct of the submandibular gland, and along the tongue to its ...
At the barbed end the capping protein (CapZαβ) binds the Arp1 filament in the same way that it binds actin, although with more ... Dynein and dynactin were reported to bind interact directly by the binding of dynein intermediate chains with p150Glued. The ... Holleran, EA; Tokito, MK; Karki, S; Holzbaur, EL (1996). "Centractin (ARP1) associates with spectrin revealing a potential ... laterally oriented arm that terminates in two globular heads. The dynactin complex consists of three major structural domains ...
Obliquely striated muscle is intermediate between the other two. The filaments are staggered and this is the type of muscle ... The head and trunk are dorso-ventrally flattened and the tail is laterally compressed. It undulates from side to side to force ... It enables physicians or veterinary surgeons to gauge the position and anatomy of the associated deeper structures. Superficial ... They have a bony skeleton, are generally laterally flattened, have five pairs of gills protected by an operculum, and a mouth ...
Obliquely striated muscle is intermediate between the other two. The filaments are staggered and this is the type of muscle ... They have a bony skeleton, are generally laterally flattened, have five pairs of gills protected by an operculum, and a mouth ... It enables physicians or veterinary surgeons to gauge the position and anatomy of the associated deeper structures. Superficial ... Muscle is formed of contractile filaments and is separated into three main types; smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and cardiac ...
... although in this case with bulbs of the conventional two-filament type, and the intermediate beam combined low beam on the ... Ludvigsen Associates Ltd (1988). Research on the "Cost of Non-Europe": The EC 92 automobile sector (PDF). 11. Office for ... Fresnel and prism optics moulded into the headlamp lens refract (shift) parts of the light laterally and vertically to provide ... In most 2-filament sealed beams and in 2-filament replaceable bulbs of type 9004, 9007, and H13, the high-beam filament is at ...
... the bulbs were conventional two-filament type, and the intermediate beam combined low beam on the driver's side with high beam ... Fresnel and prism optics moulded into the headlamp lens refract (shift) parts of the light laterally and vertically to provide ... The system's photoresistor and associated circuitry were housed in a gunsight-like tube atop the dashboard. An amplifier module ... In most 2-filament sealed beams and in 2-filament replaceable bulbs of type 9004, 9007, and H13, the high-beam filament is at ...
The filament ends with a capping protein. The flagellar filament is the long, helical screw that propels the bacterium when ... Gram-negative organisms have four such rings: the L ring associates with the lipopolysaccharides, the P ring associates with ... Additional evidence for the evolution of bacterial flagella includes the existence of vestigial flagella, intermediate forms of ... flagella are laterally to terminally inserted, but are directed posteriorly during rapid swimming. akrokont: cells with ...
filament 1. stalk of a stamen 2. thread, one or a few cells thick. filamentous consisting of filaments or fibres, hairlike. ... palmatisect intermediate between palmate and palmatifid, i.e. the segments are not fully separated at the base; often more or ... mycotroph a plant that obtains most or all of its carbon, water and nutrients by associating with a fungus. Contents: A B C D E ... compressed flattened lengthwise, either laterally (from side to side) or dorsally (from front to back). concolorous the same ...
If the defect is at the nasal tip, or at the nasal dorsum, the pedicle is based laterally. An ideal location for the second ... A columellar double break might be present, marking the transition between the intermediate crus of the lower-lateral cartilage ... The unique plastic properties of the bone, cartilage, and skin of patients' afflicted with congenital defects, and associated ... through which pass sensory filaments of the olfactory nerve (Cranial nerve I); finally, below and behind (posteroinferior) the ...
The mouth cavity itself is lined with chitin and is associated with a pair of salivary glands. Two sacs open from the back of ... This inner layer may also be produced laterally in the form of notched insertion plates. These function as an attachment of the ... Unlike most other molluscs, there is no intermediate stage, or veliger, between the trochophore and the adult. Instead, a ... each consisting of a central axis with a number of flattened filaments through which oxygen can be absorbed.[16] ...
The dispersion of some species exhibit the curious phenomenon of serotiny, which is associated with their pyrophytic behaviour ... and the filaments of the four stamens are fused to the tepals, in such a way that the anthers are enclosed within the cup. The ... with intermediate situations; these situations sometimes occur in the same species. The flowers are usually protandrous. Just ... sometimes opening laterally in a variety of ways. Haplostemonous androecium, usually isostemonous, opposititepalous of (3-)4(-5 ...
If the defect is at the nasal tip, or at the nasal dorsum, the pedicle is based laterally. An ideal location for the second ... Wang TD, Madorsky SJ (1999). "Secondary rhinoplasty in nasal deformity associated with the unilateral cleft lip". Archives of ... A columellar double break might be present, marking the transition between the intermediate crus of the lower-lateral cartilage ... through which pass sensory filaments of the olfactory nerve (cranial nerve I); finally, below and behind (posteroinferior) the ...
some importance; ++ = intermediate importance; +++ = great importance.. Differential diagnosis[edit]. There are several terms ... Heart failure is associated with a high health expenditure, mostly because of the cost of hospitalizations; costs have been ... This is due to reduced ability to cross-link actin and myosin filaments in over-stretched heart muscle.[29] ... Additional signs indicating left ventricular failure include a laterally displaced apex beat (which occurs if the heart is ...
Vogt, C. (1879c). "Archaeopteryx macrura, an intermediate form between birds and reptiles". Annals and Magazine of Natural ... There is no counterslab associated with this specimen.[127] The skeleton shows a death posture typical of theropods and ... One unique feature of the isolated feather specimen is that it features a series of small black spots and filaments, which are ... The skull is laterally compressed but single bones are nonetheless distinguishable. Among other things the skull presents ...
Omary MB (2009) "IF‐pathies": a broad spectrum of intermediate filamentassociated diseases. Journal of Clinical Investigation ... eight tetramers laterally assemble to form a unit‐length filament (ULF); ULFs anneal longitudinally to form nonpolar filaments ... Role of Intermediate Filaments in Cell Locomotion. Sachiko Fujiwara, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Japan Kensaku Mizuno, Tohoku ... Figure 2. Intermediate filament (IF)‐coupled adhesion complexes. (a) Location of IF‐coupled adhesion complexes in cells. (b) ...
... (IFs) represent a diversegroup of evolutionary conserved cytoskeletal structures, with context‐, tissue ... Eight tetrameric subunits further associate laterally to form unit‐length filaments. (. ULF. ). (e) ULFs. and short filaments ... and intermediate filaments (. IFs. ), are connected to each other by plakin‐type linker molecules, such as plectin. IFs. are ... Intermediate Filaments. Fang Cheng, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland John E Eriksson, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, ...
Analysis of roles of the head domains of type IV rat neuronal intermediate filament proteins in filament assembly using domain- ... Step 2: the dimers may associate laterally to form antiparallel, unstaggered tetramers or antiparallel, staggered tetramers. ... Neurofilaments Intermediate filament Levavasseur F, Zhu Q, and JP Julien. No requirement of alpha-internexin for nervous system ... In Ching et al., a model of the intermediate filaments assembly is proposed. This model includes the following steps: Step 1: ...
Intermediate filaments, which are larger in size than microfilaments but smaller than microtubules, are named for their ... are associated with malfunctions in the intermediate filament (neurofilament) network, and defects in desmin intermediate ... Tetramer units pack together laterally to form a sheet of eight parallel protofilaments that are supercoiled into a tight ... Intermediate Filaments. Intermediate filaments are a very broad class of fibrous proteins that play an important role as both ...
... it is known that in vitro dimers assemble into antiparallel tetramers that associate laterally to form unit-length filaments ( ... Intermediate filaments and their associates: multi-talented structural elements specifying cytoarchitecture and cytodynamics. ... Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are assembled into either homopolymer or heteropolymer 10-nm-diam cytoskeletal filaments in ... Assembling an intermediate filament network by dynamic cotranslation. Lynne Chang, Yaron Shav-Tal, Tatjana Trcek, Robert H. ...
Cytoplasmic IF assemble into non-polar unit-length filaments (ULF). Identical ULF associate laterally into staggered, ... Human Intermediate Filament Database(HIFD), a comprehensive database of human intermediate filament proteins, their associated ... "A high molecular weight intermediate filament-associated protein in BHK-21 cells is nestin, a type VI intermediate filament ... 2006). Intermediate filaments. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-33780-7. Intermediate Filament Proteins at the US National Library of ...
We also focus on the molecular aspects of interactions with their cellular targets: microtubules, intermediate filaments, and ... and plant-bioactive compounds that interact with intermediate filaments like keratins and vimentin. ... plant-bioactive compounds that interact with intermediate filaments/actin, ... associated with head to tail into protofilaments that pair up laterally into protofibrils; four of these protofibrils form an ...
This gene encodes a type III intermediate filament protein. Intermediate filaments, along with microtubules and actin ... Diseases associated with VIM include Cataract 30, Multiple Types and Cataract 30. Among its related pathways are CDK-mediated ... Vimentin is attached to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria, either laterally or terminally. *VIME_HUMAN, ... This gene encodes a type III intermediate filament protein. Intermediate filaments, along with microtubules and actin ...
2. intermediate filaments: intermediate filament proteins provide structural support. 3. microtubules: tubulin; longest ... 2. elongation (growth phase): growing actin filament. 3. steady state (equilibrium phase): actin filament with subunits coming ... When this occurs in the filament, ____ is trapped in the tubulin subunits. Which form is this? ... curling occurs because the bonds between the heterofilament are stronger than adjacent filaments. ...
This gene encodes a type III intermediate filament protein. Intermediate filaments, along with microtubules and actin ... Diseases associated with anti-VIM antibody. Disease Name. Pubmed Publications. Nervous System Diseases Antibodies. >383 ... Vimentin is attached to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria, either laterally or terminally.. Subunit ... Vimentins are class-III intermediate filaments found in various non-epithelial cells, especially mesenchymal cells. Vimentin is ...
Cytoplasmic IF assemble into non-polar unit-length filaments (ULF). Identical ULF associate laterally into staggered, ... Human Intermediate Filament Database(HIFD), a comprehensive database of human intermediate filament proteins, their associated ... "A high molecular weight intermediate filament-associated protein in BHK-21 cells is nestin, a type VI intermediate filament ... 1998). Intermediate filaments. Springer. ISBN 978-0-306-45854-5. * Omary MB, Coulombe PA, ed. (2004). Intermediate filament ...
These Head-to-tail Assemblies In Turn Associate Laterally, In An Antiparallel Fashion, To Give Rise To Non-polar Protofilaments ... Further Lateral Interactions Then Yield Intermediate-filament-like Structures And Ultimately Paracrystals. The Organization Of ... She Is An Associate Professor At Western Washington University, Where She Teaches A Variety Of Undergraduate And Grad 8th, 2020 ... Sinauer Associates Inc. Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, Peter Walter (2007) ...
These dimers associate in a head-to-tail fashion to form protofilaments that associate laterally to form higher-order ... Lamins are type V intermediate filament proteins and have a short N-terminal "head" domain, an α-helical "central rod" domain, ... In HGADFN003 cells stained with emerin Ab, emerin remained associated with the nuclear envelope throughout all passages (g and ... Such delays could also negatively affect the normal targeting and assembly of lamin-associated proteins such as LAP2α, a ...
These polymers further associate laterally to form the lamin filaments (Herrmann and Foisner, 2003). ... Bossie, C. A. and Sanders, M. M. (1993). A cDNA from Drosophila melanogaster encodes a lamin C-like intermediate filament ... Herrmann, H. and Foisner, R. (2003). Intermediate filaments: novel assembly models and exciting new functions for nuclear ... Lamins are type V intermediate filament (IF) proteins and are the major structural constituents of the metazoan nuclear lamina ...
We also summarize the potential role of migration-associated biomolecules in lung and vascular diseases. ... In particular, vimentin intermediate filaments undergo phosphorylation and reorientation in smooth muscle cells, which may ... There are three cytoskeletal systems in mammalian cells: the actin cytoskeleton, the intermediate filament network, and ... Recent studies suggest that intermediate filaments undergo reorganization during migration, which coordinates focal adhesion ...
The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is a network of three long filament systems - microtubules, actin filaments and intermediate ... Actin filaments and their associated focal adhesion complexes act as information handling machines or mechanosensors: they ... Intermediate filaments are a primary component of the cytoskeleton, although they are not found in all eukaryotes, and are ... Intermediate filaments are therefore found in particularly durable structures such as hair, scales and fingernails. The primary ...
Vimentin is a type III intermediate filament protein. Intermediate filaments, along with microtubules and actin microfilaments ... Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital cataracts in human patients. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]. ... Vimentin is attached to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria, either laterally or terminally.. Involved with ... Vimentins are class-III intermediate filaments found in various non-epithelial cells, especially mesenchymal cells. ...
Vimentins are class-III intermediate filaments found in various non-epithelial cells, especially mesenchymal cells. Vimentin is ... attached to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria, either laterally or terminally.. Involved with LARP6 in the ... Associated products. * Compatible Secondaries. *Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (Alexa Fluor® 488) (ab150077) ... Filament disassembly during mitosis is promoted by phosphorylation at Ser-55 as well as by nestin (By similarity). One of the ...
Vimentins are class-III intermediate filaments found in various non-epithelial cells, especially mesenchymal cells. Vimentin is ... attached to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria, either laterally or terminally.. Involved with LARP6 in the ... Filament disassembly during mitosis is promoted by phosphorylation at Ser-55 as well as by nestin (By similarity). One of the ... Phosphorylation by PKN1 inhibits the formation of filaments. Phosphorylated at Ser-56 by CDK5 during neutrophil secretion in ...
... which associate laterally and end-to-end to form approximately 10 nm diameter filaments. Keratin filaments are heteropolymeric ... Keratins belong to a superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins that form alpha-helical coiled-coil dimers, ... Roughly half of human keratins are specific to hair follicles (Langbein & Schweizer 2005). Keratin filaments bundle into ...
... proteins that form alpha-helical coiled-coil dimers which associate laterally and end-to-end to form 10-nm diameter filaments. ... Traced as far back in the evolutionary kingdom as mollusks, keratins belong to the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) ... The list below represents only a selection of associated abnormalities. Skin. * Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome - (EDS I and EDS II) ... skin disease associated with mutations in keratin genes Keratins are the major structural proteins of the vertebrate epidermis ...
It is composed of intermediate filaments and membrane associated proteins. Besides providing mechanical support, the nuclear ... The linearly elongated polymer is extended laterally by a side-by-side association of polymers, resulting in a 2D structure ... Type V intermediate filaments differ from cytoplasmic intermediate filaments in the way that they have an extended rod domain ( ... The lamins are type V intermediate filaments which can be categorized as either A-type (lamin A, C) or B-type(lamin B1, B2) ...
Vimentin is a type III intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed in mesenchymal cells. Vimentin plays a significant ... High levels of DNA methylation in the promotor region have also been associated with markedly decreased survival in hormone ... Vimentin is attached to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria, either laterally or terminally. In essence, ...
intermediate filament organization. • cytoskeleton organization. • muscle filament sliding. • regulation of heart contraction. ... characterization of the novel DES mutation p.L136P associated with dilated cardiomyopathy reveals a dominant filament assembly ... It links the myofibrils laterally by connecting the Z-disks.[12] Through its connection to the sarcomere, desmin connects the ... intermediate filament. • cell-cell junction. • cardiac myofibril. • cell nucleus. Biological process. • muscle contraction. • ...
Nestin is an intermediate filament expressed by neurogenic precursors at different stages of differentiation [39]. Niche cells ... and antidepressant treatment in prevention of the hippocampal atrophy associated with age and diabetes have been associated to ... subventricular type B cells can generate a small number of OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes that migrate laterally and dorsally ... T2DM is associated with a 1.5-2.5-fold increased risk of dementia including Alzheimers disease [68, 69]. Diabetic patients ...
  • Two of the monomer units form a coiled-coil dimer that self-associates in an anti-parallel arrangement to form a staggered tetramer, which is the analogous soluble subunit for the globular actin monomer and the tubulin heterodimer (existing free in the cytoplasm). (fsu.edu)
  • Whereas the N-terminal globular head of the molecule contains the MgATPase catalytic domain, the α-helical coiled-coil C-terminal domain is involved in filament formation ( Fig. 1A,B ). Thus, myosin can be viewed as a bipartite molecule that has two distinct but related functions. (biologists.org)
  • Each tightly coiled intermediate filament cross section reveals 32 individual alpha -helical peptides, which renders the filament easy to bend but quite difficult to break, thus accounting for the extreme structural rigidity. (fsu.edu)
  • TEM studies suggest that the entropic barrier associated with filament assembly (amyloid fibril formation) is high in vitro, amyloid being defined by the laterally assembled four filament structure observed by Blake upon isolation of "fibrils" from the eye of a FAP patient. (scripps.edu)
  • Another highly specialized class of intermediate filaments are the nuclear lamins , which constitute the fibrous protein network that lines the inside of the nuclear membrane, as discussed above. (fsu.edu)
  • These non membrane-bound assemblies are often large, occupying an intermediate length scale situated between the nanoscale of individual macromolecules and the microscale of cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • The first of two companion reports focused on RPE cells, which contain melanosomes, lipofuscin, and melanolipofuscin and are associated with a basement membrane or with basal laminar deposits (BLamD). (arvojournals.org)
  • This dependence seems to be the first process of a biochemical function in any cell that depends on a cellular intermediate filament network. (mashpedia.com)
  • Hence, we propose that filament formation is a general mechanism to inactivate and store key metabolic enzymes during a state of advanced cellular starvation. (elifesciences.org)
  • The lamins are type V intermediate filaments which can be categorized as either A-type (lamin A, C) or B-type(lamin B 1 , B 2 ) according to homology in sequence, biochemical properties and cellular localization during the cell cycle. (academic.ru)
  • Collaborative filaments are frequent in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes and are involved in vital cellular processes including chromosome segregation, DNA repair and maintenance, gene silencing and cytokinesis to mention a few. (embopress.org)
  • Collectively, these data indicate that defects in midline glia and cingulate cortex neurons are associated with the callosal dysgenesis seen in Nfib -deficient mice, and provide insight into how the development of these cellular populations is controlled at a molecular level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Filament length is an important aspect of muscle function as force production is proportional to the amount of overlap between thick and thin filaments. (frontiersin.org)
  • Filament length is an important aspect of muscle function because a muscle generates force in proportion to thin and thick filament overlap. (frontiersin.org)
  • Changes in thin filament length affect thin-thick filament overlap and impact a muscle's force generating capacity at a given sarcomere length: thus, thin filament length is a key aspect of muscle function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Which contraction of the glenohumeral joint, the thick filaments. (carpaccioatbalharbour.com)
  • Our analyses revealed marked changes in the disused sarcomere, with shortening of thick and thin filaments responsible for altered length dependence and expansion of interfilament lattice spacing leading to a reduction in Ca 2+ sensitivity. (rupress.org)
  • Initially the coupled alpha-helices of unit-length filaments uncoil as they're strained, then as the strain increases they transition into beta-sheets, and finally at increased strain the hydrogen bonds between beta-sheets slip and the ULF monomers slide along each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Why do filopodia move laterally? (mechanobio.info)
  • We propose a convergent elongation model of filopodia initiation, stipulating that filaments within the lamellipodial dendritic network acquire privileged status by binding a set of molecules (including VASP) to their barbed ends, which protect them from capping and mediate association of barbed ends with each other. (rupress.org)
  • 00:03:16.19 And finally, there's the Type V intermediate filaments, 00:03:19.17 which are the nuclear lamins, 00:03:20.23 which we will discuss in the second part, 00:03:24.23 or in the second lecture. (ibiology.org)
  • Because intermediate filaments are very abundant in cells that are often subjected to high mechanical stress in vivo , it appears that their primary role is to provide physical strength to cells and tissues. (fsu.edu)
  • In vertebrates, intermediate filament presence and composition is not only species-dependent, it also varies with the tissue type. (fsu.edu)
  • These assisted filament‐forming systems are often dynamic and nucleotide dependent and rely on surface composition/topology for polymerisation. (embopress.org)