Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Time and Motion Studies: The observation and analysis of movements in a task with an emphasis on the amount of time required to perform the task.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.EnglandFamily Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Time Management: Planning and control of time to improve efficiency and effectiveness.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Nursing: The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Practice Management, Medical: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a physician's practice.Mental Fatigue: A condition of low alertness or cognitive impairment, usually associated with prolonged mental activities or stress.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Great BritainWork Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling Information Systems: Computer-based systems for use in personnel management in a facility, e.g., distribution of caregivers with relation to patient needs.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Morale: The prevailing temper or spirit of an individual or group in relation to the tasks or functions which are expected.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Pathology, Surgical: A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Night Care: Institutional night care of patients.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Nursing Staff: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in an organized facility, institution, or agency.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Burnout, Professional: An excessive stress reaction to one's occupational or professional environment. It is manifested by feelings of emotional and physical exhaustion coupled with a sense of frustration and failure.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.United StatesPersonnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)House Calls: Visits to the patient's home by professional personnel for the purpose of diagnosis and/or treatment.Housekeeping: The care and management of property.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.ScotlandGeneral Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Pathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Appointments and Schedules: The different methods of scheduling patient visits, appointment systems, individual or group appointments, waiting times, waiting lists for hospitals, walk-in clinics, etc.Nursing Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers applied to the field of nursing.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Emergency Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients admitted to the emergency department.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.LondonColor Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Nurse Anesthetists: Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.Nurses' Aides: Allied health personnel who assist the professional nurse in routine duties.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.After-Hours Care: Medical care provided after the regular practice schedule of the physicians. Usually it is designed to deliver 24-hour-a-day and 365-day-a-year patient care coverage for emergencies, triage, pediatric care, or hospice care.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Patient Safety: Efforts to reduce risk, to address and reduce incidents and accidents that may negatively impact healthcare consumers.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Partnership Practice: A voluntary contract between two or more doctors who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Asthenopia: Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Triage: The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Clinical Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses in the clinical setting and designed to provide information that will help improve patient care. Other professional staff may also participate in the research.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Bed Occupancy: A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Patient Acuity: An assessment of a patient's illness, its chronicity, severity, and other qualitative aspects.Nurse Practitioners: Nurses who are specially trained to assume an expanded role in providing medical care under the supervision of a physician.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Rest: Freedom from activity.General Practitioners: Physicians whose practice is not restricted to a specific field of MEDICINE.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Arenaviridae: A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Insufflation: The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.Nursing, Practical: The practice of nursing by licensed, non-registered persons qualified to provide routine care to the sick.Radiology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.WalesCurriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
  • An enterprise risk assessment methodology must reflect the specific resources, requirements and maturity level of different parts of the organization, while still meshing together at a high level, so each risk domain can be compared across the business. (techtarget.com)
  • We rely on our Capgemini Cloud Assessment methodology which allows us to assess your applications portfolio rapidly, identify which cloud solutions are best-suited to your environment and deliver the highest return on investment. (capgemini.com)
  • It addresses studies on teaching modalities, on teaching and training in undergraduate and graduate programs, on pedagogical strategies, on theory and methodology of research, on ethics and ethical-political project, on continuing education, on supervision and internship, on advising and assessment in undergraduate and graduate programs, on school and university management and on work and knowledge production in these areas. (pucrs.br)
  • O'Donnell RD, Eggemeier FT. Workload assessment methodology. (springer.com)
  • Objectives To evaluate the role of physical workload in low back pain (LBP) among adolescents. (bmj.com)
  • Methods Working history and physical workload factors at 18 years were assessed for 1984 members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. (bmj.com)
  • Of specific physical workload factors, only awkward trunk postures were associated with incident LBP in both genders (RR 1.2 in girls and 1.7 in boys). (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Physical workload factors constitute a risk for LBP even in adolescents. (bmj.com)
  • This subject describes the skills and knowledge required to gather client information, make a physical assessment of the body and determines massage treatment options. (edu.au)
  • The skills required for advanced comprehensive physical, mental, behavioural and psychosocial assessment as well as the advanced pathophysiology and pharmacological issues will be explored and practiced in this course. (edu.au)
  • The curriculum includes the following content specified by the Singapore Nursing Board curriculum requirements: Health and Physical assessment, Teaching and Learning, Pathophysiology, Applied Pharmacology, and Behavioural Sciences and Sociology. (edu.au)
  • categorized techniques for measuring mental workload while driving into five groups: (1) subjective metrics, (2) biological metrics, (3) physical metrics, (4) performance metrics, and (5) combinations of these metrics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because the central goal of our research was to identify and improve a metric that might permit the detection of mental workload in real time and which could operate under real conditions in the presence of, for example, vibration from the vehicle, we examined only physical metrics in the present study. (frontiersin.org)
  • The assessment and optimisation of postural stress and physical fatigue can be challenging and is typically conducted only after the design of manual operations has been finalised. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • However, these studies used tasks in the visual modality to induce workload, such that one can only derive the implication of alpha reduction for workload in visual resources. (springer.com)
  • Obviously, the greater the number and variety of tasks to perform and devices to use is, the higher the workload experienced is. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, during the past decades, it has been deeply investigated the possibility of developing intelligent systems able to automatically support the operator in executing its working tasks, in order to reduce the experienced workload, and consequently keep the performance within high levels, and limit the probability of errors commission. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because we want you to reach your full potential in every assignment, we build in opportunities for practice and 'feed forward' on assessment tasks so that you will know what you need to do to perform at your best when you submit your work. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • We took initiative to quantify mental workload by measuring spared mental resources of surgeons while performing NOTES training tasks. (sages.org)
  • In parallel, there will be a methodological work consisting to develop the classification algorithms, predictives of these levels of mental workload in real time, in purpose to implement a passive brain-machine interface in the best interest of operators that accomplish complex tasks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • So you do what is common practice today- you ask the pilots to rate their workload on a numeric scale while they perform their tasks. (mitre.org)
  • In evaluating new concepts for automation, policies, and procedures, we need to know when workload is too high, too low, or just right, and how that changes with the operator's tasks, air traffic, and automation factors involved. (mitre.org)
  • We hereby propose that IWS provides a useful estimate of total ventricular workload in the mouse model and that increased IWS indicates limited LV myocardial contractile reserve. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed pBCI system, since it enabled the AA mostly during the high-demanding conditions (i.e., overload situations) inducing a reduction of the mental workload under which the ATCOs were operating. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has been widely demonstrated that too high operator's mental workload level ( overload ) could result in a degradation of performance and/or an increase in the errors commission probability ( Reason, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Persistent and unrelieved biomechanical overload in combination with activation of inflammatory mediators and neurohormones is thought to be responsible for progressive ventricular remodeling after MI [ 3 , 4 ], but studies to investigate specific mechanisms in animals are hampered by the difficulty involved in quantifying biomechanical workload in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adaptive Automation (AA) is a promising approach to keep the task workload demand within appropriate levels in order to avoid both the under - and over-load conditions, hence enhancing the overall performance and safety of the human-machine system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Exclusive The Government's £2.4bn general practice rescue package has failed to relieve GP workload two years on, a Pulse survey has shown. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Asked whether their workload had improved or worsened since the General Practice Forward View was announced in April 2016 , eight in 10 GPs (83%) said it had actually worsened. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Integrate the information gained from the comprehensive patient assessment with an understanding of the pathophysiology of complex cases to problem solve in clinical practice. (edu.au)
  • Proceedings of the Fifth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, June 22-25, 2009, Big Sky, Montana. (uiowa.edu)
  • Human factors researchers looking for ways of measuring workload are using electroencephalography (EEG) to directly measure cognitive state through brainwave activity. (mitre.org)
  • Many people attribute their regular, daily stress to tough workloads imposed by their employer. (promises.com)
  • Long hours, budget cutbacks and an awareness that someone else would gladly line up for the position are often cited by individuals that feel their job is too demanding.While heavy workloads may contribute to normal levels of stress, the blame may lie more squarely with the practices of one's boss when it comes to more serious mental health issues like depression. (promises.com)
  • We measured cumulative LV wall stress throughout the cardiac cycle over unit time and tested whether this "integrated wall stress (IWS)" would provide a reliable marker of total ventricular workload. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Health Assessment and Complex care 1 & 2 will enable students to build on their existing knowledge and skills to develop advanced clinical reasoning and problem solving skills. (edu.au)
  • We provide a structured, methodical and cloud-agnostic assessment of your applications, while ensuring fast time-to-value through early visibility of quick wins and ROI. (capgemini.com)
  • With the above in mind, it's therefore essential to put in the hard yards to assess workloads and determine the best cloud platform to migrate to. (govtechleaders.com)
  • This includes one of the more drastic: the need to migrate a workload back out of a public cloud environment. (govtechleaders.com)
  • Over half of the respondents (52%) reported having to move one or more workloads back from a public cloud to an on-premises model. (govtechleaders.com)
  • Seventy five percent of IT leaders in the survey said they were now more cautious than they had been a year ago when deciding whether or not to migrate specific workloads to a public cloud environment. (govtechleaders.com)
  • Other workloads may have strict compliance and security needs that also may not make public cloud a good fit . (govtechleaders.com)
  • While many may be, careful vetting is still needed before moving even these types of workloads to a public cloud environment. (govtechleaders.com)
  • Writing in an article for TechTarget , John O'Shaughnessy, a senior consultant with the cloud and data centre transformation division at Insight pointed to an example in a white paper , Public Cloud Workload Migration: 9 Common Mistakes to Avoid . (govtechleaders.com)
  • Here, the organisation's upper management wanted to migrate several application workloads to the cloud. (govtechleaders.com)
  • Could this workload go to the cloud as it stood? (govtechleaders.com)
  • This particular legacy architecture was too monolithic and tangled to make such workloads a good, short-term candidate for cloud migration. (govtechleaders.com)
  • The purpose of this post is to point you to another post - an insightful comparison of IBM PureApplication System and IBM Workload Deployer offered by Dustin Amrhein in the A view from the clouds: Cloud computing for developers blog. (ibm.com)
  • Organizations are increasingly moving their workloads to the cloud to achieve greater agility, flexibility, and cost savings. (brighttalk.com)
  • Therefore, quantifying surgeons' mental workload provides an opportunity to understand surgeons' response to the challenges posed by NOTES, and it is an essential step for developing an effective strategy to ensure safe performance of NOTES procedures. (sages.org)
  • I also pointed out how PureAS leverages the capabilities of IBM Workload Deployer and provided references to several areas where you can get more information on IBM PureApplication System and some hands-on experience with patterns. (ibm.com)
  • The proposed research focuses on the integration of virtual process planning, ergonomic and metabolic analysis tools, and on automating human factor assessment to enable optimisation of assembly operations and workload capabilities at early design stage. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • On the contrary, as desired, the AA was not activated when workload level was under the threshold, to prevent too low demanding conditions that could bring the operator's workload level toward potentially dangerous conditions of underload. (frontiersin.org)
  • While performing the NOTES task in either the bench-top or the hybrid model, a secondary visual detection task was introduced to assess mental workload. (sages.org)
  • In this study, we considered mental workload from a secondary task as a potential source of cognitive distraction and aimed to estimate the increased cognitive load on the driver with a four-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device by introducing a machine-learning method for hemodynamic data. (frontiersin.org)
  • The 2008 pre-budget report, which was published just as this initial assessment was being finalised, does not appear to alter this picture in any significant manner. (crimeandjustice.org.uk)
  • During the initial assessment period, the back-end database for these workloads was found to also be critical to hundreds of other applications in the organisation. (govtechleaders.com)
  • Deploy a workload-ready Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) or Platform as a Service (PaaS) environment customized to enhance your business outcomes. (insight.com)
  • This includes the nature of the task, the workload, the working environment, the design of displays and controls, and training to carry out the job. (ilo.org)
  • Sometimes operators rate their workload higher in instances when their observable behavior does not appear to change. (mitre.org)
  • The quantification of cognitive workload is a measure to study these aspects. (springer.com)
  • In some modules, such as first year programming, regular study will be encouraged through short activities every 1-2 weeks, but in the main there will be three major assessment points in each module that will be scheduled so as to not overlap wherever possible. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • Prospective longitudinal cohort study over 18 months, with assessment of psychiatric morbidity and burnout on six occasions. (nih.gov)
  • https://survey.az1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_5pCM9JWvDBphkjj Who Can Enter Open to any surgeon who is either a member of SAGES or an attendee at the 2018 SAGES Annual Meeting AND who completes the 2018 SAGES Video Based Assessment Online Survey at the link above. (sages.org)
  • As weapon systems and their battlefield employment become increasingly complex, the understanding and assessment of the human operator becomes equally important. (dtic.mil)
  • a view that's backed up by our YouGov poll, which found that a third of teachers believe that tackling data issues would have the biggest impact on their workload. (gl-assessment.co.uk)
  • Understand the full impact of infrastructure modernization through workload evaluations, application dependency maps and more. (insight.com)
  • This is a quick read from Dustin - giving his report from Impact as well as a nice overview of the similarities and differences between IBM PureApplication System and IBM Workload Deployer to assist you if you are considering either offering. (ibm.com)
  • Pierre Dorion lists the top five things to consider when conducting a business impact assessment. (techtarget.com)
  • What are the five most important things to consider when conducting business impact assessments? (techtarget.com)
  • With some limitations, Federal Continuity Directives 1 and 2 can be used to help conduct a business impact assessment. (techtarget.com)
  • For ageing legacy workloads, significant rework, re-architecture, consolidation or retirement might also be on the table, as well as more traditional 'lift-and-shift' options. (govtechleaders.com)
  • In the present investigation, we designed a BCI system based on spectral decompositions of electroencephalographic data [ 17 ] that is trained to detect states of high/low cognitive workload . (springer.com)
  • Your workloads, employees and customers depend on data availability. (insight.com)
  • Data Science is a typical STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) discipline and has a workload similar to mathematics and computer science courses. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • This research presents a low cost software solution based on a simplified skeleton model that uses operator position and workload data extracted from a simulation model used for virtual manufacturing process planning. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • MITRE engineers and neuroscientists are building a workload gauge (called BrainGage) with BCI data processing technology that analyzes streaming EEG data, provides EEG data visualizations,and measures a test subject's workload in real time. (mitre.org)
  • Workload can also refer to the total energy output of a system, particularly of a person or animal performing a strenuous task over time. (wikipedia.org)