Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Scopolamine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Respiratory Tract DiseasesOscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Bronchospirometry: Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Breathing Exercises: Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Adrenal Cortex HormonesBronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.
Spirometry, a measurement of lung function, can provide an assessment of the severity, reversibility, and variability of ... COPD may also be caused by breathing in other particles and gases. The diagnosis of COPD is established through spirometry ... while the vital capacity remains relatively normal. The increased total lung capacity (hyperinflation) can result in the ... This can be measured with breathing devices such as a peak flow meter or by spirometry. The term COPD includes the conditions ...
ABGs also provide a more detailed assessment of the severity of hypoxemia in patients who have low normal oxyhemoglobin ... Spirometry is a safe procedure; however, there is cause for concern regarding untoward reactions. The value of the test data ... such as COPD or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Arterial blood gases (ABGs) are a helpful measurement in pulmonary function ... Spirometry includes tests of pulmonary mechanics - measurements of FVC, FEV1, FEF values, forced inspiratory flow rates (FIFs ...
BTS COPD Consortium (2005). "Spirometry in practice - a practical guide to using spirometry in primary care". pp. 8-9. Archived ... Chronic bronchitis may occur with normal airflow and in this situation it is not classified as COPD. Most cases of COPD are ... Spirometry may help to determine the severity of airflow limitation. This is typically based on the FEV1 expressed as a ... "COPD Assessment Test (CAT)". American Thoracic Society. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 29, ...
Spirometry revealed obstructive changes in about 57% of patients and normal results in 34%. Restriction, defined as a total ... even when the chest radiograph and pulmonary function assessments are normal. The typical CT shows diffuse round, bilateral, ... VEGF-D levels correlate with the severity of LAM, evaluated as a measure of CT grade (the abundance of chylous effusions and ... Progressive dyspnea on exertion without the exacerbations and remissions that are characteristic of asthma or COPD sometimes ...
There are three types of diver medical assessment: initial assessments, routine re-assessments and special re-assessments after ... Spirometry is an important tool used for generating pneumotachographs, which are helpful in assessing conditions such as asthma ... Divers Alert Network recommends as a rule of thumb, to wait four weeks after normal delivery before resuming diving, and at ... Some constraints can be expected, depending on severity. In many cases equipment can be modified and prosthetics adapted for ...
... including spirometry (body plethysmography), diffusion capacity testing, chest X-rays, 6MWT, assessment of dyspnea, quality of ... In normal repair, the hyperplastic type II AECs die and the remaining cells spread and undergo a differentiation process to ... COPD) and congestive heart failure (www.diagnoseipf.com). The key issue facing clinicians is whether the presenting history, ... all contributed to the severity of dyspnea. In selected cases of particularly severe dyspnea morphine could be considered. It ...
... symptoms and signs of hypoxia are sufficiently variable in patients with COPD as to be of limited value in patient assessment. ... This response does not control ventilation rate at normal pO. 2, but below normal the activity of neurons innervating these ... Although the severity of airflow obstruction as measured by FEV1 is the best correlate with overall prognosis in patients with ... spirometry. body plethysmography. peak flow meter. nitrogen washout. Circulation. *pulmonary circulation. *hypoxic pulmonary ...
Another major limitation is the fact that many intermittent or mild asthmatics have normal spirometry between acute ... In healthy adults this should be approximately 70-85% (declining with age).[12] In obstructive diseases (asthma, COPD, chronic ... to conduct pre-operative risk assessment before anaesthesia or cardiothoracic surgery[5] ... Values ranging from 50-60% and up to 130% of the average are considered normal.[11] Predicted normal values for FEF can be ...
... clinical signs of severity, comorbidities, and additional laboratory tests. Laboratory assessments include comparison of pulse ... A COPD exacerbation is an acute event that is associated with worsening of a patients respiratory symptoms beyond normal day- ... Spirometry is not recommended during exacerbations because the readings are inaccurate and the task is difficult for patients ... The frequency and severity of COPD exacerbations have been associated with poor prognosis and increased mortality. Pharmacists ...
Distal airway dysfunction was evident in the majority of subjects even when spirometry remained within normal limits. ... Addition of forced oscillation to routine assessment of spirometry in the clinical setting uncovered abnormalities in lung ... The magnitude of distal airway dysfunction was correlated with WTC dust exposure and with severity of respiratory symptoms. ... such as asthma and COPD, where pathologic involvement of distal airways is common, but where the physiologic phenotype has been ...
Early recognition and accurate assessment of the severity of airway obstruction and of the response to therapy are fundamental ... Easily measured, objective and accurate indices of severity for acute exacerbation of bronchiolitis, croup, emphysema and COPD ... spirometry, and pulse oximetry; however, all are subject to certain shortcomings. Clinical assessment scores, for example, ... depicts both a normal arterial pressure waveform 302 and a pulsus paradoxus waveform 304. As is evident from the diagram, in a ...
Fewer COPD subjects were obese than in the non-COPD, normal lung function and restrictive spirometry pattern groups. Among the ... BMI decreased significantly with increase in disease severity and correlated significantly to forced expiratory volume in 1st ... normal lung function and restrictive spirometry pattern subjects. There was an independent association between COPD and low BMI ... In the population-based study (OLIN), subjects with COPD had lower BMI and a higher prevalence of underweight than in non-COPD ...
Vitamin D deficient showed no difference compared to normal vitamin D3 status patients in atopic status, spirometry, inhaled ... Characterisation included demographic factors, associated comorbidities, asthma severity (BTS steps), and spirometry during ... Results Serum vitamin D3 assessment was available for 85.4% (158/185) patients during the previous 12 months. First measured ... No significant difference was observed between the two groups in respect to comorbidities like GORD, rhinitis, COPD, ...
Patients in the COPD and bronchiectasis groups were matched for age and predicted FEV1% to adjust for disease severity. ... George Respiratory Questionnaire results, and COPD assessment test scores. FEV1 decline rate was calculated at stable status ... as compared to normal control groups; some of these markers correlated with disease severity [13,14]. High levels of markers ... spirometry results, lung volume, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide [DLCO]), plain chest radiograph, chest ...
COPD exacerbations. The rate of exacerbations of any severity was lower with aclidinium 200 μg and 400 μg versus placebo (0.43 ... and age and corresponding normal score baseline as covariates. An annualised rate of COPD exacerbations was calculated using ... All study centres had identical spirometry equipment, a detailed study manual and training. Spirometry data were electronically ... significantly improved lung function assessments over 24 weeks compared with placebo. The improvement in trough FEV1 with ...
Reliability of Persian Version of COPD Assessment Test and its correlation with disease severity (3776 Downloads). ... Survey of normal indices of pulmonary function test by use of spirometry in the people of Kurdistan province (24976 Views). ... Survey of normal indices of pulmonary function test by use of spirometry in the people of Kurdistan province (3640 Downloads). ... The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Iron Indices in Normal Subjects and in Patients with Thalassemia Major (23525 Views). ...
Spirometry, a measurement of lung function, can provide an assessment of the severity, reversibility, and variability of ... COPD may also be caused by breathing in other particles and gases. The diagnosis of COPD is established through spirometry ... while the vital capacity remains relatively normal. The increased total lung capacity (hyperinflation) can result in the ... This can be measured with breathing devices such as a peak flow meter or by spirometry. The term COPD includes the conditions ...
A new study has found that the severity of emphysema can be a strong indicator of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in ... areas with lower density than normal) on CT. COPD was diagnosed by spirometric measurement of airway obstruction. Of the 947 ... All subjects underwent spirometry and CT scanning. Degree of emphysema was categorized as low, medium, or high based on the ... "The relationship between emphysema levels and mortality we found can be used in the risk assessment of these patients," ...
The diagnosis of COPD requires spirometry, which also permits staging of the severity of airflow limitation. Spirometry is a ... relevant features that incorporate assessments of COPD exacerbations and dyspnea severity into the characterization of COPD ... Once the diagnosis of COPD is established, the FEV1 expressed as a percentage of predicted normal, is used to grade the ... While CT cannot establish a diagnosis of COPD (spirometry is required), it may be useful in determining the severity of ...
Assessment of nutritional status should be performed. An albumin level of less than 3.2 mg per dL (32 g per L) suggests an ... at increased risk of pulmonary complications should receive instruction in deep-breathing exercises or incentive spirometry. ... COPD. Consider pulmonary function testing and arterial blood gas analysis for assessment of disease severity ... Patients in whom cardiac stress testing was normal within the past two years or who have had coronary bypass surgery within the ...
COPD), the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. The study found that a 70% ratio of two indicators of lung ... function proved as or more accurate than other thresholds for predicting COPD-related hospitalizations and deaths. ... To monitor lung function and gauge the severity of a lung disease, doctors use spirometry, a test that measures several ... "Defining normal lung function is very challenging in diverse and changing populations, and certain approaches might interpret ...
The effect of baseline asthma and COPD severity on FEV1 decreases was also investigated. Asthma severity was assessed jointly ... In the COPD stratum, two subjects with a ,15% decrease in FEV1 from baseline to the 2-hour post-baseline assessment who ... except during spirometry measurements). The protocol did not require physicians to administer short-acting β2 agonists ( ... bronchodilators) prior to the administration of regadenoson, although subjects were instructed to continue their normal ...
Assessment of normal or abnormal readings. Qualitative description and QT interval.. *Bone fractures [ Time Frame: Within 12 ... COPD exacerbations (moderate-severe severity), defined as a worsening of symptoms that require oral corticosteroids or ... Spirometry [ Time Frame: Up to 24 months post baseline. ]. Post-bronchodilator FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ... As determined by COPD Assessment Test (CAT), EuroQOL Five Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale ( ...
5.4 Assessment of severity of COPD To establish the severity of airflow obstruction, FEV1 is expressed as a percentage of ... 5.1 spirometry Spirometry is essential for the detection, assessment and management of patients with COPD. It must be performed ... Physical examination may reveal signs of hyperinflation and airway obstruction but may be normal. Co-morbid conditions should ... The assessment of severity of COPD is based on spirometric measures and clinical indicators including severity of dyspnoea, ...
A fum IgG levels were significantly higher in the COPD group (P=0.0473). Within COPD, A fum-sensitized patients were more often ... COPD) overlap presents a possible clinical phenotype of COPD, but it is unclear why it develops in a subset of patients. We ... of COPD patients compared to 4% of controls (P=0.0110). In all, 31 COPD patients (10%) were sensitized to the crude extract and ... were more prevalent in historical sputum samples of A fum-sensitized COPD patients compared to A fum-non-sensitized COPD ...
ABGs also provide a more detailed assessment of the severity of hypoxemia in patients who have low normal oxyhemoglobin ... Spirometry is a safe procedure; however, there is cause for concern regarding untoward reactions. The value of the test data ... such as COPD or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Arterial blood gases (ABGs) are a helpful measurement in pulmonary function ... Spirometry includes tests of pulmonary mechanics - measurements of FVC, FEV1, FEF values, forced inspiratory flow rates (FIFs ...
Early recognition and accurate assessment of the severity of airway obstruction and of the response to therapy are fundamental ... Easily measured, objective and accurate indices of severity for acute exacerbation of bronchiolitis, croup, emphysema and COPD ... Pulsus paradoxus occurs in normal persons during the normal inspiratory and expiratory excursions typically in the range of 2-5 ... spirometry, and pulse oximetry; however, all are subject to certain shortcomings. Clinical assessment scores, for example, ...
However, the entire range of GOLD severity stages of COPD was represented. Assessment of comorbidities was based on diagnosed ... Phenotyping was exclusively based on clinical variables, spirometry and questionnaires, but no imaging or biomarkers data were ... FEV1/FVC less than the lower limit normal (LLN) but ,0.7). Furthermore, it has resulted in the inclusion of subjects with an ... underscoring the need for multidimensional assessment of COPD subjects.. We searched for COPD phenotypes using cluster analysis ...
IMPORTANCE: Airflow obstruction on spirometry is universally used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and ... for co-morbidities and descriptors of COPD severity and impact, markers of cardiac stress (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic ... The FEV1 percent predicted distribution and mean for the GOLD 0 group were lower but still within the normal range for the ... Personal Heart Early Assessment Risk Tool (Budoff et al. 114:1761-1791, 2006) score), smoking history, measures of airflow ...
Inspiratory muscle activation increases with COPD severity as confirmed by non-invasive mechanomyographic analysis.  Sarlabous ... Differentiating normal from adventitious respiratory sounds (RS) is a major challenge in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. ... Novel approach to continuous adventitious respiratory sound analysis for the assessment of bronchodilator response.  Lozano, ... beyond that provided by spirometry. Nevertheless, previous ... ... COPD) and has mostly been related to pulmonary hyperinflation [ ...
BTS COPD Consortium (2005). "Spirometry in practice - a practical guide to using spirometry in primary care". pp. 8-9. Archived ... Chronic bronchitis may occur with normal airflow and in this situation it is not classified as COPD. Most cases of COPD are ... Spirometry may help to determine the severity of airflow limitation. This is typically based on the FEV1 expressed as a ... "COPD Assessment Test (CAT)". American Thoracic Society. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 29, ...
Patients with normal FFMI had significantly higher weight, height, WC, MUAC, handgrip strength, fat and fat-free mass than the ... COPD) patients. The specific aim of the current study was to assess the nutritional status of stable COPD patients in relation ... We investigated 65 male moderate-to-severe stable COPD patients. A self-reported questionnaire was applied about general ... red meat and fruits were significantly low in the low FFMI group compared to normal FFMI group (for all; p < 0.05). ...
There is further agreement that assessment of the severity of an exacerbation should be based upon medical history, symptoms, ... They recommend against routine use of spirometry and PEF. In addition to pulse oximetry, VA/DoD states that other diagnostic ... beyond normal day-to-day variations, acute in onset, and may necessitate a change in regular medication. ... Diagnosis and Initial Assessment. The groups agree that an exacerbation of COPD is generally defined as a worsening of the ...
  • 1: Incentive spirometry alone is not recommended for routine use in the preoperative and postoperative setting to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications. (rcjournal.com)
  • 2: It is recommended that incentive spirometry be used with deep breathing techniques, directed coughing, early mobilization, and optimal analgesia to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications. (rcjournal.com)
  • 3: It is suggested that deep breathing exercises provide the same benefit as incentive spirometry in the preoperative and postoperative setting to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications. (rcjournal.com)
  • 5: Routine use of incentive spirometry to prevent atelectasis after coronary artery bypass graft surgery is not recommended. (rcjournal.com)
  • 6: It is suggested that a volume-oriented device be selected as an incentive spirometry device. (rcjournal.com)
  • Incentive spirometry is designed to mimic natural sighing or yawning by encouraging the patient to take long, slow, deep breaths. (rcjournal.com)
  • Incentive spirometry, also referred to as sustained maximal inspiration, is accomplished by using a device that provides feedback when the patient inhales at a predetermined flow or volume and sustains the inflation for at least 5 seconds. (rcjournal.com)
  • 3.1.1 Inadequate training and insufficient self-administration of incentive spirometry may result in lack of resolution of postoperative complications. (rcjournal.com)
  • Due to the substantial and increasing morbidity in women with COPD, special attention was given to this group. (diva-portal.org)
  • and consideration of factors that influence COPD management in South Africa, including lung co-morbidity and drug availability and cost. (scielo.org.za)
  • COPD is associated with considerable morbidity and a patient of COPD causes financial burden to the family as well as to the national health expenditure. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A study showed that COPD subjects receiving supplemental omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA had less shortness of breath and inflammatory markers in serum and sputum. (lifeextension.com)
  • The overall objective of this thesis was to increase the knowledge and validate methods for assessment of total daily energy expenditure (TEE), energy requirement and energy intake (EI) in women with COPD. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, new emerging imaging methods such as MRI, dual-energy CT, PET, and optical imaging to evaluate not only morphologic but also functional aspects of lung in COPD will be introduced. (springer.com)
  • The COPD Foundation Pocket Consultant Guide (PCG) for the Diagnosis and Management of COPD was designed to be a practical tool to assist practicing clinicians in managing the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with COPD at the bedside. (copdfoundation.org)
  • Aclidinium bromide, a novel, inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist compound with low systemic activity, has been developed for the treatment of COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • COPD is a systemic disorder that is associated with extra-pulmonary diseases ( Table 1 ), many of which have a higher incidence in smokers than in non-smokers. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • The systemic manifestations and comorbidity associated with COPD need to be identified and addressed to optimize health and quality of life. (cfp.ca)
  • The present results introduce adipocytokines NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and visfatin as novel factors associated with systemic inflammation in COPD and suggest that visfatin may mediate impaired pulmonary diffusing capacity. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently, adipose tissue mediated inflammation has gathered increasing interest as a significant mechanism in inducing and promoting systemic inflammation in COPD [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The SWA5.1 can reliably assess TEE in women with COPD. (diva-portal.org)
  • Much research is underway to assess the merits of individual (mono-therapy) vs. combination therapy options as well as the long-term safety of COPD medications. (stlukes-stl.com)