The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Techniques for supplying artificial respiration to a single lung.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Condition wherein the force of gravity is greater than or is increased above that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being greater than 1 g.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.
The posture of an individual lying face up.
Respiratory support system used primarily with rates of about 100 to 200/min with volumes of from about one to three times predicted anatomic dead space. Used to treat respiratory failure and maintain ventilation under severe circumstances.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
Techniques for administering artificial respiration without the need for INTRATRACHEAL INTUBATION.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
Surgical incision of the trachea.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
The posture of an individual lying face down.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
The act of BREATHING in.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.
A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Injury following pressure changes; includes injury to the eustachian tube, ear drum, lung and stomach.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.
Removal of an endotracheal tube from the patient.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
Mechanical ventilation delivered to match the patient's efforts in breathing as detected by the interactive ventilation device.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
The motion of air currents.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) OTITIS MEDIA, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
The act of BREATHING out.
The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.
An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.
Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
The contamination of indoor air.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Difficult or labored breathing.
A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from:
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.
A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).
Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Iron-deficiency anaemia: its effects on transfer factor for the lung (diffusing capacity) and ventilation and cardiac frequency ... 42:325-33 (1972). Bailey, Kristina L. (1 July 2012). "The Importance of the Assessment of Pulmonary Function in COPD". The ... e.g. fibrosis, alveolitis, vasculitis Decrease of total lung area, e.g. Restrictive lung disease or lung resection (partial or ... Diffusion lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is an independent prognostic factor for long-term survival after curative ...
of Tennessee College of Medicine-Memphis,, "What is the background of the iron lung form of mechanical ventilation?," ... result in evolving assessments of the benefits and hazards of negative-pressure ventilators (NPVs). Different researchers and ... NPVs do not work well if patient's lung compliance is decreased, or their lung resistance is increased. They result in a ... iron lung' and the modern 'ventilation'," Oxy.gen, retrieved April 11, 2020 Matioc, Adrian A., M.D., University of Wisconsin ...
Luecke T., Corradi F., Pelosi P. (2012) "Lung imaging for titration of mechanical ventilation" Curr. Opin. Anaesth. 25(2):131- ... The high temporal resolution of EIT allows regional assessment of common dynamic parameters used in pulmonary function testing ... Lung (a-EIT, td-EIT)[edit]. EIT is particularly useful for monitoring lung function because lung tissue resistivity is five ... Thus, EIT measurements may be used to guide specific ventilator settings to maintain lung protective ventilation for each ...
Guidelines in the United Kingdom stipulate that assessment of respiratory function is part of the multidisciplinary management ... "iron lung"). The brand name BiPAP/BIPAP has also enjoyed a degree of popularity, after an early NIV machine produced by ... Non-invasive ventilation. The setup for non-invasive ventilation using a mechanical ventilator. Modern devices are often much ... Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is the use of airway support administered through a face (nasal) mask instead of an endotracheal ...
Ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) refers to acute lung injury that occurs during mechanical ventilation. It is ... avoid complications and assessment of trends. In general, mechanical ventilation is initiated to protect the airway/reduce work ... Mechanical ventilation, assisted ventilation or intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV), is the medical term for artificial ... Mechanical ventilation utilizes several separate systems for ventilation referred to as the mode. Modes come in many different ...
... diseases interfering in lung function resulting in a ventilation-perfusion mismatch, such as a pulmonary embolus, or ... A prescription renewal for home oxygen following hospitalization requires an assessment of the patient for ongoing hypoxemia.[ ... Because the lungs develop late in pregnancy, premature infants frequently possess underdeveloped lungs. To improve lung ... By contrast, in the lungs, the response to hypoxia is vasoconstriction. This is known as hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, or ...
Continuous Positive Airflow Pressure A method of respiratory ventilation. Tracheotomy Surgical procedures on the neck to open a ... Clements, B Congenital malformations of the lungs and airways. Taussig, LM Landau, LI eds. Pediatric respiratory medicine 1999, ... Louis, MO Austin, J, Ali, T Tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia in children: pathophysiology, assessment, treatment and ... Clements, B Congenital malformations of the lungs and airways. Taussig, LM Landau, LI eds. Pediatric respiratory medicine 1999, ...
2 production, pulmonary (lung) perfusion, alveolar ventilation, respiratory patterns, and elimination of CO. 2 from the ... Capnography is increasingly being used by EMS personnel to aid in their assessment and treatment of patients in the prehospital ... lung. Pneumonectomy. Lobectomy. Wedge resection. Lung transplantation. Decortication of lung. Heart-lung transplant. ... 2 to the lungs. When expired CO. 2 is related to expired volume rather than time, the area beneath the curve represents the ...
It is typically caused by a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch; the volume of air flowing in and out of the lungs is not ... "The validity and reliability of the clinical assessment of increased work of breathing in acutely ill patients". Journal of ... Ventilation-perfusion mismatch (parts of the lung receive oxygen but not enough blood to absorb it, e.g. pulmonary embolism) ... Ventilation/perfusion ratio Pulmonary shunt Tulaimat, A; Patel, A; Wisniewski, M; Gueret, R (August 2016). " ...
A geriatric ventilator is a machine that provides mechanical ventilation by moving breathable air into and out of the lungs, to ... People age 75+ may need assessment by special instruments to predict their ICU prognosis. One quotation has said "geriatric ...
However, when using a manual resuscitator, as with other methods of positive-pressure ventilation, the lungs are force-inflated ... "the manual resuscitator is not a suitable device for accurate ventilation."[17] A separate assessment of another high-skilled ... However this places the lungs at increased risk from separate lung injury patterns caused by accidental forced over-inflation ( ... leading to the lungs never being permitted to fully exhale between ventilations (also called "stacking" of breaths).[21] A ...
Positive-pressure ventilation using a bag valve mask device. Use of body substance isolation, assessing and maintaining scene ... Obtaining medical histories, physical, and neurological assessments. Documentation of medical situations. Obtaining and ... and lung sounds through auscultation. Eye irrigation. Application of soft and rigid splints to all body parts, and assessing ...
Obstructive lung diseases often result from impaired mucociliary clearance that can be associated with mucus hypersecretion and ... Two methods of supporting this, particularly in mechanical ventilation are provided by active and passive respiratory gas ... a critical upper airway host defense mechanism and methods of assessment". Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology. ... It is one of the two protective processes for the lungs in removing inhaled particles including pathogens before they can reach ...
... the amount of lung damage dictates whether or not treatment is efficacious in reversing newborn lung insufficiency. Other ... Assessment of the efficacy of these treatments includes chest radiographs and arterial blood gases. Signs of inefficacious ... Common treatments include: Oxygen therapy Mechanical ventilation Pulmonary vasodilators Nitrous Oxide Inhalation (iNO) ... When the baby is born, the lungs are needed for oxygen transfer and need high blood flow which is encouraged by low PVR. The ...
In a study of 23 fetuses, subtle differences seen on MRIs of the lungs were informative. In a study of 29 fetuses with ... The decision whether to deliver early includes a careful assessment of the extent to which delaying delivery may increase or ... An alternative to ECMO is high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. In 1908, Maude Abbott documented pulmonary hypoplasia ... The baby had normal kidneys and lungs, leading the authors to conclude that obstruction occurred late in the pregnancy and to ...
Ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) is a condition caused by over-expansion of the lungs by mechanical ventilation used when ... Pre-hospital care for lung barotrauma includes basic life support of maintaining adequate oxygenation and perfusion, assessment ... In mechanical ventilation[edit]. Isolated mechanical forces may not adequately explain ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). ... which are commonly called burst lung or lung overpressure injury by divers. To equalise the lungs, all that is necessary is not ...
Mechanical ventilation and dialysis may be needed to support the function of the lungs and kidneys, respectively. A central ... In 2016, a shortened sequential organ failure assessment score (SOFA score), known as the quick SOFA score (qSOFA), replaced ... This may include hemodialysis in kidney failure, mechanical ventilation in lung dysfunction, transfusion of blood products, and ... Typically, 50% of all sepsis cases start as an infection in the lungs. In one-third to one-half of cases, the source of ...
... reduces resting lung volumes (decreased compliance), increasing ventilation-perfusion mismatch, right to left shunt and the ... Gift JS, McGaughy R, Singh DV, Sonawane B. (2008)Health assessment of phosgene: approaches for derivation of reference ... Mice that survive this initial onslaught go on to demonstrate an increase in lung collagen content, and decreased lung ... Injury to the lungs and airways is not only due to deposition of fine particulate soot but also due to the gaseous components ...
Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment. doi:10.17226/12209.. *^ "British Occupational Hygiene Society (BOHS)". bohs. ... See Lungs Respirable dust is sampled using a cyclone dust sampler design to sample for a specific fraction of dust AED at a set ... These methods include elimination, substitution, engineering controls (isolation or ventilation), administrative controls and ... Workplace assessment methods[edit]. Although there are many aspects to occupational hygiene work the most known and sought ...
If heart disease and lung disease have been excluded, a ventilation/perfusion scan is performed to rule out CTEPH. If unmatched ... June 2009). "Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of non-pulmonary arterial hypertension pulmonary hypertension". Journal of ... Pulmonary hypertension due to lung disease, chronic hypoxia Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Interstitial lung ... Lung transplantation may be an option in severe cases. While the exact frequency of the condition is unknown, it is estimated ...
... diseases interfering in lung function resulting in a ventilation-perfusion mismatch, such as a pulmonary embolus, or ... A prescription renewal for home oxygen following hospitalization requires an assessment of the patient for ongoing hypoxemia. ... Because the lungs develop late in pregnancy, premature infants frequently possess underdeveloped lungs. To improve lung ... Hypoxemia refers to a reduction in PO2 below the normal range, regardless of whether gas exchange is impaired in the lung, CaO2 ...
Traditionally, newborn children have been resuscitated using mechanical ventilation with 100% oxygen, but there has since the ... Johnson, Peter A.; Schmölzer, Georg M. (23 February 2020). "Heart Rate Assessment during Neonatal Resuscitation". Healthcare. 8 ... lungs, liver, gut, kidneys), although brain injury known as neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is of most concern.[ ...
The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) is an assessment tool that aims to evaluate the function of patients throughout the ... As SCI patients suffer from reduced total lung capacity and tidal volume, physical therapists teach them accessory breathing ... and mechanical ventilation. The amount of functional recovery and independence achieved in terms of activities of daily living ... People with SCI need repeated neurological assessments and treatment by neurosurgeons. People should be removed from the spine ...
Pfeilsticker, FJDA; Serpa Neto, A (August 2017). "'Lung-protective' ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome: still a ... "Safety and Effectiveness Assessment of the MakAir Artificial Ventilator". ICH GCP. Retrieved 2021-02-18. Sternlicht, Alexandra ... The team built a working prototype in 1 month, at the end of which a successful 12 hours ventilation test on a pig was ... "Oxysphere - OpenHardware Ventilation Project - Let us Stop Covid together". Archived from the original on 2020-05-13. Retrieved ...
Interstitial lung disease presents with gradual onset of shortness of breath typically with a history of a predisposing ... Thus, poor ventilation leading to hypercapnia, left heart failure leading to interstitial edema (impairing gas exchange), ... The initial approach to evaluation begins by assessment of the airway, breathing, and circulation followed by a medical history ... In the lungs, juxtacapillary (J) receptors are sensitive to pulmonary interstitial edema, while stretch receptors signal ...
Lung destruction in LAM is a consequence of diffuse infiltration by neoplastic smooth muscle-like cells that invade all lung ... In one study ventilation-perfusion scans were abnormal in 34 of 35 LAM patients. The most common abnormality was nonspecific ... even when the chest radiograph and pulmonary function assessments are normal. The typical CT shows diffuse round, bilateral, ... Microscopic examination of the lung reveals foci of smooth muscle-like cell infiltration of the lung parenchyma, airways, ...
... and minute ventilation by 30-40%[8][9] giving an increase in pulmonary ventilation. This is necessary to meet the increased ... Wilmore, J. H. (1969). "The use of actual predicted and constant residual volumes in the assessment of body composition by ... A stronger and larger lung capacity allows more air to be inhaled into the lungs. In using lungs to play a wind instrument for ... Scheme of changes in lung volumes in restricted and obstructed lung in comparison with healthy lung. ...
... first an assessment of the potential for exposure; second, conducting basic exposure assessment and third, conducting a ... Although the extent to which animal data may predict clinically significant lung effects in workers is not known, the toxicity ... mainly ventilation systems such as fume hoods, gloveboxes, biosafety cabinets, and vented balance enclosures.[65] ... "Criteria for assessment of the effectiveness of protective measures". Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the ...
"Can Displacement Ventilation Control Secondhand ETS?".. *^ Drope, J (2004). "Tobacco industry efforts to present ventilation as ... Patient Assessment Tutorials: A Step-by-Step Procedures Guide for the Dental Hygienist. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ... Research has generated evidence that second-hand smoke causes the same problems as direct smoking, including lung cancer, ... Ventilation[edit]. Critics of smoke-free laws have suggested that ventilation is a means of reducing the harmful effects of ...
a b c d e f g Lederman, L. C. (1992). Debriefing: Toward a systematic assessment of theory and practice. Simulation & gaming, ... BVM ventilation and needle cricothyrotomy. SimMan®3GEdit. SimMan®3G is a full size lifelike mannequin that allows for ... The optional anesthesia delivery system allows the lungs to uptake or excrete nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, isoflurane and other ... Full Process of Casualty Assessment in Combat Simulation[57]. Electronic Casualty Card. Combat Trauma Patient Simulator. Human ...
4.8 Total lung capacity (TLC). *4.9 Diffusing capacity (DLCO). *4.10 Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) ... to conduct pre-operative risk assessment before anaesthesia or cardiothoracic surgery[5] ... lung. Pneumonectomy. Lobectomy. Wedge resection. Lung transplantation. Decortication of lung. Heart-lung transplant. ... Total lung capacity (TLC)[edit]. Total lung capacity (TLC) is the maximum volume of air present in the lungs ...
Gross pathology of a lung showing centrilobular emphysema characteristic of smoking. This close-up of the fixed, cut lung ... "COPD Assessment Test (CAT)". American Thoracic Society. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 29, ... This can also lead to insufficient ventilation, and eventually low blood oxygen levels.[5] Low oxygen levels, if present for a ... For those with very severe disease, surgery is sometimes helpful and may include lung transplantation or lung volume-reduction ...
... is not recommended and can damage the lungs and olfactory bulb cells directly.[9] ... Heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Fundamental concepts. *Air changes per hour. *Bake-out ... Mold growth, assessment, and remediation. *Refrigerant reclamation. *Testing, adjusting, balancing. Industry organizations. * ...
"Lung ventilation and gas exchange in theropod dinosaurs". Science. 278 (5341): 1267-1270. Bibcode:1997Sci...278.1267R. doi: ... Mallison, H. (2010). "The digital Plateosaurus II: an assessment of the range of motion of the limbs and vertebral column and ... Birds' lungs obtain fresh air during both exhalation and inhalation, because the air sacs do all the "pumping" and the lungs ... "Lung Ventilation and Gas Exchange in Theropod Dinosaurs". Science. 278 (5341): 1267-1270. Bibcode:1997Sci...278.1267R. doi: ...
"Heat and humidity - the lung association". Retrieved 14 March 2018.. ... Steadman, R. G. (July 1979). "The Assessment of Sultriness. Part I: A Temperature-Humidity Index Based on Human Physiology and ... Heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Fundamental concepts. *Air changes per hour. *Bake-out ...
Non-invasive ventilation[edit]. Non-invasive ventilation supports breathing with a face or nasal mask connected to a ventilator ... As the diaphragm and intercostal muscles of the rib cage that support breathing weaken, measures of lung function such as vital ... Huynh W, Simon NG, Grosskreutz J, Turner MR, Vucic S, Kiernan MC (July 2016). "Assessment of the upper motor neuron in ... Invasive ventilation[edit]. Invasive ventilation bypasses the nose and mouth (the upper airways) by making a cut in the trachea ...
It is useful to perform an assessment of the location and extent of the mold hazard in a structure. Various practices of ... A common issue with mold hazards in the household is the placement of furniture, and the lack of ventilation which this causes ... "National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. October 1, 2010. Retrieved January 15, 2014.. ... People at higher risk for mold allergies are people with chronic lung illnesses, which will result in more severe reactions ...
Abnormal results may be due to a wide range of diseases, including poisoning and trauma as well as lung, kidney, or metabolic ... The blood gas tension levels of partial pressures can be used as indicators of ventilation, respiration and oxygenation. ... "Use of umbilical cord blood gas analysis in the assessment of the newborn". Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and ...
Air is able to flow continuously in one direction through the lung, making it more efficient than the mammalian lung. ... Ekesbo, Ingvar (2011). Farm Animal Behaviour: Characteristics for Assessment of Health and Welfare. CABI. p. 181. ISBN ... The tidal volume is seen to double resulting in a 16-fold increase in ventilation.[61] Overall, ostrich respiration can be ... one to each lung, in which they continue directly through to become mesobronchi.[61] Ten different air sacs attach to the lungs ...
Patients with single organ dysfunction due to sepsis (e.g., lung) and recent surgery (within 30 days before drotrecogin use) ... and a careful risk/benefit assessment should be made prior to initiating therapy. ...
2 diffuses through membranes in the lungs and into red blood cells. Hemoglobin binds O. 2, changing color from bluish red to ... Butterfield, N. J. (2009). "Oxygen, animals and oceanic ventilation: An alternative view". Geobiology. 7 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1111/ ... Morgenthaler GW; Fester DA; Cooley CG (1994). "As assessment of habitat pressure, oxygen fraction, and EVA suit design for ... 3) is usually known as ozone and is a very reactive allotrope of oxygen that is damaging to lung tissue.[36] Ozone is produced ...
Brainerd, E. L. (1999). "New perspectives on the evolution of lung ventilation mechanisms in vertebrates". Experimental Biology ... "Eastern Hellbender Status Assessment Report" (PDF). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved August 25, 2012 ... Their lungs are functional early, but the larvae do not make as much use of them as do tadpoles. Their gills are never covered ... Ventilation is accomplished by buccal pumping.[66] Most amphibians, however, are able to exchange gases with the water or air ...
Scintigraphy of the lungs may detect moderate to severe alterations in the perfusion and possibly ventilation of the dorso- ... "Tracheobronchoscopic assessment of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage and airway inflammation in barrel racing horses" ... Imaging the lungs by taking a radiograph (x-ray) of the chest cannot be used to diagnose EIPH, as the lungs of affected and ... There are often distinct borders between healthy lung tissue and those parts of the lungs that have been affected by EIPH. ...
"Topical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene replacement for cystic fibrosis-related lung disease 11 (11): ... "Non-invasive ventilation for cystic fibrosis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD002769. . PMID 19160211. ... Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) 18 (18): 1-106. PMID 24656117. ... 48.0 48.1 Saiman L (2004). "Microbiology of early CF lung disease". Paediatric Respiratory Reviews 5 (Suppl A): S367-69. . PMID ...
lung. Pneumonectomy. Lobectomy. Wedge resection. Lung transplantation. Decortication of lung. Heart-lung transplant. ... Bertolaccini L, Rizzardi G, Filice MJ, Terzi A (May 2011). "'Six sigma approach' - an objective strategy in digital assessment ... It can also indicate a leak of air from the lung. The third chamber is the suction control chamber. The height of the water in ... Commonly used after Percutaneous CT-Guided Lung Biopsies: Saji H, Nakamura H, Tsuchida T, Tsuboi M, Kawate N, Konaka C, Kato H ...
The only vertebrates to have lungs, but no trachea, are the lungfish and the Polypterus, in which the lungs arise directly from ... Additionally, during surgery if mechanical ventilation is required when a person is sedated, a tube is inserted into the ... "Mucociliary clearance-a critical upper airway host defense mechanism and methods of assessment". Current Opinion in Allergy and ... The trachea, also called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi of the lungs, allowing ...
These neurological assessments commonly consist of an apnea test, reflex tests where the body is manipulated or exposed to a ... When doctors take away ventilation systems and patients fail to breathe, move, or show any signs of arousal on their own they ... yet when someone has a beating heart and lungs that will still function with the help of a ventilator it is difficult for some ... The American Academy of Neurology created a prerequisite and neurological clinical assessment to be used as guidelines for ...
Assessment[edit]. Any patient undergoing anaesthesia must be pre-assessed for risk using a classification system, such as the ... Ventilation. Unaffected. Adequate. May be inadequate. Frequently inadequate Cardiovascular Function. Unaffected. Usually ... lung disease. The problem is not that the patient will not respond appropriately to the medications, like with older age and ... Airway assessment is one of the most important parts of the physical exam when done as part of the pre-procedure work-up. There ...
This can occur as a result of inadequate circulation or perfusion, impaired respiratory effort, or inadequate ventilation.[14] ... Compressive asphyxia (also called chest compression) is mechanically limiting expansion of the lungs by compressing the torso, ... Hazard identification and risk assessment *Hazard analysis. *Job safety analysis. *Risk assessment ...
Total lung capacity (TLC)Edit. Total lung capacity (TLC) is the maximum volume of air present in the lungs ... Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV)Edit. Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) is a measure of the maximum amount of air that can ... to conduct pre-operative risk assessment before anaesthesia or cardiothoracic surgery[5] ... Static lung compliance (Cst)Edit. When estimating static lung compliance, volume measurements by the spirometer needs to be ...
2006). "Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV: hospital mortality assessment for today's critically ill ...
Objective assessment of muscle strength in PPS patients may not be easy. Changes in muscle strength are determined in specific ... clearing of the lungs) on a periodic basis (monitored via stethoscope). Failure to properly assess PPS with respiratory ... Severe cases may require permanent ventilation or tracheostomy. Sleep apnoea may also occur. Other management strategies that ... decreasing upper limb function and lung capability. Fatigue is often the most disabling symptom; even slight exertion often ...
Asthma is the most common reason for presenting to the emergency room with shortness of breath.[2] It is the most common lung ... Thus, poor ventilation leading to hypercapnia, left heart failure leading to interstitial edema (impairing gas exchange), ... The initial approach to evaluation begins by assessment of the airway, breathing, and circulation followed by a medical history ... In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic ...
Assessment of parameters of lung ventilation during 6-minute walk test in patients with COPD. Irina Ponomareva, Vladimir ... Assessment of parameters of lung ventilation during 6-minute walk test in patients with COPD ... Assessment of parameters of lung ventilation during 6-minute walk test in patients with COPD ... Assessment of parameters of lung ventilation during 6-minute walk test in patients with COPD ...
MFOV may therefore provide improved lung-protective ventilation by reducing strain magnitudes and spatial gradients of strain ... MFOV may therefore provide improved lung-protective ventilation by reducing strain magnitudes and spatial gradients of strain ... images to assess regional lung aeration and deformation in ten pigs under baseline conditions and following acute lung injury ... images to assess regional lung aeration and deformation in 10 pigs under baseline conditions and following acute lung injury ...
Thereafter, all other credits earned continuously count as Self-Assessment CME. Audio Digest will report earned Self-Assessment ... CONTINUUM Audio provides Self-Assessment CME credit when used as follows: When at least 8.0 CME credits have been earned and at ... Learner Assessment and Program Evaluation -- {{currentContentName}} Your responses to this Evaluation Survey are important. The ... This activity is an Accredited Self-Assessment Program (Section 3) as defined by the Maintenance of Certification Program of ...
It helps trainee physicians to integrate understanding of the physiological principles underlying lung function ... ... Making sense of lung function tests : a hands-on guide. [Jonathan H Dakin; Elena N Kourteli; Robert J D Winter] -- This is as ... Assessment of ventilation 11. Assessment of oxygenation 12. Distribution of ventilation and perfusion 13. Assessment of ... Making sense of lung function tests : a hands-on guide. Author:. Jonathan H Dakin; Elena N Kourteli; Robert J D Winter. ...
Reporting of lung scans for pulmonary embolism (PE) using a descriptive probability notation is tried and tested. Subjectivity ... Risk Assessment * Surveys and Questionnaires * Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio ... A preliminary evaluation of diagnostic odds in lung scan reporting Nucl Med Commun. 1998 Feb;19(2):113-8. doi: 10.1097/00006231 ... There does appear to be a greater awareness of the risk of PE when non-diagnostic lung scans are reported in numerical odds as ...
A recipient is on Nova Lung, ECMO, or on mechanical ventilation. (CPAP and BIPAP are not exclusionary) ... Novel Lung Trial: Normothermic Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion (Evlp) As An Assessment Of Extended/Marginal Donor Lungs. The safety and ... Novel Lung Trial: Normothermic Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion (Evlp) As An Assessment Of Extended/Marginal Donor Lungs. ... Donor has known significant aspiration of gastric contents within the lung.. *Donor lung has significant mechanical lung injury ...
Seminar:MRI of inhaled tracer gases without hyperpolarisation: new scalable methods for assessment of lung ventilation ...
Lung Development and Maturation 71. Assessment of Neonatal Pulmonary Function 72. Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the Neonate ... Role of Positive Pressure Ventilation in Neonatal Resuscitation 34. Oxygen Therapy in Neonatal Resuscitation ... Assessment and Optimization of Neurobehavioral Development in Preterm Infants. 68. Early Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes ...
Pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange; Mixed venous oxygen tension; Lung volumes; Lung mechanics and work of breathing; ... 6 ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF RESPIRATORY FUNCTION:. Measurement of lung volumes; Assessing airways obstruction; Maximum mouth ... Positive-pressure ventilation; Beneficial effects of mechanical ventilation; Indications for mechanical ventilation; Dangers of ... Other indices of pulmonary oxygen transfer and lung function. 7 RESPIRATORY SUPPORT:. Negative-pressure ventilation; ...
The Pulmonary Neuromuscular and Assisted Ventilation Program provides specialized care for patients with respiratory muscle ... Testing and Assessments. Lung function testing: We collaborate with our Pulmonary Function Laboratory to perform comprehensive ... Non-invasive ventilation: Also known as BiPap, nocturnal non-invasive ventilation can help support weak respiratory muscles and ... Imaging: For certain patients, advanced lung and diaphragm imaging are used during assessment. ...
Weinreich, U. M., Thomsen, L. P., Brock, C., Karbing, D. S., & Rees, S. E. (2015). Diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon ... Weinreich, UM, Thomsen, LP, Brock, C, Karbing, DS & Rees, SE 2015, Diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide: a ... T1 - Diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. T2 - a potential marker of impaired gas exchange or of systemic ... Diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide: a potential marker of impaired gas exchange or of systemic deconditioning ...
... as mechanical ventilation can compromise cardiac function and haemodynamic stability. ... An understanding of heart-lung interactions is crucial in the care of ventilated patients, ... Assessment of preload reserve and volume responsiveness Heart-lung interactions have been used for preload assessment based on ... Effect of Mechanical Ventilation on Heart-Lung Interactions Principles and Practice of Mechanical Ventilation, Third Edition. ...
Assessment of allergic responses in the lung and brain. After 72 h from the last aerosol exposure, 14 rats (Control: n = 7 and ... Ilka, F., Javan, M. & Raoufy, M. R. Variable ventilation decreases airway responsiveness and improves ventilation efficiency in ... For assessment of airway hyper-responsiveness, cumulative doses of MCh (0.5-1-2-4-8 mg/ml in saline) were inhaled for 60 s at 5 ... Palermo-Neto, J. & Guimarães, R. K. Pavlovian conditioning of lung anaphylactic response in rats. Life Sci. 68, 611-623 (2000). ...
Ventilation/perfusion mismatch *Airway disease (i.e. transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN), respiratory distress syndrome ( ... All cyanotic patients should be assessed for possible cardiac and lung disease including ... Describe the clinical assessment of an infant with cyanosis due to overexposure to nitrates and nitrites. ... "Clinical Assessment-Laboratory Tests"). Unfortunately, because methemoglobin (MetHb) is generally expressed as a percent of ...
The association between the initial tidal volume and the development of acute lung injury suggests that ventilator-associated ... lung injury may be an important cause of this syndrome. Height and gender should be considered when setting up the ventilator. ... Outcome Assessment, Health Care * Regression Analysis * Respiration, Artificial / adverse effects* * Respiratory Distress ... Ventilator-associated lung injury in patients without acute lung injury at the onset of mechanical ventilation Crit Care Med. ...
Lung perfusion and ventilation CT protocols were developed for quantitative assessment of COPD before and after medical ... Lung volume reduction was devised to remove hyperinflated lung, and to function remaining lung. Surgical lung volume reduction ... We attempt to evaluate efficacy of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using lung perfusion and ventilation CT and other ... Collateral ventilation plays a key role in endobronchial valve-induced atelectasis. Therefore, assessment of collateral ...
Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Inhalation-studies; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-testing; Lung- ... Exhaust-ventilation; ... animals after MDR-TB exposure and examined and scored lung and ... disorders; Lung-irritants; Mathematical-models; Morbidity-rates; Mortality-rates; Physiological-effects; Pulmonary-system- ...
Hard metals; Occupational exposure; Lung disease; Exhaust hoods; Exhaust ventilation; Ventilation systems; Air flow; Metal ... dusts; Exposure assessment; Author Keywords: Hard Metal; Cobalt; Cadmium; Metal Exposures; Tungsten Carbide; Stellite; ... and ventilation system function were monitored for three consecutive days prior to installation of three new ventilation ... Ventilation air flows failed to meet design goals due to low total air volume and poor distribution; however, worker exposures ...
Accuracy of in vitro assessment of lung volume. The average of the measured and known volume of a mechanical lung model is ... cystic fibrosis and chronic lung disease have hyperinflated lungs and ventilation inhomogeneities 1, 2. In infants it is ... Measurement of lung volume and ventilation distribution with an ultrasonic flow meter in healthy infants. A. Schibler, G.L. ... Lung function studies. VIII. Analysis of alveolar ventilation by pulmonary N2 clearance curves. J Clin Invest 1952;31:40-50. ...
American Lung Association provides Seattle-based home environment assessments FOR FREE!. *Pierce County Asthma program: - Home ... assessments in Tacoma/Pierce County. *King County Housing Authority provides weatherization/ventilation help for low-income ... Families in Seattle/King Co are eligible to receive a free home health assessments through the American Lung Association. Most ... Key resources locally include the American Lung Association home health assessment program and the King County asthma program, ...
Lung Protective One-lung Ventilation With Fix and Variable Tidal Volume. During One-lung ventilation, the use of lower tidal ... Imaging Assessment of Partial Liquid Ventilation in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.. Partial liquid ventilation is proposed as an ... BACKGROUNDː: One-lung ventilation (OLV) may result in lung injury due to increased mechanical stress and tidal recruitment. As ... Variable ventilation can stabilize lung mechanics by avoiding the monotonic tidal volume and protect lung parenchyma as tidal ...
... from HEALTHCARE RES241 at Independence ... RES241 Advanced Ventilation.docx No upon assessment of the patient her lungs sound ... No, upon assessment of the patient her lungs sound clear, she has no shortness of breath, and there is no evidence of ... WEEK 4 ASSIGNMENT 4 Question #2 What pathophysiology accounts for the adventitious lungs sounds (fine, inspiratory crackles)? ...
75 Observations from PIOPED: ventilation-perfusion lung scans alone and in combination with clinical assessment 367 ... 77 Perfusion lung scans alone in acute pulmonary embolism 376. 78 Probability interpretation of ventilation-perfusion lung ... 73 Techniques of perfusion and ventilation imaging 358. 74 Ventilation-perfusion lung scan criteria for interpretation prior to ... 76 Ventilation-perfusion lung scans according to complexity of lung disease 374 ...
... volume-controlled ventilation is the most commonly employed mode during the first few days of mechanical ventilation [ 1 ]. The ... Ultrasound assessment of rectus femoris and anterior tibialis muscles in young trauma patients. ... Regional lung aeration and ventilation during pressure support and biphasic positive airway pressure ventilation in ... Spontaneous breathing during lung-protective ventilation in an experimental acute lung injury model: high transpulmonary ...
Hourly pain assessments using a visual analogue scale (VAS) were performed. Patients with VAS scores greater than 3 received a ... Lung infiltration [ Time Frame: 6h after surgery ]. X-ray of the lung- clear lungs, partly infiltrated lungs, totally ... Phase 1 Study of Antiinflammatory Effect of Sevoflurane in Open Lung Surgery With One-Lung Ventilation. ... mechanical ventilation and surgery may induce alveolar and systemic inflammatory responses. One-lung ventilation (OLV) has ...
... our pediatric pulmonologists have the specialized pediatric experience with all types of ventilation strategies which will be ... Ventilator setting adjustment and individualized home ventilation plan. *Immunization review and other measures to reduce lung ... Ventilator mask or tracheostomy assessment. *Ventilator equipment and supplies inventory and coordination of care with home ... It is dedicated to helping children who require breathing assistance because of chronic lung disease, chest wall deformity, ...
Normothermic ventilation; Graft assessment; Organ procurement; Liver transplantation; Lung transplantation ... NRP for abdominal organ preservation and a normothermic open-lung approach with protective mechanical ventilation for lung ... 3 Thoracic Surgery and Lung Transplant Unit, Fondazione Irccs Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy; 4 ... for abdominal organs and concomitant cold lung flushing. The use of in-situ NRP is a significant advance in abdominal organ ...
The risk of lung cancer among miners with occupational exposure to diesel exhaust was quantitatively assessed. The effects of ... This dose was adjusted for differences in weight, ventilation rate, deposition fraction, and the percentage of time actually ... An exploratory assessment of the risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to diesel exhaust based on a study in rats.. ... Lung-disease; Respiratory-system-disorders; Lung-irritants; Risk-factors; Risk-analysis; Epidemiology; Mining-industry; ...
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs in children without known lung disease, whereas secondary spont... ... Hypoxemia frequently occurs due to ventilation-perfusion mismatch in the affected lung. The collapsed portion of the lung ... Patients may also have acute respiratory alkalosis on ABG assessment if they have significant pain, anxiety, and/or hypoxemia. ... Hyperlucency of vascular and lung markings on the affected side can be seen because of this air. Atelectasis may also be seen ...
  • Distribution of ventilation and perfusion 13. (
  • The lungs will be physiologically assessed during ex vivo perfusion with Steen Solution. (
  • Perfusion of these lungs will be performed using Steen solution with the addition of methylprednisolone, heparin and antibiotics. (
  • EVLP Group are those recipient lung transplant patients that received donor lungs that had been placed on the XPS™ with Steen Solution™ and undergone ex-vivo lung perfusion before being transplanted. (
  • New strategies designed to improve the preservation of in- situ DCD grafts include the use of normothermic regional perfusion (NRP) for abdominal organs and concomitant cold lung flushing. (
  • Hypoxemia frequently occurs due to ventilation-perfusion mismatch in the affected lung. (
  • The collapsed portion of the lung affected by pneumothorax is poorly ventilated but continues to receive adequate perfusion, which leads to hypoxemia. (
  • Shanahan B, Egan M, Murphy D, Redmond K. Robot-Assisted Left Upper Lobe Lung Volume Reduction Surgery With Intraoperative Firefly Perfusion Assessment. (
  • The authors then proceeded to the perfusion assessment. (
  • The system allows for real-time intraoperative assessment of pulmonary perfusion, with ICG detectable in the lung parenchyma within seconds following injection, thus guiding resection. (
  • Abstract: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an promising imaging technology for continuous bedside monitoring of ventilation and perfusion. (
  • Our study illustrates preliminary in-vivo results based on the data collected from two healthy male subjects, and qualitatively validates the efficiency of resolving the overlapping of ventilation and perfusion component. (
  • The method proposed in our study is believed to open up new possibilities for the assessment of lung ventilation and perfusion. (
  • Comprehensive understanding of lung function can be achieved by performing registered pulmonary ventilation and perfusion imaging studies in the same animal. (
  • While ventilation imaging has been addressed for small animals, quantitative pulmonary perfusion imaging has not been feasible until recently, with our proposed technique for quantitative perfusion imaging using multiple contrast-agent injections and a view-sharing radial imaging technique. (
  • While ventilation imaging has been addressed to a certain extent, perfusion imaging for small animals has not kept pace. (
  • In addition to bundling, radiology practices also should look for revision and re-valuation of the nuclear medicine lung ventilation/perfusion and hepatobiliary code families. (
  • Harmonic distortion of parenchymal deformation was observed during HFOV with a single discrete sinusoid delivered at the airway opening, suggesting inherent mechanical nonlinearity of the lung tissues. (
  • Small airway disease in infants is characterised by abnormal lung volume and uneven ventilation distribution. (
  • Tracings of airway pressure, esophageal pressure, flow, transpulmonary pressure, and tidal volume during each pressure-controlled mode of ventilation. (
  • In TBM patients with acute respiratory failure, noninvasive ventilation is a therapeutic option, because positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can prevent airway collapse. (
  • These include airway disruption or alveolar rupture prior to the initiation of mechanical ventilation (eg, trauma, surgery), laceration of the airway or visceral pleura during mechanical ventilation (eg, central line placement, thoracentesis), and spontaneous alveolar rupture (eg, a complication of the underlying disease or mechanical ventilation). (
  • This chapter encompasses the whole aspect of CT in COPD, including basic CT physics, radiation dose consideration, diagnosis and visual assessment of COPD, fundamentals of quantitative assessment of emphysema, airway wall thickening, and air trapping and its clinical values. (
  • The effect of iterative reconstruction on computed tomography assessment of emphysema, air trapping and airway dimensions. (
  • The use of a single-running suture technique results in a low incidence of airway complications after lung transplantation. (
  • Laryngeal Injury and Upper Airway Symptoms After Oral Endotracheal Intubation With Mechanical Ventilation During Critical Care: A Systematic Review. (
  • Undue delay leads to excess stay, respiratory mechanics, and the patient's ability to iatrogenic lung injury, unnecessary sedation and protect the airway. (
  • In diffuse airway obstruction, SPECT images showed an even distribution of radioactivity, and PET images showed more varied radioactivity over the lung. (
  • Here, we combine the method with registered ventilation imaging using hyperpolarized (3)He in an airway obstruction rodent model. (
  • You'll learn about lung and airway functioning, the control of respiration - at rest and during exercise - and the key factors involved in major respiratory diseases . (
  • You'll also learn about the principles involved in maintaining adequate lung and airway functions when these are threatened by disease. (
  • Xenon gas mixtures were delivered to anesthetized swine to assess airway and lung parenchymal opacification while evaluating various DECT scan acquisition settings. (
  • In most NPVs (such as the iron lung in the diagram), the negative pressure is applied to the patient's torso, or entire body below the neck, to cause their chest to expand, expanding their lungs, drawing air into the patient's lungs through their airway, assisting (or forcing) inhalation. (
  • Another form of NPV device (such as the Pulmotor) is placed at the patient's airway, and alternates negative pressure with positive pressure to pump air into their lungs (inhale under positive pressure), then suck it back out (exhale under negative pressure). (
  • Continuous external negative pressure ventilation (CENPV) was found in a 2015 study to "[improve] oxygenation under [a greater number of] physiological conditions", concurrent with lower "airway," "transpulmonary," and "intra-abdominal" pressures, than experienced with continuous positive pressure ventilation (CPPV), in study of Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients, possibly reducing high ARDS mortality. (
  • They result in a greater vulnerability of the airway to aspiration such as inhalation of vomit or swallowed liquids, than with intermittent positive pressure ventilation. (
  • The main focus is on the interaction between positive pressure ventilation and its effects on right and left ventricular pre- and afterload and ventricular interdependence. (
  • Subsequent studies described a drop in cardiac output during forced spontaneous inspiration and depression of right ventricular function under positive pressure ventilation [ 5 - 8 ]. (
  • Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation. (
  • Triggering factors for hemodynamic imbalance include the induction of general anesthesia, the supine position on the operating table, the administration of muscle relaxants and the initiation of positive-pressure ventilation. (
  • After induction of anesthesia, spontaneous ventilation should be continued whenever possible, avoiding muscle relaxation and positive-pressure ventilation (especially in symptomatic children in which respiratory issues can be anticipated). (
  • 5 mm in diameter, uncorrectable coagulopathy, positive-pressure ventilation, severe respiratory compromise, pulmonary arterial hypertension, or refusal of the procedure. (
  • Low tolerance to physical exercise in patients with COPD is multifactorial and is due to several reasons, rather important of which is reduction of lung ventilation ability. (
  • studying the ventilation parameters during exercise tests in patients with COPD can be used for identification of reasons, limiting tolerance to physical exercise, what, finally, will allow to provide personified approach to programme of treatment of patients with COPD. (
  • Although there were procedure-related complications such as acute exacerbation of COPD, pneumonia, or hemoptysis, patients receiving endobronchial valves showed improved lung functions, exercise capacity and quality of life. (
  • Patients with COPD who deteriorate to Respiratory Failure pose a challenge to the intensivist both in ventilating an obstructed patient and in weaning from mechanical ventilation. (
  • Currently there are no accepted extubation criteria in COPD patients that could predict successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. (
  • See 'Sequelae and complications of pneumonectomy' and 'Lung volume reduction surgery in COPD' . (
  • Assessment of other components of COPD includes chest wall changes, vascular changes, osteoporosis, and so on. (
  • In addition, new emerging imaging methods such as MRI, dual-energy CT, PET, and optical imaging to evaluate not only morphologic but also functional aspects of lung in COPD will be introduced. (
  • BACKGROUND Regional lung sound intensity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is influenced by the severity and distribution of emphysema, obstructed peripheral airways, and altered ribcage and diaphragm configurations and movements due to hyperinflation. (
  • Changes in the lung sound distribution accompanied by pulmonary function improvements in COPD patients were observed after bronchodilator inhalation. (
  • LEEP Losartan Effects on Emphysema Progression LEEP is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effect of Losartan in helping people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) with emphysema - a disease of the lungs. (
  • This technique has also been used as a weaning strategy to facilitate early liberation from invasive ventilation with current evidence suggesting greater benefits in those with a diagnosis of COPD (7). (
  • Evidence supports the use of bilevel non-invasive ventilation in acute exacerbations of COPD and other disorders characterised by hypoventilation. (
  • Weaning from mechanical ventilation particularly in patients with a background of COPD (7). (
  • Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has been introduced as a management option for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (
  • Even in common disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ), non-invasive ventilation can be used to improve the outcome of acute infections. (
  • Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction is a new technology designed to reduce hyperinflation in severe COPD by implantation of endobronchial devices, such as biodegradable material, endobronchial valves or bronchopulmonary stents, via flexible bronchoscopy. (
  • Lung emphysema is the pathoanatomical correlate of severe COPD associated with homogeneous or heterogeneous destruction of lung tissue and marked hyperinflation considerably limiting patient activity. (
  • Lung transplantation is a therapeutic option for only a selected group of younger patients with advanced COPD and no relevant comorbidities [1]. (
  • Despite improvements in quality of life, lung function parameters, 6-minute walk distance and medium-term survival [4], the early enthusiasm with this procedure has markedly subsided due to high perioperative mortality in selected groups of COPD patients [5]. (
  • One-way endobronchial valves are placed in segmental bronchi of the most hyperinflated and least perfused lobe of the emphysematous lungs on computed tomography (CT). (
  • Development of quantitative computed tomography lung protocols. (
  • Extensive preoperative investigation included high resolution computed tomography with StratX lung report, bronchoscopy with Chartis balloon pressure assessment, transesophageal echocardiography, right and left cardiac catheterization, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • Optimization of dual-energy xenon-computed tomography for quantitative assessment of regional pulmonary ventilation. (
  • Dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (DECT) offers visualization of the airways and quantitation of regional pulmonary ventilation using a single breath of inhaled xenon gas. (
  • Mechanical ventilation strategies that reduce the heterogeneity of regional lung stress and strain may reduce the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). (
  • Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) may inadvertently occur in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation, due to the harmful stresses and strains associated with gas flows driven under positive pressure ( Slutsky and Ranieri, 2013 ). (
  • We tested the hypothesis that acute lung injury, which develops after the initiation of mechanical ventilation, is associated with known risk factors for ventilator-induced lung injury such as ventilation with large tidal volume. (
  • Topics discussed include occurrence of ventilator-induced lung injury, oxygenation response to the prone position session and permissive. (
  • However, this can lead to development of ventilator-induced lung injury caused by the over-distension of alveolar tissue and by the repetitive closure (de-recruitment. (
  • MFOV may therefore provide improved lung-protective ventilation by reducing strain magnitudes and spatial gradients of strain compared to either CMV or HFOV. (
  • The goal of lung-protective ventilation is to provide life-sustaining gas exchange without exacerbating existing injury within vulnerable parenchymal tissues. (
  • Therefore, transpulmonary pressure ( P L ) and V T are more difficult to control and may exceed safe limits in patients who require lung-protective ventilation, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (
  • Protective Ventilation of Preterm Lambs Exposed to Acute Chorioamnionitis Does Not Reduce Ventilation-Induced Lung or Brain Injury. (
  • Protective ventilation strategies at birth reduce ventilation-induced lung and brain inflammation and injury, however its efficacy in a compromised newborn is not known. (
  • We investigated the effects of high VT ventilation, after chorioamnionitis, on preterm lung and WM inflammation and injury, and whether a protective ventilation strategy could mitigate the response. (
  • Although BPF was encountered not infrequently 30 years ago in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), in the current era of low tidal volumes and lung-protective ventilation it has become rare as a complication associated with mechanical ventilation. (
  • Effect of a protective ventilation strategy on mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. (
  • Lung protective ventilation (LPV) has been shown to improve survival and the duration of mechanical ventilation in acute lung injury (ALI) patients. (
  • Critically ill patients with the need for mechanical ventilation show complex interactions between respiratory and cardiovascular physiology. (
  • We outline the basic cardiac and respiratory physiology during spontaneous breathing and under mechanical ventilation. (
  • Ventilator settings, hemodynamics, and acute lung injury risk factors were extracted from the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III database and the patients' medical records. (
  • His research areas include understanding swallowing impairments and laryngeal injury after oral endotracheal intubation, and understanding of swallowing physiology, formal assessment and bedside screening. (
  • A new chapter on Physiological Basis for Oxygenation and Lung Protective Strategies explains the ways in which normal physiology is affected by disease processes, and how specific respiratory techniques can be of benefit. (
  • A new chapter on Fetal and Newborn Cardiopulmonary Physiology explores these areas of fetal development and the normal transition to adult circulation and oxygenation, as well as the effects of prematurity on the lungs. (
  • Thus, we use a variety of methods to characterize the inflammatory reaction and immune response underlying asthma and its effects on lung structure and physiology. (
  • High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation in ARDS. (
  • Maintenance of the open lung alveoli in the expiration on mechanical ventilation in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) remains challenging despite advances in lung imaging. (
  • This document provides evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on the use of mechanical ventilation in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (
  • Assessment of oxygenation response to prone position ventilation in ARDS by lung ultrasonography. (
  • The article discusses acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which can be only treated in the intensive care unit with the help of mechanical ventilation. (
  • The author opines on a study on managing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with non-invasive ventilation by G. Bellani and others. (
  • Conclusions Our findings support the need for patient assessment under SVS at 24 h after ARDS onset to assess disease severity, and have implications for the diagnosis and management of ARDS patients. (
  • In patients undergoing lung resection, mechanical ventilation and surgery may induce alveolar and systemic inflammatory responses. (
  • Surgical prehabilitation may improve outcomes in patients undergoing lung resection. (
  • 1. Preoperative Assessment for Lung Resection. (
  • The authors of this valuable article, after a few telling generalisations, get down to the business of reviewing the 'state of the art' in assessing patients for lung resection. (
  • Such ASA I or II patients do NOT require further respiratory evaluation prior to lung resection. (
  • Unfortunately, most patients fall into the larger group where the lung tumour (or other indication for lung resection) is due to smoking that has also exacted its toll on pulmonary function. (
  • Acute respiratory failure following lung resection surgery or post abdominal surgery (2, 21). (
  • Restrictive lung disease or lung resection (partial or total). (
  • A DLCO of less than 60% predicted portends a poor prognosis for lung cancer resection. (
  • FEV1 is of lesser prognostic value for lung resection survival. (
  • Diffusion lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is an independent prognostic factor for long-term survival after curative lung resection for cancer (p n/a) Michael J. Liptay, Sanjib Basu, Michael C. Hoaglin, Neil Freedman, L. Penfield Faber, William H. Warren, Zane T. Hammoud, Anthony W. Kim. (
  • WEEK 4 ASSIGNMENT 4 Question #2 What pathophysiology accounts for the adventitious lungs sounds (fine, inspiratory crackles)? (
  • Finally, in non-synchronized mode or PC intermittent mandatory ventilation (PC-IMV), low and high pressure levels are alternately delivered for fixed intervals and patient inspiratory efforts are possible but do not trigger any additional assistance and are not intentionally synchronized. (
  • Though these effects are potentially attractive for offering a better lung-protective strategy, using a non-synchronized mode may also lead to unpredictable effects on patient's inspiratory effort. (
  • Lung pulse (P) during mechanical ventilation between inspiratory (I) and expiratory (E) phase. (
  • Doctors have a number of ways to treat pulmonary fibrosis, including the use of medications, oxygen therapy, non-medical treatments (such as exercise), and even lung transplantation. (
  • Bilateral Lung Transplantation With Interventional Occlusion. (
  • On November 28, 2014, the Department of Chest Surgery of Wuxi People's Hospital in China performed the first case of an ECMO assisted bilateral lung transplantation (BLTx) combined with interventional occlusion of an ASD in a patient with Eisenmenger syndrome. (
  • On October 20, 2014, the patient was admitted to our Hospital to undergo preoperative assessment for lung transplantation. (
  • On November 28, 2014, we performed bilateral cadaveric lung transplantation with interventional closure of the ASD assisted by ECMO. (
  • Our experience of successful treatment for this patient indicates that it's feasible approach to carry out bilateral allogeneic lung transplantation together with heart defect repair for end-stage congenital heart disease. (
  • Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) was introduced more than fifteen years ago as an alternative to lung transplantation [2]. (
  • Of them, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction by endobronchial one-way valve is mostly used method and showed lower early complications than surgery. (
  • The bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using endobronchial valve was proved its efficacy and safety in several large clinical trials. (
  • This article discusses newest developments and results in bronchoscopic lung volume reduction. (
  • Due to their advantages compared with surgical therapy, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction procedures have won mounting recognition in the pulmonary literature. (
  • Most thus far published clinical trials on bronchoscopic lung volume reduction have also included patients suitable for surgical lung volume reduction, i.e. those suffering from heterogeneous upper lobe emphysema with marked hyperinflation and no contraindication for surgical lung volume reduction (table 1). (
  • Although ventilation with small tidal volumes is recommended in patients with established acute lung injury, most others receive highly variable tidal volume aimed in part at normalizing arterial blood gas values. (
  • The association between the initial tidal volume and the development of acute lung injury suggests that ventilator-associated lung injury may be an important cause of this syndrome. (
  • Strong consideration should be given to limiting large tidal volume, not only in patients with established acute lung injury but also in patients at risk for acute lung injury. (
  • Variable ventilation can stabilize lung mechanics by avoiding the monotonic tidal volume and protect lung parenchyma as tidal recruitment is encompassed within the tidal volume variability. (
  • Low tidal volume (= tidal volume ≤ 6 mL/kg, predicted body weight) ventilation using volume control benefits patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. (
  • Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). (
  • Effects of MMP-9 inhibition by doxycycline on proteome of lungs in high tidal volume mechanical ventilation-induced acute lung injury. (
  • The author discusses the association of non-invasive ventilation with lower positive end-expiratory pressure, higher tidal volume and high respiratory. (
  • Lung volumes 7. (
  • During One-lung ventilation, the use of lower tidal volumes (VT) is helpful to avoid over-distension, provide sufficient oxygenation, but can result in increased atelectasis. (
  • BACKGROUND: The onset of mechanical ventilation is a critical time for the initiation of cerebral white matter (WM) injury in preterm neonates, particularly if they are inadvertently exposed to high tidal volumes (VT) in the delivery room. (
  • Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. (
  • 19) Assess lung volumes using measurement tools such as tape measure and spirometer. (
  • Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive, radiation-free monitoring tool that provides real-time imaging of ventilation at the bedside. (
  • Regional pressure volume curves by electrical impedance tomography in a model of acute lung injury. (
  • OBJECTIVE A new noninvasive method, electrical impedance tomography (EIT), was used to make pressure-impedance (PI) curves in a lung lavage model of acute lung injury in pigs. (
  • Electrical impedance tomography in acute lung injury]. (
  • Infants with small airways disease such as wheezing disorders, cystic fibrosis and chronic lung disease have hyperinflated lungs and ventilation inhomogeneities 1 , 2 . (
  • Gas dilution techniques determine functional residual capacity (FRC) by measuring areas of the lung that readily communicate with the central airways during tidal breathing. (
  • De-recruitment of airspaces in the lung occurs when airways close during exhalation, and is related to ventilation heterogeneity and symptoms in asthma. (
  • This book offers a state-of-the-art description of the complexity of the healthy and pathological respiratory system, with particular reference to the mechanics of the airways, lung and chest wall. (
  • In this study, we sought to optimize scanning protocols for DECT xenon gas ventilation imaging of the airways and lung parenchyma and to characterize the quantitative nature of the developed protocols through a series of test-object and animal studies. (
  • This is a special blowing test that measures the capacity of the lungs and airways. (
  • A bronchoscopy is a procedure where a doctor can look at the trachea (windpipe), the bronchi (branches of the airways) and into some areas of the lungs. (
  • The primary hypothesis of this study is reduction in need of mechanical ventilation in the first 72 hours of life (excluding the transient tracheal intubation performed for surfactant ad. (
  • It helps trainee physicians to integrate understanding of the physiological principles underlying lung function with their interpretation in clinical practice. (
  • It places lung function in a clinical context using 'real-life' examples and integrates an understanding of the physiological principles underlying lung function with their interpretation in clinical practice. (
  • Human donor lungs that do not meet the standard clinical criteria for donor lung utilization but fit into the study inclusion criteria will be retrieved from the donor using current donor lung retrieval techniques. (
  • Lungs will also be excluded if they are deemed unsuitable based on the clinical judgment of the lung transplant surgeon. (
  • Describe the clinical assessment of an infant with cyanosis due to overexposure to nitrates and nitrites. (
  • Clinical Assessment of the Cardiopulmonary System19. (
  • Provide knowledge of disaster medicine and organizational structure, material and technical provision, primary and secondary assessment of the casualty, basic principles of triage, manipulation and treatment, specific character of chemical catastrophes and their elimination, as well as knowledge of epidemiology of acute exogenous intoxications, toxicokinetics and specific nature of its of treatment, clinical course of certain types of poisoning, recommended treatment methods and inform about the most known contaminants. (
  • Clinical review: bedside lung ultrasound in critical care practice. (
  • Predicted body weight during mechanical ventilation: using arm demispan to aid clinical assessment. (
  • An Official American Thoracic Society/European Society of Intensive Care Medicine/Society of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline: Mechanical Ventilation in Adult Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. (
  • Nonetheless, it remains desirable for clinicians caring for critically ill patients to be familiar with BPF and to have an approach to its assessment and management. (
  • Anaesthesiology and intensive care: investigation and assessment of critically ill patients (Glasgow, APACHE II, SOFA, and other scales). (
  • Mechanical ventilation is an essential life-sustaining therapy for many critically-ill patients. (
  • Mechanical Ventilation is meant to be carried and used at the bedside and to allow everyone who cares for critically-ill patients to master this essential therapy. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the recent protocols of successful weaning from mechanical ventilation of critically ill patients, depending on central venous oxygen saturation, ultrasonographic assessment of diaphragmatic movement, and serial arterial blood gases to assess failure rate 48 hours after weaning. (
  • The lung pulse corresponds to heart movements transmitted by lung parenchyma along the pleural line, as. (
  • This system facilitates CO 2 insufflation (the less emphysematous lung with less air trapping tends to preferentially deflate first), 8 mm port hopping with a 30 degree tridimensional robotic camera, and closed robotic stapling of the lung parenchyma using a 12 mm port, with minimal disruption to the intercostal space and intercostal nerve. (
  • However, both techniques have the same significant risk factors including small and basal lesions, increased lesion's depth from pleural surface, and increased length of aerated lung parenchyma crossed by biopsy needle and passing through pulmonary fissures in the needle tract. (
  • PET provides detailed ventilation distribution images and a better appreciation of ventilation heterogeneity. (
  • In particular, thin-section volumetric CT covering the whole lung with following quantitative assessment has been accepted one of the essential components of studies. (
  • A new method to predict postoperative lung function: quantitative breath sound measurements. (
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: quantitative and visual ventilation pattern analysis at xenon ventilation CT performed by using a dual-energy technique. (
  • To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive quantitative assessment of lung function in small animals at high spatial resolution. (
  • To provide a truly quantitative measure of regional lung function with xenon-DECT, the basic protocols and parameter calibrations need to be better understood and quantified. (
  • With the development of various models of pulmonary disease, there is tremendous interest in quantitative regional assessment of pulmonary function. (
  • Variable Ventilation Associated With Recruitment Maneuver Minimizes Tissue Damage and Pulmonary Inflammation in Anesthetized Lung-Healthy Rats. (
  • A convenient method of prediction of post-operative FEV1 is to estimate the amount of functional lung tissue remaining after surgery based on the number of 'subsegments' in each lobe. (
  • Aims: We sought to find out whether continuous administration of low-medium flow oxygen for NVL during OLV can mitigate the oxidative stress in lung tissue of patient. (
  • The possible mechanism is related with the inhibition of the oxidative stress response in lung tissue. (
  • Tissue deep in the lungs becomes thick, stiff and scarred. (
  • As the lung tissue becomes scarred, it interferes with a person's ability to breathe. (
  • Background: Workplace exposure to respirable crystalline silica can cause silicosis, a progressive lung disease marked by scarring and thickening of the lung tissue. (
  • 1- 4 Surgical removal of the most compliant lung tissue improves airflow and reduces the work of breathing in the remaining lung. (
  • This was a first recognition of the mechanical interplay between the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, nowadays referred to as heart-lung or cardiorespiratory interactions, which comprise the effects of respiration on circulation. (
  • Boon AJ, O'Gorman C. Ultrasound in the assessment of respiration. (
  • An understanding of this interaction is crucial in the care of ventilated patients, as mechanical ventilation can compromise cardiac function and haemodynamic stability. (
  • Recent studies suggest that isolated sonographic assessment of the respiratory and cardiac function (ie diastolic function and filling pressure), in mechanically ventilated patients may assist in identifying patients at risk of weaning failure. (
  • However, due to the spatial and frequency overlapping of ventilation and cardiac components in the heart-lung interaction system, it's difficult to separate the components in spontaneous breathing subjects. (
  • We introduce an intuitive method based on multi-dimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition to explore the intrinsic oscillation modes of the ventilation and cardiac components from EIT data. (
  • Iron-deficiency anaemia: its effects on transfer factor for the lung (diffusing capacity) and ventilation and cardiac frequency during submaximal exercise. (
  • We aim to familiarise the reader with cardiovascular side effects of mechanical ventilation when experiencing weaning problems or right heart failure. (
  • During weaning from mechanical ventilation, the WOB performed by the patient must be adequate and efficient to sustain spontaneous ventilation after extubation. (
  • In this study we will attempt to correlate spirometric data to eventual weaning from mechanical ventilation. (
  • Removal of patients from mechanical ventilation (MV) has been termed liberation, discontinuation, withdrawal and most commonly weaning. (
  • As the group depended on normal ultrasonographic assessment of diaphragmatic movement, had the largest number of patients with successful weaning. (
  • Normal ultrasonographic assessment of diaphragmatic movement proved to be the most important criteria for successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. (
  • Neonatal research is a leading international group researching the support and protection of teh diseased newborn lung requiring mechanical ventilation, particularly advanced modalities such as high-frequency ventilation. (
  • Researchers and clinicians present their findings from studies in aerosol therapy, mechanical ventilation, neonatal and pediatric care, education, management, and every practice mode in the profession. (
  • It is dedicated to helping children who require breathing assistance because of chronic lung disease, chest wall deformity, respiratory muscle weakness, diaphragm muscle problems or central hypoventilation. (
  • The British Thoracic Society guidelines differentiate a large from a small pneumothorax by the presence of a visible rim of greater than 2 cm between the lung margin and the chest wall (at the level of the hilum). (
  • Professor Anita Simonds , consultant in thoracic medicine, and her team provide home ventilation support for adults and children with neuromuscular and chest wall conditions, such as muscular dystrophy and curvature of the spine. (
  • A sleep study also can be used to adjust nocturnal, non-invasive ventilation settings. (
  • Also known as BiPap , nocturnal non-invasive ventilation can help support weak respiratory muscles and increase airflow. (
  • These days, most patients can be supported with non-invasive ventilation. (
  • Patients with tracheostomy are evaluated for a switch to non-invasive therapy, but for patients requiring ventilation with a tracheostomy, we aim to optimize therapy and address issues such as speech and swallowing. (
  • However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of TBM being diagnosed during invasive mechanical ventilation. (
  • Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) was applied in 49 (28%) patients on admission, but 94% were later intubated. (
  • Non-invasive ventilation for neuromuscular respiratory failure: when to use and when to avoid. (
  • Non-invasive assessment of kidney oxygenation: a role for BOLD MRI , Kidney Int. 2006 Jul;70(1):10-1. (
  • Should We Use Non-invasive Ventilation to Treat Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome? (
  • Non-invasive ventilation is increasingly being used as an adjunct to standard medical therapy to treat episodes of ARF in the critical care and specialised respiratory ward setting (5, 6). (
  • Non-invasive ventilation using small portable ventilators at night extends survival, reduces hospital admissions and improves quality of life. (
  • Breathing problems in these patients first appear during sleep and patients often need non-invasive ventilation to support their breathing at night-time. (
  • Lung volume reduction was devised to remove hyperinflated lung, and to function remaining lung. (
  • Surgical lung volume reduction showed improving survival in selected emphysema patients. (
  • However, surgical lung volume reduction have bee performed rarely due to significant surgery-related mortality. (
  • In this regard, non-surgical lung volume reduction methods have been developed. (
  • In addition, it is indicated ventilation includes both the assessment of a as a measure to control ventilation in critically ill patient's readiness to breathe independently and patients and as prophylaxis for impending collapse the systematic reduction of ventilatory support. (
  • The authors note that these latter criteria are not absolute contra-indications to surgery, with successful resections now taking place in patients violating the PaO 2 and PaCO 2 criteria, sometimes even combined with lung reduction surgery! (
  • As a result, new bronchoscopic technologies have been introduced to perform lung volume reduction without the risk associated with surgery. (
  • Accordingly, a comprehensive update of lung volume reduction therapies for advanced emphysema has recently been published [6]. (
  • The ventilation of the patient under general anesthesia is an old problem and extensively studied, especially in visceral surgery, higher risk of postoperative complications. (
  • After induction of general anesthesia, a double-lumen endotracheal tube was sited to facilitate single-lung ventilation. (
  • We collaborate with our Pulmonary Function Laboratory to perform comprehensive lung function testing, along with more specialized tests to assess respiratory and diaphragm muscle strength and cough effectiveness. (
  • Airborne cobalt, chromium , and cadmium exposure concentrations, and ventilation system function were monitored for three consecutive days prior to installation of three new ventilation systems, and then were followed monthly for one year. (
  • Effect of breastfeeding duration on lung function, respiratory symptoms and allergic diseases in school-age children. (
  • Exposure to moderate air pollution and associations with lung function at school-age: A birth cohort study. (
  • Restoration of Alveolar Epithelial Function as a Therapeutic Strategy for Acute Lung Injury. (
  • A lung function test showed severely obstructive ventilation dysfunction. (
  • Imaging of lung function using hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging: Review of current and emerging translational methods and applications. (
  • Pulmonary function tests are a group of tests that measure how well the lungs take in and release air and how well they move gases such as oxygen from the atmosphere into the body's circulation. (
  • There is also much literature showing alterations in lung structure and function in the aging lung [ 18 - 21 ]. (
  • Thus, active matrix remodeling may account for the subtle changes observed in lung structure as well as the decline in lung function observed in the elderly [ 23 ] and might render the host susceptible to disrepair after lung injury [ 22 ]. (
  • They are recognised as world leaders in the field of physiological techniques for measuring and imaging regional lung function at the bedside, and thus, provide feedback to clinicians treating sick infants. (
  • We then send a report including blood results, ventilation or lung function, height and weight charts to your GP and your shared-care consultant. (
  • J.E. Cotes 1993, Lung Function, 5th Edition. (
  • In a standard case-report form, we collected epidemiological characteristics, results of real-time reverse-transcriptase--polymerase-chain-reaction viral diagnostic tests, oxygenation variables, acid-base status, respiratory mechanics, ventilation management and laboratory tests. (
  • Two Steps Forward in Bedside Monitoring of Lung Mechanics: Transpulmonary Pressure and Lung Volume. (
  • Registration of indices of ventilation during the test widens diagnostic possibilities of 6-minute walk test (6 MWT). (
  • Indices of ventilation distribution such as alveolar-based mean dilution number (AMDN) and pulmonary clearance delay (PCD) were calculated. (
  • Measured FRC and indices of ventilation distribution were compared to reported results in the literature. (
  • Bedside Monitoring of Heart-Lung Interactions. (
  • Respecting this, ultrasound method could be the guide for PEEP lung recruitment. (
  • Partial liquid ventilation is proposed as an alternative ventilation strategy to reduce surface tension, increase alveolar recruitment, and decrease inflammation. (
  • Measurement of alveolar derecruitment in patients with acute lung injury:computerized tomography versus pressure-volume curve. (
  • Lung sliding corresponds to alveolar surface movements while breathing. (
  • It is characterised by a decrease in alveolar number, development of cystic changes in the lungs and an oxygen requirement beyond 36 weeks corrected gestation. (
  • Diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide: a potential marker of impaired gas exchange or of systemic deconditioning in chronic obstructive lung disease? (
  • Besides the direct mechanical interdependence between lung, heart and circulation, neurally mediated phenomena, such as respiratory sinus arrhythmia, or effects of altered gas exchange (e.g., hypoxic and hypercapnic pulmonary vasoconstriction) in the context of lung disease or high altitude exposure can critically derange cardiorespiratory interplay [ 9 - 11 ]. (
  • To accelerate disease progression and enhance microbial recovery rate, we pharmacologically immunosuppressed half the TST positive animals after MDR-TB exposure and examined and scored lung and spleen tissues for pathology. (
  • Hard metal exposures may precipitate lung disease in exposed workers. (
  • PharmacologySection IV Cardiopulmonary Assessment, and Disease, and Their Management18. (
  • Restrictive Lung Disease: General and Ventilatory Management23. (
  • Single-breath washout and association with structural lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis. (
  • Mayo JR. CT evaluation of diffuse infiltrative lung disease: dose considerations and optimal technique. (
  • Reissig A, Kroegel C. Transthoracic sonography of diffuse parenchymal lung disease: the role of comet tail artifacts. (
  • You probably know that tobacco use-particularly cigarette smoking-is harmful to health and can lead to premature death and disease, including, lung conditions, cardiovascular disease, and cancer nearly anywhere in the body. (
  • While nicotine is a chemical in cigarettes, it is not responsible for the preventable harms caused by smoking cigarettes, such as cardiovascular disease, lung conditions, and cancer. (
  • Effects of bronchodilators on regional lung sound distribution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a pulmonary disease that requires the use of mechanical ventilation for patient recovery. (
  • Childhood Interstitial (Diffuse) Lung Disease: Pattern Recognition Approach to Diagnosis in Infants. (
  • Occupational lung disease contributes significantly to work-related ill health in Northern Ireland. (
  • Work-related lung disease can be caused by a wide range of agents, from biological organisms through to dusts, fumes and vapours. (
  • Background Cross-sectional studies implicate neutrophilic inflammation and pulmonary infection as risk factors for early structural lung disease in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the longitudinal progression in a newborn screened population has not been investigated. (
  • Aim To determine whether early CF structural lung disease persists and progresses over 1 year and to identify factors associated with radiological persistence and progression. (
  • Discussion CT-detected structural lung disease identified in infants and young children with CF persists and progresses over 1 year in most cases, with deteriorating structural lung disease associated with worsening inflammation and pulmonary infection. (
  • Early intervention is required to prevent or arrest the progression of structural lung disease in young children with CF. (
  • Does early cystic fibrosis (CF) structural lung disease detected by CT persist? (
  • CT-detected structural lung disease persists and progresses in the majority of young children with CF and is associated with neutrophilic inflammation and pulmonary infection. (
  • These observations represent the first opportunity to track early CF lung disease using CT. (
  • Most children in this study did not have clinically apparent lung disease but had progressive structural lung changes that were associated with pulmonary inflammation and infection. (
  • Pulmonary Therapy is a disease marked by scarring in the lungs. (
  • This association has also been noted in experimental models of lung disease. (
  • If an imaging product can help a referring physician determine the correct disease therapy - or significantly alter the treatment course through early detection of diseases such as lung cancer - it's likely to have much higher value per study than if it simply helps a radiologist detect a lesion. (
  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia - a chronic lung disease, mainly affecting premature neonates, that develops after oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation. (
  • The following examples may perhaps clarify this notion: in cases where no medical treatment is available, e.g. idiopathic lung fibrosis, a new drug improving a minor area of a disease is easily introduced. (
  • Lung injury is the main complication of open lung surgery and is associated with a very high mortality rate. (
  • Stem Cells in Acute and Chronic Lung Injury: Building Evidence for Therapeutic Use. (
  • Aging is associated with increased incidence of respiratory disorders, and elderly patients represent a disproportionate number of afflicted individuals with pneumonia, acute lung injury, and lung fibrosis, among other lung disorders [ 1 - 5 ]. (
  • the duration of mechanical ventilation. (
  • Promote knowledge acquisition of types and stages of anaesthesia, preoperative risk assessment of surgery and anaesthesia, principles of intensive therapy in the most common situations at internal medicine, neurology and surgical clinics, as well as learning basics of advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (
  • Imaging Assessment of Partial Liquid Ventilation in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. (
  • In partially synchronized mode or PC synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (PC-SIMV), there is a synchronization time window allowing the patient to trigger an assisted breath within the time window or to take a breath without assistance if efforts occur outside the synchronization window. (
  • Per other sources, a pneumothorax is considered small if the distance between the lung apex and the ipsilateral dome of the thoracic cavity on an upright chest radiograph is less than 3 cm, and large if greater than 3 cm. (
  • When the lung sliding disappears, differential diagnoses are pneumothorax and lung isolation, often named early stage atelectasis. (
  • 0.05 were considered statistically significant.ResultsThe incidence of pneumothorax complicating CT-guided lung biopsy was less in the non-coaxial group (23.2 %, 77 out of 332) than the coaxial group (27 %, 86 out of 318). (
  • One-lung ventilation (OLV) has become as a standard procedure for many interventions in thoracic surgery with a need for deflation of the lung to facilitate the surgical procedure. (
  • Demonstrating the influence of volatile anaesthetics on the inflammatory response and the treatment outcome in patients undergoing open lung surgery with OLV is still a great challenge for thoracic anaesthesiologists. (
  • The Pulmonary Neuromuscular and Assisted Ventilation Program provides specialized care for patients with respiratory muscle weakness and other conditions that lead to chronic respiratory failure and/or hypoventilation (shallow breathing). (
  • A sampling includes: Generally, NPVs are best with patients who have neuromuscular diseases, but normal lung compliance (a measure of the lungs' ability to expand and contract). (
  • 1988: Grum & Morganroth, Journal of Intensive Care Medicine) They are effective for various conditions, especially neuromuscular and skeletal disorders, particularly for long-term night-time ventilation. (
  • Of 332 patients who did not have acute lung injury from the outset, 80 patients (24%) developed acute lung injury within the first 5 days of mechanical ventilation. (
  • The need for oxygen-enriched positive pressure breathing at high altitude for fighter pilots in the Second World War and the invention of right-heart catheterisation facilitated research programmes intended to gain a more profound understanding of heart-lung interactions [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Noninvasive assessment of regional ventilation in the human lung using oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • balance oxygen) were scanned in syringes and balloon test-objects to optimize the delivered gas mixture for assessment of regional ventilation while allowing for the development of improved 3-material decomposition calibration parameters. (
  • Oxygen is toxic and, through free radical damage, contributes to eye and lung injury. (
  • DLCO or TLCO (diffusing capacity or transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (CO),) is the extent to which oxygen passes from the air sacs of the lungs into the blood. (
  • This was a multicenter, prospective inception cohort study including adult patients with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) admitted to 20 ICUs in Argentina between June and September of 2009 during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. (
  • GlobalData's Medical Devices sector report, 'Ventilators - Medical Devices Pipeline Assessment, 2016' provides an overview of Ventilators currently in pipeline stage. (
  • Research and developments in artificial ventilation, both negative-pressure and positive-pressure, result in evolving assessments of the benefits and hazards of negative-pressure ventilators (NPVs). (