Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
Islets of Langerhans Transplantation
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Drug Therapy, Combination
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Graft vs Host Disease
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Tumor Virus Infections
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Disease Models, Animal
Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Graft vs Host Reaction
Hemolytic Plaque Technique
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Graft Enhancement, Immunologic
The induction of prolonged survival and growth of allografts of either tumors or normal tissues which would ordinarily be rejected. It may be induced passively by introducing graft-specific antibodies from previously immunized donors, which bind to the graft's surface antigens, masking them from recognition by T-cells; or actively by prior immunization of the recipient with graft antigens which evoke specific antibodies and form antigen-antibody complexes which bind to the antigen receptor sites of the T-cells and block their cytotoxic activity.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
A delayed hypersensitivity involving the reaction between sunlight or other radiant energy source and a chemical substance to which the individual has been previously exposed and sensitized. It manifests as a papulovesicular, eczematous, or exudative dermatitis occurring chiefly on the light-exposed areas of the skin.
Kidney Failure, Chronic
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Blood Group Incompatibility
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections
Mice, Inbred Strains
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Killer Cells, Natural
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
A process in which peripheral blood is exposed in an extracorporeal flow system to photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (METHOXSALEN) and ultraviolet light - a procedure known as PUVA THERAPY. Photopheresis is at present a standard therapy for advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; it shows promise in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal
An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
Suppressor Factors, Immunologic
Proteins, protein complexes, or glycoproteins secreted by suppressor T-cells that inhibit either subsequent T-cells, B-cells, or other immunologic phenomena. Some of these factors have both histocompatibility (I-J) and antigen-specific domains which may be linked by disulfide bridges. They can be elicited by haptens or other antigens and may be mass-produced by hybridomas or monoclones in the laboratory.
Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane
Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Protein
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived
Forkhead Transcription Factors
Drug Administration Schedule
Herpesvirus 4, Human
Effects of long-term benzodiazepine use
No studies have been done to assess the immunotoxic effects of diazepam in humans; however, high prescribed doses of diazepam, ... However, single very high doses of diazepam have been found to cause lifelong immunosuppression in neonatal rats. ... He felt that, due to the methodology used in assessing the scans, the abnormalities were likely an underestimate, and more ... and cognitive testing in a randomized controlled trial to assess whether benzodiazepines cause permanent damage to the brain, ...
... a molecular diagnostics company commercializing tests to help physicians better assess adequacy of immunosuppression for organ ...
Nutt D, King LA, Saulsbury W, Blakemore C (March 2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of ... "Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy')-induced immunosuppression: a cause for concern?". British Journal of Pharmacology. ...
COVID-19 pandemic in Austin, Texas
... with 22 percent assessing it as "fair" and 7 percent assessing it as "poor". A rally attended by at least 200 people was held ... Including people with diabetes; high blood pressure; heart, lung and kidney disease; immunosuppression; obesity; or persons ... Sechler, Bob (March 9, 2020). "SXSW reeling from cancellation as company assesses losses". Austin American-Statesman. Austin, ...
Immunosuppression is strongly correlated with FP, but does seem to be a consequence of the development and growth of FP rather ... Herbst, L. H.; Klein, P. A. (1995). "Green Turtle Fibropapillomatosis: Challenges to Assessing the Role of Environmental ... Lutz, P. L.; Cray, C.; Sposato, P. L. (2001). Studies of the association between immunosuppression and fibropapillomatosis ...
... few clinical trials have assessed outcomes in less-severe disease. Commonly used indicators to judge the severity of illness ... especially in the third trimester or immediately post partum Immunosuppression (e.g., patients with HIV/AIDS, transplant ...
John E. Bennett (scientist)
Despite the absence of immunosuppression, these patients are surprisingly difficult to treat compared to those with AIDS and ... assessing the role of corticosteroids in controlling cerebral edema, and evaluating potential new treatments for cryptococcosis ...
... no cases of meningococcal disease were reported and thus true antibiotic preventative measures could not be directly assessed. ... clear encapsulated Neisseria meningitidis from the bloodstream Persons with other conditions associated with immunosuppression ...
Molecular pathological epidemiology can help to assess pathogenesis and causality by means of linking a potential risk factor ... which requires immunosuppression). The pathogenic mechanisms of a disease (or condition) are set in motion by the underlying ...
Erika F. Augustine
Physical Impairment subscale to assess disease severity. Using live video, patients are assessed by trained examiners, and they ... She found that immunosuppression through mycophenolate was well tolerated in patients and they are now moving on to long term ... Design of a Multisite Study Assessing the Impact of Tic Disorders on Individuals, Families, and Communities. Pediatr Neurol. ...
Its optimal role in immunosuppression has not yet been determined, and it remains the subject of a number of ongoing clinical ... Due to its immunosuppressant activity, Rapamycin has been assessed as prophylaxis or treatment agent of Graft-versus-host ... Buck ML (2006). "Immunosuppression With Sirolimus After Solid Organ Transplantation in Children". Pediatric Pharmacotherapy. 12 ... Mukherjee S, Mukherjee U (1 January 2009). "A comprehensive review of immunosuppression used for liver transplantation". ...
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (medication)
The label also notes that people taking corticotropin for immunosuppression should not be given live vaccines. People taking ... and is used for the ACTH stimulation test to assess adrenal gland function. The synthetic form consists of the first 24 (of a ... and is used for the ACTH stimulation test to assess adrenal gland function. Both corticotropin and tetracosactide have been ...
Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy
Use of corticosteroid sparing systemic immunosuppression for treatment of corticosteroid dependent optic neuritis not ... White matter involvement beyond the optic nerves in CRION as assessed by diffusion tensor imaging. The International journal of ... is essentially inevitable in patients without treatment and patients ultimately will require lifelong immunosuppression to ...
Immunosuppression, which is often associated with HIV infection. Benign anal lesions. A history of cervical, vaginal or vulval ... Primary tumor not assessed" "T0: No evidence of primary tumor" "Tis: High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion" "T1: Tumor ≤ 2 ... Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed" "N0: No regional lymph node metastasis" "N1: Metastasis in inguinal, mesorectal, ...
A difficulty in assessing vaccine effectiveness is that there is no clear correlate of immunity, so it is not possible to ... immunosuppression, a moderate or severe illness, having received a blood product recently, and, for MMRV vaccines specifically ...
The condition appears to improve with tonsillectomy or immunosuppression, suggesting an immunologic cause. ... Blood is often taken to assess the hemoglobin, iron, folate and vitamin B12 levels ...
Immunosuppression: People who take immunosuppressive drugs, such as organ transplant patients, are 250 times more likely to ... Further investigation into specific biomarkers could help providers better assess prognosis and determine best treatment ... and immunosuppression can also contribute to the development of AKs. ...
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
Cortical myoclonus appears to be treatment-resistant on both gluten-free diet and immunosuppression. ... assessed through a rating scale, is needed to make a clinical diagnosis of NCGS. To exclude a placebo effect, a double- ... to assess if symptoms improve or resolve completely. This may occur within days to weeks of starting a GFD, but improvement may ... "Assessing of Celiac Disease and Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity". Gastroenterology Research and Practice (Review). 2015: 1-13. ...
Kragie L, Turner SD, Patten CJ, Crespi CL, Stresser DM (August 2002). "Assessing pregnancy risks of azole antifungals using a ... However failure to report suggestive symptoms or delays in considering the possibility of immunosuppression and its testing, ...
He focuses on a possible role of chronic infections, metabolic disorders, and immunosuppression on cancer development. In 2011 ... Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities (2002), Workshop Summary, Contributor. ... Assessing the Threat of a Biological Weapons Attack", House Serial No. 107-103 Testimony before the House Committee on ...
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
Cortical myoclonus appears to be treatment-resistant on both gluten-free diet and immunosuppression. Approximately one third of ... Ontiveros N, Hardy MY, Cabrera-Chavez F (2015). "Assessing of Celiac Disease and Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity". ... Ontiveros N, Hardy MY, Cabrera-Chavez F (2015). "Assessing of Celiac Disease and Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity". ... assessed through a rating scale, is needed to make a clinical diagnosis of NCGS. To exclude a placebo effect, a double-blind ...
John Hospital and Medical Center 1996 - Initiated Urea Kinetic modeling program to CAPD patients to assess adequacy of dialysis ... and low-dose immunosuppression in kidney transplantation. Provenzano has lectured and served on many speakers' bureaus about ... 1988 - Initiated Urea Kinetic Modeling program to hemodialysis patients to assess adequacy of dialysis. 1988 - Developed ...
Sharon Ann Hunt
This trial intended to assess the suitability of using a LVAD in the long-term in people with end-stage (severe) heart failure ... with long-term immunosuppression, was a new and evolving field with as yet unknown complications and problems. Over the ... care of them because they would come in for follow up with all sorts of medical complications of long-term immunosuppression. ...
Surgical Outcomes Analysis and Research
2013). "Immunosuppression after renal allograft failure: a survey of US practices". Clinical Transplantation. 27 (6): 895-900. ... "Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess fear of kidney failure following living donation". Transpl Int. 27 (6 ... 2013). "Patient-reported immunosuppression nonadherence 6 to 24 months after liver transplant: association with pretransplant ...
Immunologic Constant of Rejection
Another study have assessed the clinico-biological value of ICR in breast cancer, via the classification of around 8700 breast ... Similarly, allografting results in a strong immune response, which clinically necessitates a continued immunosuppression to ... Narayanan S, Kawaguchi T, Yan L, Peng X, Qi Q, Takabe K (August 2018). "Cytolytic Activity Score to Assess Anticancer Immunity ... without necessarily assessing patients phenomenologies individually. The concept of immunologic constant of rejection is based ...
A three-dimensional culture model was used to assess Muse cell-derived melanocytes. In that model, the dermis was mimicked by ... and allografts remained in the tissue and sustained functional recovery for up to 6 months without immunosuppression. The ... intravenously repair SCID and BALB/c mouse models of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis without added immunosuppression. ...
As a means to test the build hypothesis, central to the broad-and-build theory, Fredrickson and colleagues assessed the impact ... When people experience stress, they show increased heart rate, higher blood sugar, immunosuppression, and other adaptations ...
Cost of reproduction hypothesis
This reduced function may be regulated by hormones; in Tenebrio molitor, for example, immunosuppression was caused by increased ... which assess how traits directly connected to fitness covary), and the intermediate level (which involves the analysis of the ...
Researchers also may assess whether a disease outbreak is sporadic, or just an occasional occurrence; endemic, with a steady ... An ever-wider array of infectious agents can cause serious harm to individuals with immunosuppression, so clinical screening ...
... placebo-controlled pilot study to assess the ability of rifaximin to prevent recurrent diarrhoea in patients with Clostridium ... Clostridium difficile infection does not typically result from rifaximin therapy unless risk factors such as immunosuppression ...
On the other hand, the current allocation system doesn't assess a donor's motive, so altruistic donation isn't a requirement.[ ... As the rising success rate of transplants and modern immunosuppression make transplants more common, the need for more organs ... While short-term outcomes appear promising, long-term outcomes are still unknown, and in general, reduced immunosuppression ... The risk of early rejection is increased if corticosteroid immunosuppression are avoided or withdrawn after renal ...
The simple clinical colitis activity index was created in 1998 and is used to assess the severity of symptoms. ... "Inflammatory bowel disease and cancer: The role of inflammation, immunosuppression, and cancer treatment". World Journal of ... Blood and stool tests serve primarily to assess disease severity, level of inflammation and rule out causes of infectious ...
Post operatively, kidneys are periodically assessed by ultrasound to assess for the imaging and physiologic changes that ... In the 1980s, experimental protocols were developed for ABO-incompatible transplants using increased immunosuppression and ...
... there are not yet any in vitro tests to assess quality or predict efficacy for specific units of RBC blood product prior to ... "Inflammatory response, immunosuppression, and cancer recurrence after perioperative blood transfusions". British Journal of ...
Diseases of poverty
Their third recommendation is to measure and understand the problem and assess the impact of action. This would involve ... September 2000). "Effect of HIV-1 and increasing immunosuppression on malaria parasitaemia and clinical episodes in adults in ... Association with Immunosuppression, Abnormal Cervical or Vaginal Discharge, and Severe Vitamin A Deficiency". The Journal of ...
MSM is considered 'Possibly Safe' at therapeutic doses, although further research is still needed to assess its safety for long ... indicating that MSM protected against stress-induced immunosuppression. The authors postulate that MSM's anti-inflammatory ...
... thus causing immunosuppression. Azathioprine is converted within tissues to 6-MP, some of which is converted, in turn, to 6- ... Health Technol Assess. 9 (21): 1-194. doi:10.3310/hta9210. PMID 15899149. Dean L (2012). "Azathioprine Therapy and TPMT ... immunosuppression, and cancer treatment". World Journal of Gastroenterology (Review). 22 (20): 4794-801. doi:10.3748/wjg.v22. ... "Outcome of radiation therapy for renal transplant rejection refractory to chemical immunosuppression". Radiotherapy and ...
Mandeep R. Mehra
He has published more than 500 manuscripts, abstracts, and book chapters in areas of immunosuppression, genomic medicine, ... group who published results of an analysis of data from 169 hospitals collected via a database funded by Surgisphere to assess ... interests in new immunosuppressive therapy in minority populations and the role of artificial hearts and bio-markers to assess ...
On the other hand, the current allocation system doesn't assess a donor's motive, so altruistic donation isn't a requirement. ... As the rising success rate of transplants and modern immunosuppression make transplants more common, the need for more organs ... While short-term outcomes appear promising, long-term outcomes are still unknown, and in general, reduced immunosuppression ... Recently, researchers have been looking into means of reducing the general burden of immunosuppression. Common approaches ...
1257 Samalas eruption
Historical events in Oceania are usually poorly dated, making it difficult to assess the timing and role of specific events, ... is that the resulting increase in ultraviolet radiation on the surface of Earth may have led to widespread immunosuppression in ...
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
"Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Fimepinostat (CUDC-907) in Patients With Lymphoma". ... Elderly individuals that evidence the disease but have no other cause for immunosuppression may exhibit a relapsing and ... LYG has an increased incidence in persons with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome or HIV or who are immunosuppression due to chemotherapy ...
With immunosuppression a male would be more susceptible to diseases or pathogens. However if a male is in good enough condition ... Research has attempted to assess which mate preferences men and women prioritize when selecting mates. Such studies typically ...
For example, consumption of tobacco and alcohol, a medical history of genital warts and STDs, immunosuppression, unprotected ... Health Technol Assess. 14 (32): 1-206. doi:10.3310/hta14320. PMID 20594533. Thomsen A, Kolesar JM (December 2008). " ...
Pain in amphibians
... criteria of physiology or behavioural responses can be used to assess the possibility of non-human animals perceiving pain. The ... "Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression". Nature. 511 (7508): 224-227. ...
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1
While these categories create useful categorization to assess which areas need to be focused on in therapies, this redundancy ... Using harvested stem cells in stem cell therapies require immunosuppression to prevent the host from rejecting the transplants ... which limits the ability to reproducibly assess the quality of routines in literature. Among the earliest developed ...
A Trial to Assess Campath-1H and Tacrolimus Followed by Immunosuppression Withdrawal in Liver Transplantation - Full Text View ...
A Trial to Assess Campath-1H and Tacrolimus Followed by Immunosuppression Withdrawal in Liver Transplantation. The safety and ... Assess the safety of withdrawing tacrolimus after Campath-1H induced immuno-depletion and subsequent immune reconstitution. * ... However, secondary objectives will be to assess withdrawing tacrolimus after Campath-1H induction in an immune depletion and ... Thistlethwaite Protocol # ITN025ST - Immunosuppression With Campath-1H and Tacrolimus in Liver Transplantation. ...
A Study to Assess the Pharmacokinetics of a Modified-release Tacrolimus Based Immunosuppression Regimen in Stable Kidney...
A Study to Assess the Pharmacokinetics of a Modified-release Tacrolimus Based Immunosuppression Regimen in Stable Kidney ... based immunosuppression regimen to a modified release tacrolimus based immunosuppression regimen.. Condition or disease ... Based Immunosuppression Regimen to a Modified Release (MR) Tacrolimus Based Immunosuppression Regimen. ... based immunosuppression regimen to a modified release tacrolimus based immunosuppression regimen. ...
Belatacept Evaluation of Nephroprotection and Efficacy as First-line Immunosuppression (BENEFIT) - Full Text View -...
Measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) is the direct measurement of renal function and was assessed by measurement of the ... Belatacept Evaluation of Nephroprotection and Efficacy as First-line Immunosuppression (BENEFIT) (BENEFIT). The safety and ... The change component of the composite renal endpoint was assessed from Month 3 to Month 12, since post-transplant renal ... Measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) is the direct measurement of renal function and was assessed by measurement of the ...
Tacrolimus versus ciclosporin as primary immunosuppression for kidney transplant recipients: meta-analysis and meta-regression...
Additionally, we assessed publication bias by using funnel plots of the log odds ratio.11 ... Immunosuppression: 2004 annual report of the U.S. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and the scientific registry of ... Additional baseline immunosuppression varied. Three trials varied the antiproliferative agent across three trial arms, ... Complications and side effects of immunosuppression. A limited number of trials reported the incidence of infection or ...
Allograft Immune Reaction of Kidney Transp lantation Part 2. Immunosuppression and Methods to Assess Alloimmunity
CD28/B7 Regulation of Anti-CD3-Mediated Immunosuppression In Vivo | The Journal of Immunology
Graft function was assessed daily by palpation. The day of rejection was defined as the last day of detection of a palpable ... CD28/B7 Regulation of Anti-CD3-Mediated Immunosuppression In Vivo. Qizhi Tang, Judy A. Smith, Greg L. Szot, Ping Zhou, Maria- ... CD28/B7 Regulation of Anti-CD3-Mediated Immunosuppression In Vivo. Qizhi Tang, Judy A. Smith, Greg L. Szot, Ping Zhou, Maria- ... CD28/B7 Regulation of Anti-CD3-Mediated Immunosuppression In Vivo. Qizhi Tang, Judy A. Smith, Greg L. Szot, Ping Zhou, Maria- ...
Frontiers | Innate Immunity in the Persistent Inflammation, Immunosuppression, and Catabolism Syndrome and Its Implications for...
A subset of CCI patients will develop the persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS), and these ... A subset of CCI patients will develop the persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS), and these ... Transfusion practice and nosocomial infection: assessing the evidence. Curr Opin Crit Care (2005) 11(5):468-72. doi:10.1097/01. ... Persistent inflammation and immunosuppression: a common syndrome and new horizon for surgical intensive care. J Trauma Acute ...
Immunosuppression and other risk factors for early and late non-Hodgkin lymphoma after kidney transplantation | Blood Journal
Demographic factors assessed included current age (time dependent; single years), sex, self-reported race (White, Nonwhite), ... Other immunosuppression-related factors examined were duration of immunosuppression, approximated by time since transplantation ... Immunosuppression and other risk factors for early and late non-Hodgkin lymphoma after kidney transplantation. Marina T. van ... Immunosuppression and other risk factors for early and late non-Hodgkin lymphoma after kidney transplantation. Blood, 114(3), ...
HIV drug linked to AIDS-like immunosuppression -- Health & Wellness -- Sott.net
Amelioration of experimental arthritis by stroke-induced immunosuppression is independent of Treg cell function | Annals of the...
Clinical and histological signs of arthritis were assessed. Regulatory T cells were specifically depleted by injection of ... Treg cells are dispensable for stroke-induced immunosuppression. CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells have been shown to be ... Whether Treg cells contribute to the systemic stroke-induced immunosuppression has not been analysed to date. Using a genetic ... Stroke-induced immunosuppression is a major pathogenic factor predisposing patients for morbidity and mortality through ...
Sean Agbor-Enoh, M.D., Ph.D. Research | NHLBI, NIH
... is commonly used to assess adequacy of immunosuppression. Significant patient-to-patient variability exists with regards to ... Post-Lung Transplant Immunosuppression and Molecular Allograft Injury. Maintenance of immunosuppression after solid-organ ... This is an NHLBI study to assess the clinical utility of early treatment of impending AMR. Furthermore, we have discussed the ... APO is also planning a clinical trial to assess whether early detection and treatment of rejection improves survival in lung ...
Immunization of Health-Care Workers: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the...
A physician must assess the degree to which an individual health-care worker is immunocompromised. Severe immunosuppression can ... Administration of MMR to HIV-infected HCWs who are symptomatic but do not have evidence of severe immunosuppression also should ... Serologic tests have been used to assess the accuracy of reported histories of chickenpox (76,80,93,95-97). Among adults, 97% ... Risk for transmission of vaccine virus was assessed in placebo recipients who were siblings of vaccinated children and among ...
Dexamethasone Provides Effective Immunosuppression for Improved Survival of Retinal Organoids after Epiretinal Transplantation
... histological examinations were carried out to assess the success of the different treatments. Our ,i,in vitro,/i, experiments ... C. C. Lai, P. Gouras, K. Doi, S. H. Tsang, S. P. Goff, and P. Ashton, "Local immunosuppression prolongs survival of RPE ... We have also found that a single IVT implant (OZURDEX®) can provide effective immunosuppression to allow the survival of ... without immunosuppression, these grafts fail to survive for even several weeks. However, the presence of the blood-retinal ...
JCI - Targeting miR-23a in CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes prevents tumor-dependent immunosuppression
pMel-1 CTLs primed with splenic B cells or LPS-matured bone marrow-derived DCs for 4-6 days were assessed for (. A. ) in vitro ... Together, our findings provide a miRNA-based strategy that subverts the immunosuppression of CTLs that is often observed during ... Three days after transduction, CD8+GFP+ CTL effector molecule expression was assessed by flow cytometry. ... Targeting miR-23a in CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes prevents tumor-dependent immunosuppression. ...
Sunlight Effects on Immune System: Is There Something Else in addition to UV-Induced Immunosuppression?
32], which led to the design of clinical trials to assess the role of phototherapy in autoimmune diseases . ... It should be noted that the paradigm of UV-induced immunosuppression has changed over the last decades. While immunosuppression ... UV-induced immunosuppression has been extensively studied since it was first described by Dr. Kripke and Dr. Fisher in the late ... Sunlight Effects on Immune System: Is There Something Else in addition to UV-Induced Immunosuppression?. D. H. González Maglio ...
Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase Overexpression Suppresses Graft Coronary Artery Disease | Circulation
No immunosuppression was used. Graft viability was assessed daily by direct abdominal palpitation of the heterotopically ... Graft viability was assessed by direct abdominal palpation of the heterotopically transplanted hearts. Cardiac graft function ... GCAD was markedly reduced in cardiac allografts of DDAH-I-transgenic recipients as assessed by luminal narrowing (WT versus ... assessed by the mean percentage of luminal narrowing (WT versus DDAH, 79±2% versus 33±7%; P,0.01), the intima-media ratio (WT ...
Withdrawal of Immunosuppression in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients
Liver Immunosuppression Free Trial. LIFT is prospective randomised marker-based trial to assess the clinical utility and safety ... A Trial to Assess Campath-1H and Tacrolimus Followed by Immunosuppression Withdrawal in Liver Transplantation ... Effect of Immunosuppression Drug Weaning on Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Induced Liver Damage After Liver Transplantation ... Withdrawal of Immunosuppression in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients. 2014-08-27 03:44:56 , BioPortfolio ...
Hepatitis C and liver transplantation | Gut
IMMUNOSUPPRESSION. There are conflicting results on the association between administered immunosuppression and disease severity ... 6 29 34 Prospective trials are underway to assess this. The more severe liver disease described in patients treated with a high ... MANAGEMENT OF IMMUNOSUPPRESSION. When managing this patient population, hepatologists and surgeons have great difficulty in ... with emphasis on immunosuppression; (d) evaluation of new approaches in the prevention and/or treatment of recurrent HCV ...
Kidney Transplantation: Transplant Immunology and Use of Immunosuppression - ONA
The ability to assess the degree of immunosuppression is limited. However, pre-transplant testing can be very informative on ... How should patients with too much or too little immunosuppression be managed?. Too much immunosuppression: Patients on triple ... Too little immunosuppression: Potential approach in increasing immunosuppression include increase target CNI trough, change ... Does this patient have too much or too little immunosuppression?. Choosing the proper immunosuppression for a patient involves ...
Swine flu and immunosuppression - NHS
Frontiers | Thigh-Derived Inertial Sensor Metrics to Assess the Sit-to-Stand and Stand-to-Sit Transitions in the Timed Up and...
... task is used to assess patient mobility because it incorporates clinically-relevant submovements during standing. Most sensor- ... task is used to assess patient mobility because it incorporates clinically-relevant submovements during standing. Most sensor- ... Intensive immunosuppression in progressive multiple sclerosis. A randomized, three-arm study of high-dose intravenous ... to assess clinically relevant disability, muscle actions are usually assessed within a more naturalistic context, such as ...
Antibody induction therapy compared with corticosteroids for induction of immunosuppression after liver transplantation |...
We included all randomised clinical trials assessing immunosuppression with T-cell specific antibody induction versus ... To assess the benefits and harms of T-cell specific antibody induction versus corticosteroid induction for prevention of acute ... Antibody induction therapy compared with corticosteroids for induction of immunosuppression after liver transplantation. ... Hence, additional high-quality randomised clinical trials are needed to assess the benefits and harms of T-cell specific ...
Interferon α and Tat involvement in the immunosuppression of uninfected T cells and C-C chemokine decline in AIDS | PNAS
The effects of HIV-1-induced immunosuppression on C-C chemokine production by activated immunocytes next were assessed in this ... Immunosuppression of uninfected cells may be initiated in vitro by CD4+ T cell anergy (8), which in HIV-1 infection may be ... HIV-1-induced immunosuppression. (a) Inhibition of T cell response induced by HIV-1, IFNα, or Tat. Fresh PBMC from seronegative ... 2a) as a measure of immunosuppression and with loss of IL-2 production (11, 12) but also with a decline in chemokine production ...
Stomach, liver and pancreas Flashcards by Genevieve Law | Brainscape
A Trial of Two Steroid-Free Approaches Toward Mycophenolate Mofetil-Based Monotherapy Immunosuppression
Assess the incidence of biopsy-proven acute allograft rejection during the first six months of transplant ... Calcineurin-Inhibitor-Free Immunosuppression in Kidney Transplantation. Trial Phase:. Phase 4. Minimum Age:. 18 Years. Maximum ... Calcineurin-Inhibitor-Free Immunosuppression in Kidney Transplantation ...
References | Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals | The National Academies Press
Previous: 8 Approaches to Assess Cumulative Impacts Page 99 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of ... On the adaptive significance of stress-induced immunosuppression. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological ... Technical Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammal Hearing: Underwater Acoustic Thresholds ... 4 Assessing Interactions Among Stressors 41-58 * 5 Modeling the Population Consequences of Exposure to Multiple Stressors 59-68 ...
Massage Can Improve Health and Wellness | AMTA
Pain was assessed at baseline and 1-week follow-up, whereas PPT were assessed at baseline and immediately after and 1-week ... Massage may support immune function during periods of immunosuppression.. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Pediatric oncology nurses ... Pain was assessed using 100 mm visual analogue scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Pain Relief was assessed using a five ... To assess effects of rest and leg massage, 15 healthy volunteers rested on a bed for 20 min on the first day, and 3 days later ...
AAPS - Current Concepts in Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation: Lessons Learned from the Development of a Reconstructive...
Immunosuppression. Triple therapy immunosuppression with rapid steroid weaning followed ATG, MMF and steroid induction. Goals ... Protocols were initiated preoperatively to assess patient compliance, condition forearm musculature and maximize extrinsic ... ensured with a strategic planning initiative and a standard-of-care clinical protocol based on triple drug immunosuppression ...
RecipientsTacrolimusOutcomesLevels of immunosuppressionTransplantationTransplantMaintenance immunosuppressionInduce immunosuppressionModerate immunosuppressionSystemic immunosuppressionCorticosteroidsLiverInflammationCell-mediatedRegimenInfectionAntigen-specificRenal functionChronicVitroInducesEfficacyCyclosporinAllograftInterventionAutoimmunityRejectionCytokinesNoninvasiveStudyAdverse eventsOutcome MeasuresImmunologicalHistologicalAssayPatientVivoRecurrenceInductionTregRisk of infectionsResultsRetinalPeripheralTherapeutic optionGenesAssessment
- This is a Phase II open-label, multi-center conversion study in stable, adult kidney transplant recipients to assess the pharmacokinetics, safety and effectiveness of tacrolimus in stable kidney transplant patients converted from a Prograf® based immunosuppression regimen to a modified release tacrolimus based immunosuppression regimen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 63% of new renal transplant recipients in the United States receive tacrolimus for primary immunosuppression compared with only 22% in Australia. (bmj.com)
- However, there is mounting evidence that a significant percentage of liver transplant recipients can maintain a healthy, functioning transplant without ongoing immunosuppression. (bioportfolio.com)
- Eligible recipients will be placed on a modified medication schedule to gradually decrease their immunosuppression medication slowly over a 9- to 12-month period, during which time they will be closely monitored by study staff. (bioportfolio.com)
- Very good to excellent levels of agreement between OPTN records and both Medicare and private-payer pharmacy claims for nonsteroid immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients have been reported ( 13 , 14 ). (asnjournals.org)
- To assess the validity of Medicare pharmacy claims, OPTN data, and single-center medical records for immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients, we linked electronic medical records from a transplant program to OPTN and Medicare pharmacy records. (asnjournals.org)
- Integrate strategies to optimize immunosuppression and minimize adverse events in transplant recipients. (cmeoutfitters.com)
- To assess the benefits and harms of tacrolimus versus cyclosporin for primary immunosuppression in lung transplant recipients. (cochrane.org)
- This is the first study to assess differences in graft outcomes between female and male recipients across the entire age spectrum," says the study's corresponding author Dr. Beth Foster, researcher at the RI-MUHC and pediatric nephrologist at the Montreal Children's Hospital of the MUHC. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Measuring the RGE of NFAT-regulated genes is appropriate to assess the risk of infections in LT recipients. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- PD monitoring of CNIs in LT recipients is an approach to individualize immunosuppression, which may help to reduce infectious complications. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Rose was co-founder, Director and CEO of TGI, a molecular diagnostics company commercializing tests to help physicians better assess adequacy of immunosuppression for organ transplant recipients, and thereby improve outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
- Participants receive Campath-1H and maintenance immunosuppression with tacrolimus therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- However, secondary objectives will be to assess withdrawing tacrolimus after Campath-1H induction in an immune depletion and subsequent immune reconstitution. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Monitoring blood trough levels of immunosuppressive medications, such as tacrolimus, is commonly used to assess adequacy of immunosuppression. (nih.gov)
- Patients received either intravitreal triamcinolone or systemic immunosuppression (mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus) and PDT. (bmj.com)
- Retrospective review was performed of case notes and fluorescein angiograms of six consecutive patients, less than 50 years of age, with active CNV treated with PDT and intravitreal triamcinolone (IVT) or systemic immunosuppression (mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus). (bmj.com)
- The primary objective of this study ( NCT01884571 ) was to assess the rate of clinical response to the same immunosuppressive regimen using basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and prednisone in people with ALS. (nih.gov)
- I am interested in examining the potential for leveraging sensitive biomarkers, such as donor-derived cell free DNA (ddfcfDNA), to augment immunosuppression monitoring, specifically in patients with equivalent immunosuppressive blood levels, but who go on to have disparate outcomes. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this study was to assess surgical outcomes of laparoscopic incisional hernia repair in OLT patients. (sages.org)
- Outcomes were assessed for recurrence, complications, and length of hospital stay. (sages.org)
- Here, we provide a comprehensive update on clinical features, diagnostics, consequences on immunity and immunosuppression, and clinical outcomes. (springer.com)
- To report the visual and angiographic outcomes after combination photodynamic therapy (PDT) and immunosuppression for inflammatory subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). (bmj.com)
- The optimization of immunosuppression is an important modifiable risk factor that can have a positive impact on long-term outcomes in transplantation. (cmeoutfitters.com)
- We therefore sought to examine CD247 expression levels in patients with T2DM and to assess whether it can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for disease complications and outcomes. (diabetesjournals.org)
Levels of immunosuppression2
- Emerging literature that supports minimization or elimination of CNI therapy while maintaining optimal levels of immunosuppression, may offer new strategies for post-transplant immunosuppression. (cmeoutfitters.com)
- Although the decision-making process for curbing levels of immunosuppression is difficult, further long-term, randomized controlled studies should assess the effect of using less immunosuppressant medication while preserving graft function. (wiley.com)
- Most cases, particularly those arising shortly after transplantation, are associated with infection by the herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the setting of impaired T-cell function brought about by iatrogenic immunosuppression. (bloodjournal.org)
- LIFT is prospective randomised marker-based trial to assess the clinical utility and safety of biomarker-guided immunosuppression withdrawal in liver transplantation. (bioportfolio.com)
- Historically, corticosteroids have been the backbone of immunosuppression after liver transplantation, and corticosteroids are typically started immediately before or during transplantation. (cochrane.org)
- Antibodies against T-cells are also used to induce immunosuppression after liver transplantation. (cochrane.org)
- We wanted to discover whether antibody induction therapy was better or worse than therapy with corticosteroids for induction of immunosuppression after liver transplantation. (cochrane.org)
- In specific, we wanted to establish the role of T-cell specific antibody induction therapy as part of corticosteroid-free immunosuppression after liver transplantation, and to find out which type of T-cell specific antibody induction therapy works best with the fewest adverse effects. (cochrane.org)
- Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This study investigated the agreement of immunosuppression information in directly linked electronic medical records for Medicare beneficiaries who received a kidney transplant at one center in 1998 through 2001, Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) survey data, and Medicare pharmacy claims. (asnjournals.org)
- Pair-wise, interdata concordance (κ) and percentage agreement statistics were used to compare immunosuppression regimens reported at discharge, and at 6 mo and 1 yr after transplantation in each data source. (asnjournals.org)
- Results: Among 181 eligible participants, agreement between data sources for nonsteroid immunosuppression increased with time after transplantation. (asnjournals.org)
- Conclusions: This analysis supports the accuracy of the three sources of data for description of nonsteroid immunosuppression after kidney transplantation. (asnjournals.org)
- The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) collects survey data on reported immunosuppression use that are integrated with administrative data from Medicare by the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) ( 5 ). (asnjournals.org)
- We assessed the agreement of these three data sources for calcineurin inhibitors, adjunctive agents, and corticosteroids at discharge and 6 mo and 1 yr after transplantation. (asnjournals.org)
- Changes in aqueous complement concentration were also assessed at 4 weeks after transplantation. (escrs.org)
- Only physicians experienced in immunosuppression therapy and management of organ transplantation patients should prescribe Simulect (basiliximab). (fda.gov)
- The pharmacokinetics of Simulect have been assessed in 39 pediatric patients undergoing renal transplantation. (fda.gov)
- Systemic immunosuppression is administered from 1 week prior to transplantation until 1 year after. (arvojournals.org)
- An mTOR-I based immunosuppression following renal transplantation remains ill accepted. (plos.org)
- This finding opens the door to a new approach for organ transplantation, and could lead to personalized immunosuppression strategies based on age and sex. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The immunological status of patients after renal transplantation should be assessed regularly. (springer.com)
- Assessing risk in liver transplantation. (semanticscholar.org)
- Comparison of FK506- and cyclosporine-based immunosuppression in primary orthotopic liver transplantation. (semanticscholar.org)
- Single-center experience with primary orthotopic liver transplantation with FK 506 immunosuppression. (semanticscholar.org)
- Bernhard J. Hering, M.D., of the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, and colleagues conducted a study to assess the effectiveness and safety of islet transplantation from a single pancreas. (newswise.com)
- While these findings may suggest a distinct advance in islet transplantation, further study in a larger population with longer follow-up will be critical to assess the risk-benefit ratio of this emerging therapeutic option," the researchers conclude. (newswise.com)
- Immunosuppression after transplantation is associated with complications. (unboundmedicine.com)
- We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of steroid early withdrawal (treatment for less than 14 days after transplantation), late withdrawal (after 14 days after transplantation) or steroid avoidance in patients receiving a pancreas (including a vascularized organ) alone (PTA), simultaneous with a kidney (SPK) or after kidney transplantation (PAK). (unboundmedicine.com)
- We defined steroid avoidance as complete avoidance of steroid immunosuppression, early steroid withdrawal as steroid treatment for less than 14 days after transplantation and late withdrawal as steroid withdrawal after 14 days after transplantation. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The change component of the composite renal endpoint was assessed from Month 3 to Month 12, since post-transplant renal function is largely stable by Month 3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- APO is also planning a clinical trial to assess whether early detection and treatment of rejection improves survival in lung transplant patients and also engaged in additional studies to understand molecular mechanisms of transplant rejection. (nih.gov)
- Maintenance of immunosuppression after solid-organ transplant is essential in order to prevent short-and long-term complications such as acute cellular rejection and chronic lung allograft dysfunction. (nih.gov)
- Accurate assessment of immunosuppression is essential for transplant management and research. (asnjournals.org)
- Many centers implement everolimus-based immunosuppression in liver transplant patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. (bioportfolio.com)
- Join experts Dr. Vincenti and Dr. Segev as they translate the dynamics of immunosuppression optimization, precision medicine, and the impact of big data on the future of transplant medicine. (cmeoutfitters.com)
- Thus, the adjuvant strategy of modifying immunosuppression may be effective when confronting severe transplant-associated skin cancer. (wiley.com)
- Altogether, 14 (24%) children developed CHL, starting at a median of 69 days post-transplant and lasting for a median time of 2.3 years (range 0.5-6.5), despite reduction of immunosuppression. (springer.com)
- Dissecting the Immunobiology of Post-Transplant Skin Cancer : The unholy trio of Sun Damage, Immunosuppression and Inflammation. (slideserve.com)
- Plan and consult your transplant doctor well in advance to be reviewed and assessed for risks associated with travelling. (transplant.org.au)
- This study assessed the accuracy of three potential sources of maintenance immunosuppression data. (asnjournals.org)
- corticosteroids induce immunosuppression that is claimed to be caused by HIV, with lowered CD4 counts and sparing of CD8 cells as well as sparing of antibody production. (sott.net)
- 3 , 5 , 6 The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in decreased mortality and morbidity, 7 and the majority of people in developed countries infected with HIV are living with only mild to moderate immunosuppression because of wide access to antiretroviral therapy. (thebody.com)
- HIV-infected women with severe or moderate immunosuppression were more likely to have SIL than HIV-negative women (respectively, AOR: 7.29 and AOR: 3.09) also independently from HPV infection. (nih.gov)
- In animal models, it has been demonstrated that UV-induced systemic immunosuppression is related to the development of antigen-specific regulatory T-cells (CD4+ CD25+ foxp3+ cells), which can be transferred into nonexposed animals [ 15 , 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
- 3- 5 The short term thrombogenic effects of PDT in combination with longer term anti-inflammatory effects of local and systemic immunosuppression may be more successful in achieving closure of these membranes than either treatment alone. (bmj.com)
- Clinically applicable minimal immunosuppression was done based on topical, subconjunctival and systemic corticosteroids. (escrs.org)
- For sexual examples, a wilcoxon prescription analysis was used to methylprednisolone equivalent in prednisone assess the overnight rest of order corticosteroids. (txpvietnam.com)
- Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) is a potent carcinogen that causes growth stunting, immunosuppression and liver cancer in multiple species. (mdpi.com)
- A subset of CCI patients will develop the persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS), and these individuals are predisposed to a poor quality of life and indolent death. (frontiersin.org)
- OBJECTIVE We have previously shown that chronic inflammation results in immunosuppression associated with CD247 downregulation in T lymphocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We have previously shown that chronic inflammation leads to T-cell immunosuppression associated with CD247 downregulation ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- ImmuKnow is a noninvasive biomarker of immune function that assesses cellular immune status by detecting cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in adult immunosuppressed patients. (medindia.net)
- Thirty-one participants were enrolled in this 15-month open label study and received an identical immunosuppression regimen. (nih.gov)
- The regimen was generally safe in an ALS population, although only 18 out of 31 patients completed the full 6 months of immunosuppression. (nih.gov)
- Early conversion to a CNI-free immunosuppression with SRL was associated with an improved 1- and 3- yr renal function as compared with a CsA-based regimen in the SMART-Trial. (plos.org)
- 6 To what degree recipient mortality and graft loss can be attributed to these risk factors, to the direct toxicity of immunosuppression, or to cumulative effects of infection and rejection is debated. (bmj.com)
- These findings support 2 mechanisms of lymphomagenesis, one predominantly of primary EBV infection in the context of intense immunosuppression, and another of dysregulated lymphoid proliferation in a prolonged immunosuppressed state. (bloodjournal.org)
- Choosing the proper immunosuppression for a patient involves balancing the risk of immunologic graft injury against the risks of infection and malignancy. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- The clinical corollary is the immunosuppression of uninfected T cells and the decline in C-C chemokine release found at advanced stages of HIV-1 infection paralleling rising levels of IFNα and extracellular Tat. (pnas.org)
- Immunosuppression of uninfected cells may be initiated in vitro by CD4 + T cell anergy ( 8 ), which in HIV-1 infection may be caused by an effect of the HIV-1 gp120 on these cells ( 7 , 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
- In the present report, we show that, during acute HIV-1 infection, immunosuppression of uninfected T cells is governed by the cytokine IFNα and by the HIV-1 Tat protein and that the early production of C-C chemokines by immune cells in response to activation depends on IFNα and Tat and markedly declines as T cell immunosuppression progresses in patients at an advanced stage of infection. (pnas.org)
- Despite immunosuppression, infection rates and recurrences are low, however, length of stay is prolonged in this challenging group of patients. (sages.org)
- Six rats survived the 10 weeks of Pneumocystis pneumonia remains a leading opportunis- immunosuppression and were processed in an identical tic infection associated with AIDS patients, even in the manner. (cdc.gov)
- Consequently, the objective of the present study was to assess the frequency and type of cardiovascular manifestations on CMR in patients with HIV infection who were not yet on treatment with ART, versus a control group who were HIV-uninfected and with no known overt CVD. (scielo.org.za)
- The negative effects of immunosuppression caused by Marek's disease virus infection are even more difficult to estimate. (thepoultrysite.com)
- Determinants of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) on Pap smear: the role of HPV infection and of HIV-1-induced immunosuppression. (nih.gov)
- Measuring the RGE of IFNγ is particularly suitable to assess the risk of CMV infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Active visceral leishmaniasis is associated with antigen-specific immunosuppression, but there is a cell-mediated response in patients who have been cured of the disease. (ajtmh.org)
- Measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) is the direct measurement of renal function and was assessed by measurement of the clearance of a true glomerular filtration marker (non-radiolabeled iothalamate) using a validated procedure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We aimed to assess whether immunosuppression preserves renal function in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy with declining renal function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To characterize the most common skin cancers arising from chronic immunosuppression in OTRs. (wiley.com)
- To date there have been no studies that directly assess the acute and chronic immunotoxic effects of propanil and its metabolites on T cell function. (epa.gov)
- Long-term face allograft survival was achieved under 7-day alpha/beta-TCRmAb/CsA protocol augmented with DBMT without chronic immunosuppression. (aaps1921.org)
- A and B ) pMel-1 CTLs primed with splenic B cells or LPS-matured bone marrow-derived DCs for 4-6 days were assessed for ( A ) in vitro cytotoxicity at an E/T ratio of 5:1 and ( B ) expression of CTL effector molecules. (jci.org)
- Over the last decades, a great deal of progress has been made in the development of alternative In vitro test to assess these issues. (mdpi.com)
- Although we hypothesized that down-modulation of the TCR, T cell apoptosis, and the induction of unresponsiveness all potentially contributed to immunosuppression in this setting, the mechanisms by which anti-CD3 induces T cell tolerance remains unclear. (jimmunol.org)
- Acute cerebral ischaemia induces severe immunosuppression, resulting in enhanced susceptibility to infections. (bmj.com)
- Acute cerebral ischaemia induces severe immunosuppression, 2-6 resulting in enhanced susceptibility to respiratory and urinary tract infections, which are the leading cause of death in stroke patients. (bmj.com)
- HIV type 1 (HIV-1) not only directly kills infected CD4 + T cells but also induces immunosuppression of uninfected T cells. (pnas.org)
- These scoring systems are used principally for assessing the efficacy of treatment and evaluating new therapies for research purposes. (medscape.com)
- Inert substances, such as saline solution, have long been used in clinical trials and double-blind randomized protocols to assess the efficacy of new therapies, for example, new pharmacological agents. (nature.com)
- The goal of this study was to compare the effects of short- and long-term immunosuppression induced by cyclosporin with those of immunosuppression induced by a monoclonal antibody against the rat interleukin-2 receptor (anti-CD25 mAb) in rats with xenografts. (thejns.org)
- A short course of anti-CD25 mAb-induced immunosuppression was as effective as a long course of cyclosporin-induced immunosuppression in this model. (thejns.org)
- Isograft controls survived indefinitely, whereas controls without immunosuppression rejected transplanted allograft within 5 to 8 days. (aaps1921.org)
- An open label study of a novel immunosuppression intervention for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (nih.gov)
- It has been demonstrated that alterations in calcium homeostasis can result in immunosuppression, autoimmunity and cancer. (epa.gov)
- Histological grading of graft rejection was assessed by H+E staining. (aaps1921.org)
- The development of these regulatory cells is associated with a particular environment of soluble molecules established after UV exposure, which include not only cytokines and PGE 2 but also Vitamin D (its role in UV-induced immunosuppression will be discussed below) [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein, BRD4, which binds to acetylated lysine on histone tails, has recently been reported to promote gene transcription of proinflammatory cytokines but has rarely been explored for its role in IL4-driven MΘ transcriptional programming and MΘ-mediated immunosuppression in the TME. (aacrjournals.org)
- Noninvasive before immunosuppression. (cdc.gov)
- The aims of this study were to examine if stroke-induced immunosuppression can ameliorate arthritis and to delineate the immunological mechanisms involved. (bmj.com)
- Study to Collect and Assess Long-term Safety of Everolimus in Patients Who Are on Everolimus Treatment in a Novartis-sponsored Study and Are Benefiting From the Treatment as Judged by the Investigator. (bioportfolio.com)
- Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the most reliable method of assessing cardiac function and morphology and, with this in mind, we initiated a cross-sectional study comparing CMR-determined morphological and functional parameters in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients who were not yet on treatment and early in the disease, with HIV-uninfected control patients. (scielo.org.za)
- This study aimed to identify risk factors for squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) in women with known HIV status and to explore the association between SIL, HPV subtype, and HIV-induced immunosuppression. (nih.gov)
- New study hints at the role of estrogen in graft success and suggests that patients could benefit from personalized immunosuppression strategies. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The primary study risks include factors associated with immunosuppression and fluctuation on HIV viral levels. (clinicalconnection.com)
- During the trial there were no serious, unexpected, or procedure- or immunosuppression-related adverse events. (newswise.com)
- Participants in the first-in-human trial of intra-spinal allogeneic stem cell therapy for ALS received immunosuppression, and one participant saw dramatic improvement across multiple outcome measures. (nih.gov)
- We aimed to determine if stroke-induced immunosuppression can ameliorate arthritis and to delineate the immunological mechanisms involved. (bmj.com)
- Combined with individual patients' clinical factors and other routine monitoring tests, ImmuKnow assay results help guide decisions in therapy to avoid over- or under-immunosuppression. (medindia.net)
- The ImmuKnow test is a qualitative assay and does not directly quantify the level of immunosuppression. (medindia.net)
- Results of the ImmuKnow assay should be used in conjunction with clinical presentation, medical history, and other clinical indicators when assessing the immune status of any individual patient. (medindia.net)
- Any medical facility or health department that provides direct patient care is en couraged to formulate a comprehensive immunization policy for all HCWs. (cdc.gov)
- Inertial sensors generate objective and sensitive metrics of movement disability that may indicate fall risk in many clinical conditions including multiple sclerosis (MS). The Timed-Up-And-Go (TUG) task is used to assess patient mobility because it incorporates clinically-relevant submovements during standing. (frontiersin.org)
- Does this patient have too much or too little immunosuppression? (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Administrative pharmacy claims databases, such as Medicare's, include records of dated prescriptions for large patient samples that are frequently used to assess medication use in studies of health care quality ( 8 , 9 ). (asnjournals.org)
- At the evidence to recommend patient framework is the framework ACIP has adopted in order to systematically and transparently assess scientific evidence for vaccine recommendations. (cdc.gov)
- To assess the role of in vivo cell-mediated immune responses in tumor immunity, two main approaches usually have been used. (springer.com)
- And, they may also counterbalance over-immunosuppression which may be helpful for HCC recurrence. (ilts.org)
- Furthermore, the production of C-C chemokines in response to immune cell activation, initially enhanced by IFNα and Tat, ultimately is inhibited by these proteins in parallel with their induction of immunosuppression. (pnas.org)
- Triple therapy immunosuppression with rapid steroid weaning followed ATG, MMF and steroid induction. (aaps1921.org)
- Flow cytometry assessed immunodepletion of T-lymphocytes, donor-specific chimerism for MHC class I (RT1 n ) antigens and presence of regulatory T-cells (Treg) CD4+/CD25+. (aaps1921.org)
Risk of infections1
- You will be at the highest risk of infections during periods of greater immunosuppression. (transplant.org.au)
- This assumption is also favored by a series of experimental results ( 2 - 4 , 7 ) that showed that the decline in CD4 + T cells also importantly involves immunosuppression and apoptosis of uninfected T cells, thereby challenging the view of a simple killing of infected T cells by the virus and the rapid replacement of these cells ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
- Although results are subjective, surveys appear to be the best current method for assessing the worldwide status of Marek's disease. (thepoultrysite.com)
- Substantial evidence exists demonstrating the immunosuppressive function of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), but inconsistent clinical results suggest that better understanding of MSC-mediated immunosuppression and identification of features predictive of immunosuppressive capacity would advance MSC-based therapeutics. (pnas.org)
- Immunosuppression results in the weakening of immnuologic surveillance function, leading to mutation, aberration and carcinogenesis. (springer.com)
- Retinal function and structure are assessed using various techniques including BCVA, and color, OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging. (arvojournals.org)
- A review for clini- confined disease may be assessed for signs of retinal detachment reduces progression toward and lipoprotein metabolism. (goodbelly.com)
- Predisposing factors such as diabetes mellitus, older age, peripheral vascular disease, and immunosuppression should increase the clinical suspicion. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Combination PDT and immunosuppression may be a useful therapeutic option for young patients with active inflammatory subfoveal CNV. (bmj.com)
- Herein, we report that BET bromodomain inhibitor, JQ1, blocks association of BRD4 with promoters of arginase and other IL4-driven MΘ genes, which promote immunosuppression in TME. (aacrjournals.org)
- The controlled assessment is one three hour examination comprising essay based questions and is an effective method of assessing your ability to utilise and apply knowledge gained at this level. (uwe.ac.uk)
- Quality was assessed according to standardised QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) criteria. (ersjournals.com)