Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Multiprotein complexes that mediate the activation of CASPASE-1. Dysregulation of inflammasomes has also been linked to a number of autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A retinoblastoma-binding protein that has an affinity for core HISTONES. It is found as a subunit of protein complexes that are in involved in the enzymatic modification of histones including the Mi2 and Sin3 histone deacetylase complexes and the polycomb repressive complex 2.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of GMP to generate GDP and ADP.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A large protein complex which acts as a signaling adaptor protein that allows communication between the various regulatory and functional components of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION including DNA POLYMERASE II; GENERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are bound to upstream ENHANCER ELEMENTS. The mediator complex was originally studied in YEAST where at least 21 subunits were identified. Many of the yeast subunits are homologs to proteins in higher organisms that are found associated with specific nuclear receptors such as THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS and VITAMIN D RECEPTORS.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
A cellular transcriptional coactivator that was originally identified by its requirement for the stable assembly IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS of the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. It is a nuclear protein that is a transcriptional coactivator for a number of transcription factors including VP16 PROTEIN; GA-BINDING PROTEIN; EARLY GROWTH RESPONSE PROTEIN 2; and E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. It also interacts with and stabilizes HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS PROTEIN VMW65 and helps regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES in HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
A genus of ascomycetous yeast in the family Dipodascaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
Factors that associate with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. Many of them are components of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC 2.1.1.43.
A histone chaperone protein that plays a role in the deposition of NUCLEOSOMES on newly synthesized DNA. It is comprised of three different subunits of 48, 60, and 150 kDa molecular size. The 48 kDa subunit, RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4, is also a component of several other protein complexes involved in chromatin remodeling.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.
A family of proteins that play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING. They are best known for silencing HOX GENES and the regulation of EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
A histone chaperone that facilitates nucleosome assembly by mediating the formation of the histone octamer and its transfer to DNA.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Other assemblies referred to instead as multiprotein complexes also possess quaternary structure. Examples include nucleosomes ... Structural biology Nucleic acid quaternary structure Multiprotein complex Biomolecular complex Here quaternary means "fourth- ... In some cases, proteins form complexes that then assemble into even larger complexes. In such cases, one uses the nomenclature ... e.g., "dimer of dimers" or "trimer of dimers", to suggest that the complex might dissociate into smaller sub-complexes before ...
"Assembly and trafficking of a multiprotein ROMK (Kir 1.1) channel complex by PDZ interactions". The Journal of Biological ...
2004). "Assembly and trafficking of a multiprotein ROMK (Kir 1.1) channel complex by PDZ interactions". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (8 ... 1998). "Functional co-assembly among subunits of cyclic-nucleotide-activated, nonselective cation channels, and across species ...
"Assembly and maturation of the U3 snoRNP in the nucleoplasm in a large dynamic multiprotein complex". Mol. Cell. 16 (5): 789-98 ... "Identification of a transcriptionally active peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-interacting cofactor complex in rat ...
Assembly of large multi-protein preinitiation complex is required for promoter-specific initiation. Promoter melting in ... The elongation phase starts once assembly of the elongation complex has been completed, and progresses until a termination ... the recognition of TATA box by the TBP subunit of TFIID initiates the assembly of a transcription complex. The next proteins to ... whose binding initiates transcription complex assembly at many genes. Eukaryotic genes also contain regulatory sequences beyond ...
This facilitates the assembly of multi-protein complexes by increasing the probability of any appropriate protein-protein ... Such complexes are also stabilized by the formation of ionic bridges between the aspartate or glutamate residues of the protein ... Many hormones, toxins, inhibitors, or antimicrobial peptides interact specifically with transmembrane protein complexes. They ... It also may involve the formation or dissociation of protein quaternary structures or oligomeric complexes, and specific ...
mTOR forms two physically and functionally distinct multiprotein complexes: the rapamycin-sensitive mTORC1 and the rapamycin- ... which defines the activation level of mTORC2 and modulates the assembly of the actin cytoskeleton through Rho GTPases, and Rac1 ... TSC1 and TSC2 form a tumor suppressor complex that regulates mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling complex by directly ... LAM occurs in two settings: in the disease tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC-LAM) and in a sporadic form, in women who do not ...
Cot, S. S.-W.; So, A. K.-C.; Espie, G. S. (2007). "A Multiprotein Bicarbonate Dehydration Complex Essential to Carboxysome ... Carboxysome assembly occurs through a series of protein-protein interactions: the enzyme RuBisCO and the two isoforms (full ... Recently, it was proposed to be an intrinsically disordered protein with an essential role in alpha-carboxysome assembly. ... Expression of beta-carboxysomal shell proteins and Form IB Rubisco-CcmM complexes in tobacco chloroplasts has been achieved, ...
They regulate the assembly of multiprotein complexes by presenting a beta-propeller platform for simultaneous and reversible ...
2005). "Assembly and maturation of the U3 snoRNP in the nucleoplasm in a large dynamic multiprotein complex". Mol. Cell. 16 (5 ...
2005). "Assembly and maturation of the U3 snoRNP in the nucleoplasm in a large dynamic multiprotein complex". Mol. Cell. 16 (5 ... Nop56p is a yeast nucleolar protein that is part of a complex with the nucleolar proteins Nop58p and fibrillarin. Nop56p is ... 2003). "Proteomic analysis of human Nop56p-associated pre-ribosomal ribonucleoprotein complexes. Possible link between Nop56p ... for the hierarchical assembly of the box C/D snoRNP". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (23): 8342-52. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.23.8342-8352.2002. ...
2005). "Assembly and maturation of the U3 snoRNP in the nucleoplasm in a large dynamic multiprotein complex". Mol. Cell. 16 (5 ... for the Hierarchical Assembly of the Box C/D snoRNP". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (23): 8342-52. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.23.8342-8352.2002. ...
2005). "Assembly and maturation of the U3 snoRNP in the nucleoplasm in a large dynamic multiprotein complex". Mol. Cell. 16 (5 ... "cDNA Cloning and Characterization of the Human U3 Small Nucleolar Ribonucleoprotein Complex-Associated 55-Kilodalton Protein". ...
Hu Y, Mivechi NF (May 2003). "HSF-1 interacts with Ral-binding protein 1 in a stress-responsive, multiprotein complex with ... "Ral GTPases regulate exocyst assembly through dual subunit interactions". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (51): 51743-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... interacts with the AP2 complex: involvement of the Ral pathway in receptor endocytosis". J. Cell Sci. 113 (16): 2837-44. PMID ... "Ral GTPases regulate exocyst assembly through dual subunit interactions". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (51): 51743-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
... analysis of Siah1-Siah-interacting protein interactions and insights into the assembly of an E3 ligase multiprotein complex". ... The CacyBP/SIP complex instead, is known to be a part of stress respons, since it interacts with chaperone HSP90. GRCh38: ... It probably serves as a molecular bridge in ubiquitin E3 complexes and participates in the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of ...
... is targeted to the cell surface in a multiprotein complex that facilitates elastic fiber assembly". The Journal of Biological ... The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal ... The S-Gal protein is a peripheral membrane protein that functions as part of an elastin receptor complex on the surface of ... Hinek A, Zhang S, Smith AC, Callahan JW (Jul 2000). "Impaired elastic-fiber assembly by fibroblasts from patients with either ...
MAGUK proteins participate in the assembly of multiprotein complexes on the inner surface of the plasma membrane at regions of ...
... analysis of Siah1-Siah-interacting protein interactions and insights into the assembly of an E3 ligase multiprotein complex". J ... "The modular structure of SIP facilitates its role in stabilizing multiprotein assemblies". Biochemistry. 44 (27): 9462-71. doi: ...
Kline SL, Cheeseman IM, Hori T, Fukagawa T, Desai A (April 2006). "The human Mis12 complex is required for kinetochore assembly ... "Implication of a novel multiprotein Dam1p complex in outer kinetochore function". J. Cell Biol. 155 (7): 1137-45. doi:10.1083/ ... He recently demonstrated a critical and direct role for a protein complex called Ndc80 (coded for by the gene NDC80) in ... and some of the major proteins in the kinetochore complex have been implicated in leukemia and other diseases. Cheeseman is ...
This completes the assembly of the preinitiation complex for eukaryotic transcription.[3] Generally, the TATA box is found at ... RNA polymerase II is then recruited to this multi-protein complex with the help of TFIIF.[24] Additional transcription factors ... "Structure of promoter-bound TFIID and model of human pre-initiation complex assembly". Nature. 531 (7596): 604-9. doi:10.1038/ ... TFIID first binds to the TATA box, facilitated by TFIIA binding to the upstream part of the TFIID complex.[22][23] TFIIB then ...
"Multiprotein assembly of Kv4.2, KChIP3 and DPP10 produces ternary channel complexes with ISA-like properties". J. Physiol. 568 ... 2005). "Time-controlled transcardiac perfusion cross-linking for the study of protein interactions in complex tissues". Nat. ... Ren X, Hayashi Y, Yoshimura N, Takimoto K (2005). "Transmembrane interaction mediates complex formation between peptidase ...
SMN complex refers to the entire multi-protein complex involved in the assembly of snRNPs, the essential components of ... The complex, apart from the "proper" survival of motor neuron protein, includes at least six other proteins (gem-associated ... "Entrez Gene: SMN1 survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric". Gubitz AK, Feng W, Dreyfuss G (May 2004). "The SMN complex". ... a novel WD repeat protein component of the SMN complex that binds Sm proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (7): ...
... is a key step into the assembly of the complex and the TPRs in the phox unit mediate the assembly of the multiprotein complex ... which form scaffolds to mediate protein-protein interactions and often the assembly of multiprotein complexes. These alpha- ... "Structure of TPR domain-peptide complexes: critical elements in the assembly of the Hsp70-Hsp90 multichaperone machine". Cell. ... Proteins with such domains include the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) subunits cdc16, cdc23 and cdc27, the NADPH oxidase ...
This process involves the sequential action of three multiprotein complexes, ESCRT I to III (ESCRT standing for 'endosomal ... Vps4p assembly is assisted by the conserved Vta1p protein, which regulates its oligomerization status and ATPase activity. AAA ... AAA ATPases assemble into oligomeric assemblies (often homo-hexamers) that form a ring-shaped structure with a central pore. ... Substrate retrotranslocation and extraction is assisted by the Cdc48p(Ufd1p/Npl4p) complex on the cytosolic side of the ...
... while TPR mediates protein-protein interactions and the assembly of multi protein complexes. These three domains are highly ...
The dockerin domains are believed to be responsible for the assembly of a multiprotein cellulase/hemicellulase complex, similar ... More recently, anaerobic fungi, typified by Piromyces equi, have been suggested to also synthesise a cellulosome complex, ... ranging from plant cell wall polysaccharides to complex glycans. The module has so far been found in microorganisms, including ... "Structure of a Family 15 Carbohydrate-binding Module in Complex with Xylopentaose. Evidence that xylan binds in an approximate ...
1998). "Mass spectrometry and EST-database searching allows characterization of the multi-protein spliceosome complex". Nat. ... a heat-stable protein that functions in the assembly of a presplicing complex". Mol. Cell. Biol. 12 (10): 4545-52. doi:10.1128/ ... Splicing factor SF1 is involved in the ATP-dependent formation of the spliceosome complex. SF1 gene is necessary to make the ... Abovich N, Rosbash M (May 1997). "Cross-intron bridging interactions in the yeast commitment complex are conserved in mammals ...
... coordinates assembly of a multiprotein epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-regulatory complex". J. Biol. Chem. 287 (39): 33014-25 ...
"Multi-Protein Complexes Involved in Cell Regulation (E6)". Keystone Symposia. 2006. Retrieved 24 October 2016. "Scientific ... "Multi-macromolecular assemblies". Project log. 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2016. "Guest editor". Current Opinion in Structural ... has delivered several featured lectures and keynote addresses which included the Keystone Symposium on Multiprotein Complexes ( ... His ongoing project, Multi-macromolecular assemblies, relates to 3-D structures of large macromolecular machines. Srinivasan is ...
Hu Y, Mivechi NF (May 2003). "HSF-1 interacts with Ral-binding protein 1 in a stress-responsive, multiprotein complex with ... "Structure of TPR domain-peptide complexes: critical elements in the assembly of the Hsp70-Hsp90 multichaperone machine". Cell. ... Assembly of the reovirus cell attachment protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (35): 32822-7. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Gano JJ, Simon JA (Feb 2010). "A proteomic investigation of ligand-dependent HSP90 complexes reveals CHORDC1 as a novel ADP- ...
"Histone methyltransferase activity associated with a human multiprotein complex containing the Enhancer of Zeste protein". ... Bekker-Jensen S, Mailand N (Dec 2010). "Assembly and function of DNA double-strand break repair foci in mammalian cells". DNA ... This trimethylation occurs at the promoter of active genes[52][53][54] and is performed by the COMPASS complex.[55][56][57] ... H3K56Acx is required for genome stability.[88][89] H3K56 is acetylated by the p300/Rtt109 complex,[90][91][92] but is rapidly ...
AssemblyEdit. The assembly of the proteasome is a complex process due to the number of subunits that must associate to form an ... activities of this system were isolated as a multi-protein complex originally called the multi-catalytic proteinase complex by ... Assembly of the base complex is facilitated by four assembly chaperones, Hsm3/S5b, Nas2/p27, Rpn14/PAAF1, and Nas6/gankyrin ( ... The assembled complex of hslV (blue) and hslU (red) from E. coli. This complex of heat shock proteins is thought to resemble ...
Multiprotein complexes often form during caspase activation.[12] Some activating multiprotein complexes includes: *The death- ... PDB image of caspase 8 (3KJQ) in 'biological assembly'. Two shades of blue used to represent two small sunits, while two shades ... This is done by the formation of a multiprotein Death Inducing Signalling Complex (DISC) that recruits and activates a pro- ... This cellular ion imbalance leads to oligomerisation of NLRP3 molecules to form a multiprotein complex called the NLRP3 ...
Although it is clear that the association of HATs with multiprotein complexes provides a mechanism for the regulation of both ... Type B HATs are located in the cytoplasm and are responsible for acetylating newly synthesized histones prior to their assembly ... Multisubunit HAT complexes[edit]. The formation of multisubunit complexes has been observed to modulate the substrate ... A core histone is formed when two of each histone subtype, excluding H1, form a quaternary complex. This octameric complex, in ...
Geng L, Burrow CR, Li HP, Wilson PD (December 2000). "Modification of the composition of polycystin-1 multiprotein complexes by ... "Dynamics of cadherin/catenin complex formation: novel protein interactions and pathways of complex assembly". The Journal of ... catenin complex. • actin cytoskeleton. • flotillin complex. • membrane. • extracellular exosome. • integral component of ... apical junction complex. • trans-Golgi network. • extracellular region. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • cortical actin ...
Geng L, Burrow CR, Li HP, Wilson PD (December 2000). "Modification of the composition of polycystin-1 multiprotein complexes by ... "Dynamics of cadherin/catenin complex formation: novel protein interactions and pathways of complex assembly". J. Cell Biol. ... Hazan RB, Kang L, Roe S, Borgen PI, Rimm DL (December 1997). "Vinculin is associated with the E-cadherin adhesion complex". J. ... Beavon IR (2000). "The E-cadherin-catenin complex in tumour metastasis: structure, function and regulation.". Eur. J. Cancer 36 ...
Martinez E (December 2002). "Multi-protein complexes in eukaryotic gene transcription". Plant Molecular Biology. 50 (6): 925-47 ... Ito T (2003). "Nucleosome assembly and remodeling". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 274: 1-22. doi:10.1007/978-3 ... DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), ... In eukaryotes, this structure involves DNA binding to a complex of small basic proteins called histones, while in prokaryotes ...
pRb recruitment to a promoter blocks the assembly of pre-initiation complexesEdit. The preinitiation complex (PIC) assembles in ... is present in two distinct multiprotein complexes involved in transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (52): 50860-6. ... SWI/SNF complex. • transcription factor complex. • spindle. • cyclin/CDK positive transcription elongation factor complex. • ... regulation of centromere complex assembly. • cell cycle arrest. • enucleate erythrocyte differentiation. • neuron ...
This multi-protein complex linking integrins to actin filaments is important for assembly of signalling complexes that act as ... Interactions with actin filaments can also promote clustering of cadherins, involved in assembly of adherens junctions, as ... Kadekoppala, Madhusudan; Holder, Anthony A. (2010). "Merozoite surface proteins of the malaria parasite: The MSP1 complex and ... Borradori, Luca; Sonnenberg, Arnoud (1999). "Structure and Function of Hemidesmosomes: More Than Simple Adhesion Complexes". ...
... a highly conserved multiprotein complex implicated in protein deneddylation, deubiquitination, and phosphorylation.[19] RIG-G ... "Rig-G negatively regulates SCF-E3 ligase activities by disrupting the assembly of COP9 signalosome complex". Biochemical and ... Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that ... By interacting with their specific receptors, IFNs activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) complexes; ...
The cohesin multiprotein complex is required for sister chromatid cohesion. This complex is composed partly of two structural ... GO:0032403 macromolecular complex binding. Cellular component. • condensed chromosome kinetochore. • meiotic cohesin complex. • ... Most of the cohesin complexes dissociate from the chromosomes before mitosis, although those complexes at the kinetochore ... cohesin complex. • nuclear matrix. • mitotic spindle pole. Biological process. • chromosome organization. • cellular response ...
Nascent peptides reach the ER via the translocon, a membrane-embedded multiprotein complex. Proteins that are destined for ... Initial glycosylation as assembly continues. This is N-linked (O-linking occurs in the Golgi). *N-linked glycosylation: If the ... A ribosome only binds to the RER once a specific protein-nucleic acid complex forms in the cytosol. This special complex forms ... The rough endoplasmic reticulum works in concert with the Golgi complex to target new proteins to their proper destinations. A ...
nucleotide-excision repair, preincision complex stabilization. • nucleotide-excision repair, preincision complex assembly. • ... and RNA polymerase II from clonal cell lines that conditionally express epitope-tagged subunits of the multiprotein complexes ... holo TFIIH complex. • core TFIIH complex portion of holo TFIIH complex. • core TFIIH complex. • клітинне ядро. • transcription ...
The exosome complex (or PM/Scl complex, often just called the exosome) is a multi-protein intracellular complex capable of ... "Protein-protein interactions between human exosome components support the assembly of RNase PH-type subunits into a six- ... Exosome complexes are found in both eukaryotic cells and archaea, while in bacteria a simpler complex called the degradosome ... Already years before the exosome complex was identified, this pattern was termed the PM/Scl complex.[41] Immunofluorescence ...
Bell SP, Stillman B (May 1992). "ATP-dependent recognition of eukaryotic origins of DNA replication by a multiprotein complex ... "Initiation complex assembly at budding yeast replication origins begins with the recognition of a bipartite sequence by ... Origin Recognition Complex Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) na Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina dos EUA. ... Chesnokov IN (2007). "Multiple functions of the origin recognition complex". Int. Rev. Cytol. 256: 69-109. PMID 17241905. doi: ...
2002). "FANCE: the link between Fanconi anaemia complex assembly and activity". EMBO J. 21 (13): 3414-23. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... The FA proteins interact through a multiprotein pathway. DNA interstrand crosslinks are highly deleterious damages that are ... the link between Fanconi anaemia complex assembly and activity". EMBO J. 21 (13): 3414-23. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdf355. PMC 125396 ... "The Fanconi anemia core complex forms four complexes of different sizes in different subcellular compartments". J. Biol. Chem. ...
Mediator complex[edit]. Main article: Mediator (coactivator). Mediator is a multiprotein complex that functions as a ... Main article: Assembly of the transcription preinitiation complex. Although the sequence of steps involved in the assembly of ... Preinitiation complex[edit]. Main article: Transcription preinitiation complex. The preinitiation complex (PIC) is a large ... TFIIH enters the complex. TFIIH is a large protein complex that contains among others the CDK7/cyclin H kinase complex and a ...
... and forms two distinct multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2.[1] These two complexes have a separate network of protein ... "In Hall, Michael N.; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko (eds.). Structure, Function and Regulation of TOR complexes from Yeasts to Mammals. The ... The rapamycin-FKBP12 complex interferes with FRB domain of mTOR.[5][6] Molecular interaction between FKBP12, mTOR, and ... These compounds block activity of both mTOR complexes and are called mTORC1/mTORC2 dual inhibitors.[20] Compounds with this ...
The most complex macromolecular machines are found within cells, often in the form of multi-protein complexes.[47] Some ... Directed Motions of Biological and Artificial Molecules and Assemblies". Chemical Reviews. 105 (4): 1377-1400. doi:10.1021/ ... Molecular Recognition and Dynamics in Receptor−Substrate Complexes". Accounts of Chemical Research. 36 (12): 919-932. doi: ... The term is also common in nanotechnology where a number of highly complex molecular machines have been proposed that are aimed ...
Aberle H, Butz S, Stappert J, Weissig H, Kemler R, Hoschuetzky H (Dec 1994). "Assembly of the cadherin-catenin complex in vitro ... Geng L, Burrow CR, Li HP, Wilson PD (Dec 2000). "Modification of the composition of polycystin-1 multiprotein complexes by ... "Crystal structure of a beta-catenin/axin complex suggests a mechanism for the beta-catenin destruction complex". Genes & ... Formation of two distinct N-cadherin/catenin complexes". Journal of Cell Science. 109 ( Pt 1): 11-20. PMID 8834786.. ...
It seems to interact in a multiprotein complex with RbAp48 and HDAC3.[7] Furthermore, HDAC4 is required for TGFbeta1-induced ... positive regulation of lamellipodium assembly. • regulation of protein binding. • negative regulation of transcription, DNA- ... histone deacetylase complex. • neuromuscular junction. • transcriptional repressor complex. • sarcomere. • Z disc. • A band. • ... "Enzymatic activity associated with class II HDACs is dependent on a multiprotein complex containing HDAC3 and SMRT/N-CoR". ...
... along with MIS12, DC8, PMF1, CBX5, ZWINT is a component of the kinetochore-associated multiprotein complex which is ... 2006). "The human Mis12 complex is required for kinetochore assembly and proper chromosome segregation". J. Cell Biol. 173 (1 ... DSN1, MIND kinetochore complex component, homolog (S. cerevisiae), also known as DSN1 or MIS13, is a protein which in humans ... 2004). "A conserved protein network controls assembly of the outer kinetochore and its ability to sustain tension". Genes Dev. ...
Thereafter, one of the strands is incorporated into a multi-protein RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Among these proteins ... two types of RNA vital to ribosomal assembly and mRNA translation. SINEs, like tRNAs and many small-nuclear RNAs possess an ... This complex is responsible for cleaving some of the hair-pin structures from the pre-microRNA which is transported to the ... Alternately, some SINEs are believed to use a much more complex system of integrating back into the genome; this system ...
Adherens junctions, also called zonula adherens, are multiprotein complexes formed by proteins of the catenin and cadherin ... Nekrasova, Oxana; Green, Kathleen J. (1 November 2013). "Desmosome assembly and dynamics". Trends in Cell Biology. 23 (11): 537 ... The molecular structure of this complex is in the form of a hexamer. The complex, which is embedded in the cell walls of the ... These complexes, formed primarily of members of the claudin and the occludin families, consist of about 35 different proteins, ...
Gammons M, Bienz M (April 2018). "Multiprotein complexes governing Wnt signal transduction". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. ... The term biomolecular condensates was introduced in the context of intracellular assemblies as a convenient and non- ... Gammons M, Bienz M (April 2018). "Multiprotein complexes governing Wnt signal transduction". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. ... The Dsh protein functions both in planar polarity and Wnt signalling, where it recruits another supramolecular complex (the ...
HATs are part of a multiprotein complex that is recruited to chromatin when activators bind to DNA binding sites. Acetylation ... April 2018). "Nanopore sequencing and assembly of a human genome with ultra-long reads". Nature Biotechnology. 36 (4): 338-345 ... The SWI/SNF protein complex in yeast is one example of a chromatin remodeling complex that regulates the expression of many ... In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is coiled into protein-DNA complexes called chromatin. Histones, which are the most prevalent type ...
Mediator is a multiprotein complex that functions as a transcriptional coactivator in all eukaryotes. It was discovered in 1990 ... "Molecular architecture of the human Mediator-RNA polymerase II-TFIIF assembly". PLOS Biology. 9 (3): e1000603. doi:10.1371/ ... Mediator complexes interact with transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. The main function of mediator complexes is to ... A more realistic model of a mediator complex without the CDK module is shown in the second figure. The mediator complex is ...
... this is the first requirement for a Ku-like protein in the assembly of a protein complex at essential sequences within a ... Purified OBF2 not only binds DNA but also supports the formation of a protein complex at essential sequences within the ARS121 ... are necessary for the ATP-dependent assembly of a specific and stable multiprotein complex at a yeast origin of replication. ... The Ku-like protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required in vitro for the assembly of a stable multiprotein complex at a ...
Positional knowledge of subunits within multiprotein assemblies is crucial for understanding their function. The topological ... Thus, our method is applicable for the exact topological mapping of subunits in macromolecular complexes. ... the exact position of single subunits within multisubunit complexes has been difficult. A new clonable peptide tag, which when ... analysis of protein complexes by electron microscopy has undergone impressive development, but analysis of the exact ...
The assembly and maintenance of heterochromatin is important for many aspects of genom … ... Multiprotein Complexes Grant support * P30 CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ... The assembly and maintenance of heterochromatin is important for many aspects of genome control, including silencing of gene ... Centromeric heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast--balancing transcription, RNA interference and chromatin modification ...
... design principles governing assembly of multiprotein complexes. Yuan Wang Ph.D.. Development and plasticity of neuronal ... Regulation of proteasome assembly and function in health and disease; ...
... complex, which include the histone acetyltransferase MOF (males absent on the first), play important roles in various cellular ... we provide the first biochemical and structural insights into the molecular architecture of this large multiprotein assembly. ... Structural Analysis of the KANSL1/WDR5/KANSL2 Complex Reveals That WDR5 Is Required for Efficient Assembly and Chromatin ... we show that the KANSL1-WDR5 interaction is required for proper assembly, efficient recruitment of the NSL complex to target ...
... no evidence for relocalization or assembly of pilin-like PulG protein into a multiprotein complex.. Pugsley AP1, Possot O. ... We conclude that there is no evidence that PulG protein assembles into a stable multiprotein complex or that processing of the ... might assemble into a trans-periplasm complex resembling a type IV pilus. To test this idea, we examined the subcellular ... share extensive sequence identity with proteins known to be required for type IV pilus processing and assembly. However, ...
2002) Modular self-assembly of a Y-shaped multiprotein complex from seven nucleoporins. EMBO J 21:387-397. ... 2003) The conserved Nup107-160 complex is critical for nuclear pore complex assembly. Cell 113:195-206. ... 2003) Peering through the pore: Nuclear pore complex structure, assembly, and function. Dev Cell 4:775-789. ... The Nup84 complex constitutes a key building block in the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Here we present the crystal structure of ...
Human SAP18 mediates assembly of a splicing regulatory multiprotein complex via its ubiquitin-like fold. RNA 16, 2442-2454 ( ... to detect Complex I member NDUF88, Complex II member SDHB, Complex III member UQCRC2, Complex IV member MTCO1 and Complex V ... Structure and assembly of the NOT module of the human CCR4-NOT complex. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 20, 1289-1297 (2013). ... We also applied this principle to visualise hierarchies in other complexes like the CCR4-NOT complex, which is involved in the ...
Spliceosome Assembly. *MS Analysis of Multi-Protein Complexes involved in Splicing. *RNA Splicing in Malaria Plasmodium ... The 5SS and 3SS come into close proximity by not yet well understood mechanism and form a complex known as pre-spliceosome. ... The function of SMN in the cytoplasm is well understood, with major roles including the assembly of uridine-rich small nuclear ... We have recently identified SMN as a component of early spliceosomal complexes. Now, we propose to address its function in ...
Macromolecular Assembly develops biophysical methods to study protein interactions and the assembly of multi-protein complexes ... Hallmarks of multi-protein complexes are multi-valent interactions and cooperatively. In the molecular machinery of cellular ... A mechanism for assembly of complexes of vitronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 from sedimentation velocity analysis ... Studying multiprotein complexes by multisignal sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation.. Balbo AMinor KH ...
... coiled-coil domain promotes assembly of multiprotein complex containing ARNO and Dock180; assembly of complex requires coiled- ... Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly. Genomic * NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly ... Assembly. Chr Location. 109.20210226. current. GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39). 6. NC_000006.12 (154154496..154356803, complement ... previous assembly. GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25). 6. NC_000006.11 (154475631..154677937, complement) ...
Has a role in chromatin assembly and chromosome segregation. ... deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein ... Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Has a role in chromatin assembly and chromosome ... Rpd3L complex Source: PomBase ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the function, process or ... Rpd3S complex Source: PomBase ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the function, process or ...
Multiprotein signalling complexes: regional assembly on heparan sulphate.. *John Thomas Gallagher. *Biochemical Society ...
... they trigger the rapid assembly of multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes that are responsible for initiating pro- ... they trigger the rapid assembly of multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes that are responsible for initiating pro- ... Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes that sense microbial infection and trigger cytokine production and cell ... A crucial part of the innate immune response is the assembly of the inflammasome, a cytosolic complex of proteins that ...
... they trigger the rapid assembly of multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes that are responsible for initiating pro- ... they trigger the rapid assembly of multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes that are responsible for initiating pro- ... Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes that sense microbial infection and trigger cytokine production and cell ... A crucial part of the innate immune response is the assembly of the inflammasome, a cytosolic complex of proteins that ...
Other assemblies referred to instead as multiprotein complexes also possess quaternary structure. Examples include nucleosomes ... Structural biology Nucleic acid quaternary structure Multiprotein complex Biomolecular complex Here quaternary means "fourth- ... In some cases, proteins form complexes that then assemble into even larger complexes. In such cases, one uses the nomenclature ... e.g., "dimer of dimers" or "trimer of dimers", to suggest that the complex might dissociate into smaller sub-complexes before ...
This completes the assembly of the preinitiation complex for eukaryotic transcription.[3] Generally, the TATA box is found at ... RNA polymerase II is then recruited to this multi-protein complex with the help of TFIIF.[24] Additional transcription factors ... "Structure of promoter-bound TFIID and model of human pre-initiation complex assembly". Nature. 531 (7596): 604-9. doi:10.1038/ ... TFIID first binds to the TATA box, facilitated by TFIIA binding to the upstream part of the TFIID complex.[22][23] TFIIB then ...
Inflammasomes are large multiprotein complexes which assemble in a cells cytoplasm in response to environmental danger signals ... Activation of an inflammasome assembly leads to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-18. Over-activation of ... Nodthera aims to become a key player in developing inhibitors of this protein complex. ... "Nodthera Limited has the potential to create first in class small molecule modulators of the NLRP3 inflammasome complex which ...
Proper assembly of multiprotein complexes is important, since misassembly can lead to disastrous consequences. In order to ... A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains. Different polypeptide chains ... This has led to the discovery that most complexes follow an ordered assembly pathway. In the cases where disordered assembly is ... Such protein complexes are called "obligate protein complexes". Transient protein complexes form and break down transiently in ...
... design principles governing assembly of multiprotein complexes. Tomko Lab. Yue Julia Wang, Ph.D.. Single-cell transcriptomic ... Regulation of proteasome assembly and function in health and disease; ...
Assembly of nano-structures, multi-protein, protein-DNA/RNA complexes. *. Cellular systems at the molecular level ...
Proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes are then crystallized and analysed by X-ray diffraction, using synchrotron ... nucleic acids and their complexes with the aim to further our understanding of several essential mechanisms in the cell. We use ... The transport complex is a transmembrane multiprotein assembly. In collaboration with Fernando de la Cruz (U. of Cantabria), we ... Protein complexes, epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cancer. As a partner of the European Consortium 3D-REPERTOIRE ...
The role of Gβγ subunits in the organization, assembly, and function of GPCR signaling complexes. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. ... or heterodimer complexes; however, a given protein can also be part of multiprotein complexes involving numerous interactions ... Lighting up multiprotein complexes: lessons from GPCR oligomerization. Francisco Ciruela,1 Jean-Pierre Vilardaga,2,3 and Víctor ... Visualization of AP-1 NF-κB ternary complexes in living cells by using a BiFC-based FRET. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105: ...
Abi1 and Abi2 play an important role in actin cytoskeleton dynamics through participation in several multiprotein complexes. ... which regulates Arp2/3-mediated actin filament nucleation and actin network assembly [PMID: 21482783, PMID: 11516653, PMID: ... NESH (Abi-3) is present in the Abi/WAVE complex but does not promote c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation.. FEBS Lett. 580 6464-70 ... Essential role for Abi1 in embryonic survival and WAVE2 complex integrity.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108 7022-7 2011 ...
The interaction between WD40 and peptide is important for the assembly of dynamic multi-protein complexes. When the interaction ... cytoskeleton assembly, chemotaxis and RNA processing. Most distinctive feature of the WD domains is that they mediate diverse ... characteristics as ideal platforms for assembling different kinds of proteins and helping the formation of transient complexes. ...
Assembly of alternative multiprotein complexes directs rRNA promoter selectivity.Genes Dev. 4 1990 943 954 ... SV40 large T antigen binds to the TBP-TAF(I) complex SLI and coactivates ribosomal RNA transcription.Genes Dev. 11 1997 1605 ... Phosphorylation by G1-specific cdk-cyclin complexes activates the nucleolar transcription factor UBF.EMBO J. 18 1999 1891 1899 ... Bead-bound complexes were precipitated by brief centrifugation, and the pellet was washed five times with HEN buffer and ...
A method for multiprotein assembly in cells reveals independent action of kinesins in complex. J. Cell Biol. 207, 393-406 (2014 ... Characterization of the FKBP·rapamycin·FRB ternary complex. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 4715-4721 (2005).. ... Cellular motility driven by assembly and disassembly of actin filaments. Cell 112, 453-465 (2003).. ... Chemotaxis, secretion, and phagocytosis are products of complex signaling pathways that have been subjects of synthetic biology ...
HVA calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α1) associated with four ... high-voltage-activated calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α1) ... To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins ... To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins ...
... multi-protein complexes that assemble cooperatively. Even in the crowded environment of the cell, such assemblies are unlikely ... We show that multi-protein assemblies moderate the full range of functional complexity and diversity in the two signalling ... Here we discuss the highly dynamic nature of multi-protein complexes that control chromosome segregation in which an intricate ... The control of chromosome segregation relies on the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a complex regulatory system that ensures ...
This process is probably in part regulated by internal clues through formation of a multiprotein complex of junctional proteins ... Available evidence suggests that junctional proteins form a multiprotein complex of high molecular mass, with the RyR1 channel ... Longitudinal and Junctional SR Assembly: A Model.. The reported results let us propose a working model for SR domain assembly, ... Assembly and dynamics of proteins of the longitudinal and junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle cells. Vincenza ...
  • It has been proposed that the four type IV pilin-like proteins that are required for extracellular protein secretion by the general secretory pathway (GSP) might assemble into a trans-periplasm complex resembling a type IV pilus. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies showed that both PulO, which cleaves and N-methylates the PulG precursor, and PulE, a putative ATP-binding protein, share extensive sequence identity with proteins known to be required for type IV pilus processing and assembly. (nih.gov)
  • Negative-stain electron microscopy of this heptamer assembled from recombinant proteins has revealed a ≈400-Å-long, Y-shaped assembly and established the relative position of its members ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Using in vivo crosslinking and RNA capture, we report a comprehensive RNA-protein interactome in a metazoan at four levels of resolution: single amino acids, domains, proteins and multisubunit complexes. (nature.com)
  • In total, the reaction requires the assembly of 5 small RNA molecules and about 200 proteins. (le.ac.uk)
  • We are involved in several collaborative applications in various fields including immunological protein complexes, viral proteins, membrane receptor complexes, and eye lens crystallins. (nih.gov)
  • It can also refer to biomolecular complexes of proteins with nucleic acids and other cofactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many proteins are actually assemblies of multiple polypeptide chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, people refer to protein-protein interaction when discussing quaternary structure of proteins and consider all assemblies of proteins as protein complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • No known examples Although complexes higher than octamers are rarely observed for most proteins, there are some important exceptions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, proteins form complexes that then assemble into even larger complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins in a protein complex are linked by non-covalent protein-protein interactions, and different protein complexes have different degrees of stability over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the techniques used to break open cells and isolate proteins are inherently disruptive to such large complexes, so it is often difficult to determine the components of a complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In stable complexes, large hydrophobic interfaces between proteins typically bury surface areas larger than 2500 square Ås. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual proteins can participate in the formation of a variety of different protein complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some proteins can't be found to create a stable well-folded structure alone, but can be found as a part of a protein complex which stabilizes the constituent proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that proteins may not fold completely in either transient or permanent complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our research focuses on the three-dimensional structure of proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes with the aim to further our understanding of several essential mechanisms in the cell. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes are then crystallized and analysed by X-ray diffraction, using synchrotron radiation. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • The relaxosome is a protein-DNA complex formed by several proteins and a DNA segment called the Origin of Transfer. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • We study several transcription factors and their complexes with other proteins and DNA promoter regions. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • As scaffolds, WD40 domain proteins are involved in a variety of cellular process such as signal transduction, cell division, cytoskeleton assembly, chemotaxis and RNA processing. (wikibooks.org)
  • The binding site variability gives WD40 domains the characteristics as ideal platforms for assembling different kinds of proteins and helping the formation of transient complexes. (wikibooks.org)
  • To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins that couple calcium influx to the downstream signal cascades and to feedback elements. (frontiersin.org)
  • In essence, I am trying to understand how proteins can associate to form larger macromolecular assemblies to ensure timely and accurate cell division. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • Assembly of junctional SR domains was accompanied by a strong decrease in mobility of junctional proteins that in triadin appeared to be mediated by its intraluminal region. (pnas.org)
  • Mutations in some of the genes that encode MKS complex proteins disrupt ciliary membrane composition and cause MKS. (eurekalert.org)
  • MKS complex components, including B9d1, failed to localize at the ciliary transition zone in embryos from these mice, resulting in the loss of key signaling proteins from the ciliary membrane. (eurekalert.org)
  • These complexes consist of an ER membrane, viral proteins, and host proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Kumar, M. Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Proteins in Flavivirus Replication and Assembly Complexes. (mdpi.com)
  • 2019. "Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Proteins in Flavivirus Replication and Assembly Complexes" Pathogens 8, no. 3: 148. (mdpi.com)
  • The pullulanase type II secretion system (T2SS) of Klebsiella oxytoca , the Pul secreton, is a prototype of a family of membrane protein complexes dedicated to the transport of folded proteins from the periplasm to the extracellular milieu ( 49 ). (asm.org)
  • The edge-to-edge interactions that drive shell protein tessellation are thought to be conserved among varied types of BMC domain proteins, allowing the formation of complex shells ( 31 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Another key aspect of MCP architecture is the use of short sequence extensions on the N and C termini of both lumen enzymes and structural proteins to guide assembly ( 33 - 37 ). (asm.org)
  • His main objective is to decipher the function of integrins in differentiation and migration, and how integrins and associated proteins regulate the assembly of multiprotein complexes in normal and pathological conditions. (abcam.com)
  • The association of α6β4 with plectin is a crucial step in the assembly of hemidesmosomes as the formed complex functions as a scaffold on which other hemidesmosomal proteins (bullous phemphigoid (BP) antigens 180 and 230) are assembled. (abcam.com)
  • ASK1 is regulated by a large, dynamic multiprotein signalosome complex, potentially including over 90 reported ASK1-interacting proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • We used precise stable isotope dilution assays to quantify protein stoichiometry in the ASK signalosome complex and identified ASK2 at a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with ASK1 and 14-3-3 proteins (YWHAQ, YWHAB, YWHAH, and YWHAE) collectively at a 0.5:1 ratio with ASK1 as the main components. (mcponline.org)
  • These data support an ASK signalosome comprising a multimeric core complex of ASK1, ASK2, and 14-3-3 proteins, which dynamically engages other binding partners needed to mediate diverse stress-response signaling events. (mcponline.org)
  • The EJC is a dynamic structure consisting of core proteins and several peripheral nuclear and cytoplasmic associated factors that join the complex only transiently either during EJC assembly or during subsequent mRNA metabolism. (rcsb.org)
  • Found in a complex with SR proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • Our results indicate that the nucleolar transit of RNA-binding proteins such as She2 is necessary for the correct assembly of translationally silenced localizing messenger ribonucleoproteins. (labome.org)
  • These proteins promote the assembly of multiprotein complexes, termed inflammasomes, which are required for the activation of inflammatory caspases. (rupress.org)
  • Many nucleases are complexes of two proteins, one subunit to cut each DNA strand (i.e., each subunit is a blade of the molecular scissors). (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Both complexes are present in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and composed of approximately the same proteins and cofactors. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The recruitment of different complex subunits by WDR5 depends on distinct motifs in WDR5-binding partners, including the catalytic subunits and the accessory proteins. (eu.org)
  • Chromatin is packaged DNA in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells made up of a complex of DNA and proteins. (eu.org)
  • Instead, the CENP-M protein interacts with three other centromeric proteins to form a complex that becomes part of the inner layer of the kinetochore. (elifesciences.org)
  • This protein then recruits two complexes made of other centromeric proteins to the kinetochore, including the complex that contains CENP-M. (elifesciences.org)
  • The next challenge will be to reconstitute larger protein complexes that contain more proteins from the inner layer of the kinetochore, so that these assemblies can be studied in greater detail. (elifesciences.org)
  • They are biochemically complex structures, which contain multiple copies of approximately 30 core subunits, in turn contributing to recruit many additional regulatory proteins ( Figure 1A ). (elifesciences.org)
  • By studying ribosome assembly as a function of transcription, his lab has assigned proteins to particular stages of early ribosome assembly. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Dr. Burton studies how chemical modification of histone proteins leads to changes in the structure of chromatin, the physiologically relevant form of DNA, and how misregulation of this higher-order assembly can lead to aberrant gene transcription patterns and cancer. (damonrunyon.org)
  • Multiprotein complexes are emerging as a paramount cornerstone of biological activity, as many proteins appear to participate, stably or transiently, in large multisubunit assemblies. (jove.com)
  • To better understand the biological processes in which chromatin remodeling proteins participate, we globally mapped binding regions for several components of the SWI/SNF complex throughout the human genome using ChIP-Seq. (prolekare.cz)
  • To further elucidate the association of SWI/SNF subunits with each other as well as with other nuclear proteins, we also analyzed SWI/SNF immunoprecipitated complexes by mass spectrometry. (prolekare.cz)
  • Cathepsin A interacts with the enzymes β-galactosidase and neuraminidase 1, which play a role in the breakdown of complexes of sugar molecules (oligosaccharides) attached to certain proteins (glycoproteins) or fats (glycolipids). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) is a degenerate 34 amino acid sequence identified in a wide variety of proteins, present in tandem arrays of 3-16 motifs, which form scaffolds to mediate protein-protein interactions and often the assembly of multiprotein complexes. (embl.de)
  • TPR-containing proteins include the anaphase promoting complex (APC) subunits cdc16, cdc23 and cdc27, the NADPH oxidase subunit p67 phox, hsp90-binding immunophilins, transcription factors, the PKR protein kinase inhibitor, and peroxisomal and mitochondrial import proteins. (embl.de)
  • SLP-76 recruits other signaling proteins, thereby inducing the assembly of multiprotein complexes. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • In addition, bioinformatics analysis suggested that S -acylated proteins are highly enriched within core complexes of caveolae and tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, both cholesterol-rich membrane structures. (mcponline.org)
  • PRO provides an ontological representation of proteins in complexes. (proteopedia.org)
  • XRCC1 can thus mediate the assembly of large multiprotein DNA repair complexes as well as facilitate the recruitment of DNA repair proteins to sites of DNA damage. (mdpi.com)
  • Two of the subunits of these complexes are mLST8 and Raptor, β-propeller proteins that stabilize the mTOR kinase and recruit substrates, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • These findings describe a unique function of CCT in mTORC assembly and a distinct binding site in CCT for mLST8, far from those found for similar β-propeller proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • Molecular basis for the functional interaction of dynein light chain with the nuclear-pore complex. (nature.com)
  • Here, we provide the first biochemical and structural insights into the molecular architecture of this large multiprotein assembly. (nih.gov)
  • Several molecular machines are also found in the cell, such as the proteasome (four heptameric rings = 28 subunits), the transcription complex and the spliceosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of subunits in a protein complex can often be determined by measuring the hydrodynamic molecular volume or mass of the intact complex, which requires native solution conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complexes are a cornerstone of many (if not most) biological processes and together they form various types of molecular machinery that perform a vast array of biological functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of protein complexes include the proteasome for molecular degradation and most RNA polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a partner of the European Consortium 3D-REPERTOIRE and coordinator of the Spanish Structural Genomics Consortium GENES , our group studies several protein complexes and molecular machines, some of which are related to the epigenetic control of gene expression. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • To this aim, my group integrates a multidisciplinary approach to obtain a molecular understanding of the function and structure of the macromolecular complexes that regulate the SAC. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • In this way my group has accumulated an extensive body of work on the 3D structure and function of protein complexes that ensure genome stability and provided new insights for the molecular understanding of signal transduction mechanisms underpinning cell division in eukaryotic organisms. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • It probably serves as a molecular bridge in ubiquitin E3 complexes and participates in the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of beta-catenin. (genecards.org)
  • Probably serves as a molecular bridge in ubiquitin E3 complexes. (genecards.org)
  • The Klinge lab's research is aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern early stages of eukaryotic ribosome assembly. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Analysis of the architecture of these assemblies and their manifold interactions is imperative for understanding their function at the molecular level. (jove.com)
  • Signaling complex architecture is especially notable in the nervous system, where dynamic post-synaptic protein assemblies underlie the molecular origins of learning and memory. (iastate.edu)
  • Figure 2: Labeling of the Seh1 subunit within the Nup84 complex with the DID-Dyn2 electron microscopy marker. (nature.com)
  • We propose that rather than being a shared subunit, WDR5 plays an important role in assembling distinct histone-modifying complexes with different epigenetic regulatory roles. (nih.gov)
  • Protein quaternary structure is the number and arrangement of multiple folded protein subunits in a multi-subunit complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the original biochemical characterization of skeletal muscle Dihydropyridine receptors, HVA calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α 1 ) associated with four additional polypeptide chains β, α 2 , δ, and γ, often referred to as accessory subunits. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using a complexomics approach, we found that the complex I subunit NDUFS1 was more abundant in neurons than in astrocytes. (sebbm.es)
  • More recently, a Win motif was found in KANSL1, a subunit of a distinct histone modification complex ( Dias,2014 ). (eu.org)
  • Kinetochores, multi-subunit complexes that assemble at the interface with centromeres, bind spindle microtubules to ensure faithful delivery of chromosomes during cell division. (elifesciences.org)
  • In parallel, the researchers have used biochemical and structural biology methods to elucidate the functions of multi-protein complexes within the small subunit processome. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Stage-specific assembly events of the 6-MDa small-subunit processome initiate eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Crystal structure of the eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit in complex with initiation factor 6. (rockefeller.edu)
  • One protein, NDUFS3, a subunit of the large multi-protein Complex I assembly that participates in energy generation for the cell, disappeared. (innovations-report.com)
  • Depletion of the cohesin subunit Scc1 by RNA interference leads to the assembly of chromosomes with severe cohesion defects. (biologists.org)
  • The Ku-like protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required in vitro for the assembly of a stable multiprotein complex at a eukaryotic origin of replication. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates the selective exchange of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm and represents one of the largest proteinaceous assemblies in the eukaryotic cell ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • however, a similar level of understanding regarding the structure and assembly of the NPC remains poorly understood, despite its central importance in eukaryotic life. (pnas.org)
  • Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic PSI complexes become even more apparent when the roles of individual regulatory factors are considered. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In the nuclei of eukaryotic cells, DNA is complexed with histones into nucleosomes. (eu.org)
  • Studies the structure and function of the macromolecular complexes involved in eukaryotic ribosome assembly. (rockefeller.edu)
  • In eukaryotic cells, their assembly is a highly elaborate and carefully coordinated process. (rockefeller.edu)
  • UtpA and UtpB chaperone nascent pre-ribosomal RNA and U3 snoRNA to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Here we report that the eukaryotic chaperonin CCT plays a key role in mTORC assembly and signaling by folding both mLST8 and Raptor. (rcsb.org)
  • Transported substrates include nucleoprotein complexes, transported during bacterial conjugation or during transfer of transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens , as well as protein virulence factors translocated into eukaryotic host cells by pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Positional knowledge of subunits within multiprotein assemblies is crucial for understanding their function. (nature.com)
  • The topological analysis of protein complexes by electron microscopy has undergone impressive development, but analysis of the exact positioning of single subunits has lagged behind. (nature.com)
  • Thus, our method is applicable for the exact topological mapping of subunits in macromolecular complexes. (nature.com)
  • The subunits of the nonspecific lethal (NSL) complex, which include the histone acetyltransferase MOF (males absent on the first), play important roles in various cellular functions, including transcription regulation and stem cell identity maintenance and reprogramming, and are frequently misregulated in disease. (nih.gov)
  • We identified several direct interactions within the complex and show that KANSL1 acts as a scaffold protein interacting with four other subunits, including WDR5, which in turn binds KANSL2. (nih.gov)
  • It includes organizations from simple dimers to large homooligomers and complexes with defined or variable numbers of subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formal and Greco-Latinate names are generally used for the first ten types and can be used for up to twenty subunits, whereas higher order complexes are usually described by the number of subunits, followed by -meric. (wikipedia.org)
  • A key question in MCP biology is the nature of the interactions that guide the assembly of thousands of protein subunits into a well-ordered metabolic compartment. (asm.org)
  • A key question of MCP architecture, and the subject of this report, is the protein-protein interactions that guide the assembly of thousands of protein subunits into a functioning bacterial organelle with a defined higher-order structure. (asm.org)
  • PSI subunits are synthesized in the mutant, but do not assemble into a stable complex. (plantphysiol.org)
  • As ribosome assembly progresses, more and more of this machinery is released from intermediate complexes until the ribosomal subunits complete maturation. (rockefeller.edu)
  • The Section of the Dynamics of Macromolecular Assembly develops biophysical methods to study protein interactions and the assembly of multi-protein complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, our focus is on the development of approaches for multi-component systems where several different macromolecular components interact to allow association and dissociation of different co-existing complexes in different states. (nih.gov)
  • The TTSS is a complex macromolecular structure that spans both bacterial membranes and includes a long, needlelike structure through which the effector molecules pass. (rupress.org)
  • Macromolecular complex annotations are imported from the Complex Portal . (yeastgenome.org)
  • Because Gemin2 is an essential component of complexes that assemble snRNPs, this finding suggests that Smn might serve additional functions in axons of motoneurons. (rupress.org)
  • Assembly and maturation of the U3 snoRNP in the nucleoplasm in a large dynamic multiprotein complex. (mpg.de)
  • Our data clearly show that the interactions of WDR5 with the MOF-containing NSL complex and MLL/COMPASS histone methyltransferase complexes are mutually exclusive. (nih.gov)
  • Now, we propose to address its function in spliceosome assembly and study its interactions with the spliceosomal components. (le.ac.uk)
  • Hallmarks of multi-protein complexes are multi-valent interactions and cooperatively. (nih.gov)
  • Through proximity, the speed and selectivity of binding interactions between enzymatic complex and substrates can be vastly improved, leading to higher cellular efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, the obligate interactions (protein-protein interactions in an obligate complex) are permanent, whereas non-obligate interactions have been found to be either permanent or transient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, specific complexes can have ambiguous interactions, which vary according to the environmental signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-translational modifications, protein interactions or alternative splicing modulate the conformational ensembles of fuzzy complexes, to fine-tune affinity or specificity of interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • These distinct APC-βcat interactions suggest different models for the sequential steps of destruction complex activity. (genetics.org)
  • Overall, our in vivo data support the role of phosphorylation and extended region interactions in APC2's destruction complex function, but suggest that the extended region plays a more significant functional role. (genetics.org)
  • Within the destruction complex itself there are myriad protein-protein interactions. (genetics.org)
  • Axin, thought to act as a scaffolding protein in the complex, can bind directly to βcat, APC, GSK-3β, and Dishevelled and is thought to promote interactions within the complex (reviewed in Cadigan and Peifer 2009 ). (genetics.org)
  • They regulate the assembly of multiprotein complexes by presenting a beta-propeller platform for simultaneous and reversible protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In higher plants thylakoids, the interactions lead to a lateral asymmetry in localization of protein complexes (i.e. granal/stromal thylakoids) that have been defined as a domain-like structures characteristic by different biochemical composition and function (Albertsson P-Å. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Den MultiBac Protein Complex Production Platform på EMBL Imre Berger 1 , Frederic Garzoni 1 , Maxime Chaillet 1 , Matthias Haffke 1 , Kapil Gupta 1 , Alice Aubert 1 1 EMBL Grenoble Outstation and Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI) UMR5322 Protein-komplekser katalyserer vigtige cellulære funktioner. (jove.com)
  • Among these techniques, we use hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to map protein-protein interactions and conformational changes in dynamic signaling complexes. (iastate.edu)
  • Using site-directed mutagenesis to change selected residues of the B. suis VirB8 protein, we have shown that changes that inhibit VirB8 dimerization or that inhibit the interactions with VirB4 or VirB10 also affect T4SS assembly and virulence ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • In particular, Nup120 is involved in nuclear poly(A) + mRNA and preribosome export, NPC assembly and distribution, and nuclear envelope organization ( 26 - 28 ). (pnas.org)
  • The function of SMN in the cytoplasm is well understood, with major roles including the assembly of uridine-rich small nuclear RNP particles (U snRNPs, major components of spliceosomes) biogenesis and the transport of mRNA in axons. (le.ac.uk)
  • Found in a mRNA splicing-dependent exon junction complex (EJC). (rcsb.org)
  • Loss of She2p can be complemented by direct targeting of a heterologous lacZ mRNA to a complex of Myo4p and its associated adaptor She3p, suggesting that She2p's function in Myo4p targeting is to link an mRNA to the motor complex. (labome.org)
  • Schmidt U, Richter K, Berger A, Lichter P. In vivo BiFC analysis of Y14 and NXF1 mRNA export complexes: preferential localization within and around SC35 domains. (labome.org)
  • For example visualization of nascent mRNA in HeLa cells has led to a model of transcription units being clustered into "factories" thereby facilitating optimal engagement of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) and coordination with other crucial holoenzyme complexes [1] - [3] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Using a combination of biochemistry and structural biology (single particle cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography) our group studies the functional dynamics of key complexes acting on mRNA, and how their malfunction causes human diseases. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Travels to the cytoplasm as part of the exon junction complex (EJC) bound to mRNA. (abcam.com)
  • Together, these data suggest that a complex of Smn with its binding partner hnRNP R interacts with β-actin mRNA and translocates to axons and growth cones of motoneurons. (rupress.org)
  • The sensitivity of RET measurements is within the boundary for conventional protein dimensions [ 84 ] and for the distances described for multimeric protein complexes observed in biological systems [ 85 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Protein S -acylation (palmitoylation), a reversible post-translational modification, is critically involved in regulating protein subcellular localization, activity, stability, and multimeric complex assembly. (mcponline.org)
  • A number of NLRs and the PYHIN family member AIM2 form multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes, which play key roles in regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. (jci.org)
  • Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. (uniprot.org)
  • Protein complex formation sometimes serves to activate or inhibit one or more of the complex members and in this way, protein complex formation can be similar to phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They participate in the formation of the Abi/WAVE complex, which regulates Arp2/3-mediated actin filament nucleation and actin network assembly [ PMID: 21482783 , PMID: 11516653 , PMID: 17101133 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Flavivirus replication in host cells requires the formation of replication and assembly complexes on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. (mdpi.com)
  • This review highlights the fact that the ER multiprotein complexes are crucial for the formation of flavivirus replication and assembly complexes, and the ER complexes could be considered as a target for developing successful broad-spectrum anti-flavivirus drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • Enhances the formation of the ATP-dependent A complex of the spliceosome. (uniprot.org)
  • Role of pre-rRNA base pairing and 80S complex formation in subnucleolar localization of the U3 snoRNP. (mpg.de)
  • The initial step in PSI biogenesis is the formation of the reaction center consisting of the heterodimer PsaA/B. The formation of this complex is thought to depend on proper and on-time delivery of all associated cofactors including iron, sulfur, heme, etc. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This implies that the interplay between the regulatory factors and PSI complex formation has changed during evolution, presumably because the role of the regulatory factor became more specialized or stringent. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Dr. Case is establishing an in vitro experimental system to study the formation of integrin signaling complexes on model membranes. (damonrunyon.org)
  • We have identified a complex network of assembly factors ("assembly chaperones") that guide and facilitate RNP formation. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The Ribosome Cooperates with the Assembly Chaperone pICln to Initiate Formation of snRNPs. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • This receptor complex plays a role in the formation of elastic fibers, which are a component of the connective tissue that forms the body's supportive framework. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Human SAP18 mediates assembly of a splicing regulatory multiprotein complex via its ubiquitin-like fold. (labome.org)
  • Whereas the cyanobacterial protein mediates more efficient PSI accumulation, the higher plant protein is absolutely required for complex assembly or maintenance. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Understanding the dynamic architecture of these protein assemblies is crucial because disruptions in this system are implicated in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, autism spectrum disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. (iastate.edu)
  • The cell is seen to be composed of modular supramolecular complexes, each of which performs an independent, discrete biological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that CENP-M is crucially required for the assembly and stability of a tetramer also comprising CENP-I, CENP-H, and CENP-K, the HIKM complex, which we extensively characterize through a combination of structural, biochemical, and cell biological approaches. (elifesciences.org)
  • A detailed insight into the structure of biological macromolecules and complexes is often the key for understanding their function. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • COCOMAPS (bioCOmplexes COntact MAPS) is a web server for analysis and visualization of the interfaces present in biological complexes, such as protein-protein, protein-DNA and protein-RNA complexes, making use of intermolecular contact maps. (proteopedia.org)
  • The transport complex is a transmembrane multiprotein assembly. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • A transmembrane protein called Tmem231 binds to the MKS complex protein B9d1, but how Tmem231 contributes to the assembly and function of the complex is unclear. (eurekalert.org)
  • This article describes a protocol for producing and purifying disulfide-stabilized transmembrane peptide complexes that are suitable for structural analysis by solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and other analytical applications. (jove.com)
  • Bacterial microcompartments (MCPs) are extremely large proteinaceous organelles that consist of an enzymatic core encapsulated within a complex protein shell. (asm.org)
  • Hundreds of species of bacteria produce complex proteinaceous organelles known as bacterial microcompartments (MCPs) ( 1 - 8 ). (asm.org)
  • This transport into and out of the nucleus is mediated by nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are elaborate proteinaceous assemblies inserted into the nuclear envelope. (rupress.org)
  • The HADDOCK web server is web server for data-driven biomolecular docking for modeling of biomolecular complexes. (proteopedia.org)
  • The corresponding gene product is part of a multiprotein complex involved in the assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes. (rupress.org)
  • Kampmann, M. & Blobel, G. Three-dimensional structure and flexibility of a membrane-coating module of the nuclear pore complex. (nature.com)
  • The Nup84 complex constitutes a key building block in the nuclear pore complex (NPC). (pnas.org)
  • As mapping of the individual components in the Nup84 complex places Nup120 and Nup133 at opposite ends of the heptamer, our findings indicate a head-to-tail arrangement of elongated Nup84 complexes into a ring structure, consistent with a fence-like coat for the nuclear pore membrane. (pnas.org)
  • The deletion or immunodepletion of any nup from these complexes has dramatic consequences on the architecture and function of the NPC, as well as on the organization of the nuclear envelope ( 17 , 20 , 23 - 26 ). (pnas.org)
  • Notably, the hetero-octameric, rod-shaped assemblies of the Sec13·Nup145C and Seh1·Nup85 nucleoporin pairs support a plausible model for a coat for the nuclear pore membrane ( 30 , 32 ). (pnas.org)
  • A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. (labome.org)
  • We show that actin is associated with the nucleoplasmic filaments of nuclear pore complexes and is critically involved in export processes. (rupress.org)
  • Chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF have been implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes including gene expression, nuclear organization, centromere function, and chromosomal stability, and mutations in SWI/SNF components have been linked to several types of cancer. (prolekare.cz)
  • Structural analysis of the KANSL1/WDR5/KANSL2 subcomplex reveals how WDR5 is recruited into the NSL complex via conserved linear motifs of KANSL1 and KANSL2. (nih.gov)
  • Fuzzy protein complexes have more than one structural form or dynamic structural disorder in the bound state. (wikipedia.org)
  • the structural factors that direct nucleolar assembly and disassembly are just as important in controlling rRNA synthesis as are the catalytic activities that synthesize rRNA. (biologists.org)
  • Structural and functional studies of many multiprotein complexes depend on recombinant-protein overexpression. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our current focus is the functional and structural investigation of the assembly machinery. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Excitation-energy-transfer processes in pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic organisms are often changed under different pH conditions. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We have previously shown that three distinct DNA-binding activities, in crude form, are necessary for the ATP-dependent assembly of a specific and stable multiprotein complex at a yeast origin of replication. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We conclude that there is no evidence that PulG protein assembles into a stable multiprotein complex or that processing of the PulG precursor causes a detectable change in its subcellular distribution. (nih.gov)
  • Pigment-protein complexes are organized into stable microdomains in cyanobacterial thylakoids. (bioportfolio.com)
  • RNA-protein complexes play essential regulatory roles at nearly all levels of gene expression. (nature.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that deletion of a homologous protein with regulatory function can have different consequences for PSI assembly in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Found in a mRNP complex with RNPS1 . (rcsb.org)
  • Part of pre- and post-splicing multiprotein mRNP complexes. (uniprot.org)
  • Component of the PSAP complex which binds RNA in a sequence-independent manner and is proposed to be recruited to the EJC prior to or during the splicing process and to regulate specific excision of introns in specific transcription subsets. (rcsb.org)
  • Loss of function of any one of these core components of the destruction complex results in the ligand-independent activation of Wnt target genes. (genetics.org)
  • This allows for the accumulation of βcat that enters the nucleus to promote the activation of Wnt target genes in complex with members of the TCF/LEF family of transcription factors. (genetics.org)
  • In this review, we hope to provide a conceptual model of centromeric heterochromatin in fission yeast that integrates our current understanding of the competing forces of transcription, replication, and RNA decay that influence its assembly and propagation. (nih.gov)
  • Some of these factors are: Which cellular compartment the complex exists in when it is contained Which stage in the cell cycle the complexes are present The nutritional status of the cell[citation needed] Many protein complexes are well understood, particularly in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a strain of yeast). (wikipedia.org)
  • For this relatively simple organism, the study of protein complexes is now being performed genome wide and the elucidation of most protein complexes of the yeast is ongoing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central to this process is cohesin, a multi-protein complex conserved from yeast to human. (biologists.org)
  • Overexpression of Protein Complexes and Aneuploidy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Conversely, overexpression of NDUFS1 in astrocytes promoted complex I incorporation into supercomplexes, decreasing ROS. (sebbm.es)
  • Has a role in chromatin assembly and chromosome segregation. (uniprot.org)
  • This topic is complex, because the nucleus is a heterogeneous organelle with several morphologically and functionally distinct sub-compartments ( Dundr and Misteli, 2010 ). (biologists.org)
  • Our core expertise lies in the use of immunopurification and gradient fractionation to isolate functional complexes of interest and analyse them by mass spectrometry (MS). (le.ac.uk)
  • T2SS machineries share a common origin and architecture and functional properties with systems involved in type IV pilus assembly and retraction, DNA uptake, and natural competence ( 64 ). (asm.org)
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle cells is a complex network of tubules and cisternae that share a common lumen delimited by a single continuous membrane. (pnas.org)
  • Activation of the Frizzled receptor by a Wnt ligand results in the deactivation of the destruction complex through LRP6/Arrow and the cytoplasmic protein Dishevelled. (genetics.org)
  • Plays a role in the stress response by participating in cytoplasmic stress granules assembly and by favouring cell recovery following stress. (abcam.com)
  • Abi1 and Abi2 play an important role in actin cytoskeleton dynamics through participation in several multiprotein complexes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This study further demonstrates the value of combining global and targeted MS approaches to interrogate multiprotein complex composition and dynamics. (mcponline.org)
  • She aims to characterize the structure and dynamics of the large, multi-protein complexes that function within the cilia. (damonrunyon.org)
  • The 5'SS and 3'SS come into close proximity by not yet well understood mechanism and form a complex known as pre-spliceosome. (le.ac.uk)
  • Identified in the spliceosome C complex. (rcsb.org)
  • The MKS complex protein Tmem231 (green) localizes to the transition zone between the basal body (red) and axoneme of cilia (blue) in control cells (left) but is absent in cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The reverse reaction, deneddylation, catalyzed by the COP9 signalosome (CSN), allows subsequent binding of factors to mediate the disassembly and remodeling of CRL complexes[ 6 , 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • These results illuminate important roles of terminal unstructured segments in nucleoporins for the architecture, function, and assembly of the NPC. (pnas.org)
  • The adapter molecule SLP-76 plays a central roles in T cell activation by recruiting enzymes and other adapters into multiprotein complexes that coordinate highly regulated signal transduction pathways. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • 1997 ) Spindle assembly in Xenopus egg extracts: respective roles of centrosomes and microtubule self-organization. (biologists.org)
  • Using structure-based KANSL1 mutants in transgenic flies, we show that the KANSL1-WDR5 interaction is required for proper assembly, efficient recruitment of the NSL complex to target promoters, and fly viability. (nih.gov)
  • Transient protein complexes form and break down transiently in vivo, whereas permanent complexes have a relatively long half-life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein is a scaffold protein that helps form a platform for the assembly of multiprotein signaling complexes. (genecards.org)
  • The WD40 repeat domain protein WDR5 plays a key role in H3K4 methylation and H4K16 acetylation by acting as a scaffold protein for the assembly of the respective core histone methylation and acetylation complex, which are conserved through evolution. (eu.org)
  • CRLs are modular assemblies built around a central cullin scaffold, a substrate receptor module and a RING protein that recruits the E2-conjugating enzyme[ 2 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Protein complexes, epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cancer. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Attempts to purify MCPs from these mutants, followed by gel electrophoresis and enzyme assays, indicated that the protein complexes isolated consisted of MCP shells depleted of core enzymes. (asm.org)
  • Activity of these enzymes depends on their assembly in multi-protein histone modification complexes. (eu.org)
  • Full activity of Set1/MLL methyltransferases for H3K4 methylation can only be achieved when these enzymes are assembled in a multi-protein complex. (eu.org)
  • Cathepsin A forms a complex with these two enzymes and directs their transport within the cell to the lysosomes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase forms two multi-protein signaling complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which are master regulators of cell growth, metabolism, survival and autophagy. (rcsb.org)
  • The assembly and maintenance of heterochromatin is important for many aspects of genome control, including silencing of gene transcription, suppression of recombination, and to ensure proper chromosome segregation. (nih.gov)
  • A point mutant affecting the CENP-M/CENP-I interaction hampers kinetochore assembly and chromosome alignment and prevents kinetochore recruitment of the CENP-T/W complex, questioning a role of CENP-T/W as founder of an independent axis of kinetochore assembly. (elifesciences.org)
  • We conclude a model in which multi-protein building blocks enable rapid and modular self-assembly of adhesion sites and symmetric exchange of these building blocks preserves their specifications and thus the assembly logic of the system. (elifesciences.org)
  • Strikingly, we found that the integrin adhesome is actually extensively pre-assembled already in the cytosol, forming multi-protein building blocks that can facilitate rapid and modular assembly of adhesion sites. (elifesciences.org)
  • Structure of a trimeric nucleoporin complex reveals alternate oligomerization states. (nature.com)
  • Other assemblies referred to instead as multiprotein complexes also possess quaternary structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein complexes are a form of quaternary structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction between WD40 and peptide is important for the assembly of dynamic multi-protein complexes. (wikibooks.org)
  • Initially, flexible single-stranded RNA is used for dense surface-packing, followed by hybridization with the complementary RNA strand to maximize the assembly of the targeting peptide for cellular uptake and siRNA delivery. (ucsb.edu)
  • A multiprotein complex called the MKS complex assembles at a region of the cilium known as the transition zone. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dynamic, scaffolded, multi-protein complexes are hallmarks of sophisticated cellular signaling systems. (iastate.edu)
  • This idea would explain why cells lacking Pds5 function display rather complex and diverse phenotypes in different organisms. (biologists.org)