Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Microtubule Proteins: Proteins found in the microtubules.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Tubulin Modulators: Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Microtubule-Organizing Center: An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Stathmin: A ubiquitous phosphoprotein that serves as an intracellular substrate for a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PHOSPHORYLATION of stathmin occurs during CELL CYCLE progression, and stathmin functions as a microtubule-destabilizing protein that promotes MICROTUBULE depolymerization during INTERPHASE and late MITOSIS. Stathmin is expressed at very high levels in a variety of human CANCERS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Demecolcine: An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Benomyl: A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sulfanilamides: Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Axoneme: A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Antimitotic Agents: Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Epothilones: A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.ran GTP-Binding Protein: A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Chromatin Assembly Factor-1: A histone chaperone protein that plays a role in the deposition of NUCLEOSOMES on newly synthesized DNA. It is comprised of three different subunits of 48, 60, and 150 kDa molecular size. The 48 kDa subunit, RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4, is also a component of several other protein complexes involved in chromatin remodeling.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMicroscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Prometaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.PhosphoproteinsXenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Dinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with two nitro groups in the ortho, meta or para positions.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1: A histone chaperone that facilitates nucleosome assembly by mediating the formation of the histone octamer and its transfer to DNA.Cytoplasmic Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for intracellular transport, MITOSIS, cell polarization, and movement within the cell.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mad2 Proteins: Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Podophyllotoxin: A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.Thiabendazole: 2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Cytoplasmic Streaming: The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Kymography: The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly: The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein: A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
At Princeton, his early work on microtubules established their unusual molecular assembly from tubulin proteins and identified ... "A protein factor essential for microtubule assembly". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... The first step in spindle formation is the nucleation of microtubules by microtubule-organizing centers, which then grow in all ... of the dynamic instability of microtubules, In mitosis, for example, microtubules form the spindle that separates the ...
Dammermann A, Merdes A (2002). "Assembly of centrosomal proteins and microtubule organization depends on PCM-1". J. Cell Biol. ... Dammermann, A.; Merdes, A. (2002). "Assembly of centrosomal proteins and microtubule organization depends on PCM-1". The ... 2004). "The Bardet-Biedl protein BBS4 targets cargo to the pericentriolar region and is required for microtubule anchoring and ... Pericentriolar material 1, also known as PCM1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PCM1 gene. The PCM1 protein was ...
Microtubules are an important cellular structure composed of two proteins; α-tubulin and β-tubulin. They are hollow rod shaped ... Microtubules are dynamic structures, which means that they are permanently in a state of assembly and disassembly. Vinca ... Anti-microtubule agents are plant-derived chemicals that block cell division by preventing microtubule function. ... The vinca alkaloids prevent the formation of the microtubules, whereas the taxanes prevent the microtubule disassembly. By ...
The proteins of this family are thought to be involved in microtubule assembly, which is an essential step in neurogenesis. The ... Microtubule-associated protein 1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAP1B gene. This gene encodes a protein that ... Tögel M, Wiche G, Propst F (1998). "Novel features of the light chain of microtubule-associated protein MAP1B: microtubule ... "RASSF1A interacts with microtubule-associated proteins and modulates microtubule dynamics". Cancer Res. 64 (12): 4112-6. doi: ...
The proteins of this family are thought to be involved in microtubule assembly, which is an essential step in neurogenesis. The ... Microtubule-associated protein 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAP1A gene. This gene encodes a protein that ... "Interactions between adaptor protein-1 of the clathrin coat and microtubules via type 1a microtubule-associated proteins". J. ... "Characterization of the microtubule-binding domain of microtubule-associated protein 1A and its effects on microtubule dynamics ...
... also promotes microtubule disassembly by acting directly on the microtubule ends. The rate of microtubule assembly is ... Its function as an important regulatory protein of microtubule dynamics has been well-characterized. Eukaryotic microtubules ... it allows for constant microtubule assembly and therefore constant mitotic spindle assembly. With no regulation of the mitotic ... Microtubules are cylindrical polymers of α,β-tubulin. Their assembly is in part determined by the concentration of free tubulin ...
It is a microtubule-associated protein that is required for the spindle assembly process. Its function is to interact with ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbxs class and it was one of the first proteins in which the F-box motif was ... The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of the ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box ... a novel microtubule-associated protein involved in mitotic spindle organization". The Journal of Cell Biology. 162 (6): 1017-29 ...
AD is also considered a tauopathy due to abnormal aggregation of the tau protein, a microtubule-associated protein expressed in ... Although little is known about the process of filament assembly, it has recently been shown that a depletion of a prolyl ... AD is also considered a tauopathy due to abnormal aggregation of the tau protein, a microtubule-associated protein expressed in ... Like most microtubule-associated proteins, tau is normally regulated by phosphorylation; however, in AD patients, ...
Microtubules are composed of tubulin protein dimer subunits. The dimers each have hydrophobic pockets that are 8 nm apart and ... correlating single protein to its supramolecular assembly". Biosens Bioelectron. 47: 141-8. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2013.02.050. ... Orch-OR predicted that microtubule coherence reaches the synapses via dendritic lamellar bodies (DLBs), however De Zeeuw et al ... In January 2014, Hameroff and Penrose claimed that the discovery of quantum vibrations in microtubules by Anirban Bandyopadhyay ...
"Interaction of antiparallel microtubules in the phragmoplast is mediated by the microtubule-associated protein MAP65-3 in ... KIF15 is thought to promote spindle assembly by cross-linking and sliding along microtubules creating a separation between ... Goshima G (2011). "Identification of a TPX2-like microtubule-associated protein in Drosophila". PLoS ONE. 6 (11): e28120. doi: ... Kinesin family member 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIF15 gene. This gene encodes a motor protein that is ...
"Rac/Cdc42 and p65PAK regulate the microtubule-destabilizing protein stathmin through phosphorylation at serine 16". The Journal ... "Filamin is essential in actin cytoskeletal assembly mediated by p21-activated kinase 1". Nature Cell Biology. 4 (9): 681-90. ... ARG-binding protein 2γ, hepatitis B virus X protein, STE20-related kinase adaptor protein α, RhoI, Klotho, N-acetylglucosaminyl ... These proteins serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac and have been implicated in a wide range of ...
... and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT/TAU). This protein promotes microtubule assembly, and has been shown to counteract ... Microtubule-associated protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAP4 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Chapin SJ, Bulinski JC (1993). "Microtubule stabilization by assembly-promoting microtubule-associated proteins: a repeat ... This protein contains a domain similar to the microtubule-binding domains of neuronal microtubule-associated protein (MAP2) ...
"Central spindle assembly and cytokinesis require a kinesin-like protein/RhoGAP complex with microtubule bundling activity". ... Rac GTPase-activating protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RACGAP1 gene. Rho GTPases control a variety of ... Tapon N, Nagata K, Lamarche N, Hall A (March 1998). "A new rac target POSH is an SH3-containing scaffold protein involved in ... There are 3 subtypes of Rho GTPases in the Ras superfamily of small G proteins: RHO (see MIM 165370), RAC (see RAC1; MIM 602048 ...
"Central spindle assembly and cytokinesis require a kinesin-like protein/RhoGAP complex with microtubule bundling activity". Dev ... This protein has been shown to cross-bridge antiparallel microtubules and drive microtubule movement in vitro. Alternate ... Yu W, Cook C, Sauter C, Kuriyama R, Kaplan PL, Baas PW (August 2000). "Depletion of a microtubule-associated motor protein ... Kinesin-like protein KIF23 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIF23 gene. KIF23 (also known as Kinesin-6, CHO1/MKLP1 ...
Dammermann A, Merdes A (2002). "Assembly of centrosomal proteins and microtubule organization depends on PCM-1". J. Cell Biol. ... Ninein, together with its paralog Ninein-like protein is one of the proteins important for centrosomal function. This protein ... 2004). "NIN, a gene encoding a CEP110-like centrosomal protein, is fused to PDGFRB in a patient with a t(5;14)(q33;q24) and an ... Localization of this protein to the centrosome requires three leucine zippers in the central coiled-coil domain. Multiple ...
Microtubules are long polymers made of smaller units (monomers) of the protein tubulin. Microtubules are created during normal ... It inhibits the assembly of fungal microtubules Glaziovianin A is typically isolated from the leaves of the Brazilian tree ... Microtubules are long, ropelike proteins that extend through the cell and move cellular components around. ... Microtubules are essential to mitotic reproduction, so through the inactivation of the microtubule function of a cell, taxanes ...
"Brain-specific p25 protein binds to tubulin and microtubules and induces aberrant microtubule assemblies at substoichiometric ... Tubulin polymerization-promoting protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TPPP gene. This protein has been linked ... "The brain-specific protein TPPP/p25 in pathological protein deposits of neurodegenerative diseases". Acta Neuropathologica. 113 ... "Entrez Gene: TPPP brain-specific protein p25 alpha". Vincze O, Oláh J, Zádori D, Klivényi P, Vécsei L, Ovádi J (May 2011). "A ...
Motor proteins travel in a specific direction along a microtubule. Microtubules are polar; meaning, the heads only binds to the ... In addition viruses, HIV for example, exploit kinesins to allow virus particle shuttling after assembly. There is significant ... A kinesin is a protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in eukaryotic cells. Kinesins move along microtubule (MT) ... Kinesins are motor proteins that transport such cargo by walking unidirectionally along microtubule tracks hydrolysing one ...
... protein folding, and proteolysis. The encoded ATPase may be involved in the assembly or function of nuclear protein complexes. ... The human gene SPAST codes for the microtubule-severing protein of the same name, commonly known as spastin. This gene encodes ... "Structural basis of microtubule severing by the hereditary spastic paraplegia protein spastin". Nature. 451 (7176): 363-7. doi: ... Members of this protein family share an ATPase domain and have roles in diverse cellular processes including membrane ...
Microtubules are made up of tubulin protein subunits. The tubulin protein dimers of the microtubules have hydrophobic pockets ... correlating single protein to its supramolecular assembly". Biosens Bioelectron. Elsevier. 47 (12): 141-8. doi:10.1016/j.bios. ... Orchestration refers to the hypothetical process by which connective proteins, such as microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), ... The model microtubule on which they base their Hamiltonian is not a microtubule structure, but a simple linear chain of ...
The Kinesin-related protein XKCM1 stimulates catastrophes in Xenopus microtubule The Kinesin-Related Protein 13 MCAK increases ... "The Self-Assembly and Dynamic Structure of Cytoskeletal Filaments". Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Zipursky, S. Lawrence; ... Catastrophin (Catastrophe-related protein) is a term use to describe proteins that are associated with microtubule's ... Catastrophins affect microtubule shortening, a process known as microtubule catastrophe. Microtubules are polymer of tubulin ...
... microtubule stability and protein stability. The function of the KA1 domain is not yet known. Some proteins known to contain a ... It may be involved in the inhibition of spliceosome assembly during mitosis. Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila PAR-1 ... Plant KIN10 and KIN11 proteins, catalytic subunits of the putative trimeric SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK) complex. Tassan ... cell models and appear to function redundantly in phosphorylating microtubule-associated proteins and in regulating microtubule ...
Its origin stems from kinetochores, proteins that aid in joining DNA and microtubules on the chromatids. Only one unattached ... effectively cease the production of new cells by interrupting the mitosis phase of cell division at the spindle assembly ... The mitotic spindle is composed of microtubules (polymerized tubulin) that aid, along with regulatory proteins; each other in ... A spindle poison, also known as a spindle toxin, is a poison that disrupts cell division by affecting the protein threads that ...
"Interactions between adaptor protein-1 of the clathrin coat and microtubules via type 1a microtubule-associated proteins". The ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ... The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... Hirst J, Lui WW, Bright NA, Totty N, Seaman MN, Robinson MS (Apr 2000). "A family of proteins with gamma-adaptin and VHS ...
The unique assembly of Kinesin-5 proteins not only organizes the protein complex for a different cellular function ( ... Kinesin-5 is also regulated through direct interaction with other proteins. The microtubule-associated protein, TPX2, ... Kinesin-5 proteins are members of kinesin superfamily, which are nanomotors that move along microtubule tracks in the cell. ... There are many models that attempt to explain the self-assembly of the mitotic spindle based upon microtubules as a structural ...
... protein ligase and promotes the degradation of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein, CDCrel-1". Proceedings of the National ... septin ring assembly. • cilium morphogenesis. • adult behavior. • سلوك اجتماعي. • cytoskeleton-dependent cytokinesis. ... microtubule cytoskeleton. • septin complex. • septin filament array. العمليات الحيوية. • دورة الخلية. • regulation of synaptic ... Caltagarone J، Rhodes J، Honer WG، Bowser R (August 1998). "Localization of a novel septin protein, hCDCrel-1, in neurons of ...
Pedersen L.B.,Geimer S.,Sloboda R.D.,Rosenbaum J.L.. Year: 2003The microtubule plus end-tracking protein EB1 is localized to ... Class D1 proteins accumulate in dhc1b-3 flagella at 34°C vs. 21°C (Fig. 6, green bars), and include the IFT complex B proteins ... Class A1 proteins are depleted from dhc1b-3 flagella at 34°C vs. 21°C, and have the opposite abundance as the IFT-B proteins in ... One of the few well-characterized proteins in the group is EB1, which is found at the flagellar tip and stabilizes microtubules ...
... griseofulvin dampened the dynamicity of microtubules in MCF-7 cells without significantly disrupting the microtubule network. ... The effects of griseofulvin on the dynamics of individual microtubules in live MCF-7 cells were measured by confocal microscopy ... This work aims to understand how griseofulvin suppresses microtubule dynamics in living cells and sought to elucidate the ... Griseofulvin strongly suppressed the dynamic instability of individual microtubules in live MCF-7 cells by reducing the rate ...
Disruption of either domain leads to centriole duplication failure in worm embryos, indicating that large SAS-5 assemblies are ... In Caenorhabditis elegans, the onset of centriole formation requires notably the proteins SAS-5 and SAS-6, which have ... Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles crucial for cell division, sensing and motility. ... Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles crucial for cell division, sensing and motility. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the ...
... products important for Plk4-controlled centriole biogenesis and assigned individual proteins to distinct steps in the assembly ... But, thats all an aside to the topic at hand, which you relate to with kinases and microtubules. As such, your first quote ... Microtubules, actin microfilaments, and intermediate filaments represent a large surface area in the cell (estimated to be 3000 ... In any case, look for more discussions from me on papers of other proteins potentially involved in centrosome duplication! That ...
... hydrolethalus syndrome protein HYLS-1 as a core centriolar protein that is incorporated into centrioles during their assembly ... they recruit pericentriolar material to form centrosomes that organize the microtubule cytoskeleton and position the mitotic ... in particular what are the specific mechanistic contributions of each of the six proteins in the centriole assembly pathway; 2 ... The six-protein molecular pathway we identified has since been found to be conserved from ciliates to vertebrates, and is ...
XMAP stands for Xenopus Microtubule Assembly Protein. XMAP is defined as Xenopus Microtubule Assembly Protein very rarely. ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Microtubule-Assembly-Protein-(XMAP).html,XMAP,/a,. Citations. *MLA style: "XMAP." Acronym Finder ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Microtubule-Assembly-Protein-(XMAP).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "XMAP." Retrieved ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Microtubule-Assembly-Protein-(XMAP).html. *APA style: XMAP. (n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2019). ...
Microtubule and Motor-Protein Assemblies in Biology and Physics. Events » Specialist Lecture - Microtubule and Motor-Protein ... Many important processes in the cell are mediated by stiff microtubule biopolymers and active motor proteins moving upon them. ... Different assumptions on how the microtubules interact with the cells cytoplasm (the fluidic interior) and its periphery give ... This includes the transport of subcellular structures - nuclei, chromosomes, organelles - and the self-assembly, positioning, ...
Suppression of microtubule assembly kinetics by the mitotic protein TPX2. Taylor A. Reid, Breanna M. Schuster, Barbara J. Mann ... Suppression of microtubule assembly kinetics by the mitotic protein TPX2 Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Suppression of microtubule assembly kinetics by the mitotic protein TPX2. Taylor A. Reid, Breanna M. Schuster, Barbara J. Mann ... Suppression of microtubule assembly kinetics by the mitotic protein TPX2. Taylor A. Reid, Breanna M. Schuster, Barbara J. Mann ...
A centrosomal protein FOR20 regulates microtubule assembly dynamics and plays a role in cell migration. Shalini Srivastava, ... A centrosomal protein FOR20 regulates microtubule assembly dynamics and plays a role in cell migration ... FGFR1 oncogene protein; FOR20, FOP-like protein of molecular mass of 20 kDa; GCP-WD, gamma complex protein-WD; GST, glutathione ... A centrosomal protein FOR20 regulates microtubule assembly dynamics and plays a role in cell migration ...
Preparation of Microtubules and Assay of Microtubule Assembly.. Microtubules were prepared from the brains of 50 adult rats by ... which is identified as the microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2), and PREG stimulates MAP2-driven microtubule assembly (6). ... Assembly of microtubules was monitored at 345 nm at 37°C and recorded every 30 s. The quantity of microtubule formed is ... They promote the assembly and increase the stability of microtubules and form cross-bridge structures between microtubules ( ...
Concentration was evaluated for its ability to inhibit microtubule assembly and protein polymerization by 50%. ...
12.2 Microtubule-Associated Proteins (MAPs).- 12.3 Assembly and Disassembly.- 12.4 Microtubule Poisons.- 12.5 Non-Microtubular ... 2.4.5 The Micro tubule-Associated Proteins (HMW Proteins, MAPs, Tau).- 2.4.5.1 MAP1 and MAP2 Proteins.- 2.4.5.2 The Tau ... Significance of "Rings".- 2.5.2 Role of MT-Associated Proteins.- 2.5.3 Assembly Without Associated Proteins.- 2.5.4 Role of ... 2.5.6 Thermodynamics of Assembly.- 2.5.7 Polymorphism of Assembly.- 2.5.8 Site-Initiated Assembly in Vitro.- 2.6 Summary.- ...
... our results show that CEP290 is a transition zone protein localized to and required for the assembly of the unique microtubule- ... The Bardet-Biedl protein BBS4 targets cargo to the pericentriolar region and is required for microtubule anchoring and cell ... CEP290 is important for flagellar assembly and protein content. The cep290 mutant cells are palmelloid, which is a phenotype ... CEP290 tethers flagellar transition zone microtubules to the membrane and regulates flagellar protein content. Branch Craige, ...
"ATG8 family proteins act as scaffolds for assembly of the ULK complex: sequence requirements for LC3-interacting region (LIR) ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q9H492. Microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3A. MOUSE ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q9H492. Microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3A. MOUSE ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q9H492. Microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3A. MOUSE ...
autophagosome assembly Source: UniProtKB. *autophagosome maturation Source: Ensembl. *autophagy of mitochondrion Source: GO_ ... Protein-protein interaction databases. Protein interaction database and analysis system. More...IntActi. O41515. 1 interactor. ... Protein-protein interaction databases. Protein interaction database and analysis system. More...IntActi. O41515. 1 interactor. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. O41515. D7RA29. W5PQI9. L8IL50. Bos taurus ( ...
Detection of Disulfide Bonds in Bovine Brain Tubulin and Their Role in Protein Folding and Microtubule Assembly in Vitro: A ...
A microtubule-associated protein from Xenopus eggs that specifically promotes assembly at the plus-end. J. Cell Biol. 105:2203- ... those that promote microtubule assembly, such as XMAP215, tau, or MAP4, and those that inhibit microtubule assembly, such as ... Modulation of the dynamic instability of tubulin assembly by the microtubule-associated protein tau. Mol. Biol. Cell. 3:1141- ... Microtubule-bound protein was separated from unbound protein by centrifugation (25°C for 5 min at 70 krpm in a Beckman Coulter ...
In contrast, PVX virions induced the assembly of morphologically normal MT sensitive to chilling. Virions were shown to compete ... Virions and membrane proteins of the potato X virus interact with microtubules and enables tubulin polymerization in vitro].. [ ... A study was made of the in vitro interactions of virions and the coat protein (CP) of the potato virus X (PVX) with ... microtubules (MT). Both virions and CP cosedimented with taxol-stabilized MT. In the presence of PVX CP, tubulin polymerized to ...
Purchase Biological Functions of Microtubules and Related Structures - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780126150803, ... including regulation of microtubule assembly; microtubule-dynein systems and other proteins in cell motility; microtubules and ... Phosphorylation of Microtubule-Associated Proteins (MAPs)Controls Both Microtubule Assembly and MAPs-Actin Interaction. 27. The ... Rotation of the Central-Pair Microtubules in Chlamydomonas Flagella. III Microtubules and Related Proteins in Mitosis. 19. ...
Asters of microtubule seeds were immobilized on glass surfaces and thei ... Self organization of the kinesin-microtubule system was implemented as a novel template to create percolated nanofiber networks ... Microtubules are protein filaments that are 25 nm in diameter and can be tens of micrometers long. The motor proteins kinesin ... to express the protein, microbial fermentation and protein purification. Cellulose binding domain proteins, which are an ...
Bu, W., and Su, L.K. (2001). Regulation of microtubule assembly by human EB1 family proteins. Oncogene 20, 3185-3192. ... An alternative marker for microtubule ends is the end binding protein EB1, a member of a conserved family of microtubule- ... EB1 is a well-established microtubule binding protein that preferentially attaches to the growing plus end of microtubules in ... Liu, B., Marc, J., Joshi, H.C., and Palevitz, B.A. (1993). A gamma-tubulin-related protein associated with the microtubule ...
2014) Impaired activity-dependent neural circuit assembly and refinement in autism spectrum disorder genetic models. Front Cell ... The Autism Protein Ube3A/E6AP Remodels Neuronal Dendritic Arborization via Caspase-Dependent Microtubule Destabilization. ... The Autism Protein Ube3A/E6AP Remodels Neuronal Dendritic Arborization via Caspase-Dependent Microtubule Destabilization ... The Autism Protein Ube3A/E6AP Remodels Neuronal Dendritic Arborization via Caspase-Dependent Microtubule Destabilization ...
A microtubule-associated protein from Xenopus eggs that specifically promotes assembly at the plus end. J. Cell Biol. ... A microtubule-associated protein from Xenopus eggs that specifically promotes assembly at the plus end. J. Cell Biol. ... XMAP215 is the founding member of large protein family of microtubule-associated proteins that accumulate at the microtubule ... In vitro pull-down and microtubule binding assay For the pull-down assay, GST protein or GST-Maskin (10 μg protein/20 μl beads ...
Tau is a microtubule-associated neuronal protein, whose primary role was long thought to regulate axonal microtubule assembly. ... Systemic and network functions of the microtubule-associated protein tau: Implications for tau-based therapies.. Bakota L1, ... Tau belongs to the class of intrinsically disordered proteins, which are known to interact with many partners and are ... Thus more recent evidence indicates that tau functionally interacts with many proteins and different cellular structures, which ...
The proteins of this family are thought to be involved in microtubule assembly, which is an essential step in neuritogenesis. ... Microtubule-associated protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAP2 gene. This gene encodes a protein that ... MAP2 microtubule-associated protein 2". Lim RW, Halpain S (July 2000). "Regulated association of microtubule-associated protein ... Herrmann H, Wiche G (1987). "Plectin and IFAP-300K are homologous proteins binding to microtubule-associated proteins 1 and 2 ...
  • Disruption of either domain leads to centriole duplication failure in worm embryos, indicating that large SAS-5 assemblies are necessary for function in vivo. (epfl.ch)
  • Griseofulvin strongly suppressed the dynamic instability of individual microtubules in live MCF-7 cells by reducing the rate and extent of the growing and shortening phases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Through siRNA-mediated depletion of individual centrosomal proteins, we have identified several gene products important for Plk4-controlled centriole biogenesis and assigned individual proteins to distinct steps in the assembly pathway. (wordpress.com)
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