The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of BORDETELLA with similar morphology to BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS, but growth is more rapid. It is found only in the RESPIRATORY TRACT of humans.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of guanosine diphosphate.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and nitrogen innoculant of PHASEOLUS VULGARIS.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
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The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay was originally developed for the detection of individual B cells secreting antigen ... ELISpot assays employ the quantitative sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) technique. A monoclonal antibody ... This method has since been adapted for the detection of individual cells secreting specific cytokines or other antigens. ... Typical images of human IFN-gamma ELISpot assay (Catalog # EL285) wells following development. Distinct spots are readily ...
Project will expand utility of xMAP SARS-CoV-2 Multi-Antigen IgG Assay to better indicate whether individuals are protected ...
An industry vanguard in HLA tissue typing, One Lambda developed the first assays that accurately determine HLA antigens. One ... monoclonal antibodies and rabbit complement for a fast and dependable method of determining Class I or Class II antigens.... ...
Antigen tests, they add, can be done at the point of care and provide rapid results, "but they have lower sensitivity than most ... According to its report, the mission of RADx is to expand the use of current COVID-19 tests and to develop new assays that ... The report authors note that most tests to diagnose COVID-19 detect either viral RNA or viral antigens. Although the viral RNA ... The registry will provide weekly state- and national-level updates on the number of molecular, antigen, and serology (antibody ...
Works well in an indirect immunofluorescence assay, Western blot and immunoprecipitates antigen from radiolabeled infected cell ...
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The Humoral Immunity Core serves the needs of the CFAR community for Immune-based assays and provides training and assays on a ... Services offered include antibody and antigen testing, recombinant protein and antibody production, viral and cell line culture ...
Covid-19 Antigen. How is a COVID-19 antigen test different from a PCR or molecular test? While antigen and PCR... ... cells worksheets answers biology cells worksheets pdf cannabis assay kits creatinine assay kits mineral assay kits msd assay ... cells worksheets answers biology cells worksheets pdf cannabis assay kits creatinine assay kits mineral assay kits msd assay ... InScience Antigen Rapid Test. Resume Background Site-of-care antigen testing (AgPOCT) can speed up testing for SARS-CoV-2.... ...
Protein concentration was determined using a colorimetric assay. The antigen control carries a C-terminal Myc/DDK tag for ... Antigen standard for midkine (neurite growth-promoting factor 2) (MDK), transcript variant 2 is a lysate prepared from HEK293T ...
The vitros tsh assay uses biotinylated antibodies to bind antigen-antibody complexes. Preise niederlandeApotheke austria - ...
brought on by antigen recognition11 and has been Rabbit polyclonal to TGFB2 identified to bind to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ... Lapatinib kinase activity assay Supplementary MaterialsSupplemental Figures S10-S15 41598_2018_34891_MOESM1_ESM. brought on by ... This recognized a putative binding site localized to the surface along with Lapatinib kinase activity assay the identity of ... resulted in significant reduction of Lapatinib kinase activity assay XBP1 splicing in the presence of COX-2, but not when COX-2 ...
... protein and antigen expression and purification, custom assay development, and ligand-binding analysis, offering complex ... supported by state-of-the-art assays and analytics. Moreover, Pure Biologics utilizes its broad experience in antibodies, ...
Key words: Immunostimulatory hypothesis; Murine tumors; Immunization assays. Resumen. Sobre la hipótesis inmunoestimulatoria ... 1) because their antigens would be weak and in consequence would be able to produce a slight (stimulatory) immune response only ... This could occur, at least in some cases, not necessarily because they lack specific tumor antigens but because these tumors ... This suggested that the 8 stimulated tumors bear weak antigens that are only able to induce a weak (stimulatory) immune ...
Getestet durch „Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay" (ELISA) auf Antikörper-Antigen-Erkennung und die Quantifizierung des ... Getestet durch einen Immunblot Assay auf Antikörper-Antigen-Erkennung und Quantifizierung, mithilfe einer SDS-PAGE, ... Jedes Kit enthält den Fänger-Antikörper, einen biotinylierten Detektor-Antikörper, einen kalibrierten Antigen-Standard, das ... Diese Prozedur nutzt die Spezifität der Antikörper-Antigen-Interaktion und liefert typischerweise ,95% reine, spezifische ...
BALLYA supply lateral flow backing card to manufacture lateral flow immunodiagnostic assay test kit with colloidal gold or ... SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Saliva Test * What is chloramphenicol ointment used for? ... PVC backing card is most popular using in lateral flow assay test kit.. Thickness of lateral flow backing card. From 0.2mm to ... Lateral flow backing card is the basis material in lateral flow assay test kit. It is key component that fix sample pad, ...
The BD Veritor™ System for Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2 & Flu A+B assay takes about 15 minutes to run on the BD Veritor™ Plus ... BD Announces FDA Emergency Use Authorization for Combination COVID-19, Flu Rapid Antigen Test ...
The specific function of the protein encoded by the bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 is undetermined; however, this protein ... BST2; Bone marrow stromal antigen 2; BST-2; HM1.24 antigen; Tetherin; CD317. ... BST2; Bone marrow stromal antigen 2; BST-2; HM1.24 antigen; Tetherin; CD317. ... The specific function of the protein encoded by the bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 is undetermined; however, this protein ...
Using currently available antigen tests and LAMP assays, even hundreds of copies of the virus wouldnt be detected. ... In the current study, Williams and other researchers at CUIMC tested the LAMP saliva assay in 65 blinded, paired samples. ... like antigen tests," says Zev Williams, MD, PhD, the Wendy D. Havens Associate Professor of Womens Health and chief of the ...
Prepare QC reagents and antigens. *Perform QC assay. *Perform protein characterization. *Perform cell culture tests ... The Scientist I, Manufacturing Sciences (Antigen QC Group) will support the production of antigens for the manufacturing of ... Record antigen and harvested cells QC information and maintain necessary paperwork. *Maintain laboratory work area, equipment ... Able to work as a cooperative member of the Antigen Production Group ...
An Update on MRMAssayDB: A Comprehensive Resource for Targeted Proteomics Assays in the Community. *By Hugh Dixon ... An Update on MRMAssayDB: A Comprehensive Resource for Targeted Proteomics Assays in the Community ... Antigen (7) *Assay Kit (32) *Cells (11) *Default (14) *Elisa Kit (26) ...
An Update on MRMAssayDB: A Comprehensive Resource for Targeted Proteomics Assays in the Community ... Antigen (7) *Assay Kit (32) *Cells (11) *Default (14) *Elisa Kit (26) ...
An Update on MRMAssayDB: A Comprehensive Resource for Targeted Proteomics Assays in the Community. *By Hugh Dixon ... An Update on MRMAssayDB: A Comprehensive Resource for Targeted Proteomics Assays in the Community ... Antigen (7) *Assay Kit (32) *Cells (11) *Default (14) *Elisa Kit (26) ...
An Update on MRMAssayDB: A Comprehensive Resource for Targeted Proteomics Assays in the Community ... Antigen (7) *Assay Kit (32) *Cells (11) *Default (14) *Elisa Kit (26) ...
  • The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay was originally developed for the detection of individual B cells secreting antigen-specific antibodies. (
  • Our exclusive Lambda Monoclonal Trays (LMT™) feature premixed monoclonal antibodies and rabbit complement for a fast and dependable method of determining Class I or Class II antigens. (
  • High protein binding capacity: Immobilizes antigens, antibodies and other protein. (
  • The vitros tsh assay uses biotinylated antibodies to bind antigen-antibody complexes. (
  • To this end, Pure Biologics has created highly efficient platforms to generate specific antibodies and modified aptamers, supported by state-of-the-art assays and analytics. (
  • Moreover, Pure Biologics utilizes its broad experience in antibodies, aptamers, cell and molecular biology, protein and antigen expression and purification, custom assay development, and ligand-binding analysis, offering complex solutions not only as a contract research organization and service provider, but primarily as a professional consultant and R&D partner. (
  • This study aims to study the immune response and evaluate the performances of four new IgM and five IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for detecting anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies against different antigens in symptomatic and asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. (
  • It is used a lot in medicine to detect presence or absence of antibodies raised to fight antigens or the specific antigen. (
  • The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (commonly called ELISA) is the immunological examination done to measure the antibodies, antigens, proteins and, glycoproteins in biological samples. (
  • A study led by Michal Hammel and Curtis D. Hodge suggests that a highly sensitive lateral flow assay-the same type of device used in home pregnancy tests -could be developed using pairs of rigid antibodies that bind to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. (
  • Rapid antigen tests use antibodies to detect specific parts of the viral particle itself. (
  • All antibodies vary in their degree of rigidity based on the amino acid sequence of their "arms," which are the part of the Y-shaped molecules that bind to antigens. (
  • The combination of the two rigid antibodies was also observed to increase networking-a process in which multiple antibodies bound to the same antigen at different sites form larger clumps or 'networks,'" explained Hodge, a postdoctoral researcher and first author on the study. (
  • But studying the physical dynamics of antibody-antigen pairs to find the most effective antibodies is very difficult with traditional imaging techniques, which require the molecules to be stabilized or crystallized. (
  • The SAXS technique developed by Hammel and his colleagues allows scientists to examine antibodies and antigens in their natural state, i.e. when moving freely in a liquid. (
  • A new gelatin particle agglutination test was developed for assay of natural antibodies to adult T-cell leukemia virus (ATLV/HTLV-I). Partially purified viral antigen from culture fluid of a virus-producer cell line was coated on artificial gelatin particle carriers. (
  • The solution is run over a surface to which immobilized antibodies specific to the antigen being measured have been attached. (
  • If the antigen is present, it will bind to the antibody layer, and then its presence is verified and visualized with an application of antibodies that have been tagged in some way. (
  • The RD-RatioDiagnostics E-TXM-K19 Toxoplasma IgM Elisa is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit that provides material for the detection of IgM class antibodies against Toxoplasma Gondi in human serum or plasma. (
  • Rabbit monoclonal antibodies 75G5a, 84C4a, and 84D7 show very strong and specific binding to COVID-19 NP antigen, with no significant cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV NP antigen. (
  • SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid antibodies, which include clones 75G5a, 84C4a and 84D7 can be paired in sandwich detection assay and used to detect nucleoprotein (NP) antigen from SARS-CoV-2. (
  • capsid, spike proteins, among others) could allow for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 human antibodies in a patient's saliva sample, as a part of a multiplex assay, potentially confirming the development of immunity. (
  • The goal is to utilize specific fluorescence-labeled antigen/antibodies with the ability to target a specific virus and/or labeled virus components. (
  • The Premier Biotech COVID-19 ANTIBODY IgG/IgM Rapid Test Cassette: a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in venous whole blood, serum or plasma. (
  • HLA antibodies were measured using a solid phase single antigen Luminex assay with antibody strength represented as median fluorescence intensity (MFI) and T/B cell crossmatches were performed by CDC and flow cytometry. (
  • The tests such as serological assays to detect anti-HIV antibodies and HIV p24 antigen, Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) to detect HIV nucleic acids are mandatory recommended by WHO guidelines. (
  • Even more evident improvement in sample throughput (reduction of analysis time from 10 hours to 30 minutes) was achieved for determination of antibodies for human papilloma virus (anti L1 HPV 16) in blood plasma, after immobilizing adequate pseudovirions as antigens on magnetic nanobeads [6]. (
  • In kidney transplantation recipients (KTRs), donor-specific antibodies directed against Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA-DSA) are thought to drive antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and poor transplant outcome. (
  • The centerpiece of the so-called 'Assay-processor' is a bio-chip with which human antibodies can be detected. (
  • Antibodies present in the blood which correspond to respective antigens on the chip will cause these combinations to be optically marked. (
  • ELISpot assays employ the quantitative sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) technique. (
  • Typical images of human IFN-gamma ELISpot assay (Catalog # EL285 ) wells following development. (
  • Pools of overlapping peptides from antigenic proteins for T-cell stimulation, T-cell expansion in T-cell assays such as ELISPOT, ICS or Flow Cytometry, e.g. for immune monitoring. (
  • Antigen peptides represent specific epitopes for stimulation of T cells in T cell assays such as ELISPOT. (
  • The ELISpot assay consequently evaluates antigen-specific cellular activity at a single-cell level and therefore enables enumeration of IFN-γ-producing cells. (
  • A major selecting of this previously research was that peptides filled with predicted course 1-limited epitopes recalled ELISpot replies from individual leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched up topics, however the frequencies of such replies were lower than recall reactions induced by longer HLA DR-restricted peptides [25]. (
  • However, since the magnitude of reactions was generally low, it was essential to use an appropriate definition of positivity that reproducibly distinguished antigen-specific ELISpot activities induced by natural exposure without vaccine treatment. (
  • These positivity criteria were applied in the current study to better determine the potency of 15mer peptides spanning the entire sequences of the vaccine candidate antigens CSP (3D7) and AMA1 (3D7) for induction of IFN- recall reactions in PBMCs from naturally exposed subjects in Ghana using ex lover vivo ELISpot assays. (
  • We are uniquely placed as the only company in the world offering regulated ELISPOT assays for T cell measurement, with approval around the globe. (
  • We analyzed the T lymphocyte response during and after acute resolving HCV infection in three persons, using interferon (IFN)-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) peptide tetramer assays. (
  • The model predicts the cyclosporine peptide occupying a deep Lapatinib kinase activity assay groove around the COX-2 surface, which was created by amino acid residues located in a segment of COX-2 between Pro84 and Thr118 (Fig.?2A). (
  • We offer the corresponding MHC multimer for each antigen peptide. (
  • Peptide sets and pools, as well as assay standardization kits are available with stable isotope labeled or unlabeled proteotypic peptides for mass-spectrometry based proteomics such as MRM assays. (
  • Peptide microarrays that display overlapping peptide scans through antigens from infectious organisms or tumor associated antigens for antibody or serum profiling. (
  • Cosmetic Peptides such as Lysine and Cysteine Peptide are used for DPRA (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay) for Skin Sensitization Testing. (
  • Antigen Peptides and PepMixes™ Peptide Pools for antigen-specific stimulation of T cells are among our most popular ImmunoTools. (
  • Please place a quote request through our online quotation system and our experienced experts will help you design your peptide antigen within 24h. (
  • Novel serological assays will be developed and used for diagnostics and serosurveys of specimens collected in these networks. (
  • and the development of two new recombinant SARS-Cov-2 antigens, designed as critical raw materials for next generation serological assays. (
  • Silencing of COX-2 didn't have any influence on the great quantity of IRE1 mRNA or proteins aswell as in the great Lapatinib kinase activity assay quantity of total XBP1 mRNA (Suppl. (
  • Identification of seroreactive proteins in the culture filtrate antigen of Mycobacterium avium ssp. (
  • In this study, culture filtrate (CF) proteins from MAP isolates were tested with sera from CD patients and healthy controls in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • The study also identified additional proteins potentially useful in the design of assays for human MAP infections. (
  • The coating antigens consist of purified proteins in concentrations specific for IgG or IgM testing. (
  • Desk?1 pLDH proteins series alignment analysis of different species of murine pLDH ELISA diagnostic package for discovering pLDH antigen like a way of measuring parasite bio-burden during murine malaria infections. (
  • Antibody networking and high binding stability are known to improve the sensitivity of lateral flow assays, and researchers have long speculated that antibody flexibility plays a role in both properties. (
  • Michael Mina : If you peel away all the plastic and get rid of the instrument, you actually have one of these very cheap to produce lateral flow assays. (
  • How is a COVID-19 antigen test different from a PCR or molecular test? (
  • May 07, 2021 DELHI, India (BUSINESS WIRE) As India faces a second wave of COVID-19, PerkinElmer Inc., a global leader committed to innovating for a healthier world, will donate 1 million PerkinElmer® COVID-19 Antigen Tests to the Government of India (GoI) to help accelerate testing capabilities across the country. (
  • With the support of the US-India Strategic Partnership Forum (USISPF), PerkinElmer COVID-19 Antigen Test kits will be distributed to government hospitals and testing centers across 10 states of India. (
  • The PerkinElmer COVID-19 Antigen Test is a lateral flow immunoassay ideally suited for point-of-care (POC) and non-clinical settings. (
  • The CareStart™ COVID-19 ANTIGEN test: a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay intended for the qualitative detection of the nucleocapsid protein antigen from SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal or anterior nasal swab specimens directly collected from individuals suspected of COVID-19 by their healthcare provider within five days of symptom onset. (
  • Der Abbott Panbio™ COVID-19 Antigen Schnelltest ist ein diagnostischer Antigentest zum direkten Nachweis einer. (
  • The report authors note that most tests to diagnose COVID-19 detect either viral RNA or viral antigens. (
  • Replication and neutralization of viral entry is evaluated with an immuno-staining assay monitoring the production of viral antigens after staining with a cocktail of proprietary mAbs. (
  • The von Willebrand Factor Collagen Binding Assay test contains 1 test with 2 biomarkers. (
  • Capturing picogram levels concentrations of biomarkers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha feto-protein (AFP) plays a critical role in early detection and monitoring of recurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as liver cancer. (
  • In the course of our development of EpitoGen SARS-CoV-2 assays we observed that significant numbers of samples were only reactive for either the Spike or Nucleocapsid antigen alone. (
  • The detection of the virus will be enabled by targeting SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigens. (
  • In order to study this interaction, we developed an assay utilizing a mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). (
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is used in desensitization regimens to modulate anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) donor-specific antibody (DSA) to facilitate transplantation of sensitized patients, however, the risk of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) post IVIG therapy remains unclear. (
  • Antigen tests, they add, can be done at the point of care and provide rapid results, "but they have lower sensitivity than most nucleic acid-based [viral RNA] assays. (
  • The US is expecting an antigen assay and an antibody assay for COVID-19 within the next month, so laboratories will need to differentiate the current nucleic acid test from an antigen or antibody assay. (
  • Infection may be proven or strongly suspected based on a presumptive test result, and/or a confirmatory test result by means of authorized assays for viral testing include those that detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid or antigen. (
  • Multiple Dark Antigens can be combined into a single immunotherapy product, such as a cancer vaccine or an autologous polyclonal T-cell product (ex vivo stimulation) with the aim of providing deep and durable anti-tumor immune responses. (
  • The modifying potential of 31 different compounds on the development of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive (gamma-GT+) liver cell lesions was compared in an in vivo short-term assay system. (
  • Antigen tests are not sensitive the quality of their interactions, our attention to Rs Virus 2021 and the efficiency of their visits two years. (
  • To test this hypothesis, we first carried out molecular modelling and docking Lapatinib kinase activity assay of COX-2 with cyclosporine using Autodock 436. (
  • Lateral flow backing card is the basis material in lateral flow assay test kit. (
  • PVC backing card is most popular using in lateral flow assay test kit. (
  • abstract = "OBJECTIVES: To evaluate persistence of several Plasmodium antigens in pregnant women after treatment and compare diagnostics during treatment follow-up.METHODS: Thirty-two pregnant women (N = 32) with confirmed malaria infection by a histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and microscopy were followed for 28 days after artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). (
  • The test being offered is the Sofia SARS Antigen FIA test by Quidel Corporation. (
  • If you are testing for COVID-19 for pre-op or travel requirements , please verify with the the agency (country, state, airline, etc) that an ' ANTIGEN TEST ' will meet their requirements. (
  • The Collagen Binding Assay (vWF:CBA) is a test procedure that quantifies the binding of vWF to collagen. (
  • If a more accurate antigen test was brought to market, it could serve as a helpful initial screening tool similar to how home pregnancy tests work. (
  • An accurate rapid antigen test could cost $1 each and eliminate the wait time. (
  • The cost of our Antigen testing includes a copy doctor, who will call you if you test positive. (
  • between the more reliable but slow RT-PCR test and the rapid but low sensitivity antigen tests. (
  • The SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test is a rapid and reliable chromatographic immunoassay for the qualitative detection of specific SARS-CoV-2 antigens present in the human nasopharynx. (
  • This test is an aid to detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus antigen in people suspected of COVID-19. (
  • The low-cost S-antigen production, together with sample collection by finger prick and dried blood spots, allowed the development of a half-dollar test that fits the urgent need for large-scale serological surveillance in low-income countries. (
  • The combined systems test over assays with a maximum throughput of tests per hour. (
  • While conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most commonly used test to monitor these biomarker levels, these tests do not have sufficient sensitivity for the detection of cancer at an early stage or the early detection of recurrence. (
  • At the core of a lot of the expensive diagnostic tests… specifically the new lab-based antigen test, there's a basic bit of technology. (
  • Only half a milliliter of blood serum is needed in the cartridge to perform a complete test series for these antigens. (
  • This method has since been adapted for the detection of individual cells secreting specific cytokines or other antigens. (
  • Antigen standard for midkine (neurite growth-promoting factor 2) (MDK), transcript variant 2 is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently transfected with a TrueORF gene-carrying pCMV plasmid (OriGene Technologies, Inc.) and then lysed in RIPA Buffer. (
  • MHC Multimers for reproducible detection, enumeration and isolation of antigen-specific T cells with disease specific peptides. (
  • Next we proceeded with an animal trial investigating the interaction of APCs with T cells in a PRRSV-antigen specific manner. (
  • From the tumor cell side, we look beyond the known proteome into the genomic dark matter to identify and characterize Dark Antigens™ uniquely presented on the surface of cancer cells by MHC receptors. (
  • We screen peripheral CD8+ T-cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in functional assays to discover cognate TCRs which are then extensively characterized. (
  • Concurrently, we have established technologies to functionally screen T-cell libraries against cancer cells as an antigen-agnostic method to identify TCRs with potent and broad pan-cancer activity against tumor cells. (
  • Our Dark Antigens thus represent a new class of antigenic real estate that distinguish cancer cells from healthy cells and are expected to make ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy. (
  • Moreover, these assays may quantify the amount of cells with self-renewal and long-term growth potential through serial rounds 958772-66-2 IC50 of plating. (
  • One method of identify novel CSC populations continues to be the usage of surface antigens expressed by normal stem cells in the tissue of origin, such as for example CD34 in myeloid leukemias (3, 14). (
  • Alternatively, antigens or enzymes with the capacity of identifying normal stem cells in multiple tissues, such as for example CD133 and Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are also utilized to isolate CSCs in a number of diseases (15C19). (
  • It enables highly sensitive detection of CMV-specific effector cells and measurement of CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMV-CMI), based on CMV-antigen-induced IFN-γ production, in healthy and immunosuppressed individuals. (
  • Our standard RSV antiviral assays are performed in a number of permissive cells (Vero and Hep-2) infected with the strains Long or A2. (
  • In order to develop a cell-based assay allowing the detection of non-HLA Abs reactivity to human glomerular endothelial cells even in patients with circulating HLA-DSA, we used the CRISPR-Cas9 technology to delete B2M and CIITA genes in CiGEnC cells to suppress the expression of class I and II HLA antigens, respectively. (
  • The CellTiter-Glo 2.0 Assay provides a homogeneous method for determining the number of viable cells in culture by measuring the amount of ATP present, which indicates the presence of metabolically active cells. (
  • The homogeneous assay procedure involves adding the single reagent (CellTiter-Glo 2.0 Reagent) directly to cells cultured in serum-supplemented medium. (
  • To help stem future outbreaks of COVID-19, diagnostic testing must be widespread and frequent with tests that can detect low levels of virus, like PCR tests, but with the ability to deliver results quickly and easily, like antigen tests," says Zev Williams, MD, PhD, the Wendy D. Havens Associate Professor of Women's Health and chief of the division of reproductive endocrinology at Columbia University Irving Medical Center. (
  • The RT-PCR method, they added, could detect 10 ^ 3 cp / ml in viral load, while rapid antigen and LAMP tests detected a concentration of 10 ^ 5 cp / ml. (
  • Current malaria diagnostic tests, including light microscopy and antigen-detecting rapid tests (RDTs) cannot reliably detect low-density infections. (
  • Assay is Performed Using Roche Diagnostic's Third Generation PSA reagents. (
  • Services offered include antibody and antigen testing, recombinant protein and antibody production, viral and cell line culture, and neutralization assays. (
  • The assay utilizes a dual antigen combination of recombinant S1 receptor binding domain (RBD) viral protein and recombinant nucleoprotein that detects immune responses that other antibody tests may miss. (
  • Description This kit is a solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • Each a mannequin assay and an antigen-specific sandwich bioassay for the guts failure marker NT-proBNP had been examined. (
  • Sandwich ELISA detection using TMB/acid developer reliably detects NP antigen in the pg/mL range, and sensitivity is expected to be even higher when using more sensitive developer strategies. (
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Tetraspanin 30 (TSPAN30) in samples from plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Tetraspanin 30 (TSPAN30) in Plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Tetraspanin 30 (TSPAN30) in samples from Plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (
  • The Sino Biological ELISA Pair Set is a solid phase sandwich ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). (
  • 2.0 (response obtained with PBMCs stimulated with malaria antigen peptides compared to medium alone) and a difference of 10?sfc/m between antigen-stimulated and unstimulated PBMCs [27]. (
  • Multiplex real time PCR assay was performed at EPHI malaria laboratory. (
  • The performance of multiplex real time PCR assay, microscopy and RDT for the diagnosis of malaria was compared and evaluated against each other. (
  • We showed that we can rapidly identify new antibody-antigen pairs that result in a more sensitive detection assay," said Hammel. (
  • Discovery Health Medical Scheme members have access to two funded COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or rapid antigen tests (at designated drive-through facilities in hotspot regions) per beneficiary per annum, as part of the screening benefit of the WHO Global Outbreak Benefit. (
  • Using the tests as a strategy to reopen cities "has put a microscope on the analytical sensitivity of virus assays, with a gold standard of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (
  • The sensitivity of these assays often exceeds Pontso sensitivity of virus isolation and antigen detection methods. (
  • Antigen peptides represent individual immunodominant epitopes, whereas our PepMixes™ reproduce a whole protein antigen by a mixture of overlapping peptides. (
  • EpitopePredikt was used to scan SARS-CoV-2 antigen and identify immunodominant epitopes. (
  • Protein concentration was determined using a colorimetric assay. (
  • In such combinations, the FIA approach simplifies sample handling (e.g. volume measurements) and transport to the detector, while microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology can facilitate and speed up processes including colorimetric reactions, antigen-antibody or enzyme-substrate interactions in bioanalytical systems, and even extraction and preconcentration steps by introducing continuous flow processing and micro unit operations in chemical analysis [2]. (
  • According to its report, the mission of RADx is to expand the use of current COVID-19 tests and to develop new assays that might provide reliable results faster. (
  • BlueWell kits are indirect ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay) tests. (
  • The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is one of the most sensitive biochemical or immunological tests. (
  • Current antigen tests have a very low rate of false positives, but are plagued by high false negative rates, and therefore can't replace PCR tests for definitive COVID-19 diagnosis. (
  • All PCR and Antigen tests MUST have a doctor to whom the result is reported (copy doctor). (
  • Abbott Architect isr is a reputable and high quality Japanese designed and manufactured Chemistry Analyzer testing over 55 assays with a maximum throughput of tests per hour. (
  • In this study the antigen-presentation was analyzed by in vitro infection studies and functional antigen-presentation assays. (
  • Sin embargo, existe evidencia, resumida en la hipótesis inmuno-estimulatoria del cáncer que sugiere que, bajo ciertas circunstancias, el crecimiento tumoral puede ser acelerado, en lugar de inhibido, por la respuesta inmune supuestamente inducida para atacar el tumor. (
  • Antigens from different pathogens are available as well as tumor associated antigens. (
  • Tumor Associated Antigens, e.g. (
  • On the T-cell side, we are discovering and characterizing T-cell receptors (TCRs) that induce potent anti-tumor responses against cognate Dark Antigens or other unconventional cancer targets, such as MR1-presented cancer ligands. (
  • Enara Bio™ has developed a differentiated antigen discovery platform (EDAPT - Enara Dark Antigen Platform Technology) designed to explore the new and expanding Dark Antigen repertoire, and to validate MHC presentation and tumor specificity. (
  • We use cutting-edge mass spectrometry-based methods to interrogate primary human cancer and healthy tissues to identify and validate Dark Antigens presented on the tumor cell surface. (
  • We assess transcripts encoding candidate Dark Antigens through in situ hybridization to further validate tumor cell specificity and homogeneity within patient samples. (
  • They are thus predicted to be more immunogenic compared to conventional tumor-associated antigens, which are often seen as 'self' antigens. (
  • assays are also developed to measure the clonogenic potential of CSCs including colony formation in semi-solid media or tumor sphere formation in liquid culture. (
  • The partners will analyze samples from 100 melanoma patients using a chip-based multiplex qPCR assay that characterizes the expression of 92 immune-related genes associated with things like antigen presentation machinery, immune checkpoints, specific immune cell populations, and cell signaling in the tumor microenvironment. (
  • An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the qualitative determination of IgG anti-Toxoplasma Gondii (T. Gondi) in human serum or plasma. (
  • To reduce the transmission risk through contaminated blood or plasma serum, this 3D robotic sample handler with key assay performance uses flexible chemiluminiscence technology for antigen-antibody reaction detection. (
  • The goal of this study was to investigate the role of specific antigen-presenting cell (APC) subsets during the pathogenesis of PRRSV and to further understand the progression to T cell immunity in response to PRRSV. (
  • We have created a set of proprietary bioinformatic databases to mine the cancer-specific genomic dark matter for novel cancer antigens providing novel, immunogenic targets outside sequences of the known protein coding regions of the genome. (
  • Dark Antigens map to specific cancer types and are shared across patients, unlike mutation-derived neoantigens, allowing for cancer-specific, off-the-shelf cancer treatments for a wider potential patient benefit. (
  • Finally, specific antigens connected with poor prognosis, such as for example CD44 or c-Met, also have served as CSC markers (5, 20C22). (
  • The original identification of pancreatic CSCs extended ground-breaking work in breast cancer and investigated the expression of CD44, CD24, and epithelial specific antigen (ESA) (Table 1) (5). (
  • The award includes the measurement of the magnitude of the SARS-CoV-2 protein-specific T cell response using the company's new T-SPOT ® Discovery SARS-CoV-2 assay and is recognition of the company's ability to deliver clinical grade, consistent and reproducible diagnostic products. (
  • The biosensor is based on a microchip with high density nanoscale trench geometries, in which spherical nanoparticles (NP), coated with a specific antibody to capture a targeted antigen, are accommodated. (
  • Each of these points is treated with a different antigen inherent to a specific pathogen. (
  • The CellTiter-Glo 2.0 Assay is designed for use with multiwell plate formats, making it ideal for automated high-throughput screening (HTS), cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. (
  • However, the differences among MAP antigens isolated from humans (H-MAP) and cattle (B-MAP) have not been well characterized. (
  • In dieser Arbeit wurde die Antigenprozessierung und -präsentation chlamydialer Peptidantigene anhand von in vitro-Infektionsstudien und funktionaler Antigenpräsentations-Assays untersucht. (
  • This assay is designed for in vitro use only. (
  • brought on by antigen recognition11 and has been Rabbit polyclonal to TGFB2 identified to bind to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localized cyclophilin B12,13, and the mitochondrial localized cyclophilin D14. (
  • As the sample migrates along the membrane and reaches the capture zone an excess of labelled antibody will bind to the immobilised antigen so that no visible line is produced. (
  • We used a commercial swine-influenza vaccine as a positive control antigen, and as a comparative measure for the T cell immune response to PRRSV. (
  • Antibody responses were assessed using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assays against the vaccine strain and a vaccine-heterologous strain (A/Vietnam/1194/2004) 21 days after the second dose. (
  • The company also said that while the current study focuses on melanoma patients, the assay could also potentially help guide immunotherapy for other solid tumors. (
  • An Immunoassay based detection of HIV, Hepatitis B, C and HCV is done by latest generation assay to reduce window period of diseases. (
  • The CE marked assay may be used with nasal or nasopharyngeal swab specimens to screen or to aid in the diagnosis of both asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals, and it is capable of delivering a positive or negative result in as little as 15 minutes. (
  • 72 New Antigen Peptides & PepMixes™ available! (
  • Have a look at the full lists of PepMixes™ and Antigen Peptides . (
  • EpitoGen Technology and AiBiologics machine learning software (EpitopePredikt) were employed to develop a set of unique, highly sensitive SARS-Cov-2 ELISA assays. (
  • ELISA - ELISA is the abbreviation for "Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay" which is a highly sensitive technique for detecting and measuring antigens (allergens) in a solution. (
  • Therefore, vWF:CBA may correlate more closely with vWF function and bleeding problems than vWF antigen assay (vWF: Ag) which measures total vWF multimers. (
  • These results support previous studies showing ModD and PepA as key antigens for the diagnosis of MAP infections. (
  • The World Health Organization recommends lateral flow lipoarabinomannan antigen assay (LF-LAM) to aid in the diagnosis of active TB in PLHIV. (
  • With over 125 U.S. FDA-cleared assays in our menu, our company has a proven skillset of developing, manufacturing and distributing a family of products to aid in the diagnosis of complex infectious agents including a variety of known viral pathogens. (
  • 2010). Application of an improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method for serological diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis . (
  • In the current study, Williams and other researchers at CUIMC tested the LAMP saliva assay in 65 blinded, paired samples. (
  • A study of cell-mediated immune responses revealed that: 1) Nonspecific responses to mitogens in the blastogenic assay, as well as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, are enhanced in animals bearing tumours. (
  • The CellTiter-Glo 2.0 Assay generates a "glow-type" luminescent signal, which has a half-life generally greater than three hours, depending on cell type and medium used. (
  • Through building our immunology capabilities, Enara Bio has established a TCR discovery platform that enables us to characterize the immune response elicited by Dark Antigens and MR1-presented cancer ligands and discover cognate TCRs to these compelling targets that can be advanced for therapeutic development. (
  • I use a combination of next-generation sequencing, bioinformatic analysis and immunology assays to characterise GvL responses in AML. (

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