Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.EthersGlycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Asymmetric Cell Division: Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Chorioallantoic Membrane: A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Planarians: Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cell Tracking: Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
  • The beginning of a rationalisation for the occasionally divergent in vitro assay results for these agents is made in the Study Overview which follows this chapter. (springer.com)
  • This work has demonstrated that in vitro transporter assays help in understanding the role of P-gp-mediated efflux activity in determining the disposition of CNS drugs in vivo, and the transwell assay is a valuable in vitro assay to evaluate human P-gp interaction with compounds for assessing brain penetration of new chemical entities to treat CNS disorders. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In vitro assay for hapten-specific priming of human T lymphocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on the distinct sensitizing properties of haptens as compared to irritants we propose to develop an in vitro assay that may help identify potential contact sensitizers and irritants as well as individuals susceptible to developing ACD or ICD. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus this project can help (a) refine an in vitro assay for future application in clinical laboratory for screening various potential haptens and irritants as well as susceptible individuals and (b) provide better understanding of cellular events that lead to allergic Vs. irritant contact dermatitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Using this assay, we found for the first time that concentrations of ZOL as low as 10nM caused inhibition of Rab prenylation in J774 macrophages following prolonged cell culture. (garvan.org.au)
  • Thirty-one structurally diverse marketed central nervous system (CNS)-active drugs, one active metabolite, and seven non-CNS-active compounds were tested in three P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro assays: transwell assays using MDCK, human MDR1-MDCK, and mouse Mdr1a-MDCK cells, ATPase, and calcein AM inhibition. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Finally, the in vitro calcein AM P-gp inhibition assay can be used to detect compounds that inhibit P-gp-mediated efflux of the fluorescent P-gp substrate, calcein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, it is important to note that the calcein AM assay is a P-gp inhibition assay and not a substrate assay and that P-gp substrates do not necessarily correlate with P-gp inhibitors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of RORα and RORγ transactivation activities in a Tet-on CHO cell reporter system, RORα co-activator assays and inhibition of (RORE)-LUC reporter activity in skin cells, in conjunction with molecular modeling, identified RORα and RORγ as excellent receptor candidates for the hydroxylumisterols. (nature.com)
  • Here, a method for rapid in vivo functional analysis of engineered proteins was developed using Physcomitrella patens. (osti.gov)
  • article{osti_1345832, title = {A complementation assay for in vivo protein structure/function analysis in Physcomitrella patens (Funariaceae)}, author = {Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R. and Chaves, Arielle M. and Roberts, Alison W.}, abstractNote = {Here, a method for rapid in vivo functional analysis of engineered proteins was developed using Physcomitrella patens. (osti.gov)
  • The invention provides methods for assessing the efficacy of histone deacetylase inhibitors using biomarkers which can be used in human clinical trials and which are more quantitative, easy to be used and more relevant to clinical outcome for PD monitoring than existing assays. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Paolino D, Lucania G, Mardente D, Alhaique F, Fresta M. Ethosomes for skin delivery of ammonium glycyrrhizinate: in vitro percutaneous permeation through human skin and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity on human volunteers. (springer.com)
  • Far less certain at the start, and probably more intriguing, was how short-term rodent assays conducted in vivo would respond to these agents. (springer.com)
  • It was apparent at the start of the study that an adequate representation of the rodent bone marrow cytogenetic assays would be provided, but both of the established carcinogens in the study (BZD and DAB) were already known to be only weakly clastogenic in this tissue (de Serres and Ashby, 1980). (springer.com)
  • 1983). An effort was therefore made to incorporate additional rodent assays in the study, in particular, those associated with the rodent liver, bladder, foetus and urine. (springer.com)
  • The present chapter considers the acute rodent assay data available and how they relate to the available carcinogenic data on these four in vitro genotoxins. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we have used an E. coli strain with conditional lethal mutations in the nrdA and nrdB genes to develop an in vivo assay with selection for active class Ia RNR at the bacterial colony stage. (asm.org)
  • We developed a simple and non-invasive experimental evaluation method for monitoring the expression of circadian clock genes in an ex vivo culture assay using human hair follicles. (bio-protocol.org)
  • However, until now, the search for EWS-FLI1 targets has been limited to promoter regions and no genome-wide comprehensive analysis of in vivo EWS-FLI1 binding sites has been undertaken. (plos.org)
  • We are collaborating with several groups that are developing assays aimed at assessing the role of Fc effector function, such as sporozoite opsonization and complement fixation, as well as the extent to which Fc effector function contributes to inhibitory activity observed in the functional assays. (malariavaccine.org)
  • Therefore methods that can stimulate fundamental steps of this process and provide a tool for testing potential therapeutic agents have been developed in the form of in vitro and in vivo assays. (news-medical.net)
  • Commonly, mouse models are used for the in vivo assessment of potential new therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Epistem has developed a method for maintaining plucked human hairs ex vivo, and then treating with therapeutic agents to obtain valuable information on the cellular response to drug treatment. (technologynetworks.com)
  • One drug and its metabolite, risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone, of the 32 CNS compounds, and 6 of the 7 non-CNS drugs were determined to have positive efflux using ratio of ratios in MDR1-MDCK versus MDCK transwell assays. (aspetjournals.org)
  • For instance, transwell-based assays using polarized cell lines such as the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Transwell assay was used for migration and invasion determination. (dovepress.com)
  • Strip microplate format makes the assay flexible: manual or high throughput analysis. (epigentek.com)
  • James M. McKim Jr.*, " Building a Tiered Approach to In Vitro Predictive Toxicity Screening: A Focus on Assays with In Vivo Relevance", Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening (2010) 13: 188. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The earliest of in vivo assays contained diffusion chambers with Millipore filters designed to visualize and monitor neovascularization of implanted tumors. (news-medical.net)
  • A common feature of mammary epithelial tumors in vivo is a disruption of tissue organization and polarity. (rupress.org)
  • The HPLC assay and extraction procedures developed are sensitive, simple, rapid, accurate and reproducible. (nih.gov)
  • Further, adding back specific groups of gut metabolites to the cecal contents from antibiotic-treated mice differentially regulates hyphal morphogenesis ex vivo. (jove.com)
  • The NO levels in the brain of PTZ-doped mice and rats were observed by in vivo and ex vivo EPR spectroscopy during convulsions, and the NO content in various isolated brain tissues was quantitated at the X-band as well. (wiley.com)
  • In vivo, the β 2 integrin-dependent recruitment of leukocytes to the inflamed peritoneum of uPAR-deficient mice was significantly reduced as compared with wild-type animals. (rupress.org)
  • Importantly, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of endogenous secretory RAGE, a decoy receptor for RAGE, restores diabetes-associated impairment of angiogenic response in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Results showed that in the CAM assay MMEC induced an angiogenic response comparable to that of a well-known angiogenic cytokine, namely fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), while RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of endostatin mRNA detected in MM treated CAM was significantly lower respect to control CAM. (elsevier.com)
  • In attempts to predict the effects of P-gp in vivo, a variety of in vitro P-gp assays have been developed to classify compounds as P-gp substrates. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Such in vivo data can be used in concert with data obtained using in vitro models to assess the potential liability of P-gp-mediated efflux on brain exposure of compounds in humans. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Building in vitro data sets that can accurately predict adverse effects in vivo would allow compounds with high risk profiles to be deprioritized, while those that possess the requisite drug attributes and a lower risk profile are brought forward. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The assay detects low levels of genome instability that cannot be readily identified by classic phenotyping, using 25 μl of blood. (ad-astra.ro)
  • Liquid chromatographic assay for common sunscreen agents: application to in vivo assessment of skin penetration and systemic absorption in human vo. (nih.gov)
  • Liquid chromatographic assay for common sunscreen agents: application to in vivo assessment of skin penetration and systemic absorption in human volunteers. (nih.gov)
  • The assay permits analysis of the sunscreen agents in biological fluids, including bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution, plasma and urine, and in human epidermis. (nih.gov)
  • Ex vivo culture assays of biopsy specimens are advantageous for the experimental evaluation of human circadian characteristics. (bio-protocol.org)
  • By generating a transgenic mouse only expressing the human XCR1 on its cross-presenting DC, we could demonstrate that targeting of Ag using human XCL1 as vector is fully effective in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • They are therefore much more representative of the in vivo environment of human skin. (kosmeticaworld.com)
  • To investigate whether VEGF is released from platelets during coagulation activation in vivo, we measured in human subjects VEGF at the site of plug formation, ie, in blood emerging from a standardized injury made to determine bleeding time (shed blood). (ahajournals.org)
  • To investigate whether VEGF is released from platelets during the early stages of coagulation activation in vivo, we applied a recently described technique that allows investigating the mechanisms of plug formation close to the in vivo situation in human subjects. (ahajournals.org)
  • The use of ex vivo adult human hepatocytes is a desirable option for cellular therapies or drug testing. (sciencemag.org)
  • Vollaard N, Reeder BJ, Shearman JP, Menu P, Wilson MT & Cooper CE (2005) A new sensitive assay reveals that hemoglobin is oxidatively modified in vivo. (stir.ac.uk)
  • In the amastigote assay, the infection rates decreased with increase in chemotherapeutic concentration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although a major improvement, this assay still was not physiologically relevant to the infection process because Lucifer Yellow is excluded by live bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This assay allows for the measurement of phagocytosis of live, non-opsonized S. pneumoniae within the natural environment of the lung, enabling us to effectively mimic the events that occur during an actual pneumococcal infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, the ability of the prepared DPS-loaded invasomes to deliver DPS through the skin was investigated in vivo using wistar rats. (springer.com)