Galectins: A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.Galectin 1: A galectin found abundantly in smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) and SKELETAL MUSCLE and many other tissues. It occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.Galectin 2: A galectin found preferentially expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. The protein occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.Galectin 4: A galectin found in the small and large intestine and the stomach. It occurs as a homodimer with two 36-kDa subunits and is localized to sites of cell adhesion where it may play role in assembly of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Fetuins: A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.Galactosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Suberites: A genus of velvety smooth SPONGES in the family Suberitidae, characterized by the ectosomal and choanosomal skeletons dominated by tylostyles (pin-like spicules with a pinched bulbous end).Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Adenoviruses, Porcine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Agrocybe: A genus of saprobic mushrooms in the family Bolbitiaceae that grow in grass, dung, garden mulch, or in woods.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Laccaria: A genus of white-spored mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They form symbiotic partnerships (MYCORRHIZAE) with trees.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Tandem Repeat Sequences: Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Chordata: Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.PolysaccharidesLigands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Galectin 3: A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Kim YS, Jung JA, Kim HJ, Ahn YH, Yoo JS, Oh S, Cho C, Yoo HS, Ko JH (2011). "Galectin-3 binding protein promotes cell motility ... In cell-free assays, the presence of hydrogen peroxide reduces PTPkappa tyrosine phophatase activity and increases EGFR ... Shedding of PTPkappa may also be regulated by the presence of galectin-3 binding protein, as has been shown in WiDr cells. The ... mRNA as assayed by northern blot analysis. TGFβ1 also increased PTPkappa mRNA and protein in normal and tumor mammary cell ...
ARSB activity assay in the membrane and cytosol fractions of cultured bronchial epithelial cells showed that the activity was ... Galectin-3 then acts on transcription factors AP-1 to increase expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican and SP-1 ... The studies showed that decrease of ARSB leads to increase in free galectin-3, which attaches more strongly to less sulfated ... CSPG4 expression was mediated by reduced binding of galectin-3 to C4S, while MMP2 expression was mediated by increased binding ...
Assay, for the quantification of neural stem cells. Importantly, this assay allows discrimination between neural stem and ... Galectin-1 is expressed in adult NSCs and has been shown to have a physiological role in the treatment of neurological ... While the Neurosphere Assay has been the method of choice for isolation, expansion and even the enumeration of neural stem and ... Neural stem cells are routinely studied in vitro using a method referred to as the Neurosphere Assay (or Neurosphere culture ...
Clade 7 proteins contain both GalT and galectin domains, while Clade 10 proteins contain a GalT-specific domain. The galectin ... similar to the activity of human galectin domain-containing proteins. Eight enzymes belonging to the GT31 family demonstrated ... A GT31 Clade 10 gene, KNS4/UPEX1, encodes a β-1,3-GalT capable of synthesizing β-1,3-Gal linkages found in type II AGs present ... Three members of GT14 named GlcAT14A, GlcAT14B,and GlcAT14C were reported to add GlcA to both β-1,6- and β-1,3-Gal chains in an ...
The assay has Food and Drug Administration approval and a CE Mark. Shah RV, Januzzi JL (March 2010). "ST2: a novel remodeling ... and galectin-3. One study indicated that discrimination is independent of age, body mass index, history of heart failure, ... ST2 is measured by an immunoassay, commercially marketed as the Presage ST2 Assay by Critical Diagnostics of San Diego, ... 55 (3): 243-50. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2009.08.047. PMID 20117403. Bayes-Genis A, Pascual-Figal D, Januzzi JL, Maisel A, Casas T, ...
... using an established in vitro assay. As shown in Fig. 6⇓, galectin-3 did not show any statistically significant chemotaxis ... Galectin-3, fMLP (10−8 M), or IL-8 (40 ng/ml) was added in the bottom well as a chemoattractant. After 2 h of incubation at 37° ... Galectin-3 (G3) was intranasally administered along with PBS or 1 × 106 CFU of S. pneumoniae (SP) to WT and G3KO. After 24 h, ... Different concentrations of galectin-3 were added in the bottom well. fMLP (10−8 M) and IL-8 (40 ng/ml) were used as positive ...
Caspase-1 activity assay.. For the determination of caspase-1 activity, we used the Caspase-1 Colorimetric Kit (R&D Systems) ... Galectin-3 (Gal-3; also known as Mac-2), a 30-kDa β-galactoside-binding lectin, mainly located in the cytoplasm, but also in ... Galectin-3 negatively regulates TCR-mediated CD4+ T-cell activation at the immunological synapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009; ... Galectin-3 is a negative regulator of lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation. J Immunol 2008;181:2781-2789pmid:18684969. ...
Luciferase Assay.. To examine whether galectin overexpression augments transcriptional activity of the Tcf-reporter plasmid, ... Galectin-3, a Novel Binding Partner of β-Catenin. Tatsuo Shimura, Yukinori Takenaka, Souichi Tsutsumi, Victor Hogan, Akira ... Galectin-3, a Novel Binding Partner of β-Catenin. Tatsuo Shimura, Yukinori Takenaka, Souichi Tsutsumi, Victor Hogan, Akira ... Galectin-3, a Novel Binding Partner of β-Catenin. Tatsuo Shimura, Yukinori Takenaka, Souichi Tsutsumi, Victor Hogan, Akira ...
For the degranulation assay, CD8+ T cells (75,000) were stimulated for 5 hours in Iscoves modified Dulbeccos medium 2% HS AAG ... Other galectins (i.e., galectin-1 and galectin-9) were detected in human and/or murine tumors and thought to play a role in ... Other galectins (i.e., galectin-1 and galectin-9) were detected in human and/or murine tumors and thought to play a role in ... 19). We failed to detect galectin-8, galectin-9, or MGL (a lectin implicated in the regulation of T-cell function) on TIL (38 ...
Proliferation assays. Splenocytes and DLN cells isolated from control and galectin-9 treated HSV infected animals 14 dpi were ... To look for the effect of galectin-9 on Th17 cells, various concentration of galectin-9 or galectin-3 were added into cultures ... Galectin-9 may promote Foxp3+ Treg conversion and limit Th17 generation in vitro To directly assess whether or not galectin-9 ... 5. Galectin-9 may also inhibit the production of angiogenic factors. As indicated above, galectin-9 treatment of HSV infected ...
Spatial proximity in the nucleus was assessed by immunofluorescence and proximity ligation assay. We also investigated the ... Galectin-3 and −1 have redundant functions in mRNA transport and at least in part in mRNA splicing. RNA-sequencing data points ... Nuclear functions of galectin-3 and how they contribute to tumorigenesis are not understood. In order to identify nuclear ... Expression and distribution of galectin-3 between the cell nucleus and the cytosol changes during cell differentiation and ...
... this week announced results from an analysis of three multicenter clinical research trials that indicate its BGM Galectin-3 ... Analysis Indicates BG Medicines Galectin-3 Test is Predictive of Hospital Readmissions. Mar 28, 2014 ... Home » Analysis Indicates BG Medicines Galectin-3 Test is Predictive of Hospital Readmissions ... this week announced results from an analysis of three multicenter clinical research trials that indicate its BGM Galectin-3 ...
May mediate with the alpha-3, beta-1 integrin the stimulation by CSPG4 of endothelial cells migration. In the nucleus: acts as ... Fc-gamma receptor I complex binding Source: RGD ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the ... Fc-gamma receptor I complex binding Source: RGD ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the ... IgE binding Source: RGD ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the function, process or ...
Pull down assay. Twenty micrograms of recombinant His-Gal-3 or His-G69-250 was incubated with 20 μL Ni-NTA beads for 2 h at 4°C ... Differential roles of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in regulating leukocyte viability and cytokine secretion. J Immunol. 2008; 180 ... Cell apoptosis assay. Jurkat cells (2×106 cells/well) in serum free medium were seeded into 12-well plates and co-cultured with ... Keywords: galectin-3, apoptosis, ERK, ROS, truncated protein. Received: September 12, 2016 Accepted: April 24, 2017 Published: ...
... galectin-3 and systemic inflammation in patients with postinfarction heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. in DOAJ. ... MMP activity assay and galectin-3 serum level was detected for all patients. Results: It was established significant ... But we estimated significant differences in galectin-3 level between 1st and 2nd subgroups (p,0.05). Conclusion: Serum MMP-2, ... Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2,9 activity, galectin-3 and systemic inflammation in patients with postinfarction heart failure ...
This assay kit can be used to measure soluble human galectin-3 protein in serum, EDTA plasma, cell and tissue lysates, and cell ... 0.1% cross‑reactivity with human galectin-1 and mouse galectin-3; 0.21% cross-reactivity with human galectin-4. ... Galectin-3 belongs to a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins known as lectins. In humans, it is encoded by the LGALS3 gene ... Galectin3. 27755A. ELISA. Human. Capture:. (50A3). Mouse IgG MoAb. Detect: HRP (87B5). Mouse IgG MoAb. ≤ ...
Cell migration assay. Cell migration assay was performed using a wound healing assay (80209, Ibidi, Martinsried, Germany). The ... Herein, the galectin-1 displayed a high specificity of 97%, suggesting that galectin-1 can be used in association with galectin ... Galectin-1 (polyclonal rabbit anti-human galectin-1: 1:100) (29,37), Galectin-3 (polyclonal rabbit anti-human galectin-3: 1:200 ... Diagnostic value of galectin-1, galectin-3 and CK19 in discrimination of malignant from benign thyroid tumors. ...
Microglia/macrophage-derived inflammatory mediators galectin-3 and quinolinic acid are elevated in cerebrospinal fluid from ... Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. *Female. *Galectin 3 (cerebrospinal fluid) *Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry ... Both galectin-3 and MMP-9 contribute to brain injury in animal models for neonatal HI. Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a neurotoxic N ... Galectin-3 and MMP-9 were measured by ELISA and QUIN by mass spectrometry. Asphyxiated infants (n=20) had higher levels of ...
The β-glucuronidase assay was performed more than 14 days after the start of puromycin selection. Before the assay, puromycin ... B) Assay design and protocol for high-throughput degranulation assay. Appropriate numbers of cells (∼105) were transferred from ... As the Z′ factor of the assay did not pass the 0.5 threshold to be considered an excellent screening assay, we collected data ... Galectin-3 mediates the endocytosis of β-1 integrins by breast carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 289:845-850. doi: ...
... and cell culture supernatants using a homogeneous AlphaLISA no-wash assay. ... Detect and quantitate human galectin-9 in serum, buffered solution, ... Galectin-9, also known as LGLAS9, Ecalectin and UAT, is a mammalian lectin with a molecular weight around 50 kD. Galectin-9 is ... The AlphaLISA® immunoassay kit for human galectin-9 enables the quantitative determination of human galectin-9 (Gal-9) in serum ...
Anatomy of a novel assay for use in heart failure. Clin Biochem. 2010 May;43(7-8):683-690.20153309 ... Galectins bind to certain carbohydrates via specific carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). Galectin-3 is a 29 to 35 kDa ... Galectin-3 in cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2010 Mar;7(1):1-8.20425490 ... Galectin-3 levels ,17.8 ng/mL are present in a proportion of patients with NYHA class II-IV. Such elevated levels are ...
3 ELISA Kits from Assay Solution from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and ... Bovine Galectin-3 ELISA kit (Colorimetric) Assay Solution *. Detection Target: Galectin-3 ... I did the assay at room temperature (instead of the recommended 37C), b/c I ... read more ... The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and quantifying proteins and antigens ...
Apoptosis assays. Following treatment with increasing concentrations of recombinant galectin-1 for different periods, freshly ... Preparation of recombinant human galectin-1 and use in T cell death assays. Methods Enzymol. 363: 499-518. ... We found that exposure of adherent human monocytes to galectin-1 before the Ag presentation assay resulted in reduced ability ... Galectin-1 does not affect the survival of human monocytes. Since galectin-1 has been implicated in the regulation of T cell ...
... earlier this year will help shore up the scientific foundation for the companys new strategy of marketing its galectin-3 test ... xMAP Cookbook: A collection of methods and protocols for developing multiplex assays with xMAP Technology ... Studies Shore up BG Medicines Push for Galectin-3 Test in Hospital Readmission Risk Assessment. Mar 08, 2013 ... Home » Studies Shore up BG Medicines Push for Galectin-3 Test in Hospital Readmission Risk Assessment ...
Human Galectin 3 SimpleStep ELISA® Kit is a highly sensitive (13.3 pg/ml), single-wash 90 min immunoassay suitable for Cell ... Multiplex Assays. By research area. Cancer. Cardiovascular. Cell Biology. Epigenetics. Metabolism. Developmental Biology. By ... is a member of the galectin family of carbohydrate-binding proteins. Galectin-3 is active intracellularly and extracellularly. ... Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists ...
Abcams Galectin 3 ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Plasma in mouse. Reliably quantify 6 pg/ml of ... Custom assay development. We can help with downstream assay development for single-wash ELISA assays (SimpleStep ELISA®) and ... This assay employs an antibody specific for Mouse Galectin 3 coated on a 96- well plate. Standards and samples are pipetted ... kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of Mouse Galectin 3 in serum, plasma and ...
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results of GR, GSH-Px, and SOD. GR was found statistically lower in the lung tissue in ... 2012) Galectin-1 and galectin-3 expression profiles in classically and alternatively activated human macrophages. Biochim. ... 2013) Spatial and temporal expression, and statin responsiveness of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in murine atherosclerosis. Korean ... 2000) Human galectin-3 is a novel chemoattractant for monocytes and macrophages. J. Immunol. 165, 2156-2164 doi:10.4049/ ...
... anatomy of a novel assay for use in heart failure. Clin Biochem. 2010, 43: 683-690. 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2010.02.001.View ... Galectin-3 levels in healthy adult plasma average at 12 ng/ml [15, 21] and increases 3 to 5-fold as a result of different ... Production of recombinant galectin-3. Recombinant human galectin-3 was produced in E. coli and purified as described [5, 23]. ... Galectin-3-induced ROS production. Isolated neutrophils were kept on ice or incubated at 37°C in the absence or presence of LPS ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Galectin-3 Mouse anti-Human, Mouse, PE-CF594, Clone: B2C10, BD Horizon ... RNAi, Oligos, Assays, Gene Editing & Gene Synthesis Tools RNAi, Oligos, Assays, Gene Editing & Gene Synthesis Tools Oligos ... Galectin-3 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Galectin-3 in Human,Mouse samples. It is validated for Flow Cytometry. ... Galectin-3 Mouse anti-Human, Mouse, PE-CF594, Clone: B2C10, BD Horizon ...
... pAb and the JNK assay kit were from New England Biolabs (Frankfurt Germany). The Trans-AM AP-1 transcription factor assay kit ... Galectin-1 (gal-1) an endogenous in to the cytosol. and effector procaspase-3. November 17, 2016. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide- ... Galectin-1 (gal-1) an endogenous in to the cytosol. and effector procaspase-3 processing and inhibition by the ATP-competitive ... min after gal-1 exposure as shown by kinase assays and increasing levels of phospho-JNK1 and phospho-JNK2 isoforms. Apoptotic ...
  • We have previously shown that galectin-3, a soluble mammalian lectin, can be found in lungs infected by S. pneumoniae , but not by E. coli , and can mediate the adhesion of neutrophils on the endothelial cell layer, implying its role in the recruitment of neutrophils to lungs infected with S. pneumoniae . (
  • In this study, using galectin-3 null mice, we report further evidence of the involvement of this soluble lectin in the recruitment of neutrophils to S. pneumonia- infected lungs. (
  • Thus, taken together, our data suggest that galectin-3 plays a role as a soluble adhesion molecule in the recruitment of neutrophils to lungs infected by S. pneumoniae , which induces β 2 -integrin-independent migration. (
  • Consistent with its various roles, the levels of soluble and/or cellular galectin-3 are increased in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Behçet's disease, and correlate with their disease activities 25 , 26 , 27 . (
  • In this investigation, a DNA sequence was designed and synthesized by joining coding regions of soluble programmed cell death-1 and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-3 domains and cloned into the lentiviral expression vector pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen1. (
  • A galectin ligand, N -acetyllactosamine (LacNAc), restored the ability of nonfunctional T cells to secrete cytokines, and this increased secretion was associated with an increased proximity of surface TCRs with the coreceptor CD8. (
  • This molecule, which is a natural product of many cell types, acts as a ligand to the inhibitory molecule TIM-3 that is expressed by activated but not naïve T cells. (
  • Structural analysis of the N-glycans in human corneal mucins by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of complex-type structures carrying N-acetyllactosamine residues, a preferred galectin ligand. (
  • Binding assay was performed by incubating the cell lysate with cancer cells, which have high expressional levels of PD-L1/2 and galectin 9 and subsequent fluorescent staining showed strong membranous signals compared to negative controls using cell lysate without sP1T3, suggesting specific binding of sP1T3 to these ligand-expressing cancer cells. (
  • Specifically, cancer cells may exhibit aberrantly upregulated inhibitory checkpoint ligands, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4) ligands, B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-3 (TIM-3) ligand, galectin 9, resulting in immunoevasion and chemoresistance acquisition in cancer cells [ 2 - 4 ]. (
  • Citrus pectin also acts as a ligand for galectin-3 receptors that are over expressed on colorectal cancer cells. (
  • Among the numerous pathogenic processes driven by excess galectin-3 are tumorigenesis and metastasis. (
  • A 2009 study published in The American Journal of Pathology showed that reducing levels of galectin-3 inhibited prostate cancer metastasis. (
  • As a result, MCP is able to enter the bloodstream from the digestive tract and bind to excess galectin-3 in the circulation and at tissue sites, reducing cancer angiogenesis and metastasis. (
  • Since the 1990s, published research has demonstrated MCP's effectiveness in preventing cancer growth and metastasis, through its ability to block excess galectin-3 molecules. (
  • From a structural perspective, these results establish our TF mimetic as a scaffold to design multivalent solutions to potentially interfere with Gal-3 aberrant interactions and for likely use in hampering Gal-3-mediated cancer cell adhesion and metastasis. (
  • Novel INTeraction of MUC4 and galectin: potential pathobiological implications for metastasis in lethal pancreatic cancer. (
  • In the present study, we have provided clinical evidence that the level of galectin-3 is significantly elevated in the sera of PC patients with metastatic disease compared with patients without metastasis (P = 0.04) and healthy controls (P = 0.00001). (
  • Levels of galectin-3 in blood may be increased in patients with certain forms of advanced cancer and other conditions associated with organ fibrosis. (
  • Blockade of galectin-3 prevents organ fibrosis following inflammation and organ damage. (
  • Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relation of galectin-3 (Gal-3), a marker of cardiac fibrosis, with incident heart failure (HF) in the community. (
  • Conclusions Higher concentration of Gal-3, a marker of cardiac fibrosis, is associated with increased risk for incident HF and mortality. (
  • We demonstrate that Galectin-3 expression is up-regulated in established human fibrotic liver disease and is temporally and spatially related to the induction and resolution of experimental hepatic fibrosis. (
  • Disruption of the Galectin-3 gene blocks myofibroblast activation and procollagen (I) expression in vitro and in vivo , markedly attenuating liver fibrosis. (
  • The reduction in hepatic fibrosis observed in the Galectin-3 −/− mouse occurred despite equivalent liver injury and inflammation, and similar tissue expression of TGF-β. (
  • Finally, in vivo siRNA knockdown of Galectin-3 inhibited myofibroblast activation after hepatic injury and may therefore provide an alternative therapeutic approach to the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis. (
  • Increased Galectin-3 expression has been noted in tissue fibrosis ( 21 - 23 ), and in vitro exogenous Galectin-3 stimulates myofibroblast proliferation ( 24 , 25 ). (
  • The relevance of these observations to the mechanistic role of Galectin-3 in the pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis in vivo has not been examined. (
  • We therefore examined myofibroblast activation and collagen deposition in an experimental model of hepatic fibrosis by using mutant mice lacking the Galectin-3 gene. (
  • Galectin-3 Expression Is Up-Regulated in Human Liver Fibrosis and Is Temporally and Spatially Related to Fibrosis in a Reversible Rat Model of Liver Fibrosis. (
  • In established human liver fibrosis, regardless of etiology (hepatitis B or C, autoimmune, copper or iron overload, primary biliary cirrhosis, or alcohol-induced), Galectin-3 expression was negligible in normal liver and dramatically increased in the cirrhotic nodules of hepatocytes, particularly at the periphery of the nodules ( n = 36 cases) ( Fig. 1 a and b ). (
  • Furthermore, Galectin-3 expression was examined in a well established rat model of reversible carbon tetrachloride (CCL 4 )-induced liver fibrosis ( 26 , 27 ) ( Fig. 1 c ). (
  • However, like many other biologically active molecules, balance is key, as elevated circulating galectin-3 can actively fuel a number of conditions including inflammation, fibrosis, heart disease, stroke, and cancer. (
  • However, as the body of galectin-3 research grew and scientists discovered its role in inflammation and the process of chronic inflammation to fibrosis within joints, organs and tissues, MCP's primary mechanisms against arthritis became clear. (
  • BACKGROUND: Galectin 3 (Gal-3) is a potential mediator of cardiac fibrosis, and Gal-3 concentrations predict incident heart failure. (
  • This is the first study to compare the liver fibrosis assessment of four novel biomarkers ELF, M2BPGi, galectin-3, and sST2. (
  • Obtained results suggest important protective roles for Gal-3 in obesity-induced inflammation and diabetes. (
  • Elevated levels of galectin-3 are also associated with cancer and inflammation. (
  • Galectin-3 has been implicated in a variety of biological processes important in heart failure including myofibroblast proliferation, fibrogenesis, tissue repair, cardiac remodeling and inflammation. (
  • Simvastatin attenuates LPS-induced oxidative acute lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and suppresses LPS-induced Galectin-3 expression in the lung tissue. (
  • Effects of dietary intervention and n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of gut-related inflammation and their association with cardiovascular events in a high-risk population. (
  • The deBoer research team, based at the University Medical Centre, Groningen, Netherlands, had previously shown that Gal-3 is involved in numerous processes associated with heart failure, including myofibroblast proliferation, inflammation, fibrogenesis, and ventricular and tissue remodeling [de Boer R.A., et al. (
  • More recently, cross-sectional analysis of data from nearly 3,000 patients in the Framingham Heart Study showed that elevated circulating Gal-3 correlates strongly with abdominal adiposity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and other indicators of cardiometabolic disease, as well as markers of inflammation [Nayor, M., et al. (
  • Galectin-3 is a 29 to 35 kDa chimera-type galectin − the only member of the galectin family with an extended N-terminal domain constituted of tandem repeats of short amino acid segments (a total of 110-130 amino acids) linked to a single C-terminal CRD of about 130 amino acids. (
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen Detection. (
  • A multidisciplinary approach combining the optimized synthesis of a TF antigen mimetic with NMR, X-ray crystallography methods, and isothermal titration calorimetry assays was used to unravel the molecular structural details that govern the Gal-3/TF mimetic interaction. (
  • The TF mimetic has a binding affinity for Gal-3 similar to that of the TF natural antigen and retains the binding epitope and bioactive conformation observed for the native antigen. (
  • Many factors work in concert to inhibit antiglioma immunity, including immunosuppressive cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), the induction of regulatory T cells (Treg), and the downmodulation of costimulation molecules by antigen-presenting cells resulting in loss of T-cell effector function-all of which are operational in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients (reviewed in ref. 3 ). (
  • ROS production was measured by chemiluminescence, L-selectin expression by flow cytometry, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and galectin-3 concentrations by ELISA. (
  • Whether elevated Gal-3 concentrations precede the development of HF is unknown. (
  • METHODS: Plasma Gal-3 concentrations were measured in 3,306 participants of the Framingham Offspring cohort who attended the sixth examination cycle (1995-1998, mean age 58 years, 54% women). (
  • Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association of baseline Gal-3 concentrations and incident AF. (
  • CONCLUSION: Higher circulating Gal-3 concentrations were associated with increased risk of developing AF over the subsequent 10 years in age- and sex-adjusted analyses but not after accounting for other traditional clinical AF risk factors. (
  • This retrospective post hoc analysis included 219 patients from the Trial of Intensified versus Standard Medical Therapy in Elderly Patients with Congestive Heart Failure (TIME-HF) and 631 patients from Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Insufficienza Cardiaca (GISSI-HF) with HF who had reduced ejection fraction and available galectin-3 plasma concentrations. (
  • Galectin-3 is a mediocre prognostic marker, and galectin-3 concentrations interact with the treatment effect of β-blockers and possibly RAS blockade in patients with systolic HF. (
  • 8 , 9 Galectin-3 is a monomeric, 31 kDa lectin that oligomerizes both at high concentrations and upon binding to carbohydrate arrays. (
  • Biomarkers like natriuretic peptides, galectin-3, and ST2 are showing unique promise in predicting readmissions and mortality for heart failure (HF) and acute myocardial infarction (MI)-two conditions related to large numbers of readmissions. (
  • We found that some of the top differentially expressed genes correlated with known human HF biomarkers, such as galectin-3 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. (
  • The MSD product line offers a diverse menu of assay kits for profiling biomarkers, cell signaling pathways, and other applications. (
  • Galectin-3 is a structurally unique member of a family of beta-galactosidase-binding lectins. (
  • Galectins are members of a growing family of animal lectins ( 5 - 8 ). (
  • Galectins are a growing family of ß-galactoside-binding animal lectins, 15 members of which have been identified to date 3 . (
  • Based on structural analysis of the carbohydrate recognition domains, animal lectins are currently classified into five categories: C type, I type, P type, galectins, and pentraxins. (
  • Galectins are b-galactoside binding, Ca 2+ -independent lectins. (
  • Wang, J. L., Galectins-A Family of Animal Beta-Galactoside-Binding Lectins. (
  • Unexpectedly, MHV NTD contains a core structure that has the same β-sandwich fold as human galectins (S-lectins) and additional structural motifs that bind to the N-terminal Ig-like domain of mCEACAM1a. (
  • Within the fast-growing body of research on galectin-3 in cancer and other conditions, one therapeutic agent has emerged as the most-researched galectin-3 inhibitor: Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP). (
  • Through the expanding field of galectin-3 research, MCP continues to rise in clinical significance and visibility as a proven natural galectin-3 inhibitor. (
  • Starting with the first published study in 1992, MCP has been extensively researched and substantiated as a safe and natural anti-cancer and anti-metastatic therapy, heavy metal chelator, immune modulator and powerful galectin-3 inhibitor. (
  • The high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of the carbohydrate recognition domain of human galectin-3 were solved in complex with N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) and the high-affinity inhibitor, methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-4-O-(3-deoxy-3-[4-methoxy-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzamido]--D-galactopyranose)--D-glucopyranoside, to gain insight into the basis for the affinity-enhancing effect of the 4-methoxy-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzamido moiety. (
  • In addition, a knockdown of galectin-1 in papillary (TPC-1) and anaplastic (8505C) thyroid cancer cell lines was achieved by lentiviral transduction for in vitro experiments. (
  • In vitro experiments revealed that migration was negatively affected in TPC-1 galectin-1 knockdown (KD) cells, and that proliferation and invasion capacity of 8505C cells decreased after galectin-1 KD. (
  • Treatment with galectin-1 in vitro differentially regulates constitutive and inducible FcγRI expression on human monocytes and FcγRI-dependent phagocytosis. (
  • In an in vitro assay, prostate cancer cells adhered preferentially to human bone marrow endothelium when compared with endothelium derived from other sources. (
  • Tim-3 expression was induced on CD56 bright CD16 − NK cells after stimulation with IL-15 or IL-12 and IL-18 in vitro, suggesting that Tim-3 is a maturation marker on NK cells. (
  • In vitro cytoxicity assay (Sulphorhodamine B assay) was performed against HT-29 cancer cells and exhibited 1.5 fold greater cytotoxicity potential of nanoparticles compared to 5-FU solution. (
  • Elevated Gal-3 levels are observed in many malignant tumors [ 2 ], and it is a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for some cancers [ 8 ]. (
  • This study evaluates the prognostic value of repeated time‐dependent galectin3 measurements in acute HF patients. (
  • This study has a unique study design, including 7 measurements scheduled during 1‐year follow‐up, along with a state‐of‐the‐art statistical approach using joint modeling to evaluate the prognostic significance of repeated galectin3 measurements in acute heart failure patients. (
  • The prognostic value of sST2 and galectin-3 considering different aetiologies in non-ischaemic heart failure. (
  • Several studies indicate a prognostic value of sST2 and galectin-3 in heart failure (HF). (
  • Galectin-3 reflects the pathophysiology of heart failure and is one of the most powerful prognostic indicators in heart failure. (
  • Studies comparing circulating galectin-3 levels in healthy controls with those in patients with various types of cancer have shown significant galectin-3 increases in patients with melanoma, lung, breast , colorectal, ovarian, prostate , and head and neck cancers, as well as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (
  • Paxton CN, Brothman A, Geiersbach K . Rapid aneusomy detection in products of conception using the KaryoLite™ BACs-on-Beads™ assay. (
  • Nuclear galectin-3 has a wide range of functions, one of them is the regulation of gene transcription. (
  • The frequency of previously undetectable deletions involving 3' exons of the PMS2 gene. (
  • Gene-specific synthetic DNA template designed to give a positive real-time PCR result when used with the corresponding primer assay. (
  • The potential use of plasma galectin-3 level as a of myocardial changes in the development of hypertrophy in males with essential hypertension (EH), carriers of polymorphic variants of II type 1 receptor gene, was studied. (
  • Gal-3 binds to β-catenin/Tcf complex, colocalizes with β-catenin in the nucleus, and induces the transcriptional activity of Tcf-4 as determined by the TOP/FOPFLASH reporter system. (
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assays from previous reports have shown that NFAT1 binds to the autotaxin promoter in two locations. (
  • 5 , 6 , 7 Galectin-3 is a chimera galectin with one carbohydrate-binding domain that binds to galactose, lactose, and N -acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) ligands and a proline/glycine-rich, collagen-like domain (Figure 1). (
  • Results UHRF2 recognizes specifically H3K9me2/3 Given the substantial sequence and structural homology between UHRF1 and UHRF2 (Physique 1A) we first attempted to test if UHRF2 also selectively binds H3K9me2/3. (
  • We also investigated the function of galectin-3 on mRNA-export by fluorescence in situ hybridization and on mRNA-processing by RNA-sequencing. (
  • The LEGENDplex™ HU Immune Checkpoint Panel 1 (12-plex) is a bead-based multiplex assay panel, using fluorescence-encoded beads suitable for use on various flow cytometers. (
  • 0.05 each), whereas the level of galectin mRNA was similar in the endometriosis and gynecologic cancer groups. (
  • Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is one such immune suppressive factor, which is highly expressed in malignant tumors [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Herein, we have sought out to determine whether galectin-3 affects the malignant melanoma phenotype by regulating downstream target genes. (
  • Malignant gastric tissues expressed high levels of galectin-3 and fascin-1, compared with normal gastric tissues. (
  • The aim of the present article was to establish the diagnostic accuracy of CK-19, Gal-3 and HBME-1 markers, as well as their associations, in the differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid lesions. (
  • Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Galectin 1 (GAL1) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate. (
  • The average intra-assay and inter-assay precision for 6 biological samples ranged from 6.1-7.5% CV and 9.5-11.0% CV, respectively. (
  • BG Medicine this week announced results from an analysis of three multicenter clinical research trials that indicate its BGM Galectin-3 test is predictive of rehospitalization for heart failure within the first 30 days following discharge from an initial hospital stay. (
  • Immunohistochemistry for galectin-1 and -3 was performed on a clinical series of 69 cases of thyroid lesions. (
  • The addition of Gal-3 to clinical factors resulted in negligible changes to the C-statistic and minor improvements in net reclassification improvement. (
  • The Institute for Clinical and Experimental Research ® is focused on the development of new diagnostic assays in a wide range of disciplines. (
  • Clinical Genetics 2013;83(3):238-43. (
  • It is not known whether the relationship between renal function and GAL-3 is influenced by clinical decompensation, type of HF, or the presence or absence of clinical HF. (
  • Inhibitory immune checkpoints are emerging targets for cancer immunotherapy, which have shown clinical success by blockade of inhibitory checkpoint molecules CTLA-4, PD-1 or PD-L1 in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma and hematologic malignancies [ 5 , 6 ] and more drugs are in clinical trials targeting other checkpoint molecules including TIM-3, LAG-3 [ 7 ]. (
  • After adjustment for clinical factors and N‐terminal pro‐brain natriuretic peptide, there was a weak association between baseline galectin3 and risk of the primary end point. (
  • Hence, galectin3 may be helpful in clinical practice for prognostication and treatment monitoring. (
  • In so doing, we will redirect our effort and investments from the previously announced CLIA laboratory, launch of CardioSCORE in Europe (except as partnership opportunities arise), and longer term clinical studies so that we may further develop and support the message, the product and the product features that are required to drive the adoption of galectin-3 testing. (
  • In view of these clinical risks, extensive efforts have been devoted to develop different strategies that would yield the benefits of estrogen therapy but with minimal side effects [ 3 ]. (
  • Conclusions Repeated galectin3 measurements appeared to be a strong predictor of outcome in acute HF patients, independent of N‐terminal pro‐brain natriuretic peptide. (
  • Although galectin-3 is predominantly located in the cytoplasm, it has also been found on the cell surface, within the extracellular matrix, and in the nucleus, suggesting the pleiotropic roles of galectin-3 depending on its localization 3 . (
  • 2 5 Functionally, galectins have been proposed to have crucial biological roles by recognising carbohydrate ligands on intracellular and extracellular compartments and glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix, thus contributing to cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction, 6-8 regulation of cell growth, 9 10 and programmed cell death. (
  • The potentially neurotoxic macrophage/microglia-derived mediators galectin-3 and QUIN are increased in CSF after birth asphyxia and could serve as markers and may contribute to injury. (
  • However, little is known about the predictive value of repeated galectin3 measurements. (
  • These critical market development achievements in the U.S. affirm both the predictive value of galectin-3 and the potential to leverage the value of galectin-3 testing to identify and manage chronic heart failure patients who are at greatest risk of hospital admission and readmission," continued Dr. Sohmer. (
  • A number of Gal-3 inhibitors have been developed, some of which have demonstrated promising anti-cancer characteristics [ 14 , 16 ]. (