Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Bacteria, AerobicBacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Pyuria: The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Colony Collapse: The sudden collapse and disappearance or diminution of a colony of organisms.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CAnts: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Colony-Stimulating Factors: Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Beekeeping: The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Animals, LaboratoryBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Varroidae: A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell SeparationNeutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
  • The objective of this study is to determine whether the Air Barrier System device reduces airborne colony-forming units (e.g., bacteria) present at a surgery site during total shoulder art. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Parameters including temperature, oxygen uptake rate, numbers of microbial populations (mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria and fungi) and enzyme activities were measured. (scirp.org)
  • The mean value of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (6.78 log cfu mL-1), coliform counts (3.91 cfu mL-1) and E. coli count (2.58 cfu mL-1) was higher than maximum recommended value. (omicsonline.org)
  • Synbiosis, a long-established, expert manufacturer of automatedmicrobiological systems, is pleased to announce its ProtoCOL 3 automated colony counter is being used at a major teaching hospital in London to accurately track the spread of Carbapenem-Resistant bacteria (CRB) superbugs. (labbulletin.com)
  • Microbiologists in the infection control group at the hospital are using ProtoCOL 3 to count colonies of Carbapenem-Resistant and Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria including E. coli and Klebsiella spp. (labbulletin.com)
  • The abundance, identities, and degradation abilities of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria associated with five species of mature trees growing naturally in a contaminated site were investigated to identify plants that enhance the microbial PCB degradation potential in soil. (asm.org)
  • Under the proper conditions (usually 37 degrees Celsius), the bacteria will consume the agar as food and grow into colonies called colony forming units (CFU's). (revsci.com)
  • Counting colonies quantifies the affinity the colonies have for the agar, but also is indicative of the amount of bacteria. (revsci.com)
  • It also reduced inoculated bacteria (range: 5.50 × 10 3 to 1.44 × 10 5 colony forming units (CFU)/g). (mdpi.com)
  • In microbiology, a colony-forming unit (CFU, cfu, Cfu) is a unit used to estimate the number of viable bacteria or fungal cells in a sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a series of initial experiments, bacteria were inoculated into blood culture media, and DNA was purified for use as target in a broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR assay. (asm.org)
  • The determination of disinfection efficiency and microbial activity is traditionally based on estimating the population density of heterotrophic bacteria or indicator bacteria (i.e., total coliforms or Escherichia coli ( E. coli )), as well as measuring the levels of water quality parameters during the process [ 1 ]. (eeer.org)
  • However, this approach involving counting the number of the bacteria is time consuming, requiring 24 h to days. (eeer.org)
  • Moreover, colony counting is possible only for specific bacteria that can be cultured under normal laboratory conditions (dependent upon media, temperature, duration of culture, and other such factors) [ 2 ]. (eeer.org)
  • There were also significant variations in the total numbers of colony forming units of fungi, actinomycetes and bacteria between soils treated with transgenic and non-transgenic melon plants. (kspbtjpb.org)
  • Minimally manipulated nasal secretions, an accessible form of airway surface fluid, were tested against indigenous and added bacteria by using CFU assays. (asm.org)
  • Mature canker-symptomatic and non-symptomatic leaves were sampled monthly to assay for resistant Xcc and epiphytic bacteria, respectively. (apsnet.org)
  • Additionally, there is no standard method for measuring actual cleanliness of surfaces or the achievement of certain cleaning parameters (e.g., adequate contact time of disinfectant) or for defining the level of microbial contamination that correlates with good or poor environmental hygienic practices. (cdc.gov)
  • We established the maximum concentration of extract that, while increasing the antioxidant activity, and limiting microbial contamination of the fruit, did not negatively affect fruit sensory acceptability. (mdpi.com)
  • Different procedures, materials and antimicrobial agents have been proposed to minimize microbial cross-contamination in the dental office, such as immunization of dental staff, decontamination of surfaces, sterilization of instruments, use of personal protective barriers and pre-procedural mouthwashes. (scielo.br)
  • These results indicate that this probiotic-based procedure is active not only in controlling surface microbial contamination but also in lowering drug-resistant species, suggesting that it may have relevant clinical and therapeutical implications for the management of HAIs. (plos.org)
  • The level of microbial contamination of the object to be sterilized plays a critical role in determining the efficacy of the sterilization process [ 1 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Zefon Inner Wall Adaptors are used in conjunction with the MopldSNAP Cassette to non-destructively access microbial contamination within a wall cavity. (environmental-expert.com)
  • By capitalizing on the innate ability of plants to alter soil microbial community structure, rhizoremediation offers an attractive and affordable alternative means for long-term biostimulation of aerobic PCB degradation in situ. (asm.org)
  • Thus, transgenic plant products in the soil may alter ecological, physical and chemical environments like soil microbial population structure and quantity. (kspbtjpb.org)
  • This study investigates the potential for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to effect a clinically relevant increase in neutrophil number when used prophylactically in high-risk preterm neonates, and assesses its safety in this population. (aappublications.org)
  • The hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), have become standard treatment for preventing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and accelerating neutrophil recovery after marrow transplantation. (aappublications.org)
  • Add optional software modules for - spiral plates, OPKA, SBA, Ames assay and mouse lymphoma test, multi-sector plates. (labbulletin.com)
  • The new software designed for integrated use with the ProtoCOL 3 colony counter, facilitates rapid production of accurate, consistent, count and ratio data from Ames test plates and is ideal for use in regulated toxicology testing laboratories. (labbulletin.com)
  • In a novel Miniscreen AMES test, Salmonella His-dependent strains TA98 and TA100 were incubated with test articles for 48 hr, then revertant, His-independent colonies counted. (arvojournals.org)
  • We developed a simple and fast microplate assay for evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of electrospun nanofiber filtration membranes or similar porous materials for water treatment technologies. (springeropen.com)
  • 1). The suitability of resazurin microplate assay for testing nanofiber filtration membranes and analogous matrices has proven to be a faster and less demanding alternative to the traditionally used approach providing comparable results. (springeropen.com)
  • Microbial communities and enzyme activities are the main players during municipal solid waste (MSW) composting, but the relationship between microbial communities ( i.e ., mesophilic and thermophilic ones) and enzyme activities ( i.e ., dehydrogenase, β -glucosidase, phosphatase and urea) has not been well studied. (scirp.org)
  • The second study objective involved tracking the fate of E. faecalis in the digestive tract of house flies in laboratory assays. (k-state.edu)
  • We now show that an automated colony counter can process images obtained with a digital camera or document scanner and that any laboratory can efficiently have bacterial colonies enumerated by sending the images to a laboratory with a colony counter via internet. (synbiosis.com)
  • Culture media is used in most assays in a microbiology laboratory, and if the media does not properly support growth, false negative results may be obtained. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • Laboratory A measured rivaroxaban concentration in plasma using 2 different chromogenic anti-Xa methods--the Coamatic heparin assay (DiaPharma, West Chester, Ohio) and the Berichrom heparin assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Newark, Delaware)--as well as testing with a high-phospholipid content DRVVT (LA2 Confirmation Reagent, Siemens) on the BCS XP System coagulation analyzer (Siemens). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • IL-1, TNF, histamine and prostaglandin D2) and suppressed levels of IL-10 at the site of microbial infection are likely to amplify local inflammatory responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new strain can be used for bacterial survival assays using cytometry and to elucidate the pathogenicity mechanisms in Actinomycetoma infection. (nih.gov)
  • U.S.A.}, volume = {108}, number = {42}, pages = {17378--17383}, abstract = {An in-depth mechanistic understanding of microbial infection necessitates a molecular dissection of host-pathogen relationships. (cnrs.fr)
  • To further complicate diagnosis, infection control and anti-microbial chemotherapy, non-sterile sites such as the nares and the skin could contain both S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), either of which could harbour mecA the gene driving staphylococcal methicillin-resistance and required for MRSA-VRSA evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is because the counting of CFU assumes that every colony is separate and founded by a single viable microbial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The race to develop economically viable microbial biofuels is a consequence of the pressing need to reduce carbon emissions, improve air quality and implement renewable and sustainable fuel strategies. (rsc.org)
  • Throughout the composting process, different microbial communities follow one another according to the nutritional and environmental conditions prevailing at each phase . (scirp.org)
  • Adapting such tests to contact lens multipurpose solutions (MPS) may be required due to their anti-microbial nature or regional regulatory requirements. (arvojournals.org)
  • The results indicate that the commensal gut microbiota contributes to production of VCAs that act as fecal aggregation agents and that cockroaches discriminate among the complex odors that emanate from a diverse microbial community. (pnas.org)
  • This review is focused on using computer image analysis as a means of objective and quantitative characterizing optical images of the macroscopic (e.g. microbial colonies) and the microscopic (e.g. single cell) objects in the microbiological research. (scirp.org)
  • We further developed two real-time quantitative PCR assays to quantify the relative abundance of the Firmicutes phylum and the Streptococcus genus. (jove.com)
  • To discriminate live and dead cells, several methods have been developed, including microscopic measurement, acridine orange direct colony counting, 4,6-di-amidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) direct counting, and the Live/Dead ® Bac light™ Bacterial Viability kit [ 4 ]. (eeer.org)
  • The Mycobacterium genus-specific 16S rRNA was quantified with a limiting dilution RT-PCR assay. (elsevier.com)
  • A new heptaplex PCR assay has been developed which simultaneously detects seven markers for: i) eubacteria ( 16S rRNA ), ii) Staphylococcus genus ( tuf ), iii) Staphylococcus aureus ( spa ), iv) CoNS ( cns ), v) Panton-Valentine leukocidin ( pvl ), vi) methicillin resistance ( mecA ), and vii) vancomycin resistance ( vanA ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The new assay has LoD of 1.0x10 3 CFU/mL for the 16S rRNA marker and 1.0x10 4 CFU/mL for six other markers and completes cycling in less than one hour. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To assess the diversity of this microbial population, the 49 isolates were initially identified to the genus level on the basis of their micromorphology, and 16S sequencing confirmed the initial identification of the strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • It explores the primacy of natural products for biotechnology, emphasizing the extraordinary resource that microbial diversity presents and how and where that resource, and the exploitable properties it contains, can be found. (asmscience.org)
  • Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting brings together for the first time the diverse and complex sets of technology, data, knowledge, ideas, and objectives into an integrated and holistic approach to bioprospecting. (asmscience.org)
  • It demonstrates the need for modern microbiologists to have an integrated perspective of science in order to address the big questions in microbiology and is invaluable reading for instructors and researchers in environmental microbiology, biotechnology, and microbial diversity as well as applied biologists. (asmscience.org)
  • The Spread Plate method wherein the sample (in a small volume) is spread across the surface of a nutrient agar plate and allowed to dry before incubation for counting. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] However, with the techniques that require the use of an agar plate, no fluid solution can be used because the purity of the specimen cannot be unidentified and it is not possible to count the cells one by one in the liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agar-filled QTrays are used for large scale culture and screening of bacterial colonies. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The QPix 460 automated microbial colony picker has the ability to plate samples on to agar-filled QTrays. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Our findings demonstrated that PTX inhibited microbe-induced proinflammatory cytokine production, especially when combined with antimicrobial agents, without enhancing microbial proliferation in human cord blood in vitro , thus supporting its utility as candidate adjunctive agent for newborn sepsis. (asm.org)
  • Observations from CFU counts and visualizations under a dissecting microscope revealed that E. faecalis peaked in the crop after 48 h suggesting active proliferation in this region. (k-state.edu)
  • The normal microbial flora as a major stimulus for proliferation of plasma cells synthesizing IgA in the gut. (patentgenius.com)
  • Revolutionary Science has been a long standing manufacturer of automatic colony counter technology since 2009. (revsci.com)
  • Defensins are produced constitutively and/or in response to microbial products or proinflammatory cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capacity of defensins to enhance phagocytosis, promote neutrophil recruitment, enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines, suppress anti-inflammatory mediators and regulate complement activation argues that defensins upregulate innate host inflammatory defenses against microbial invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Innate immune cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages establish the first line of defense against microbial pathogens and largely determine the outcome of infections. (jimmunol.org)
  • Kazemi, K. , Zhang, B. and Lye, L. (2017) Assessment of Microbial Communities and Their Relationship with Enzymatic Activity during Composting. (scirp.org)
  • The rapid disappearance of M. tuberculosis mRNA from sputum suggests that it is a good indicator of microbial viability and a useful marker for rapid assessment of response to chemotherapy. (elsevier.com)
  • Membrane filtration has recently become a good alternative to more commonly used water purification technologies based on chlorination or oxidation processes, mainly due to their reducing costs and high microbial removal efficacy. (springeropen.com)
  • Briefly, two-fold dilutions of honey solutions were tested to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against each type of microorganism, followed by more assays within a narrower dilution range to obtain more precise MIC values. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We describe the identity of the PCR inhibitor detected in blood culture media and a method for removing the inhibitor so as to allow amplification of microbial DNA from blood culture systems without dilution of the sample containing the DNA target. (asm.org)
  • Levels of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) in individual vaccinated animals at challenge did not correlate with subsequent resistance and in general immune responses post-challenge were lower in vaccinated calves. (nih.gov)
  • Before and 4-6 weeks after vaccination, we measured the patients' concentrations of antibodies against pneumococcal serotypes 6B and 23F using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and determined their antibody functionality using a multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay, reported as the opsonization index (OI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To assess variability, we compared results from the same subjects when QFT-GIT enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed in different laboratories. (jove.com)
  • Mediators of innate mucosal host defense are also found in nasal secretions and include substances that selectively disrupt bacterial cell walls and membranes, sequester microbial nutrients, or act as decoys for microbial attachment. (asm.org)
  • In addition, results of the correlation analysis indicated significant correlations among enzyme activities and microbial population. (scirp.org)
  • Results from novel and standard genotoxicity assays demonstrated that RevitaLens ® MPDS and its disinfectants, ALX and PQ-1 are not genotoxic or clastogenic. (arvojournals.org)
  • Results show that levels of 85B mRNA declined after initiation of therapy, as did viable M. tuberculosis colony counts, with 90% of patients becoming negative for both markers after 2 mo of treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • MTT assay results showed that Mentha arvensis -mediated GSNPs exhibited significant cytotoxicity toward breast cancer cells (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231), which were at par with that of CSNPs. (dovepress.com)
  • Expressing results as colony-forming units reflects this uncertainty. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results clearly indicated that transgenic melon might change microbial communities, enzyme activities and soil chemical properties. (kspbtjpb.org)
  • Regardless of how the media is prepared, it is essential that it functions properly to ensure the assay requiring the media yields accurate results. (pharmaceuticalonline.com)
  • Results show that PUV treatment enhanced the antioxidant capacity of fresh blueberries when assayed with ORAC and FRAP. (ufl.edu)
  • Molecular monitoring of treatment response in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia is performed using the Europe Against Cancer (EAC) qPCR assay using the International Scale (IS). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Colony forming units (CFUs) and acidogenicity were estimated from the treated biofilms. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Important enzymes involved in the composting process include dehydrogenase which reflects microbial activity, B-glucosidases which hydrolyze glucosides, urease involved in N-mineralization, and phosphatases that remove phosphate and sulfate groups from organic matter . (scirp.org)
  • After thermal treatment, the sensitivity of the staining approach was lower, while that of the dehydrogenase activity assay was the highest. (eeer.org)
  • The dehydrogenase activity (DHA) assay is more frequently used to measure the degree of bacterial respiration and estimate biomass in water treatment systems [ 10 ]. (eeer.org)
  • This level of hazard reduction was considered adequate by the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria in Foods (9 April 1997) to reduce microbial hazards that can cause disease outbreaks in these commodities. (fda.gov)
  • The Manual of Environmental Microbiology is an essential reference for environmental microbiologists, microbial ecologists, and environmental engineers, as well as those interested in human diseases, water and wastewater treatment, and biotechnology. (asmscience.org)
  • Moreover, because the gut microbial community reflects the local environment, local plasticity in fecal aggregation pheromones enables colony-specific odors and fidelity to persistent aggregation sites. (pnas.org)
  • The aim of this study was to detect microbial markers to identify the source of fecal pollution in the Bogotá River (Colombia). (iwaponline.com)
  • However, in some instances, fecal contaminants of animal origin can also have a significant impact on microbial water quality and the risk for human health ( WHO 2003 ). (iwaponline.com)
  • Number of colonies were calculated and further compared with the initial time i.e. the time zero after the incubation. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Liquefaction of Petrifilm plates seems to have two effects on accuracy: (i) liquefied areas may allow motile organisms to move and multiply in the liquefied area during the incubation period, yielding more than one colony from one cell and, as a result, leading to overestimation of the microbial load and (ii) the blurred areas obscure other colonies, leading to potential underestimation. (kswfoodmicro.com)
  • This is especially true with slowly growing natural microbial communities cultivated on minimal media that may require a long incubation period of 7 days (Van Nevel et al. (springeropen.com)
  • After 4-5 days incubation at 28°C, separate colonies were counted at 100X using a dissecting microscope. (apsnet.org)
  • 6. The method of claim 2, wherein said catalytically inactive enzyme polypeptide has a binding site capable of binding to said peptidoglycan with a binding affinity of about 5 10 -7 L/mol to about 5 10 -9 L/mol and wherein said conjugate is effective when bound to said eubacteria to produce a detectable signal in a diagnostic assay format. (google.com)
  • The speed, sensitivity (100 %), NPV (100 %) and PPV (100 %) suggest the new heptaplex PCR assay could be easily integrated into a routine diagnostic microbiology workflow. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to the SA-CoNS differential diagnostic essence of the new assay, inclusion of vanA primers will allow microbiology laboratories to stay ahead of the emerging MRSA-VRSA evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our microbial diagnostic generated a high-contrast urine signal through selective expansion in liver metastases (10 6 -fold enrichment) and high expression of a lacZ reporter maintained by engineering a stable plasmid system. (sciencemag.org)