A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
A condition in which inanimate objects are utilized as a preferred or exclusive method of stimulating erotic arousal.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Disorders that include recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving nonhuman objects, suffering of oneself or partners, or children or other nonconsenting partners. (from DSM-IV, 1994)
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Pleasure derived from being physically or psychologically abused, whether inflicted by oneself or by others. Masochism includes sexual masochism.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
Mass of snow and/or ice falling down a mountain or incline.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Myoglobinuria is the presence of myoglobin, a protein found in muscle fibers, in the urine, which can occur due to muscle injury or disease, and may lead to acute kidney injury if excessive.
A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.
Hemorrhage within the orbital cavity, posterior to the eyeball.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.

Spike generation from dorsal roots and cutaneous afferents by hypoxia or hypercapnia in the rat in vivo. (1/274)

The present study aimed at investigating the responsiveness of different parts of the primary afferent neurones to a brief hypoxia, hypercapnia or ischaemia under in vivo conditions. Action potentials were recorded in separate groups of anaesthetized rats from (i) the peripheral end of the central stump of the cut L3, L4 or L5 dorsal root (dorsal root preparation); (ii) the central end of the peripheral stump of the cut saphenous nerve (saphenous-receptor preparation); (iii) the distal end of a segment of the saphenous nerve cut at both ends (axon preparation). In paralysed animals interruption of artificial ventilation for 20-60 s elicited or increased the frequency of action potentials in both the dorsal root and saphenous-receptor preparations. Activation of these preparations was also achieved by inspiration of gas mixtures containing 10-0% oxygen (mixed with nitrogen) or 20-50% carbon dioxide (mixed with oxygen) which elicited in the blood a decrease in PO2 or an increase in PCO2 with a fall in pH. Occlusion of the femoral artery for 3 min also caused spike generation in the saphenous-receptor preparations with little alteration in blood pressure. All these stimuli failed to evoke action potentials in the axon preparations. Systemic (300 mg kg-1 s.c.) or perineural (2%) capsaicin pretreatment failed to inhibit the effect of hypoxia, hypercapnia or ischaemia, indicating a significant contribution of capsaicin-insensitive neurones to the responses. It is concluded that central and peripheral terminals but not axons of primary afferent neurones are excited by a brief hypoxia or hypercapnia and the peripheral terminals by a short local ischaemia as well. Excitation of central terminals by hypoxia or hypercapnia revealed in this way an antidromic activation of dorsal roots in response to natural chemical stimuli.  (+info)

A resuscitated case from asphyxia by large bronchial cast. (2/274)

A 62-year-old woman with bronchiectasis suffered from asphyxia due to a large bronchial cast that obstructed the bronchial tree. Immediate bronchoscopic suction of a bronchial cast of 17 cm in length through the intubated tube relieved the patients without any complications. Large bronchial casts appear to be rare in this century but it should be considered in patients with acute exacerbation of excessive sputa not only in patients with asthma or allergy but also in patients with respiratory tract infection.  (+info)

Unnatural sudden infant death. (3/274)

AIM: To identify features to help paediatricians differentiate between natural and unnatural infant deaths. METHOD: Clinical features of 81 children judged by criminal and family courts to have been killed by their parents were studied. Health and social service records, court documents, and records from meetings with parents, relatives, and social workers were studied. RESULTS: Initially, 42 children had been certified as dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 29 were given another cause of natural death. In 24 families, more than one child died; 58 died before the age of 6 months and most died in the afternoon or evening. Seventy per cent had experienced unexplained illnesses; over half were admitted to hospital within the previous month, and 15 had been discharged within 24 hours of death. The mother, father, or both were responsible for death in 43, five, and two families, respectively. Most homes were disadvantaged--no regular income, receiving income support--and mothers smoked. Half the perpetrators had a history of somatising or factitious disorder. Death was usually by smothering and 43% of children had bruises, petechiae, or blood on the face. CONCLUSIONS: Although certain features are indicative of unnatural infant death, some are also associated with SIDS. Despite the recent reduction in numbers of infants dying suddenly, inadequacies in the assessment of their deaths exist. Until a thorough postmortem examination is combined with evaluation of the history and circumstances of death by an experienced paediatrician, most cases of covert fatal abuse will go undetected. The term SIDS requires revision or abandonment.  (+info)

What is the leading cause of infant mortality? A note on the interpretation of official statistics. (4/274)

OBJECTIVES: According to vital statistics reports, congenital malformation is the leading cause of infant death in the United States and accounts for a much greater proportion of infant mortality than does premature birth. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential underestimation of prematurity-related mortality in current vital statistics reports. METHODS: National mortality data from 1985, 1991, and 1996 were analyzed. RESULTS: The official statistics significantly understate the role of prematurity-related mortality. An alternative etiology-based classification designates prematurity as the underlying cause in approximately one third of all infant deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Although no single scheme is suitable for every objective, analysts and policymakers should recognize the degree to which technical classification practices can influence the apparent importance of various causes of death.  (+info)

Intra-alveolar haemorrhage in sudden infant death syndrome: a cause for concern? (5/274)

BACKGROUND: The "Back to Sleep" campaign in 1991 resulted in a dramatic decrease in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The proportion of presumed SIDS deaths being actually suspicious deaths from airway obstruction is likely to have become relatively greater. There is usually little pathological evidence to suggest smothering, but intra-alveolar haemorrhage appears to be more prominent in cases where interference with the airway is suspected. AIM: To attempt to quantify intra-alveolar haemorrhage to see whether it could be used as a marker to distinguish between smothering/overlaying and SIDS. METHODS: Intra-alveolar haemorrhage was quantified using digital image analysis on haematoxylin/eosin stained sections taken from the lungs of 62 consecutive infants who had died suddenly and unexpectedly. Cases were initially classified according to the original cause of death. After quantitation, the case histories were critically reviewed. Three pathologists independently made microscopic assessments of the degree of intra-alveolar haemorrhage in the first 24 cases to see whether these accurately reflected the quantitative results. RESULTS: 73% of those infants with a history suggesting possible involuntary overlaying and 45% of those with a history suspicious of smothering had significant intra-alveolar haemorrhage (> 5% of total lung surface area assessed). From the history, the cause of death in 11 cases initially classified as SIDS would better have been given as "Unascertained." Simple microscopic assessments underestimated the true extent of the haemorrhage in 33% (8/24). CONCLUSIONS: If a moderate degree (at least 5%) of pulmonary parenchymal haemorrhage is observed, this may be an indicator of airway obstruction for a significant period, either from overlaying or possibly smothering. The diagnosis of SIDS may be being used inappropriately in such cases.  (+info)

Hypothermia during reperfusion after asphyxial cardiac arrest improves functional recovery and selectively alters stress-induced protein expression. (6/274)

This study examined whether prolonged hypothermia induced 1 hour after resuscitation from asphyxial cardiac arrest would improve neurologic outcome and alter levels of stress-related proteins in rats. Rats were resuscitated from 8 minutes of asphyxia resulting in cardiac arrest. Brain temperature was regulated after resuscitation in three groups: normothermia (36.8 degrees C x 24 hours), immediate hypothermia (33 degrees C x 24 hours, beginning immediately after resuscitation), and delayed hypothermia (33 degrees C x 24 hours, beginning 60 minutes after resuscitation). Mortality and neurobehavioral deficits were improved in immediate and delayed hypothermia rats relative to normothermia rats. Furthermore, both immediate and delayed hypothermia improved neuronal survival in the CA1 region of the hippocampus assessed at 14 days. In normothermia rats, the 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) and 40-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp40) were increased within 12 hours after resuscitation in the hippocampus. Delayed hypothermia attenuated the increase in Hsp70 levels in the hippocampus but did not affect Hsp70 induction in the cerebellum. Hippocampal expression of Hsp40 was not affected by hypothermia. These data indicate that prolonged hypothermia during later reperfusion improves neurologic outcome after experimental global ischemia and is associated with selective changes in the pattern of stress-induced protein expression.  (+info)

Suffocated prone: the iatrogenic tragedy of SIDS. (7/274)

Epidemiologic research has shown that prone sleeping is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In a public health review from Sweden, we explored the historical background of the SIDS epidemic, starting with the view of the Catholic Church that sudden infant deaths were infanticides and ending with the slowly disseminated recommendation of a prone sleeping position during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The story of the SIDS epidemic illustrates a pitfall of preventive medicine--the translation of health care routines for patients to general health advice that targets the whole population. False advice, as well as correct advice, may have a profound effect on public health because of the many individuals concerned. Preventive measures must be based on scientific evidence, and systematic supervision and evaluations are necessary to identify the benefits or the harm of the measures. The discovery of the link between prone sleeping and SIDS has been called a success story for epidemiology, but the slow acceptance of the causal relationship between prone sleeping and SIDS illustrates the weak position of epidemiology and public health within the health care system.  (+info)

"Bystander" chest compressions and assisted ventilation independently improve outcome from piglet asphyxial pulseless "cardiac arrest". (8/274)

BACKGROUND: Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) without assisted ventilation may be as effective as CPR with assisted ventilation for ventricular fibrillatory cardiac arrests. However, chest compressions alone or ventilation alone is not effective for complete asphyxial cardiac arrests (loss of aortic pulsations). The objective of this investigation was to determine whether these techniques can independently improve outcome at an earlier stage of the asphyxial process. METHODS AND RESULTS: After induction of anesthesia, 40 piglets (11.5+/-0.3 kg) underwent endotracheal tube clamping (6.8+/-0.3 minutes) until simulated pulselessness, defined as aortic systolic pressure <50 mm Hg. For the 8-minute "bystander CPR" period, animals were randomly assigned to chest compressions and assisted ventilation (CC+V), chest compressions only (CC), assisted ventilation only (V), or no bystander CPR (control group). Return of spontaneous circulation occurred during the first 2 minutes of bystander CPR in 10 of 10 CC+V piglets, 6 of 10 V piglets, 4 of 10 CC piglets, and none of the controls (CC+V or V versus controls, P<0.01; CC+V versus CC and V combined, P=0.01). During the first minute of CPR, arterial and mixed venous blood gases were superior in the 3 experimental groups compared with the controls. Twenty-four-hour survival was similarly superior in the 3 experimental groups compared with the controls (8 of 10, 6 of 10, 5 of 10, and 0 of 10, P<0.05 each). CONCLUSIONS: Bystander CPR with CC+V improves outcome in the early stages of apparent pulseless asphyxial cardiac arrest. In addition, this study establishes that bystander CPR with CC or V can independently improve outcome.  (+info)

Asphyxia is a medical condition that occurs when there is insufficient oxygen supply or excessive carbon dioxide buildup in the body, leading to impaired respiration and oxygenation of organs. This can result in unconsciousness, damage to internal organs, and potentially death if not treated promptly.

Asphyxia can be caused by various factors such as strangulation, choking, smoke inhalation, chemical exposure, or drowning. Symptoms of asphyxia may include shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes), rapid heartbeat, confusion, and eventually loss of consciousness.

Immediate medical attention is required for individuals experiencing symptoms of asphyxia. Treatment may involve providing supplemental oxygen, removing the source of obstruction or exposure to harmful substances, and supporting respiratory function with mechanical ventilation if necessary. Prevention measures include avoiding hazardous environments, using proper safety equipment, and seeking prompt medical attention in case of suspected asphyxiation.

Asphyxia neonatorum is a medical condition that refers to a newborn baby's lack of oxygen or difficulty breathing, which can lead to suffocation and serious complications. It is often caused by problems during the birthing process, such as umbilical cord compression or prolapse, placental abruption, or prolonged labor.

Symptoms of asphyxia neonatorum may include bluish skin color (cyanosis), weak or absent breathing, poor muscle tone, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and a slow heart rate. In severe cases, it can lead to organ damage, developmental delays, or even death.

Prompt medical attention is necessary to diagnose and treat asphyxia neonatorum. Treatment may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and medications to support the baby's heart function and blood pressure. In some cases, therapeutic hypothermia (cooling the body) may be used to reduce the risk of brain damage. Preventive measures such as proper prenatal care, timely delivery, and careful monitoring during labor and delivery can also help reduce the risk of asphyxia neonatorum.

Fetal hypoxia is a medical condition that refers to a reduced level of oxygen supply to the fetus. This can occur due to various reasons, such as maternal health problems, complications during pregnancy or delivery, or issues with the placenta. Prolonged fetal hypoxia can lead to serious complications, including brain damage and even fetal death. It is important for healthcare providers to closely monitor fetal oxygen levels during pregnancy and delivery to ensure the well-being of the fetus.

Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain refers to a condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen (hypoxia) and blood flow (ischemia) to the brain. This can lead to serious damage or death of brain cells, depending on the severity and duration of the hypoxic-ischemic event.

Hypoxia occurs when there is insufficient oxygen available to meet the metabolic needs of the brain tissue. Ischemia results from a decrease in blood flow, which can be caused by various factors such as cardiac arrest, stroke, or severe respiratory distress. When both hypoxia and ischemia occur together, they can have a synergistic effect, leading to more severe brain damage.

Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia can result in neurological deficits, cognitive impairment, and physical disabilities, depending on the area of the brain affected. Treatment typically focuses on addressing the underlying cause of the hypoxia-ischemia and providing supportive care to minimize secondary damage. In some cases, therapeutic hypothermia may be used to reduce metabolic demands and protect vulnerable brain tissue.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Birth injuries refer to damages or injuries that a baby suffers during the birthing process. These injuries can result from various factors, such as mechanical forces during delivery, medical negligence, or complications during pregnancy or labor. Some common examples of birth injuries include:

1. Brachial plexus injuries: Damage to the nerves that control movement and feeling in the arms and hands, often caused by excessive pulling or stretching during delivery.
2. Cephalohematoma: A collection of blood between the skull and the periosteum (the membrane covering the bone), usually caused by trauma during delivery.
3. Caput succedaneum: Swelling of the soft tissues of the baby's scalp, often resulting from pressure on the head during labor and delivery.
4. Fractures: Broken bones, such as a clavicle or skull fracture, can occur due to mechanical forces during delivery.
5. Intracranial hemorrhage: Bleeding in or around the brain, which can result from trauma during delivery or complications like high blood pressure in the mother.
6. Perinatal asphyxia: A lack of oxygen supply to the baby before, during, or immediately after birth, which can lead to brain damage and other health issues.
7. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva (the clear membrane covering the eye), often caused by pressure on the head during delivery.
8. Spinal cord injuries: Damage to the spinal cord, which can result in paralysis or other neurological issues, may occur due to excessive force during delivery or medical negligence.

It's important to note that some birth injuries are unavoidable and may not be a result of medical malpractice. However, if a healthcare provider fails to provide the standard of care expected during pregnancy, labor, or delivery, they may be held liable for any resulting injuries.

The Apgar score is a quick assessment of the physical condition of a newborn infant, assessed by measuring heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and skin color. It is named after Virginia Apgar, an American anesthesiologist who developed it in 1952. The score is usually given at one minute and five minutes after birth, with a possible range of 0 to 10. Scores of 7 and above are considered normal, while scores of 4-6 indicate moderate distress, and scores below 4 indicate severe distress. The Apgar score can provide important information for making decisions about the need for resuscitation or other medical interventions after birth.

The umbilical cord is a flexible, tube-like structure that connects the developing fetus to the placenta in the uterus during pregnancy. It arises from the abdomen of the fetus and transports essential nutrients, oxygen, and blood from the mother's circulation to the growing baby. Additionally, it carries waste products, such as carbon dioxide, from the fetus back to the placenta for elimination. The umbilical cord is primarily composed of two arteries (the umbilical arteries) and one vein (the umbilical vein), surrounded by a protective gelatinous substance called Wharton's jelly, and enclosed within a fibrous outer covering known as the umbilical cord coating. Following birth, the umbilical cord is clamped and cut, leaving behind the stump that eventually dries up and falls off, resulting in the baby's belly button.

Infant Mortality is the death of a baby before their first birthday. The infant mortality rate is typically expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births. This is a key indicator of the overall health of a population and is often used to measure the well-being of children in a society.

Infant mortality can be further categorized into neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days of life) and postneonatal mortality (death after 28 days of life but before one year). The main causes of infant mortality vary by country and region, but generally include premature birth, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and infectious diseases.

Reducing infant mortality is a major public health goal for many countries, and efforts to improve maternal and child health, access to quality healthcare, and socioeconomic conditions are crucial in achieving this goal.

Induced hypothermia is a medically controlled lowering of the core body temperature to around 89.6-93.2°F (32-34°C) for therapeutic purposes. It is intentionally induced to reduce the metabolic rate and oxygen demand of organs, thereby offering protection during periods of low blood flow or inadequate oxygenation, such as during cardiac bypass surgery, severe trauma, or after a cardiac arrest. The deliberate induction and maintenance of hypothermia can help minimize tissue damage and improve outcomes in specific clinical scenarios. Once the risk has passed, the body temperature is gradually rewarmed to normal levels under controlled conditions.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Resuscitation is a medical term that refers to the process of reversing cardiopulmonary arrest or preventing further deterioration of someone in cardiac or respiratory arrest. It involves a series of interventions aimed at restoring spontaneous blood circulation and breathing, thereby preventing or minimizing tissue damage due to lack of oxygen.

The most common form of resuscitation is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), which combines chest compressions to manually pump blood through the body with rescue breaths to provide oxygen to the lungs. In a hospital setting, more advanced techniques such as defibrillation, medication administration, and intubation may also be used as part of the resuscitation process.

The goal of resuscitation is to stabilize the patient's condition and prevent further harm while treating the underlying cause of the arrest. Successful resuscitation can lead to a full recovery or, in some cases, result in varying degrees of neurological impairment depending on the severity and duration of the cardiac or respiratory arrest.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Obstetrical forceps are a surgical instrument used in childbirth to help deliver a baby when there are difficulties in the normal birthing process. They are a pair of curved metal instruments that resemble tongs, with each part designed to grip onto specific areas of the baby's head. The forceps are carefully applied to the baby's head during a contraction, and then used to gently guide the baby out of the mother's birth canal. This procedure is called an assisted vaginal delivery or operative vaginal delivery.

Obstetrical forceps require precise knowledge and skill to use safely and effectively, as their misuse can lead to complications such as facial injuries, skull fractures, or nerve damage in the baby. Therefore, they are typically used by experienced obstetricians in specific clinical situations, such as when the labor is prolonged, when the baby shows signs of distress, or when there is a need for a quick delivery due to maternal health concerns.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

Brain hypoxia is a medical condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen to the brain. The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen to function properly, and even a brief period of hypoxia can cause significant damage to brain cells.

Hypoxia can result from various conditions, such as cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. When the brain is deprived of oxygen, it can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, disorientation, seizures, loss of consciousness, and ultimately, brain death.

Brain hypoxia is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage or death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of hypoxia, such as administering oxygen therapy, resuscitating the heart, or treating respiratory failure. In some cases, more invasive treatments, such as therapeutic hypothermia or mechanical ventilation, may be necessary to prevent further brain damage.

Apnea is a medical condition defined as the cessation of breathing for 10 seconds or more. It can occur during sleep (sleep apnea) or while awake (wakeful apnea). There are different types of sleep apnea, including obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, and complex sleep apnea syndrome. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when the airway becomes blocked during sleep, while central sleep apnea occurs when the brain fails to signal the muscles to breathe. Complex sleep apnea syndrome, also known as treatment-emergent central sleep apnea, is a combination of obstructive and central sleep apneas. Sleep apnea can lead to various complications, such as fatigue, difficulty concentrating, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke.

Obstetric labor complications refer to any physical or physiological difficulties that arise during the process of childbirth (labor) and can pose risks to the health of the mother, baby, or both. These complications may result from various factors such as pre-existing medical conditions, fetal distress, prolonged labor, abnormal positioning of the fetus, or issues related to the size or weight of the baby.

Some examples of obstetric labor complications include:

1. Fetal distress: This occurs when the fetus is not receiving adequate oxygen supply or is in danger during labor. It can be caused by various factors such as umbilical cord compression, placental abruption, or maternal anemia.
2. Prolonged labor: When labor lasts for more than 20 hours in first-time mothers or more than 14 hours in subsequent pregnancies, it is considered prolonged labor. This can lead to fatigue, infection, and other complications for both the mother and baby.
3. Abnormal positioning of the fetus: Normally, the fetus should be positioned head-down (vertex) before delivery. However, if the fetus is in a breech or transverse position, it can lead to difficult labor and increased risk of complications during delivery.
4. Shoulder dystocia: This occurs when the baby's shoulders get stuck behind the mother's pubic bone during delivery, making it challenging to deliver the baby. It can cause injuries to both the mother and the baby.
5. Placental abruption: This is a serious complication where the placenta separates from the uterus before delivery, leading to bleeding and potential oxygen deprivation for the fetus.
6. Uterine rupture: A rare but life-threatening complication where the uterus tears during labor, causing severe bleeding and potentially endangering both the mother and baby's lives.
7. Preeclampsia/eclampsia: This is a pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder that can lead to complications such as seizures, organ failure, or even maternal death if left untreated.
8. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
9. Infections: Maternal infections during pregnancy or childbirth can lead to complications for both the mother and baby, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and even fetal death.
10. Anesthesia complications: Adverse reactions to anesthesia during delivery can cause respiratory depression, allergic reactions, or other complications that may endanger the mother's life.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

A "newborn infant" refers to a baby in the first 28 days of life outside of the womb. This period is crucial for growth and development, but also poses unique challenges as the infant's immune system is not fully developed, making them more susceptible to various diseases.

"Newborn diseases" are health conditions that specifically affect newborn infants. These can be categorized into three main types:

1. Congenital disorders: These are conditions that are present at birth and may be inherited or caused by factors such as infection, exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy, or chromosomal abnormalities. Examples include Down syndrome, congenital heart defects, and spina bifida.

2. Infectious diseases: Newborn infants are particularly vulnerable to infections due to their immature immune systems. Common infectious diseases in newborns include sepsis (bloodstream infection), pneumonia, and meningitis. These can be acquired from the mother during pregnancy or childbirth, or from the environment after birth.

3. Developmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the normal growth and development of the newborn infant. Examples include cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, and vision or hearing impairments.

It is important to note that many newborn diseases can be prevented or treated with appropriate medical care, including prenatal care, proper hygiene practices, and timely vaccinations. Regular check-ups and monitoring of the newborn's health by a healthcare provider are essential for early detection and management of any potential health issues.

Paraphilias are a category of mental disorders characterized by recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors that involve unusual objects, activities, or situations and cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors may be directed toward children, non-consenting individuals, or causing physical harm to oneself or others. Some examples include voyeuristic disorder, exhibitionistic disorder, frotteuristic disorder, sexual masochism disorder, sexual sadism disorder, pedophilic disorder, fetishistic disorder, and transvestic disorder. It's important to note that these behaviors must be causing distress or impairment in order for it to be considered a disorder.

Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions that arise in childhood and are characterized by significant impairments in cognitive functioning, physical development, or both. These disabilities can affect various areas of an individual's life, including their ability to learn, communicate, socialize, and take care of themselves.

Examples of developmental disabilities include intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These conditions are typically diagnosed in childhood and can persist throughout an individual's life.

The causes of developmental disabilities are varied and can include genetic factors, environmental influences, and complications during pregnancy or childbirth. In some cases, the exact cause may be unknown.

It is important to note that individuals with developmental disabilities have unique strengths and abilities, as well as challenges. With appropriate support and services, they can lead fulfilling lives and participate actively in their communities.

Medical masochism is a psychological condition where an individual experiences sexual pleasure or gratification from experiencing pain, humiliation, or suffering. It's important to note that in a clinical context, masochism refers to a pattern of behavior that causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The term "masochism" comes from the name of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, an Austrian novelist who wrote about sexual relationships involving domination and submission. In a broader sense, masochistic behavior can also refer to seeking out situations that are challenging, difficult, or painful as a way to achieve personal growth or satisfaction.

It's worth noting that in the context of consensual BDSM (bondage, discipline, dominance, submission, sadism, masochism) practices, masochism can be a safe and enjoyable form of sexual expression for some people, as long as it is engaged in with mutual consent, clear communication, and appropriate safety measures.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Fetal monitoring is a procedure used during labor and delivery to assess the well-being of the fetus. It involves the use of electronic devices to measure and record the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. The information obtained from fetal monitoring can help healthcare providers identify any signs of fetal distress, such as a decreased fetal heart rate, which may indicate the need for interventions or an emergency cesarean delivery.

There are two main types of fetal monitoring: external and internal. External fetal monitoring involves placing sensors on the mother's abdomen to detect the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. Internal fetal monitoring, which is typically used during high-risk deliveries, involves inserting an electrode into the fetus' scalp to measure the fetal heart rate more accurately.

Fetal monitoring can provide valuable information about the fetus's well-being during labor and delivery, but it is important to note that it has limitations and may not always detect fetal distress in a timely manner. Therefore, healthcare providers must use their clinical judgment and other assessment tools, such as fetal movement counting and visual examination of the fetus, to ensure the safe delivery of the baby.

A fetus is the developing offspring in a mammal, from the end of the embryonic period (approximately 8 weeks after fertilization in humans) until birth. In humans, the fetal stage of development starts from the eleventh week of pregnancy and continues until childbirth, which is termed as full-term pregnancy at around 37 to 40 weeks of gestation. During this time, the organ systems become fully developed and the body grows in size. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid within the amniotic sac and is connected to the placenta via the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother. Regular prenatal care is essential during this period to monitor the growth and development of the fetus and ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve unwanted physical events or experiences that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, or waking up. These behaviors can include abnormal movements, talk, emotions, perceptions, or dreams. Parasomnias can be caused by various factors such as stress, alcohol, certain medications, or underlying medical conditions. Some examples of parasomnias are sleepwalking, night terrors, sleep talking, and REM sleep behavior disorder. These disorders can disrupt sleep and cause distress to the individual and their bed partner.

An avalanche is not a medical term, but rather a natural phenomenon. It refers to the rapid downward movement of snow, ice, and rocks down a sloping surface, usually a mountain. Avalanches can be triggered by various factors such as heavy snowfall, rain, wind, earthquakes, or human activity. They pose a significant hazard to people living in or traveling through mountainous regions, including skiers, snowboarders, hikers, and rescue workers.

However, it is worth noting that the term "avalanche" has been used metaphorically in medical contexts to describe sudden, overwhelming events or processes, such as an avalanche of symptoms or an avalanche of medical data.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Fetal heart rate (FHR) is the number of times a fetus's heart beats in one minute. It is measured through the use of a fetoscope, Doppler ultrasound device, or cardiotocograph (CTG). A normal FHR ranges from 120 to 160 beats per minute (bpm), although it can vary throughout pregnancy and is usually faster than an adult's heart rate. Changes in the FHR pattern may indicate fetal distress, hypoxia, or other conditions that require medical attention. Regular monitoring of FHR during pregnancy, labor, and delivery helps healthcare providers assess fetal well-being and ensure a safe outcome for both the mother and the baby.

Fetal death, also known as stillbirth or intrauterine fetal demise, is defined as the death of a fetus at 20 weeks of gestation or later. The criteria for defining fetal death may vary slightly by country and jurisdiction, but in general, it refers to the loss of a pregnancy after the point at which the fetus is considered viable outside the womb.

Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including chromosomal abnormalities, placental problems, maternal health conditions, infections, and umbilical cord accidents. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may remain unknown.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound or other imaging tests, which can confirm the absence of a heartbeat or movement in the fetus. Once fetal death has been diagnosed, medical professionals will work with the parents to determine the best course of action for managing the pregnancy and delivering the fetus. This may involve waiting for labor to begin naturally, inducing labor, or performing a cesarean delivery.

Experiencing a fetal death can be a very difficult and emotional experience for parents, and it is important for them to receive supportive care from their healthcare providers, family members, and friends. Grief counseling and support groups may also be helpful in coping with the loss.

A stillbirth is defined as the delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy. The baby may die at any time during the pregnancy, but death must occur after 20 weeks to be classified as a stillbirth. Stillbirths can have many different causes, including problems with the placenta or umbilical cord, chromosomal abnormalities, infections, and birth defects. In some cases, the cause of a stillbirth may not be able to be determined.

Stillbirth is a tragic event that can have significant emotional and psychological impacts on the parents and other family members. It is important for healthcare providers to offer support and resources to help families cope with their loss. This may include counseling, support groups, and information about memorializing their baby.

Myoglobinuria is a medical condition characterized by the presence of myoglobin in the urine. Myoglobin is a protein found in muscle cells that is released into the bloodstream when muscle tissue is damaged or broken down, such as during intense exercise, trauma, or muscle diseases like muscular dystrophy and rhabdomyolysis.

When myoglobin is present in high concentrations in the blood, it can damage the kidneys by causing direct tubular injury, cast formation, and obstruction, which can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) or even renal failure if left untreated. Symptoms of myoglobinuria may include dark-colored urine, muscle pain, weakness, and swelling, as well as symptoms related to AKI such as nausea, vomiting, and decreased urine output.

Diagnosis of myoglobinuria is typically made by detecting myoglobin in the urine using a dipstick test or more specific tests like immunoassays or mass spectrometry. Treatment may involve aggressive fluid resuscitation, alkalization of the urine to prevent myoglobin precipitation, and management of any underlying conditions causing muscle damage.

Fetal distress is a term used to describe situations where a fetus is experiencing problems during labor or delivery that are causing significant physiological changes. These changes may include an abnormal heart rate, decreased oxygen levels, or the presence of meconium (the baby's first stool) in the amniotic fluid. Fetal distress can be caused by a variety of factors, such as problems with the umbilical cord, placental abruption, maternal high blood pressure, or prolonged labor. It is important to monitor fetal well-being during labor and delivery to detect and address any signs of fetal distress promptly. Treatment may include changing the mother's position, administering oxygen, giving intravenous fluids, or performing an emergency cesarean section.

A retrobulbar hemorrhage is a rare but serious condition that involves the accumulation of blood in the retrobulbar space, which is the area between the back surface of the eyeball (the globe) and the front part of the bony socket (orbit) that contains it. This space is normally filled with fatty tissue and various supportive structures like muscles, nerves, and blood vessels.

Retrobulbar hemorrhage typically occurs as a result of trauma or surgery to the eye or orbit, causing damage to the blood vessels in this area. The bleeding can lead to increased pressure within the orbit, which may compress the optic nerve and restrict the flow of blood and oxygen to the eye. This can result in rapid vision loss, proptosis (forward displacement of the eyeball), pain, and other ocular dysfunctions.

Immediate medical attention is required for retrobulbar hemorrhage, as it can lead to permanent visual impairment or blindness if not treated promptly. Treatment options may include observation, medication, or surgical intervention to relieve the pressure and restore blood flow to the eye.

Chronic brain damage is a condition characterized by long-term, persistent injury to the brain that results in cognitive, physical, and behavioral impairments. It can be caused by various factors such as trauma, hypoxia (lack of oxygen), infection, toxic exposure, or degenerative diseases. The effects of chronic brain damage may not be immediately apparent and can worsen over time, leading to significant disability and reduced quality of life.

The symptoms of chronic brain damage can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include:

* Cognitive impairments such as memory loss, difficulty concentrating, trouble with problem-solving and decision-making, and decreased learning ability
* Motor impairments such as weakness, tremors, poor coordination, and balance problems
* Sensory impairments such as hearing or vision loss, numbness, tingling, or altered sense of touch
* Speech and language difficulties such as aphasia (problems with understanding or producing speech) or dysarthria (slurred or slow speech)
* Behavioral changes such as irritability, mood swings, depression, anxiety, and personality changes

Chronic brain damage can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, neurological evaluation, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and maximizing function through rehabilitation therapies such as occupational therapy, speech therapy, and physical therapy. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to address specific symptoms or underlying causes of the brain damage.

Neonatal Intensive Care (NIC) is a specialized medical care for newborn babies who are born prematurely, have low birth weight, or have medical conditions that require advanced medical intervention. This can include monitoring and support for breathing, heart function, temperature regulation, and nutrition. NICUs are staffed with healthcare professionals trained in neonatology, nursing, respiratory therapy, and other specialized areas to provide the highest level of care for these vulnerable infants.

The goal of NICU is to stabilize the newborn's condition, treat medical problems, promote growth and development, and support the family throughout the hospitalization and transition to home. The level of care provided in a NICU can vary depending on the severity of the infant's condition, ranging from basic monitoring and support to complex treatments such as mechanical ventilation, surgery, and medication therapy.

In general, NICUs are classified into different levels based on the complexity of care they can provide. Level I NICUs provide basic care for infants born at or near term who require minimal medical intervention. Level II NICUs provide more advanced care for premature or sick newborns who require specialized monitoring and treatment but do not need surgery or complex therapies. Level III NICUs provide the highest level of care, including advanced respiratory support, surgical services, and critical care for critically ill infants with complex medical conditions.

Blood gas analysis is a medical test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as the pH level, which indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the blood. This test is often used to evaluate lung function, respiratory disorders, and acid-base balance in the body. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. The analysis is typically performed on a sample of arterial blood, although venous blood may also be used in some cases.

A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. They may face various health challenges because their organs are not fully developed. The earlier a baby is born, the higher the risk of complications. Prematurity can lead to short-term and long-term health issues, such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, infections, hearing problems, vision problems, developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. Intensive medical care and support are often necessary for premature infants to ensure their survival and optimal growth and development.

"Traumatic asphyxia" or "crush asphyxia" usually refers to compressive asphyxia resulting from being crushed or pinned under a ... According to DiMaio and DiMaio, mechanical asphyxia encompasses positional asphyxia, traumatic asphyxia, and "human pile" ... According to Shkrum and Ramsay, mechanical asphyxia encompasses smothering, choking, positional asphyxia, traumatic asphyxia, ... thus encompassing only positional asphyxia and traumatic asphyxia. If there are symptoms of mechanical asphyxia, it is ...
... , also known as Mount Curry, is a prominent volcanic cone reaching to 550 metres (1,800 ft), forming the summit ... This article incorporates public domain material from "Mount Asphyxia". Geographic Names Information System. United States ...
Asphyxia is a condition of deficient supply of oxygen to the body. It may also refer to: Mount Asphyxia Asphyxia (film), a 2017 ... Asphyxia (author) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Asphyxia. If an internal link led you here ... Iranian neo-noir film "Asphyxia", a song by The Network from the 2020 album Money Money 2020 Part II: We Told Ya So! ...
... , also known as postural asphyxia, is a form of asphyxia which occurs when someone's position prevents the ... Positional asphyxia may also occur as a result of accident or illness, according to a 2008 article in the Journal of Forensic ... Positional asphyxia is not limited to restraint in a face down position according to a 2011 article in Medicine, Science, and ... "Floyd died of asphyxia - private post-mortem". BBC News. June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020. Hauck, Grace; Wagner, Dennis ( ...
For 20 years, Asphyxia lived in a small cottage in inner city Melbourne which she built herself when she was just 22, with her ... Asphyxia has joined forces with Orange Entertainment Co to adapt the book for the screen. Formerly a puppeteer, she is also the ... "Asphyxia wins the Readings Young Adult Book Prize 2021 by Kealy Siryj & Xiao-Xiao Kingham". "Best YA Fiction of 2021". "Kate ... Asphyxia is a deaf Australian artist, writer, activist and public speaker. She is the author of Future Girl (Australian title ...
Asphyxia'". Variety. Retrieved 8 September 2018. Dalton, Stephen (2 December 2017). "'Asphyxia': Film Review; Tallinn 2017". ... Asphyxia is a 2017 Iranian neo-noir film written, produced and directed by Fereydoun Jeyrani and starring Navid Mohammadzadeh, ... Asphyxia at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, 2017 films, Template film date ...
For individuals who survive the initial crush injury, survival rates are high for traumatic asphyxia. Asphyxia Crush syndrome ... Traumatic asphyxia occurs when a powerful compressive force is applied to the thoracic cavity. This is most often seen in motor ... Traumatic asphyxia is characterized by cyanosis in the upper extremities, neck, and head as well as petechiae in the ... Traumatic asphyxia, or Perthes's syndrome, is a medical emergency caused by an intense compression of the thoracic cavity, ...
... (also known as neonatal asphyxia or birth asphyxia) is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of ... Perinatal asphyxia is also an oxygen deficit from the 28th week of gestation to the first seven days following delivery. It is ... Perinatal asphyxia happens in 2 to 10 per 1000 newborns that are born at term, and more for those that are born prematurely. ... Extreme degrees of asphyxia can cause cardiac arrest and death. If resuscitation is successful, the infant is usually ...
An asphyxiant gas, also known as a simple asphyxiant, is a nontoxic or minimally toxic gas which reduces or displaces the ... Asphyxiant gases in the breathing air are normally not hazardous. Only where elevated concentrations of asphyxiant gases ... Notable examples of asphyxiant gases are methane, nitrogen, argon, helium, butane and propane. Along with trace gases such as ... However, asphyxiant gases may displace carbon dioxide along with oxygen, preventing the victim from feeling short of breath. In ...
The Boulet Asphyxiant was a rumoured Russian chemical weapon during the Crimean War. The rumour was first found in the French ... The Asphyxiant, according to the rumour, was a liquid fire that exploded under the water's surface, producing a gas that ... According to the rumour, the Asphyxiant was developed by a French chemical researcher, M. Fortier, in 1839. He approached the ... Fortier's Asphyxiant was then allegedly discovered during the Crimean War after the Battle of Sinop; those Turkish sailors who ...
"Asphyxia". pathology.ubc.ca. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Koiwai, Karl. How Safe is Choking in Judo?. ... Compression of the laryngopharynx, larynx, or trachea-causing asphyxia. Stimulation of the carotid sinus reflex-causing ... Jones, Richard (26 February 2006). "Asphyxia". forensicmed.co.uk. Archived from the original on 26 February 2006. Jones, ... limited or interrupted strangling is practised in erotic asphyxia, in the choking game, and is an important technique in many ...
"Asphyxia". pathology.ubc.ca. Archived from the original on September 27, 2009. Grant, Tavia; Grant, Kelly; Gray, Jeff (December ...
5th edition 1976 ISBN 978-0-07-070977-5 with Robert F. Pitts: Asphyxia neonatorum: Its relation to the fetal blood, circulation ... Ranck, James B.; Windle, William F. (1959). "Brain damage in the monkey, Macaca mulatta, by asphyxia neonatorum". Experimental ... See trigeminal nerve.) Windle, W.F.; Becker, R.F. (1943). "Asphyxia neonatorum". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ... as editor with E. Harold Hinman: Neurological and Psychological Deficits of Asphyxia Neonatorum. 1958. ASIN B000IA6HEK. Windle ...
"Special Thanks". Aspherical Asphyxia Productions. Retrieved 2008-02-13. Official site, with download mirrors Release page at ... Oleg Paschenko - cover art Ivan 'Fever' (head of Aspherical Asphyxia) - management, mixing of tracks 4 and 10 on disc 2, final ...
"The Violets - Asphyxia". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 10 April 2014. "Krell Studios Profile". Discogs. Retrieved 15 ...
"Asphyxia on Steam". Valve. August 4, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2015. "Sakura Beach on Steam". Valve. August 14, 2015. Retrieved ...
Gagging anybody is very risky, as it involves a substantial risk of asphyxia if the subject's nose is blocked while wearing a ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gags (BDSM). Scold's bridle "Autoerotic Asphyxia". h2g2 - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the ...
Johnson, Sir George (1889). An Essay on Asphyxia. J & A Churchill. Citations Brown 2009. Webb 1901. Cook 2006, p. 37. Ruddick ...
... asphyxia and mock execution; electric shocks (specifically electrodes attached to genitals); burning with cigarettes; ...
Ann Pharmacotherapy 1996;30:733-5. Heiskell, Lawrence E. (9 September 2019). "How To Prevent Positional Asphyxia". www. ... "Restraint Asphyxia"". https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/181655.pdf[bare URL PDF] Barry, J. D.; Hennessy, R.; McManus, ...
De Asphyxia Infantium Recens Natorum. Heyder, Erlangen 1834. Die Anzeigen zu den geburtshülflichen Operationen. (Indices of ...
Parker RB (July 1956). "Maternal death from aspiration asphyxia". British Medical Journal. 2 (4983): 16-9. doi:10.1136/bmj. ...
Some individual cases of women with erotic asphyxia have been reported. The main age of accidental death is mid-20s, but deaths ... Deaths often occur when the loss of consciousness caused by partial asphyxia leads to loss of control over the means of ... Uva (1995) writes "Estimates of the mortality rate of autoerotic asphyxia range from 250 to 1000 deaths per year in the United ... In the film Ken Park a character named Tate practices autoerotic asphyxia. Autoerotic asphyxiation occurs in the cold open of ...
Asphyxia (living, Australia), ch. wr. & puppeteer Marie Aspioti (1909-2000, Gk), wr. & poet Ruth Aspöck (b. 1947, Austria/ ...
Doctors believe he died of asphyxia. Some believe that this was not a suicide, but that he died from mysterious causes. In a ...
"Dark Asphyxia - 'Executioner' EP Review SonicAbuse". Sonicabuse.com. 28 February 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2018. "Dark Asphyxia ... In this facility, he recently produced early demos for Dark Asphyxia's 2016 EP Executioner and subsequently, in 2018, their ...
Autoerotic asphyxia is the leading cause. 70 to 80% of autoerotic deaths are caused by hanging, while 10 to 30% are attributed ... Both of these lead to autoerotic asphyxia. 5 to 10% are related to electrocution, foreign body insertion, overdressing/body ... who had experimented with autoerotic asphyxia after reading about it in that publication. Stephen Milligan, a British ...
"SANGRE ETERNA's 'Asphyxia' Due In February". Blabbermouth.net. 23 December 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2015. "SORROWFUL ANGELS ...
Suffocation is the process of Asphyxia. Suffocation or Suffocate may also refer to: Suffocation (band), an American death metal ...
"Asphyxia 'Likely Cause' of Soham Deaths". BBC News. 7 November 2003. Beyond Evil: Inside the Twisted Mind of Ian Huntley ISBN ...
"Traumatic asphyxia" or "crush asphyxia" usually refers to compressive asphyxia resulting from being crushed or pinned under a ... According to DiMaio and DiMaio, mechanical asphyxia encompasses positional asphyxia, traumatic asphyxia, and "human pile" ... According to Shkrum and Ramsay, mechanical asphyxia encompasses smothering, choking, positional asphyxia, traumatic asphyxia, ... thus encompassing only positional asphyxia and traumatic asphyxia. If there are symptoms of mechanical asphyxia, it is ...
... and electrodiagnostic characteristics of 20 children with cortical visual impairment secondary to birth asphyxia. Clinical di … ... Cortical visual impairment following birth asphyxia Pediatr Neurol. 1986 May-Jun;2(3):133-7. doi: 10.1016/0887-8994(86)90003-2 ... and electrodiagnostic characteristics of 20 children with cortical visual impairment secondary to birth asphyxia. Clinical ...
When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. ...
When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. ...
Jeremy Luke Hill is the publisher at Vocamus Press, a micro-press that publishes the literary culture of Guelph, Ontario. He is also the Managing Director at Vocamus Writers Community, a non-profit community organization that supports book culture in Guelph.. He has written a collection of poetry, short prose and photography called Island Pieces, a chapbook of poetry called These My Streets, and an ongoing series of poetry broadsheets called Conversations with Viral Media. His criticism and poetry have appeared in places like ARC Poetry, The Bull Calf, CV2, EVENT Magazine, filling station, Free Fall, The Goose, paperplates, Queen Mobs Tea House, The Rusty Toque, The Town Crier, and The Windsor Review.. ...
Antenatal allopurinol for reduction of birth asphyxia induced brain damage (ALLO-Trial); a randomized double blind placebo ... Antenatal allopurinol for reduction of birth asphyxia induced brain damage (ALLO-Trial); a randomized double blind placebo ...
Birth Asphyxia - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Birth asphyxia (also called perinatal asphyxia) is a decrease in blood flow to the newborns tissues or a decrease in oxygen in ... Birth asphyxia is a decrease in blood flow to a newborns tissues or a decrease in oxygen in a newborns blood before, during, ... Most of the organs damaged by birth asphyxia recover over a week, but brain damage may persist in some infants. Infants who ...
ByAsphyxia. Pipers mum wants her to be normal, to pass as hearing and get a good job. But when peak oil hits and Melbourne ...
what about the parameter for diagnosis asphyxia in the newborn, the arterial blood gases mean as an important score ... Does anyone have any experience with other asphyxia markers ?. Yes. Cerebral US is a good marker. Please read my artile about ... what about the parameter for diagnosis asphyxia in the newborn, the arterial blood gases mean as an important score ... Significant birth asphyxia should be considered if BD30 exceeds 10 mmol/L. ...
Asphyxia. Mechanical or positional asphyxia can cause death, and a thorough scene investigation is paramount when making this ... Asphyxia: a rare cause of death for motor vehicle crash occupants. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2008 Mar. 29(1):14-8. [QxMD ... In a rollover accident in which the vehicle comes to rest on its roof, the belted occupant becomes susceptible to asphyxia, ... Asphyxia as a mechanism must be excluded before certifying a natural death. ...
p style=text-align:justify;font-size:9px;font-family:Times;,,b,,i,Introduction:,/i,,/b,,i, Dyspnea and asphyxia caused by ... Introduction: Dyspnea and asphyxia caused by incision hemorrhage after thyroid surgery is the most serious complication of ... PREVENTIVE BOUGIE PLACEMENT IN TREATING ASPHYXIA CAUSED BY HEMATOMA AFTER THYROIDECTOMY: A CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW ...
Ewp Ewprod Hanging Asphyxia Lisa LINK ,,, https://urluso.com/2sF56P . Une nouvelle étude sur le stress, la gynécologie, le mode ...
Asphyxia - Useless Searching (live au Tremplin 2017).. August 21, 2018 in Africa, Concerts, Metal ...
... of cases in the asphyxia group and in 20% of controls but was only performed in 16% of asphyxiated infants and in 8% of ... Birth asphyxia and the intrapartum cardiotocograph. Murphy KW., Johnson P., Moorcraft J., Pattinson R., Russell V., Turnbull A. ... Fetal Blood, Humans, Acidosis, Respiratory, Asphyxia Neonatorum, Observer Variation, Cardiotocography, Retrospective Studies, ... of cases in the asphyxia group and in 20% of controls but was only performed in 16% of asphyxiated infants and in 8% of ...
Discover all of the XXX movies featuring Asphyxia and all of your other favorite pornstars for free right now! ... Check out the impressive selection of Asphyxia porn videos available to stream on the worlds best porno tube, hdblowjobtube. ...
Asphyxia due to drowning.. RECOMMENDATIONS/DISCUSSION. Recommendation #1: Provide tractors equipped with roll-over protective ...
Asphyxia. *PPHN can occur in isolation or as a result of any of the above diagnoses, with the exception of structural heart ...
CRUZ, Ana Cristina Silvestre da and CECCON, Maria Esther Jurfest. Prevalence of asphyxia and perinatal hypoxic-ischemic ... Keywords : newborn; Perinatal; asphyxia; hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. · abstract in Portuguese · text in Portuguese · ... OBJECTIVES: to verify the prevalence of asphyxia and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in term newborns according with two ... Among the 30 NB with asphyxia diagnoses, the hypoxic isquemic encephalopathy was 53%. More than a half has this serious ...
Filed under: Asphyxia*. An Essay on Suspended Animation. (Philadelphia: E. Parker, 1823), by Samuel Colhoun* multiple formats ...
Respiratory, chemical burns, chemical asphyxia. None. 1. 5. Industrial yard. Explosion. Acetylene. Operator error. Employee. M ...
asphyxia. 287.3. primary thrombocytopenia. 519.9. unspecified disease of respiratory system. 799.1. respiratory failure. ...
Asphyxia and poisoning. Poisoning. * Diseases and injuries * Asphyxia and poisoning [0] * Poisoning [1] ...
... and exposed to 45-minute normocapnic hypoxia followed by apnea to induce asphyxia. Protocolized resuscitation was initiated ... Asphyxia Is the Subject Area "Asphyxia" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Using a swine model of neonatal hypoxia and asphyxia, we aimed to examine the temporal changes of ETCO2, volume of expired CO2 ... Neonatal asphyxia is a common cause of mortality and morbidity and worldwide contributes to approximately 1 million deaths ...
The protective profile of argon, helium, and xenon in a model of neonatal asphyxia in rats. , CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 40, ...
Battle For Dream Island 2-9 Cake At Stake (Jacknjellify) - download ...
Thoracic asphyxiant dystrophy. *Thoracic-pelvic-phalangeal dystrophy. Additional Information & Resources. Genetic Testing ...
Hattulas death has been officially ruled as asphyxia by drowning.[150] Retired Chicago police officer Bill Dorsch stated he ... When Gacys defense team suggested that all 33 deaths were caused by accidental erotic asphyxia, Stein called this highly ...
Asphyxia Neonatorum Aconite: The child is hot, purple hued, pulseless and breathless, or nearly so. ...
  • In cases of an adult co-sleeping with an infant ("overlay"), the heavy sleeping adult may move on top of the infant, causing compression asphyxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The driver died as a result of compression asphyxia. (cdc.gov)
  • These annual presentations fo- ment of asphyxia and respiratory distress cused on aspects of newborn care related syndrome (RDS) and genetic counselling to the major causes of morbidity and mor- could lead to further reductions in the neo- tality in the District and in the UAE [ 3 ]. (who.int)
  • Birth asphyxia and the intrapartum cardiotocograph. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Birth asphyxia is a decrease in blood flow to a newborn's tissues or a decrease in oxygen in a newborn's blood before, during, or just after delivery. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Sometimes the exact cause of birth asphyxia cannot be identified. (msdmanuals.com)
  • the prevalence of asphyxia with the criterion 1 was 0,64 per 1,000 termlin births and with the criteriom 2 1,1 per 1000 termlins birth. (bvsalud.org)
  • Monitoring and resuscitation systems for newborns, focused on the critical few minutes directly following birth where newborns are at highest risk of asphyxia. (massdevice.com)
  • The newborns (NB) of the criterion 1, presented more fetal alterations and greator severity of asphyxia Both groups of newborns presented alterations of the heart, licor and idney functios and respiratory and metabolic acidosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • In fatal crowd disasters, compressive asphyxia from being crushed against the crowd causes all or nearly all deaths, rather than blunt trauma from trampling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modest declines in deaths from asphyxia, sepsis and complications of preterm births occurred from periods 1 to 2 but the differences were not statistically significant. (who.int)
  • Compressive asphyxia (also called chest compression) is mechanically limiting expansion of the lungs by compressing the torso, preventing breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of deficient supply of oxygen to the body which arises from abnormal breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many circumstances that can induce asphyxia, all of which are characterized by the inability of a person to acquire sufficient oxygen through breathing for an extended period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a remote risk of asphyxia with palatal or pharyngeal lesions. (medscape.com)
  • An example of traumatic asphyxia is a person who jacks up a car to work on it from below, and is crushed by the vehicle when the jack fails. (wikipedia.org)
  • This person died of asphyxia because of neck compression. (newstvhd.com)
  • The word asphyxia is from Ancient Greek α- "without" and σφύξις sphyxis, "squeeze" (throb of heart). (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the traditional diagnostic criteria for fetal distress, the investigators found that fetal blood sampling was indicated in 58% of cases in the asphyxia group and in 20% of controls but was only performed in 16% of asphyxiated infants and in 8% of controls. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Hennepin County medical examiner says Van Zuilen died of asphyxia. (mankatosrock.com)
  • Previous reports showed that mothers who experienced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses during late gestation may give rise to paediatric illness or gynaecological problems, such as hypoxia-ischemia, perinatal asphyxia, preterm birth, preeclampsia (PE), miscarriage and gestational diabetes mellitus [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Systemic and transdermal melatonin administration prevents neuropathology in response to perinatal asphyxia in newborn lambs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Perinatal asphyxia remains a principal cause of infant mortality and long-term neurological morbidity , particularly in low- resource countries. (bvsalud.org)
  • We aimed to determine the effect of melatonin (IV or transdermal patch ) on neuropathology in a lamb model of perinatal asphyxia . (bvsalud.org)
  • Systemic or transdermal neonatal melatonin administration significantly reduces the neuropathology and encephalopathy signs associated with perinatal asphyxia . (bvsalud.org)
  • Nash died suddenly from positional asphyxia when he was 5 months old at his daycare. (mix957gr.com)
  • We have previously shown no difference between male and female newborn piglets during hypoxia, asphyxia, resuscit. (uitm.edu.my)
  • Neuronal hypoxia is clinically related to stroke, cardiac arrest, asphyxia, and various cases involving metabolic encephalopathy, which has led to much research looking for new neuroprotective strategies. (jksem.org)
  • Common causes of infantile death in 2008 had decreased compared with those in 1996 such as other disorders originating in the perinatal period, congenital malformation of the heart, bacterial sepsis of newborns, disorders related to length of gestation and fetal growth, intra-uterine hypoxia, birth asphyxia. (e-cep.org)
  • World Health Organization 1975 ) code: asphyxia (799.0), respiratory failure (799.1), dyspnea and respiratory abnormalities (786.0), respiratory distress syndrome (769), unspecified birth asphyxia in live-born infant (768.9), other respiratory problems after birth (770.8), and pneumonia (486). (nih.gov)
  • Asphyxia was induced in newborn lambs via umbilical cord occlusion at birth . (bvsalud.org)
  • Sex Differences Between Female and Male Newborn Piglets During Asphyxia, Resuscitation, and Recovery by: Ramin P. La Garde, et al. (uitm.edu.my)
  • Burton cites Kirsten Donald, head of developmental paediatrics at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa, who states that African areas with limited resources, the main factors contributing to cerebral palsy include difficulties during birth (birth asphyxia), a condition causing yellowing of the skin and eyes (kernicterus), and infections in the baby's central nervous system during the newborn period. (uncensored.org.za)
  • The article generalizes the extensive experience of the personal sectional work of the authors, as well as the analysis of archival material for the diagnosis of deaths by strangulation asphyxia. (forens-med.ru)
  • An objective assessment ofdevelopmental anomalies, resuscitation and post-mortem changes, the frequency of their occurrence, the results ofthe incorrect actions of experts, leading to a false diagnostics of the specific and the general signs of asphyxia. (forens-med.ru)
  • The newborns (NB) of the criterion 1, presented more fetal alterations and greator severity of asphyxia Both groups of newborns presented alterations of the heart, licor and idney functios and respiratory and metabolic acidosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Asphyxia occurs when gas exchange is impaired enough to cause significant metabolic acidosis. (medscape.com)
  • Asphyxia significantly increased brain white and grey matter apoptotic cell death (activated caspase-3 ), lipid peroxidation (4HNE) and neuroinflammation (IBA-1). (bvsalud.org)
  • The amount of the distribution of this staining on the brain in all 48 samples from children who died from SIDS looks very similar to that of children who had died from asphyxia. (babysleepconsultant.co)