Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Pyrithiamine: A thiamine antagonist due to its inhibition of thiamine pyrophosphorylation. It is used to produce thiamine deficiency.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.Xanthomonas: A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Magnaporthe: A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Chymosin: The predominant milk-clotting enzyme from the true stomach or abomasum of the suckling calf. It is secreted as an inactive precursor called prorennin and converted in the acid environment of the stomach to the active enzyme. EC 3.4.23.4.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Arylsulfatases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Spontaneous Combustion: A circumstance where a substance or organism takes fire and burns without an exogenous source. Spontaneous human combustion differs from preternatural human combustibility in that in the latter, some spark or trivial flame sets the fire and the body tissues, which have a greatly enhanced inflammability, continue to undergo incineration without any external heat source or combustible materials. (Bergman NA. Spontaneous human combustion: its role in literature and science. Pharos 1988;Fall;51(4):18-21)PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Aloe: A plant genus of the family Aloeaceae, order Liliales (or Asphodelaceae, Asparagales in APG system) which is used medicinally. It contains anthraquinone glycosides such as aloin-emodin or aloe-emodin (EMODIN).Gentiana: A plant genus of the family Gentianaceae whose members contain SECOIRIDOIDS and have been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE for suppressing INFLAMMATION.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Ammonium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.MalatesJervell-Lange Nielsen Syndrome: A form of long QT syndrome that is associated with congenital deafness. It is characterized by abnormal cardioelectrophysiology involving the VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It results from mutation of KCNQ1 gene (Subtype 1 or JLN1) or the KCNE1 gene (Subtype 2 or JLN2).Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Characterization and expression of the cDNA encoding a new kind of phospholipid transfer protein, the phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylinositol transfer protein from Aspergillus oryzae: evidence of a putative membrane targeted phospholipid transfer protein in fungi. (1/357)

The full-length cDNA of a phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) was isolated from Aspergillus oryzae by a RACE-PCR procedure using degenerated primer pool selected from the N-terminal sequence of the purified phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylglycerol transfer protein (PG/PI-TP). The cDNA encodes a 173 amino acid protein of 18823 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence from position 38 to 67 is 100% identical to the N-terminal sequence (first 30 amino acids) of the purified PG/PI-TP. This amino acid sequence is preceded by a leader peptide of 37 amino acids which is predicted to be composed of a signal peptide of 21 amino acids followed by an extra-sequence of 16 amino acids, or a membrane anchor protein signal (amino acid 5-29). This strongly suggests that the PG/PI-TP is a targeted protein. The deduced mature protein is 138 amino acids long with a predicted molecular mass of 14933 Da. Comparison of the deduced PG/PI-TP sequence with other polypeptide sequences available in databases revealed a homology with a protein deduced from an open reading frame coding for an unknown protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (36% identity and 57% similarity). Apart from this homology, the PG/PI-TP is unique and specific to the filamentous fungi on the basis of comparison of PLTP protein sequences. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from A. oryzae cultures grown on glucose or glucose supplemented with phospholipids suggests that the PG/PI-TP is transcribed by only one RNA species and allows us to show that expression of the protein is regulated at the messenger RNA level.  (+info)

Pectin methylesterase gene (pmeA) from Aspergillus oryzae KBN616: its sequence analysis and overexpression, and characterization of the gene product. (2/357)

A gene (pmeA) encoding pectin methylesterase was isolated from a shoyu koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae KBN616, and characterized. The structural gene comprised 1,370 bp with six introns. The PMEA protein consisted of 331 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence was very similar to those of Aspergillus niger PMEA and Aspergillus aculeatus PME1. The pmeA gene was efficiently expressed under control of the A. oryzae TEF1 gene promoter for purification and characterization of the ezymatic properties. PMEA had a molecular mass of 38.5 kDa, a pH optimum of 5.0, and a temperature optimum of 55 degrees C.  (+info)

Insertion analysis of putative functional elements in the promoter region of the Aspergillus oryzae Taka-amylase A gene (amyB) using a heterologous Aspergillus nidulans amdS-lacZ fusion gene system. (3/357)

Expression of the Taka-amylase A gene (amyB) of Aspergillus oryzae is induced by starch or maltose. The A. oryzae amyB gene promoter contains three highly conserved sequences, designated Regions I, II, and III, compared with promoter regions of the A. oryzae glaA encoding glucoamylase and the agdA encoding alpha-glucosidase. To identify the function of these sequences within the amyB promoter, various fragments containing conserved sequences in the amyB promoter were introduced into the upstream region of the heterologous A. nidulans amdS gene (encoding acetamidase) fused to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene as a reporter. Introduction of the sequence between -290 to -233 (the number indicates the distance in base pairs from the translation initiation point (+1)) containing Region III significantly increased the expression of the lacZ reporter gene in the presence of maltose. The sequence between -377 to -290 containing Region I also increased the lacZ activity, but its maltose inducibility was less than that of Region III. The sequence between -233 to -181 containing Region II had no effect on the expression. These results indicated that Region III is most likely involved in the maltose induction of the amyB gene expression.  (+info)

Delta 9-fatty acid desaturase from arachidonic acid-producing fungus. Unique gene sequence and its heterologous expression in a fungus, Aspergillus. (4/357)

Based on the sequence information for delta 9-desaturase genes (from rat, mouse and yeast), which are involved in the desaturation of palmitic acid and stearic acid to palmitoleic acid and oleic acid, respectively, the corresponding cDNA and genomic gene were cloned from the fungal strain, Mortierella alpina 1S-4, which industrially produces arachidonic acid. There was a cytochrome b5-like domain linked to the carboxyl terminus of this Mortierella desaturase, as also seen in the yeast delta 9-desaturase. The Mortierella delta 9-desaturase genomic gene had only one intron, in which a novel phenomenon was observed: there was a GC-end at the 5'-terminus instead of a GT-end that is, in general, found in introns of eukaryotic genes. The full-length cDNA clone was expressed under the control of an amyB promoter in a filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, resulting in drastic changes in the fatty acid composition in the transformant cells; the contents of palmitoleic acid (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1) increased significantly, with accompanying decreases in palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0). These changes were controlled by the addition of maltose as a carbon source to the medium. Also, the expression of the gene caused a significant change in the lipid composition in the Aspergillus transformant. Genomic Southern blot analysis of the transformant with the Mortierella delta 9-desaturase gene as a probe confirmed the integration of this gene into the genome of A. oryzae.  (+info)

Site-directed mutagenesis of a possible type 1 copper ligand of bilirubin oxidase; a Met467Gln mutant shows stellacyanin-like properties. (5/357)

In our previous paper, we reported a mutant of recombinant Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase, in which the Met467 residue was replaced by Gly [Shimizu, A. et al. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 3034-3042]. This mutant displayed a remarkable reduction in enzymatic activity and an evident decrease in the intensity of the absorption band around 600 nm (type 1 charge transfer transition). In this study, we report the preparation of three Met467 mutants (Met467Gln, Met467His, and Met467Arg) and characterize their enzymatic activities, midpoint potentials, and absorption and ESR spectra. Met467His and Met467Arg show no enzymatic activity and a great reduction in the intensity of the absorption band around 600 nm. Furthermore, their ESR spectra show no type 1 copper signal, but only a type 2 copper signal; however, oxidation by ferricyanide caused the type 1 copper signal to appear. On the other hand, Met467Gln as expressed shows both type 1 and type 2 copper signals in its ESR spectrum, the type 1 copper atom parameters being very different from usual blue copper proteins but very similar to those of stellacyanin. The enzymatic activity of the Met467Gln mutant for bilirubin is quite low (0.3%), but the activity for potassium ferrocyanide is similar (130%) to that of the wild type enzyme. These results indicate that Met467 is important for characterizing the features of the type 1 copper of bilirubin oxidase.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and expression of the novel fungal beta-glucosidase genes from Humicola grisea and Trichoderma reesei. (6/357)

A novel fungal beta-glucosidase gene (bgl4) and its homologue (bgl2) were cloned from the cellulolytic fungi Humicola grisea and Trichoderma reesei, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of H. grisea BGL4 and T. reesei BGL2 comprise 476 and 466 amino acids, respectively, and share 73.1% identity. These beta-glucosidases show significant homology to plant beta-glucosidases belonging to the beta-glucosidase A (BGA) family. Both genes were expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, and the recombinant beta-glucosidases were purified. Recombinant H. grisea BGL4 is a thermostable enzyme compared with recombinant T. reesei BGL2. In addition to beta-glucosidase activity, recombinant H. grisea BGL4 showed a significant level of beta-galactosidase activity, while recombinant T. reesei BGL2 showed weak beta-galactosidase activity. Cellulose saccharification by Trichoderma cellulases was improved by the addition of recombinant H. grisea BGL4.  (+info)

Molecular and enzymic properties of recombinant 1, 2-alpha-mannosidase from Aspergillus saitoi overexpressed in Aspergillus oryzae cells. (7/357)

For the construction of an overexpression system of the intracellular 1,2-alpha-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.113) gene (msdS) from Aspergillus saitoi (now designated Aspergillus phoenicis), the N-terminal signal sequence of the gene was replaced with that of the aspergillopepsin I (EC 3.4.23.18) gene (apnS) signal, one of the same strains as described previously. Then the fused 1, 2-alpha-mannosidase gene (f-msdS) was inserted into the NotI site between P-No8142 and T-agdA in the plasmid pNAN 8142 (9.5 kbp) and thus the Aspergillus oryzae expression plasmid pNAN-AM1 (11.2 kbp) was constructed. The fused f-msdS gene has been overexpressed in a transformant A. oryzae niaD AM1 cell. The recombinant enzyme expressed in A. oryzae cells was purified to homogeneity in two steps. The system is capable of making as much as about 320 mg of the enzyme/litre of culture. The recombinant enzyme has activity with methyl-2-O-alpha-d-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside at pH 5.0, while no activity was determined with methyl-3-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside or methyl-6-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was analysed by using pyridylaminated (PA)-oligomannose-type sugar chains, Man9-6(GlcNAc)2-PA (Man is mannose; GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosamine). The enzyme hydrolysed Man8GlcNAc2-PA (type 'M8A') fastest, and 'M6C' {Manalpha1-3[Manalpha1-2Manalpha1-3(Manalpha1-6) Manalpha1-6]Manbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc-PA} slowest, among the PA-sugar chains. Molecular-mass values of the enzyme were determined to be 63 kDa by SDS/PAGE and 65 kDa by gel filtration on Superose 12 respectively. The pI value of the enzyme was 4.6. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was GSTQSRADAIKAAFSHAWDGYLQY, and sequence analysis indicated that the signal peptide from apnS gene was removed. The molar absorption coefficient, epsilon, at 280 nm was determined as 91539 M-1.cm-1. Contents of the secondary structure (alpha-helix, beta-structure and the remainder of the enzyme) by far-UV CD determination were about 55, 38 and 7% respectively. The melting temperature, Tm, of the enzyme was 71 degrees C by differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetric enthalpy, DeltaHcal, of the enzyme was calculated as 13.3 kJ.kg of protein-1. Determination of 1 g-atom of Ca2+/mol of enzyme was performed by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry.  (+info)

Identification of Delta12-fatty acid desaturase from arachidonic acid-producing mortierella fungus by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fungus Aspergillus oryzae. (8/357)

Based on the sequence information for the omega3-desaturase genes (from Brassica napus and Caenorhabditis elegans), which are involved in the desaturation of linoleic acid (Delta9, Delta12-18 : 2) to alpha-linolenic acid (Delta9, Delta12, Delta15-18 : 3), a cDNA was cloned from the filamentous fungal strain, Mortierella alpina 1S-4, which is used industrially to produce arachidonic acid. Homology analysis with protein databases revealed that the amino acid sequence showed 43.7% identity as the highest match with the microsomal omega6-desaturase (from Glycine max, soybean), whereas it exhibited 38.9% identity with the microsomal omega3-desaturase (from soybean). The evolutionary implications of these enzymes will be discussed. The cloned cDNA was confirmed to encode a Delta12-desaturase, which was involved in the desaturation of oleic acid (Delta9-18 : 1) to linoleic acid, by its expression in both the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fungus Aspergillus oryzae. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of yeast and fungus transformants demonstrated that linoleic acid (which was not contained in the control strain of S. cerevisiae) was accumulated in the yeast transformant and that the fungal transformant contained a large amount of linoleic acid (71.9%). Genomic Southern blot analysis of the transformants with the Mortierella Delta12-desaturase gene as a probe confirmed integration of this gene into the genome of A. oryzae. The M. alpina 1S-4 Delta12-desaturase is the first example of a cloned nonplant Delta12-desaturase.  (+info)

  • A. niger , A. oryzae , and R. oligosporous showed high productivity of lipases (Vishwe et al . (ncsu.edu)
  • 2017) evaluated parameters for lipase production from fungus by using one factor at a time and selected the optimum conditions for lipase production by Rhizopus oryzae R1 and reported highest activity at 30 °C. This finding indicates the sensitivity of lipase activity coupled with less fungal growth or inactive nature of the enzyme itself (Iftikhar et al . (ncsu.edu)
  • When comparing the three Aspergillus species, it was found that in A. oryzae a combination of syntenic blocks derived from a singular ancestral region and blocks specific to A. oryzae arranged mosaically comprised the full genome. (kenyon.edu)
  • Additionally, the A. oryzae genome contains 270 tRNA genes, and only 3 rRNA genes. (kenyon.edu)
  • Because A. oryzae has been domesticated, it is possible that gene expansion is due to horizontal gene transfer, as is seen in A. oryzae -specific genes, which use clonal lines to transfer chromosomes. (kenyon.edu)
  • We were also able to assess the alternative mRNA isoforms in A. oryzae and found a large number of genes undergoing alternative splicing. (nih.gov)
  • The green bar between the two annotated A. oryzae genes represents the novel transcript that was confirmed by RT-PCR (violet bar). (nih.gov)
  • This ensures that fungi within the Aspergillus genus are able to adapt to a wide range of environments. (kenyon.edu)
  • Aspergillus oryzae is ubiquitous filamentous fungi in nature and has been used in a number of industries such as Japanese traditional fermented foods and pharmaceutical products. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • The full genome of A. oryzae RIB40 contains eight chromosomes and the mitochondrion (which is circular, rather than linear) and is estimated to be 37.6Mb, or 37,878,829 bp, in size. (kenyon.edu)
  • Five strains of A. oryzae were isolated from oil-contaminated soil and water as well as dead decaying organic matter. (ncsu.edu)
  • Members of the Aspergillus genus are distinct from other microbes due to the fact that they utilize both a primary and secondary metabolic system. (kenyon.edu)
  • 1. EPA, (1997), Aspergillus oryzae Final Risk Assessment . (wordpress.com)
  • Western blot analysis suggested that the secreted protein was immunoreactive with anti-human lysozyme antibody and the signal peptide was correctly cleavaged off in the A. oryzae transformants. (elsevier.com)
  • Adalimumab was expressed in A. oryzae by the fusion protein system with α-amylase AmyB. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AU - Yohe,T T, AU - O'Diam,K M, AU - Daniels,K M, Y1 - 2015/07/02/ PY - 2015/01/05/received PY - 2015/05/26/accepted PY - 2015/7/6/entrez PY - 2015/7/6/pubmed PY - 2016/6/9/medline KW - Aspergillus oryzae KW - dairy calf KW - growth KW - prebiotic SP - 6163 EP - 75 JF - Journal of dairy science JO - J. Dairy Sci. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The efficient transcription of the HLY gene suggested that A. oryzae is a promising host for production of heterologous proteins from higher eukaryotes. (elsevier.com)
  • These results demonstrated an alternative low-cost platform for human antibody production by using A. oryzae , possibly offering a reasonable expenditure for patient's welfare. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aspergillus oryzae was transformed with a synthetic gene consisting of a chicken lysozyme signal sequence and a mature human lysozyme (HLY) sequence. (elsevier.com)
  • These metabolites grant A. oryzae the ability to modify themselves according to their current environment--they are able to increase or decrease their fitness to allow optimum metabolic efficiency. (kenyon.edu)
  • Aspergillus oryzae" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)