A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.
Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
A carcinogenic mycotoxin produced in high yields by strains of the common molds, Aspergillus versicolor, A. nidulans, and an unidentified species of Bipolaris. It causes necrosis of the liver and kidney and has an inhibitory effect on orotic acid incorporation into nuclear RNA.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA characterized by the presence of well defined peridia and cleistothecial asci. Notable anamorphs (mitosporic forms) of Eurotiales include PENICILLIUM and ASPERGILLUS.
Anethum graveolens L. is a plant species of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are considered as a spice (SPICES).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Many species of this genus, including the medicinal C. senna and C. angustifolia, have been reclassified into the Senna genus (SENNA PLANT) and some to CHAMAECRISTA.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Inhibition of plant-pathogenic fungi by a corn trypsin inhibitor overexpressed in Escherichia coli. (1/348)

The cDNA of a 14-kDa trypsin inhibitor (TI) from corn was subcloned into an Escherichia coli overexpression vector. The overexpressed TI was purified based on its insolubility in urea and then refolded into the active form in vitro. This recombinant TI inhibited both conidium germination and hyphal growth of all nine plant pathogenic fungi studied, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Fusarium moniliforme. The calculated 50% inhibitory concentration of TI for conidium germination ranged from 70 to more than 300 microgram/ml, and that for fungal growth ranged from 33 to 124 microgram/ml depending on the fungal species. It also inhibited A. flavus and F. moniliforme simultaneously when they were tested together. The results suggest that the corn 14-kDa TI may function in host resistance against a variety of fungal pathogens of crops.  (+info)

Production of specific monoclonal antibodies to Aspergillus species and their use in immunohistochemical identification of aspergillosis. (2/348)

Two anti-Aspergillus murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated 164G and 611F, have been produced; both specifically recognize cytoplasmic antigens of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs can identify Aspergillus spp. both in frozen sections by immunofluorescence and in paraffin-embedded clinical specimens by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining.  (+info)

Regional differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by soil isolates of aspergillus flavus along a transect within the United States. (3/348)

Soil isolates of Aspergillus flavus from a transect extending from eastern New Mexico through Georgia to eastern Virginia were examined for production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid in a liquid medium. Peanut fields from major peanut-growing regions (western Texas; central Texas; Georgia and Alabama; and Virginia and North Carolina) were sampled, and fields with other crops were sampled in regions where peanuts are not commonly grown. The A. flavus isolates were identified as members of either the L strain (n = 774), which produces sclerotia that are >400 micrometer in diameter, or the S strain (n = 309), which produces numerous small sclerotia that are <400 micrometer in diameter. The S-strain isolates generally produced high levels of aflatoxin B1, whereas the L-strain isolates were more variable in aflatoxin production; variation in cyclopiazonic acid production also was greater in the L strain than in the S strain. There was a positive correlation between aflatoxin B1 production and cyclopiazonic acid production in both strains, although 12% of the L-strain isolates produced only cyclopiazonic acid. Significant differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by the L-strain isolates were detected among regions. In the western half of Texas and the peanut-growing region of Georgia and Alabama, 62 to 94% of the isolates produced >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml. The percentages of isolates producing >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml ranged from 0 to 52% in the remaining regions of the transect; other isolates were often nonaflatoxigenic. A total of 53 of the 126 L-strain isolates that did not produce aflatoxin B1 or cyclopiazonic acid were placed in 17 vegetative compatibility groups. Several of these groups contained isolates from widely separated regions of the transect.  (+info)

Divergence of West African and North American communities of Aspergillus section Flavi. (4/348)

West African Aspergillus flavus S isolates differed from North American isolates. Both produced aflatoxin B1. However, 40 and 100% of West African isolates also produced aflatoxin G1 in NH4 medium and urea medium, respectively. No North American S strain isolate produced aflatoxin G1. This geographical and physiological divergence may influence aflatoxin management.  (+info)

Interactions of saprophytic yeasts with a nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus. (5/348)

The nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus has a defective norsolorinic acid reductase, and thus the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway is blocked, resulting in the accumulation of norsolorinic acid, a bright red-orange pigment. We developed a visual agar plate assay to monitor yeast strains for their ability to inhibit aflatoxin production by visually scoring the accumulation of this pigment of the nor mutant. We identified yeast strains that reduced the red-orange pigment accumulation in the nor mutant. These yeasts also reduced aflatoxin accumulation by a toxigenic strain of A. flavus. These yeasts may be useful for reducing aflatoxin contamination of food commodities.  (+info)

Aspirochlorine: a highly selective and potent inhibitor of fungal protein synthesis. (6/348)

Aspirochlorine, a compound belonging to the gliotoxin family of compounds, exhibits antifungal and antibacterial activity but its mechanism of action remains unknown. In this study we show that aspirochlorine inhibits the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans by acting on fungal protein synthesis. The compound selectively inhibits cell-free protein synthesis when using a C. albicans system, but does not inhibit this synthesis in vitro when tested with bacterial and mammalian systems. Moreover, in intact C. albicans cells, aspirochlorine inhibits protein synthesis but does not inhibit chitin, DNA or glucan synthesis though at high concentrations some inhibition of RNA synthesis is observed. By contrast, in intact Bacillus subtilis cells, aspirochlorine did not inhibit protein, DNA, or cell wall synthesis though it significantly inhibited RNA synthesis. Furthermore, using heterologous systems (mammalian ribosomes and C. albicans cytosolic factors) the data suggest that the inhibitory action of aspirochlorine is not exerted through a direct interaction with C. albicans EF-1 or EF-2.  (+info)

Sporogenic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on development of Aspergillus spp. (7/348)

Aspergillus spp. are frequently occurring seed-colonizing fungi that complete their disease cycles through the development of asexual spores, which function as inocula, and through the formation of cleistothecia and sclerotia. We found that development of all three of these structures in Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus parasiticus is affected by linoleic acid and light. The specific morphological effects of linoleic acid include induction of precocious and increased asexual spore development in A. flavus and A. parasiticus strains and altered sclerotium production in some A. flavus strains in which sclerotium production decreases in the light but increases in the dark. In A. nidulans, both asexual spore production and sexual spore production were altered by linoleic acid. Spore development was induced in all three species by hydroperoxylinoleic acids, which are linoleic acid derivatives that are produced during fungal colonization of seeds. The sporogenic effects of these linoleic compounds on A. nidulans are similar to the sporogenic effects of A. nidulans psi factor, an endogenous mixture of hydroxylinoleic acid moieties. Light treatments also significantly increased asexual spore production in all three species. The sporogenic effects of light, linoleic acid, and linoleic acid derivatives on A. nidulans required an intact veA gene. The sporogenic effects of light and linoleic acid on Aspergillus spp., as well as members of other fungal genera, suggest that these factors may be significant environmental signals for fungal development.  (+info)

A highly conserved sequence is a novel gene involved in de novo vitamin B6 biosynthesis. (8/348)

The Cercospora nicotianae SOR1 (singlet oxygen resistance) gene was identified previously as a gene involved in resistance of this fungus to singlet-oxygen-generating phototoxins. Although homologues to SOR1 occur in organisms in four kingdoms and encode one of the most highly conserved proteins yet identified, the precise function of this protein has, until now, remained unknown. We show that SOR1 is essential in pyridoxine (vitamin B6) synthesis in C. nicotianae and Aspergillus flavus, although it shows no homology to previously identified pyridoxine synthesis genes identified in Escherichia coli. Sequence database analysis demonstrated that organisms encode either SOR1 or E. coli pyridoxine biosynthesis genes, but not both, suggesting that there are two divergent pathways for de novo pyridoxine biosynthesis in nature. Pathway divergence appears to have occurred during the evolution of the eubacteria. We also present data showing that pyridoxine quenches singlet oxygen at a rate comparable to that of vitamins C and E, two of the most highly efficient biological antioxidants, suggesting a previously unknown role for pyridoxine in active oxygen resistance.  (+info)

Figs in an orchard were inoculated with an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain in two ways by spore injection or by dusting at three maturation stages: firm ripe, shrivelled, and dried. Fruits were individually examined for fungal development and
Light-induced delayed luminescence (DL) of living organisms contains information on the quality of the living state of these organisms. Employing a LS-55 Luminescence Spectrometer, the changes of DL spectra of rice with Aspergillus flavus treating different time were observed. Rice with Aspergillus flavus treatment for a shorter time had a stronger intensity of DL. The polluted degree of Aspergillus showed a negative correlation with the intensity of DL. Comparing with the intensity of DL, we found that the concentration of aflatoxin in different polluted degree rice had negative correlation with the intensity of DL. We believe DL technique may be helpful in elaborating a fast, holistic, and non-invasive method for the rapid evaluation the polluted degree of rice by Aspergillus flavus.. © 2005 Chinese Optics Letters. PDF Article ...
Many projects have identified candidate genes for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation or Aspergillus flavus infection and growth in maize using genetic mapping, genomics, transcriptomics and/or proteomics studies. However, only a small percentage of these candidates have been validated in field conditions, and their relative contribution to resistance, if any, is unknown. This study presents a consolidated list of candidate genes identified in past studies or in-house studies, with descriptive data including genetic location, gene annotation, known protein identifiers, and associated pathway information, if known. A candidate gene pipeline to test the phenotypic effect of any maize DNA sequence on aflatoxin accumulation resistance was used in this study to determine any measurable effect on polymorphisms within or linked to the candidate gene sequences, and the results are published here.
Aspergillus flavus ATCC ® 204304™ Designation: MCV-C#1 Application: Susceptibility testing Antifungal susceptibity testing Ref Ref Biomedical Research and Development Material Reference strain for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI)-developed Antifungal Susceptibility Testing
Oilseed crops such as maize and peanut are staple food crops which are vital for global food security. The contamination of these crops with carcinogenic aflatoxins during infection by Aspergillus flavus under drought stress conditions is a serious threat to the safety of these commodities. In order to better understand the role of aflatoxin production in the biology of this pathogen under environmental stress, a collaborative transcriptome project was undertaken to examine the transcriptional responses of toxigenic and atoxigenic isolates of A. flavus to oxidative stress. Selected isolates were cultured in aflatoxin production-conducive and non-conducive media amended with varying levels of H2O2. Isolates which possessed greater tolerance to H2O2 stress and aflatoxin production capability exhibited fewer differentially expressed genes (DEGs) than those which possessed less tolerance and lower aflatoxin production. Primary metabolic mechanisms were also stimulated in response to stress along ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Green mould (Aspergillus flavus) - conidiophore (fruiting structure) producing conidia (asexual conidia). Aspergillus flavus is a wide spread saprophyte found in soil, seeds, fruits and decaying vegetation. It is also found indoors on water damaged carpets and building materials. It is one of the Aspergillus species which causes aspergillosis, commonly in the tropics. Aspergillosis is a respiratory lung infection in people with weakened lungs or that are immune deficient (especially AIDS patients). This fungus produces aflatoxin, a group of virulent mycotoxins that are known animal carcinogens. These mycotoxins are can induce liver cancer in humans. The toxins may contaminate stored food (particularly carbohydrates). A. flavus has also been reported to be allergenic and its presence is associated with asthma. Magnification: x220 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0238
Cyclopiazonic acid (α-cyclopiazonic acid, α-CPA) is an indole-hydrindane-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by various fungal species, including the notorious food and feed contaminant Aspergillus flavus. Despite its discovery in A. flavus cultures approximately 40 years ago, its contribution to the A. flavus mycotoxin burden is consistently minimized by our focus on the more potent carcinogenic aflatoxins also produced by this fungus. Here, we report the screening and identification of several CPA-type alkaloids not previously found in A. flavus cultures. Our identifications of these CPA-type alkaloids are based on a dereplication strategy involving accurate mass high resolution mass spectrometry data and a careful study of the α-CPA fragmentation pattern. In total, 22 CPA-type alkaloids were identified in extracts from the A. flavus strains examined. Of these metabolites, 13 have been previously reported in other fungi, though this is the first report of their existence in A. flavus. Two of our
Resveratrol has been reported as a natural phytoalexin that inhibits infection or the growth of certain fungi including Aspergillus flavus. Our previous research revealed that aflatoxin production in A. flavus was reduced in medium with resveratrol. To understand the molecular mechanism of the A. flavus response to resveratrol treatment, the high-throughput paired-end RNA-Seq was applied to analyze the transcriptomic profiles of A. flavus. In total, 366 and 87 genes of A. flavus were significantly up- and down- regulated, respectively, when the fungus was treated with resveratrol. Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis revealed that 48 significantly differentially expressed genes were involved in 6 different terms. Most genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes cluster (#54) did not show a significant change when A. flavus was treated with resveratrol, but 23 of the 30 genes in the #54 cluster were down-regulated. The transcription of aflA and aflB was significantly suppressed under
The enzyme α-L-rhamnosidase [E.C.3.2.1.40] specifically cleaves terminal α-L-rhamnose from a large number of natural products containing glycosides. This property provides this enzyme an important biotechnological application including removal of bitterness from citrus fruit juices, enhancement of grape wine aroma, removal of hesperidin crystals from orange juices, tomato pulp digestion and also help in conversion of clinical important steroids. In this study, production of α-L-rhamnosidase in submerged state fermentation from Aspergillus flavus was optimized using Taguchi DOE methodology. This statistical method provide the study of interaction of a large number of factors at different levels settings with a small number of experimental runs which leads to considerable economy in time and cost for the process optimization. The objective of this research was to determine the significant parameters for the production of α-L-rhamnosidase by Aspergillus flavus in submerged
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen and may produce aflatoxins in maize, one of the most important crops in Argentina. A promising strategy to reduce aflatoxin accumulation is the biological control based on competitive exclusion. In order to select potential biocontrol agents among isolates from the maize growing region in Argentina, a total of 512 A. flavus strains were isolated from ...
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen and may produce aflatoxins in maize, one of the most important crops in Argentina. A promising strategy to reduce aflatoxin accumulation is the biological control based on competitive exclusion. In order to select potential biocontrol agents among isolates from the maize growing region in Argentina, a total of 512 A. flavus strains were isolated from ...
Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins, and as a result, threaten human health, food security and farmers income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the effectiveness of atoxigenic isolates in mitigating aflatoxin contamination. However, such information has not been used to facilitate selection and deployment of atoxigenic isolates. A total of 35 isolates of A. flavus isolated from maize samples collected from three agroecological zones of Nigeria were used in this study. Ecophysiological characteristics, distribution and genetic diversity of the isolates were determined to identify vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). The generated data were used to inform selection and deployment of native atoxigenic isolates to mitigate aflatoxin contamination in maize. In co-inoculation with toxigenic isolates, atoxigenic isolates reduced aflatoxin ...
Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The Corn Host Plant Resistance Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Mississippi State University is conducting a number of different types of studies to determine the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation in maize with the goal of developing resistant maize cell lines. Computational support for this research has provided scientists with improved methods for data access and retrieval, new methods to analyze the effects of environmental factors on aflatoxin accumulation in different cell lines, and tools to improve protein identification rates in proteomics studies and to support efficient and informative annotation of the proteome. An integrated database system with data management, data mining, and data modeling capabilities has been developed that provides a comprehensive view of the maize genetics research at MSU. The database archives raw data, derived data and metadata collected or generated by the ...
Understanding the role of phytohormone auxin in defense responses is one of the vital tools for plant breeders to develop maize germplasm lines that exhibit high resistance to Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin accumulation. Besides its critical role in different developmental processes throughout the life cycle of plants, auxin is also involved in the network of plant-pathogen interaction as demonstrated in previous studies. However, the actual mechanism for the auxin signaling pathway leading to resistance is unknown. Therefore, the critical gap in the knowledge base is a lack of understanding of the role of auxin signaling in pathogen resistance in maize. Continuation of this gap is an important problem because fungal resistance is a highly quantitative trait and breeding for resistance is a challenge. A complete understanding of the auxin mechanism in resistance could lead the production of corn hybrids with resistance to A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. The focus of this ...
per fungal biomass dry weight/colony size has rarely been reported. For this reason, the objective of the present study was to model the kinetics of mycotoxin production under the assumption of existing both no-growth-associated and growth-associated production. Aspergillus flavus was chosen as a model mycotoxigenic microorganism, and it was grown in maize agar medium and maize grain at 0.90 and 0.99 aw at 25 °C. A significant positive correlation (p , 0.05) was observed among the biomass responses (colony radius and biomass dry weight) in agar medium and colony radius in maize at both aw levels assayed. The Luedeking-Piret model was used to model AFB1 production and reasonable percentages of variability were explained. Moreover, AFB1 production was in general slightly better predicted through colony area. As conclusion, aflatoxin production may follow a mixed-growth associated trend, confirming that toxin formation does not present a clear delay in relation to growth under certain conditions ...
LOINC Code 51529-6 Mold Allergen Mix 4 (Aspergillus fumigatus+Aspergillus niger+Aspergillus terreus+Aspergillus flavus) IgE Ab [Presence] in Serum by Multidisk
Primary laryngeal aspergillosis due to Aspergillus flavus in an elderly immunocompetent patient- a rare presentation-AGEMS-Print ISSN No:-2348-7348 Online ISSN No:-2348-7240Article DOI No:-10.18231,Annals of Geriatric Education and Medical Sciences-IP Innovative Publication Pvt Limited, Medical Journals Publication,
BioAssay record AID 1094518 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus flavus at 500 ppm after 72 to 96 hr by disk diffusion method.
Citation: MAHONEY, N.E., MOLYNEUX, R.J., CAMPBELL, B.C., CARY, J.W. WALNUT CONSTITUENTS INHIBIT AFLATOXIN FORMATION BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS. AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MICROBIOLOGY ANNUAL MEETING. 2004. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Tree nuts are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination and therefore subject to regulatory restrictions both domestically and abroad. In order to identify natural sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation, tree nuts were screened for their ability to support aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus using agar-based media composed of almond, pistachio, or walnut cultivars. A. flavus grown on walnut cultivars produced significantly less aflatoxin than on pistachio or almond cultivars. Walnut cultivars were not uniform in their ability to inhibit aflatoxin; Tulare completely inhibited the production of aflatoxin, while Chico was the most susceptible. The aflatoxin inhibiting property of Tulare kernels was found to reside in the seed coat and ...
DOBOLYI Cs, F SEBŐK, J VARGA, S KOCSUBÉ, G SZIGETI, N BARANYI, Á SZÉCSI, B TÓTH, M VARGA, B KRISZT, S SZOBOSZLAY, C KRIFATON, J KUKOLYA: Occurence of Aflatoxin producing Aspergillus flavus isolates in maize kernel in Hungary, ACTA ALIMENTARIA HUNGARICA 42: (3) pp. 451-459. pp. 451-459 ...
The genus |em|Aspergillus|/em| contains diverse species and the identification is complicated. Vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and molecular mechanisms were deployed to study the species. The study was randomly conducted in four counties in Kenya based on the history of aflatoxicosis and maize cultivation. Thirty-seven |em|Aspergillus flavus|/em| isolates from Nandi, Kisumu, Homa Bay and Makueni were characterized to determine their taxonomic status based on their VCGs and genotypes. A phylogenetic analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of the isolates investigated revealed ITS primers discriminating some of the |em|A. flavus|/em| isolates as 100% sequence identity to the |em|RefSeq.|/em| Nit mutants complementation test revealed strong heterokaryon incompatibility between isolates of Nandi region (67%) and Makueni (33%). The trend based on VCGs and molecular findings showed high incidence of toxigenic |em|A. flavus|/em| in Makueni, which could be the reason why the region frequently experiences
These images dont show differences that distinguish A. flavus and A. parasiticus. An oil immersion magnification of the spores may be useful, but the aflatoxin profile is the best information to determine species.. Was this fungus isolated from a person with an Aspergillosis infection?. Only about 50% of A. flavus isolates have been found to make aflatoxin while nearly all A. parasiticus isolates have been found to make aflatoxins. ...
Aflatoxins are naturally-occurring mycotoxins produced by the fungi species Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are a major concern to the dairy and pig industries.
Aflatoxins are naturally-occurring mycotoxins produced by the fungi species Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are a major concern to the dairy and pig industries.
Moraes, A. M. L., M. Corrado, V. L. Holanda, G. L. Costa, M. Ziccardi, R. de Lourenço-de-Oliveira & P. C. Oliveira. Aspergillus from Brazilian mosquitoes - I. Genera Aedes and Culex from Rio de Janiero State, Mycotaxon 78: 413-422. 2001.. ABSTRACT: As part of an ongoing survey of potential biological control fungi from insects in Brazil. aspergilli were isolated from 625 mosquitoes belonging to 17 species in the genera Aedes and Culex. Two hundred and fifteen isolates belonging to 17 Aspergillus species were found. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nidulans were the most frequently isolated species. Two other species, Aspoergillus fischerianus and Aspergillus heteromorphus were new records for insects. The macro- and microcharacteristics of the Brazilian isolates are compared to those in previously published descriptions. The habitat and geographical distribution of these fungi in Brazil is reviewed.. KEYWORDS: biological control, taxonomy, entomogenous fungi. NOMENCLATURAL ...
زعفران از با ارزش‌ترین محصولات دارویی استان‌های خراسان-رضوی و جنوبی است که در تمام مراحل برداشت، انتقال و انبارداری ممکن است به گونه‌های مختلف قارچ Aspergillus آلوده گردد. یکی از توکسین-های ناشی از این آلودگی، آفلاتوکسینB1 است. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی تولید این توکسین توسط قارچ Aspergillus flavus در مراحل مختلف برداشت، انتقال و انبارداری زعفران صورت گرفت. بافت‌های خشک و مرطوب زعفران و بافت‌های برنج آغشته شده به عصاره زعفران، با A. flavusتلقیح گردیده و تولید آفلاتوکسین در آن‌ها به روش کروماتوگرافی TLC بررسی گردید. قارچ آسپرژیلوس توانست در شرایط مختلف این پژوهش، تمام
Background and Objective: Glucoamylase are inverting exo-acting starch hydrolases releasing β-glucose from the non-reducing ends and are used in the manufacture of glucose, fructose syrups and other industrial purposes. The purpose of the study was to optimize the preferable environmental condition for the production of glucoamylase and its characterization from Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) NSH9. Methodology: The effects of various parameters like carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, pH, incubation period and other supplements were investigated for the production of glucoamylase. One-way ANOVA and independent samples t-test were used to analyze the data. Results: The maximum production of glucoamylase was observed at 25°C with initial pH 5.0 after 5 days of incubation. Depending on the type and amount of carbon sources, 6% soluble starch was considered as best for the glucoamylase production followed 2% raw sago starch. Yeast extract was considered the best as organic and urea was as ...
B. subtilis asustab risosfääri ja kuna on leitud, et ta soodustab taimekasvu, on tema spoore lisatud bioväetiste koostisesse, kuid on kasutusel ka biofungitsiidina ja bakteriaalsete taimehaiguste vastu.[9][10] Näiteks, suudavad mõned B. subtilise tüved peatada aflatoksiini tootvate ning maapähkleid ja maisi koloniseerivate kerahallikute Aspergillus flavus ja Aspergillus parasiticus kasvu ning isegi inhibeerida aflatoksiini tootmist.[11]. Kahjuritõrjes on olulisel kohal putukate (peamiselt liblikaliste, kuid ka mardikaliste, kahetiivaliste ja kiletiivaliste) patogeen B. thuringiensis, mis toodab spooride moodustamise ajal protoksiinikristalle ehk Cry-valke, mis putuka soolestikus lagunevad δ-endotoksiiniks (tuntud ka Bt-toksiini nime all). Toksiin hävitab putukavastse kõhtu sattudes tema soolestiku, mistõttu putukas hukkub. Toksiin on biolagunev ning selgroogsetele ja taimedele ohutu, seetõttu kasutatakse seda tüve laialdaselt bioloogilise pestitsiidina.[12] Insektitsiidseid ...
Aflatoxicosis in Poultry Aflatoxins are the most commonly occurring and economically important mycotoxins, produced largely by a fungi called Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxicosis is associated with grains and other feed sources such as maize, soyabeans, peanuts and millet.
Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, Aspergillus Flavus, Production, Isoflavones, Power, Conidia, Gene, Genes, Fungus, Proteins, Concentrations, Water, Anthocyanin, Antioxidant Effects, Color, Genotypes, Hydroxyl, Hydroxyl Radical, Phenol
Aspergillus flavus) will produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, zearaleone, fumonisin, ochratoxin, etc of which aflatoxin B1 is probably the most toxic. , 1995). , 1994). Levels as low as 20 ppm of fumonisin can be toxic to shrimps. Antinutritional Factors (ANF) from Vegetable Ingredients Antinutritional factors (ANF) in vegetable ingredients are rather complex as there is a vast array of toxic substances (Tacon, 1985, 1987). Insoluble fibres, soluble fibres, enzyme inhibitors, saponins, lectins, tennins, phytic acid and gossypol are the most important anti-inhibitors factors and are transmitted via the feed (Krogdahl, 1989). Then suitable quality agricultural lime are added according to soil acidity. Five tons per ha of chicken manure and 35 kg per ha of 14-14-14 (NPK) are added subsequently. The prepared area is covered with a 5 cm thickness of rice straw. Cuttings are then planted at 30 cm intervals. (iv) Poisoning Predators and Pests Before shrimp PL/juveniles are stocked, eggs and larvae of ...
Interestingly, the ethyl acetate extract was even more effective at destroying the bacteria than the drug chloramphenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat several infections, including infections of the respiratory tract, brain, eye and ear.. Next, the research team turned their attention to the effects of the different extracts on fungus, including Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigates.. As with the bacteria, the ethyl acetate extract once again came out on top as the most potent antifungal. Yet again, the chloroform extract had only a mild effect against the fungi, whereas the ethyl acetates effects were comparable to the chemical medicine nystatin, an antifungal medication that prevents fungus growing on the skin, and is often used in the treatment of oral thrush.. The research team concluded that the ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest antimicrobial properties, and as such should be investigated further. They also indicated their belief that phenolic and flavonoid ...
ID B8N000_ASPFN Unreviewed; 499 AA. AC B8N000; DT 03-MAR-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 03-MAR-2009, sequence version 1. DT 05-JUL-2017, entry version 55. DE RecName: Full=Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP] {ECO:0000256,PIRNR:PIRNR000108}; DE EC=1.1.1.42 {ECO:0000256,PIRNR:PIRNR000108}; GN ORFNames=AFLA_086400 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EED57942.1}; OS Aspergillus flavus (strain ATCC 200026 / FGSC A1120 / NRRL 3357 / JCM OS 12722 / SRRC 167). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; Eurotiomycetes; OC Eurotiomycetidae; Eurotiales; Aspergillaceae; Aspergillus. OX NCBI_TaxID=332952 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EED57942.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001875}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EED57942.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001875} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC 200026 / FGSC A1120 / NRRL 3357 / JCM 12722 / SRRC 167 RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001875}; RX PubMed=25883274; DOI=10.1128/genomeA.00168-15; RA Nierman W.C., Yu J., Fedorova-Abrams N.D., Losada L., ...
When seven immunocompromised patients developed invasive aspergillosis during construction at a hospital, new methods were performed to compare fungal isolates and a case-control study was conducted to determine risks for infection. Typing of Aspergillus flavus with the use of restriction endonuclease analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism using random amplified polymorphic DNA reactions to generate DNA probes revealed different patterns between isolates from two patients and a similar pattern among those from one patient, a health care worker, and an environmental source.… Read more. ...
The polysaccharide of peach gum, prepared by a partial acid hydrolysis, was degraded by a mixture of extracellular glacanohydrolases of Aspergillus flavus. This way obtained polysaccharide differed from the original one especially by a higher content of D-mannose and a lower content of D-galactose bound by (1 3) glycosidic bonds. The obtained results are discussed from the standpoint of composition of the main and side chains of the native polysaccharide.. ...
[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/IXXXX/I-5101-1.pdf]Ferritin Conjugated Limax flavus
Espinhos dorsais (total): 1; Raios dorsais moles (total): 5-7; Raios anais moles: 18 - 21; Vértebras: 36 - 37. Distal half of anterior edge of pectoral spine serrated; body depth at anus 14.3-17.3% SL; dorsal fin without black margin; eye diameter 27.4-34.9% HL; and length of adipose-fin base 10.6-14.4% SL. ...
الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 1; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 5-7; أشعه شرجية لينه: 18 - 21; فقرات: 36 - 37. Distal half of anterior edge of pectoral spine serrated; body depth at anus 14.3-17.3% SL; dorsal fin without black margin; eye diameter 27.4-34.9% HL; and length of adipose-fin base 10.6-14.4% SL. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus in a child. T2 - A rare complication after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. AU - Beluffi, Giampiero. AU - Bernardo, Maria Ester. AU - Meloni, Giulia. AU - Spinazzola, Angelo. AU - Locatelli, Franco. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI.. AB - We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI.. KW - Aspergillus. KW - Child. KW - Complication. KW - ...
Zea mays L. is one of the worlds most important and widely grown crops and is susceptible to a wide range of plant pathogens. One fungal pathogen of particular concern is Aspergillus flavus Link, which is capable of producing the secondary metabolite aflatoxin. Aflatoxin poses serious health concerns when consumed by humans and animals and when consumed in large doses can lead to abdominal pain, liver damage, and death. While regulated in the United States, many underdeveloped countries do not have the resources to monitor aflatoxin accumulation in maize and, thus, developing low aflatoxin accumulation commercial maize lines would be of great benefit. The objective of this project was to identify genotypic and phenotypic predictors of low aflatoxin accumulation that could help maize breeders develop a low aflatoxin accumulating line. The results of this work reveal the potential impact the maternal parental plant has on low aflatoxin accumulation through the movement of carbohydrates into ...
Zea mays L. is one of the worlds most important and widely grown crops and is susceptible to a wide range of plant pathogens. One fungal pathogen of particular concern is Aspergillus flavus Link, which is capable of producing the secondary metabolite aflatoxin. Aflatoxin poses serious health concerns when consumed by humans and animals and when consumed in large doses can lead to abdominal pain, liver damage, and death. While regulated in the United States, many underdeveloped countries do not have the resources to monitor aflatoxin accumulation in maize and, thus, developing low aflatoxin accumulation commercial maize lines would be of great benefit. The objective of this project was to identify genotypic and phenotypic predictors of low aflatoxin accumulation that could help maize breeders develop a low aflatoxin accumulating line. The results of this work reveal the potential impact the maternal parental plant has on low aflatoxin accumulation through the movement of carbohydrates into ...
The effect of cycling temperatures on production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus (V3734-10) when grown upon various substrates was studied. The parameters of temperature and time were selected to simulate environmental conditions in Oregon during harvest of filberts and walnuts. The heat input required for aflatoxin synthesis in terms of degree hours per day were calculated and may be used as an index to predict potential danger of aflatoxin contamination. Conditions which generated less than 208 hours per day did not receive sufficient heat to induce growth and metabolism. When heat input ranged between 208 and 270 hours per day, growth and metabolism occurred with the development of a yellow pigment. There was not sufficient heat input, however, to induce the idiophase, sporulation and subsequent aflatoxin synthesis. Above 270 hours per day the culture entered the idiophase, sporulation occurred and aflatoxin was produced. The heat requirements for aflatoxin production was compared to the ...
Considerable progress has been achieved in reducing aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products [47-52] since the discovery that aflatoxin is extremely toxic to humans and animals [2, 53]. Many inhibitors [9, 54] have been demonstrated to have an inhibitory effect on aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. flavus. Among them, plant-derived metabolites are of special interest. Non-host plant metabolites, such as onion, garlic extracts, eugenol [55-57], khellin, visnagin [58], caffeine, and piperlongumine [59] inhibit A. flavus growth and/or aflatoxin production. At the same time, host plant-derived metabolites including luteolin [60], eriodictyol [61], and tanning acids [62] also inhibit A. flavus development and/or aflatoxin production. However, most of these compounds can hardly be applied in practice because their biosynthesis pathway and the related biochemical steps are not well understood.. Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin, could protect plants from fungal infection and improve the defense ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aspergillus colonization and aflatoxin contamination in peanut genotypes with reduced linoleic acid composition. AU - Holbrook, C. Corley. AU - Wilson, David M.. AU - Matheron, Michael E. AU - Hunter, John E.. AU - Knauft, David A.. AU - Gorbet, Daniel W.. PY - 2000/2. Y1 - 2000/2. N2 - Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus can contaminate several agricultural crops with the toxic fungal metabolite aflatoxin. Previous research has indicated that resistance may be conferred by altering the fatty acid composition of these crops. Recently, peanut breeding lines with reduced linoleic acid content have been developed. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reduced linoleic acid composition on preharvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut. Seven breeding lines with relatively low linoleic acid and two check genotypes were grown in a randomized complete block design with 10 replicates for 4 years in Georgia and for 3 years in Arizona. The plots were inoculated with a ...
Literature Cited. 1. Abbas, H. K., ed. 2003. Special issue: Aflatoxin and food safety Part 1. J. of Toxicol, Toxin Rev. 22:139- 459.. 2. Abbas, H. K., Zablotowicz, R. M., and Locke, M. A. 2004. Spatial variability of Aspergillus flavus soil populations under different crops and corn grain colonization and aflatoxins. Can. J. Bot. 82:1768-1775. 3. Abbas, H. K., Cartwright, R. D., Xie, W., and Shier, W. T. 2006. Aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of corn (maize, Zea mays) hybrids in Arkansas. Crop Prot. 25:1-9. 4. Abbas, H. K., Zablotowicz, R. M., Bruns, H. A., and Abel, C. A. 2006. Biocontrol of aflatoxin in corn by inoculation with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates. Biocontrol Sci. Tech. 16:437-449.. 5. Ahmad, M., Majerczak, D. R., Pile, S., Hoyas, M. E., Novacky, A., and Coplin, D. L. 2001. Biological activity of harpin produced by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii. Molec. Plant-Microbe Interact. 14:1223-1234.. 6. Baker, C. J., Orlandi, E. W., and Mock, N. M. 1993. Harpin, an ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce the synthesis of a myriad of secondary metabolites, including aflatoxins. It raises significant concern as it is a potent environmental contaminant. In Aspergillus flavus., antioxidant enzymes link ROS stress response with coordinated gene regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. In this study, we characterized the function of a core component of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CTA1) of A. flavus. Firstly, we verified the presence of cta1 corresponding protein (CTA1) by Western blot analysis and mass-spectrometry based analysis. Then, the functional study revealed that the growth, sporulation and sclerotia formation significantly increased, while aflatoxins production and virulence were decreased in the cta1 deletion mutant as compared with the WT and complementary strains. Furthermore, the absence of the cta1 gene resulted in a significant rise in the intracellular ROS level, which in turn added to the oxidative stress level of cells. A further quantitative ...
The saprophytic soil fungus infects crops and produces aflatoxin. (valine leucine and isoleucine) were considerably enriched in the down-regulated gene group while those connected with ribosome biogenesis translation and biosynthesis of α-amino acids had been over-represented among the up-regulated genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway evaluation uncovered that metabolic pathways adversely impacted among the down-regulated genes parallel to people energetic at 30 °C an ailment conducive to aflatoxin biosynthesis. On the other hand metabolic pathways favorably linked to the up-regulated gene group resembled those at 37 °C which mementos rapid fungal development and it is inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The outcomes demonstrated that 2-PE at a minimal level stimulated energetic development of but concomitantly rendered reduced actions in branched-chain amino acidity degradation. Since supplementary metabolism takes place after active development provides ceased ...
When asked about taking groups to West Africa on culinary tours, I have been hesitant to undertake such a project due to issues of food safety and quality control. A serious problem surrounding peanut and maize production in Africa, for example, is the prevalence of mycotoxins, types of fungi that can contaminate food before, during or after it is harvested/processed. Since the 1960s there has been a new recognition of the health and other impacts of one group of mycotoxins known as aflatoxins (in particular, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus) in Africa. According to the most recent quarterly newsletter of the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) (04, Oct. 2009-Jan 2010) These toxins are potent causes of cancer and suppress the immune system causing greater susceptibility of humans and animals to diseases. . . High levels of aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products also affect international trade since agricultural products that have more than permissible levels of ...
1. Introduction. Mycotoxins are natural contaminants in food and feed. Aflatoxins (AFs) are classified as mycotoxins, which refer to a variety of seriously toxic components and the group of difuranocoumarins and classified in two broad groups according to their chemical structures; the difurocoumarocyclopentenone series (AFB, AFM and aflatoxicol) and the difurocoumarolactone series (AFG and AFB3). The aflatoxins fluoresce strongly in ultraviolet light (ca. 365 nm); B1 and B2 produce a blue fluorescence where as G1 and G2 produce green fluorescence. The toxins are generated by moulds of genera Aspergillus (specifically by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus), Penicillium and Fusarium [1] .. The agent is mainly found in warm and wet climates [2] . They are threat to agricultural products and cereal grain in particular. The products might be contaminated during pre-harvest, harvest, processing and handling stages [3] [4] . In this regard, season, humidity, daily variation, and storage ...
Orizin (EC 3.4.21.63, Aspergillus alkaline proteinaza, aspergilopeptidaza B, API 21, aspergilopepsin B, aspergilopepsin F, Aspergillus candidus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus flavus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus melleus semialkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus oryzae alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus parasiticus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus serin proteinaza, Aspergillus sydowi alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus soya alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus melleus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus sulphureus alkalna proteinaza, prozim, P 5380, kiorinaza, seaproza S, semi-alkalna proteaza, sumizim MP, prozim 10, onoproza, onoproza SA, proteaza P, promelaza) je enzim.[1][2][3][4][5] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju. ...
Study was conducted on different cereals (wheat, rice, sorghum) and oil seeds (sunflowerseed, cottonseed, groundnut) to correlate bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) of the seeds under longwave (366 nm) ultraviolet light with aflatoxin presence. Correlation between BGYF, aflatoxin and kojic acid contents and peroxidase units indicated that samples showing BGYF were not always contaminated with aflatoxins but those which contained aflatoxins, always exhibited BGYF. It was further noticed that all the samples, that showed BGY fluorescence and aflatoxin presence were loaded with spores of Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin positive samples also had high moisture contents. Storage of the BGYF and aflatoxin positive samples showed that storage in the dark increased the aflatoxin content and in the light, the aflatoxin content was reduced. Some varieties of cereals and oil seeds were contaminated with toxic strain of A. flavus. Results showed positive relationship between BGYF and aflatoxin ...
Infection with the fungus Aspergillus, seen especially in people with a deficient immune system. The clinical features of aspergillosis can include invasive lung infection and disseminated disease, usually with fever, cough, spitting up blood, and chest pain. Aspergillosis may mimic asthma with cough and inspiratory stridor (noise on breathing in) or sinusitis with fever, localized pain. Aspergillosis is due most often to Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus and less commonly A. niger, A. terreus, or A. nidulans. These fungi frequently colonize the upper respiratory tract and are among the most common in the environment. At elevated risk for aspergillosis are people with a blood malignancy or lymphoma, anyone who has had a transplant or is taking high-dose corticosteroids and, rarely, people with HIV infection. Diagnosis may be difficult. It usually requires a biopsy. The advent of effective, less toxic antifungal drugs (such as itraconazole) has improved therapy. The prognosis (outlook) ...
Feedstuffs known to be contaminated by A. flavus include: groundnut cakes, maize, sorghum, sunflower, cottonseed cakes, copra, and cassava. To produce aflatoxin, however, A. flavus must be present alone in a practically pure culture. The presence of other fungi, yeast, or bacteria seems to interfere with aflatoxin production. Crops such as peanuts, cottonseed, and copra are high aflatoxin risks precisely because A. flavus often infest them as a practically pure culture with few or no other microflora. In addition, the fungus produces the toxin in these crops at relatively low moisture levels, 9 to 10 percent, compared with 17 to 18 percent moisture for most feed grains. Feed grains such as maize and sorghum grown in the tropics, therefore, also pose high risk. 3.2.2 Heating and moisture increase Mould growth in feedstuffs is accompanied by rising temperatures and moisture content. Aspergillus glaucus, which has a minimum moisture requirement of 14.5 percent, is the first significant species ...
Our data demonstrate that the observed rhythm in sclerotium formation in A. flavus strain 12S is under the control of an endogenous circadian oscillator. The rhythm persists in constant conditions, is entrained and reset by environmental signals, and is temperature compensated. However, although the canonical clock properties are present in the A. flavus clock, several features of the rhythm differ from those of other eukaryotes.. The FRP of the A. flavus developmental rhythm at 30°C is 33 h and thus is significantly longer than a typical circadian rhythm, which is usually close to 24 h. The longest documented circadian rhythms to date are 29 h in the bean plant Phaseolus (8) and ∼30 h for the rhythm of promoter activity of the Arabidopsis chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (cab2) in DD (27). It has generally been assumed that circadian clocks have FRPs close to 24 h in order to maintain a stable phase relationship to the earths 24-h rotational cycle; the inherent cycle cannot be too far away ...
Aflavinine, a novel indole-​mevalonate metabolite from tremorgen-​producing Aspergillus flavus species. Gallagher, Rex T.; McCabe, Terrence; Hirotsu, Ken; Clardy, Jon; Nicholson, Judith; Wilson, Benjamin J. (Dep. Chem., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA). Tetrahedron Lett., 21(3), 243-6 (English) 1980. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from brazil nuts. Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C. PLoS One (2012), 7(8), e42480. Three new aflavinines from the sclerotia of ...
Since the 1993-1994 unusual outbreak of pulmonary hemorrhage (lung breeding) in infants in Cleveland, Ohio, that was then thought to be due to exposure to Stachybotrys, the health effects associated with this mold have remained controversial. Frequently referred to as the Black Mold by the general public, Stachybotrys has probably caused more economic and psychological agony than ill-health. The mold has resulted in multimillion dollar remediations and litigations.. Stachybotrys was first associated with death of horses in Eastern Europe in the 1930s. Horses fed with hay contaminated with Stachybotrys were reported to surfer from a disease characherized by irritation of the mouth, throat, and nose; shock; dermal necrosis; a decrease in leukocytes; hemorrhage; nervous disorder; and death.. While Stachybotrys is so much feared the number of cases where it was the cause of ill-health or death are insignificant compared to some other toxigenic molds such as Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus ...
seeking plant-based alternatives to conventional antimicrobial drugs.. The aromatic herb has a long legacy in traditional medicine from Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. Hippocrates recommended it as an antiseptic and a treatment for gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments.. Biochemical analysis shows the various species making up the Origanum genus to be among the worlds richest plants in phenolic and flavonoid compounds. A spate of recent research from labs all over the world is underscoring the antibacterial and antifungal potential of essential oils distilled from oregano.. A team at Kumaun University, Uttarakhand, India, showed that essential oil of Origanum vulgare was able to inhibit Aspergillus flavus and A. niger. The former, known for its lethal aflatoxin, is a major contaminant in peanuts. The investigators identified monoterpenes like p-Cymene and thymol as the key antifungal compounds among the 33 identified biochemical constituents of the essential oil (Bisht D, et al. ...
Tóth, Beáta and Török, Orsolya and Kótai, Éva and Varga, Mónika and Toldiné Tóth, Éva and Varga, János and Mesterházy, Ákos (2013) Aspergillus fajok szerepe a kukorica szántóföldi gomba és mikotoxin szennyeződésében. In: 59. Növényvédelmi Tudományos Napok, 19-20 Feb 2013, Budapest. Mesterházy, Ákos and Varga, Mónika and Tóth, Beáta and Lehoczki-Krsjak, Szabolcs and Toldiné Tóth, Éva (2013) Az Aspergillus flavus mint a kukorica új nemesítési problémája. In: XIX. Növénynemesítési Tudományos Nap, 2013. március 7., Keszthely, Hungary. Mesterházy, Ákos and Tóth, Beáta and Szabó-Hevér, Ágnes and Varga, Mónika and Toldiné Tóth, Éva (2013) Breeding strategies and results against Fusarium head blight in bread wheat. In: 2nd Conference of Biotechnology and Breeding, 5-7 Nov 2013, Budapest. Szabó, Balázs and Toldiné Tóth, Éva and Tóth, Beáta and Varga, Mónika and Mesterházy, Ákos (2013) Examination of resistance level of maize hybrids against ...
Two cases of aflatoxicosis in broilers were characterised, unusually, by trembling, ataxia, paralysis of legs and wings and lameness. Histopathology showed severe degeneration of hepatocytes, bile duct proliferation and depletion of lymphocytes in the lymphoid organs. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from the feed and litter. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in one sample at a concentration of 2.4 mg/kg. ...
Novel 1,1-(5,5-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-aryl-1H-pyrazole-5,1-(4H,5H)-diyl))diethanones 7-12 were tested for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion and twofold serial dilution method against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. Compounds 7 against Micrococcus luteus, 8 against β-Heamolytic streptococcus, M. luteus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Microsporum gypseum, 9 against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Vibreo cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor indicus, 10 against Salmonella typhii, S. flexneri, M. gypseum, 11 against K. pneumonia, M. gypseum, 12 against K. pneumonia, and M. gypseum show superior zone of inhibitions and exhibited excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities at a MIC value of 6.25 μg/mL. Moreover, all the tested compounds 7-12 revealed promising antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and INH-resistant M. tuberculosis. Compounds 8 against M. tuberculosis and 11 against INH-resistant M. tuberculosis exhibited the
Endopleura uchi (Huber) Cuatrec. is an Amazon species traditionally used as treatment for inflammations and female disorders. Bergenin was isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of bark of E. uchi by using column chromatography over sephadex LH-20 and then silica gel 60 flash. Its structure was identified on the basis of its NMR spectra. The antimicrobial activity of bergenin and fractions of methanol extract of E. uchi were evaluated against ATCC microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, Aspergillus flavus, A. nidulans). Clinically isolated strains of all of these microorganisms, along with C. tropicalis, A. niger, Shigella sonnei, Serratia marcenses and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also evaluated. The growth inhibition caused by bergenin, extracts and fractions of E. uchi against ATCC microorganisms were similar to the inhibition to microorganisms clinically isolated. The ...
Table 4: Estimated costs and returns budget for vendors (wholesalers) under the following assumptions. (1) Vendors purchased nonsorted peanut and do no sort before marketing. (2) Vendors purchased nonsorted peanut and sort before marketing. (3) Vendors purchased sorted peanut at a higher price and do not sort before marketing ...
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The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria.
A. parasiticus is employed to hydroxylate 2-hydroxyterphenyl compounds to terphenyltriols, which can be used to form branched polycarbonates. The hydroxylation reaction is enhanced by maintaining a sufficient amount of a carbon source in the culture medium-reaction medium to maintain the ammonium level below 300 ppm. during the bioconversion phase. Employment of a mutant strain of A. parasiticus which was isolated following ultraviolet light mutagenesis to reduce its tendency to produce aflatoxins is preferred.
Farmer-led evaluation of the effect of double row planting pattern and crop residue incorporation on yield, mould prevalence and aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts
Aflatoxin contamination is not an uncommon problem in pet food. Its expensive to detect cuz all the grains would have to be checked, entire shipments, everytime they arrived, to avoid the possibility. Natures Recipe had it go through their food, dogs and cats died, they ended up being bought out by Heinz cuz they couldnt come back from the loss. The last one I know of to have that happen was Innova and Cal. Nat., they have survived but it cost them a whole lot of money in vet bills and such. I doubt it will do much harm to this company being so huge ...
Known as: 4H-3,15a-Epoxy-1-benzoxepino(6,7:6,7)indeno(1,2-b)indol-4-one, 9-(1,1-dimethyl-2-propenyl)-2,3,5b,6,7,7a,8,13,13b,13c,14,15-dodecahydro-5b-hydroxy-2,2,13b,13c-tetramethyl-, (3R-(3alpha,5balpha,7abeta,13balpha,13cbeta,15aalpha))- ...
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Aspergillus flavus is a fungus of the family Trichocomaceae with a worldwide distribution. The mold lives in soil, surviving ... Aflatoxin B1 is an aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. It is a very potent carcinogen with a TD50 3.2 ... "Aspergillus flavus :: Center for Integrated Fungal Research". www.cifr.ncsu.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-08. "Definition of ... The widespread death was later found to be caused by Aspergillus flavus contamination of peanut meal. Twelve patients died of ...
Thom, C; Church, MB (1921). "Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae and associated species". Am. J. Bot. 8: 103-126. doi:10.2307/2435149 ... She co-authored the first manual on Aspergillus with Charles Thom and worked with Thom on his treatise on Penicillium. She was ... Margaret Brooks Church (1889-1976) was an American mycologist who specialized in Aspergillus and other fungi involved in food ... and studied other Asian soy fermentations involving the fungus known as Aspergillus oryzae. This research culminated in her ...
The funguses Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium spp. have been recorded on the seeds of the plant in the Philippines. In the ...
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and the rare Aspergillus nomius - which contaminate plant and plant products. ... Aspergillus flavus produces only B-type aflatoxins. Aflatoxin M1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 and can be ... Aflatoxin M1 is a chemical compound of the aflatoxin class, a group of mycotoxins produced by three species of Aspergillus - ...
Die fadenpilze, aspergillus flavus, niger u. fumigatus; eurotium repens (u. aspergillus glaucus) und ihre beziehungen zur ... Aspergillus flavus, niger and fumigatus; Eurotium repens (Aspergillus glaucus) and their relationships to otomycosis. Die ...
The enzyme can be found in Aspergillus flavus. It is an enzyme in the rutin catabolic pathway. "EC 3.2.1.66 - quercitrinase". ...
Amare, MG; Keller, NP (May 2014). "Molecular mechanisms of Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolism and development". Fungal ... The proteins were first characterized in Aspergillus nidulans. Some proteins in the complex are light-sensitive, including the ...
The enzyme quercitrinase can be found in Aspergillus flavus. This enzyme hydrolyzes the glycoside quercitrin to release ...
Upadhyay MP, West EP, Sharma AP (January 1980). "Keratitis due to Aspergillus flavus successfully treated with thiabendazole". ...
"Antiinsectan aflavinine derivatives from the sclerotia of Aspergillus flavus". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 53 (23): 5457- ...
The enzyme quercitrinase can be found in Aspergillus flavus. It is an enzyme in the rutin catabolic pathway. Rutin is a citrus ...
Her Masters thesis, Production of antibiotic substances by aspergillus flavus and chaetomium cochliodes, looked to optimise the ... Production of antibiotic substances by aspergillus flavus and chaetomium cochliodes. Waksman, Selman A.; Bugie, Elizabeth (1943 ...
Water Activity and Antifungal Agents on Growth of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus". Journal of Food Science. 48 (3): 778- ... Aspergillus flavus, Blastomyces dermatitidus, Cladophialophora bantiana, Histoplasma capsulatum, Mucor sp., Sporothrix ... Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species, among others, can degrade high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons as well as assist ... Penicillium and Aspergillus species are the largest producers of antibacterial compounds among the marine fungi. Various deep- ...
Aspergillus flavus known to have termiticidal activity against O. assmuthi. "An annotated checklist of termites (Isoptera) from ...
Other species of Aspergillus include A. flavus and A. terreus. The major risk factors for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are ... Aspergillosis is an infection caused by fungi from the genus Aspergillus. The vast majority of cases are caused by Aspergillus ... Aspergillus can form single or multiple nodules which may or may not form a cavity. Whilst usually benign in nature, they can ... To confirm Aspergillus nodules as opposed to aspergilloma, these must be seen directly on imaging or confirmed by percutaneous ...
The most common pathogenic species are Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxin ... Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus clavatus can cause allergic disease. Some Aspergillus species cause disease on grain ... The spores of Aspergillus fumigatus are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. A. fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen. It can cause ... Aspergillosis is the group of diseases caused by Aspergillus. The symptoms include fever, cough, chest pain or breathlessness. ...
Different Aspergillus strains are capable of making various hydroxypyrazine derivatives. Aspergillus flavus is used to produce ... In 1940 Edwin C. White and Justina H. Hill discovered that a fungal strain of Aspergillus flavus growing in a surface culture ... "Aspergillic Acid: An Antibiotic Substance Produced by Aspergillus Flavus I. General Properties; Formation of Desoxyaspergillic ... that aspergillic acid can also be derived from one molecule of L-leucine and one molecule of L-isoleucine in Aspergillus flavus ...
The first report on retting of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) by pectin lyase produced by Aspergillus flavus MTCC 7589 was ... "Purification and characterization of an alkaline pectin lyase from Aspergillus flavus". Process Biochem. 43 (5): 547-552. doi: ... Pickersgill R, Jenkins J (1997). "Two crystal structures of pectin lyase A from Aspergillus reveal a pH driven conformational ... a novel pectinolytic enzyme from Aspergillus niger". FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 120 (1-2): 63-68. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994. ...
on growth of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus and accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in groundnut". Mycological Research. 93 (4 ... oncomensis and Rhizopus oligosporus reduce the aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus. However, aflatoxin-producing molds ( ... sanitation and hygiene are important to avoid contaminating the culture with bacteria or other fungi like Aspergillus flavus ( ... Aspergillus spp.) are often naturally present on peanut presscake. Furthermore, coconut presscake can harbor the very dangerous ...
Cryptic speciation and recombination in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. Proceedings of the National Academy ... His thesis was entitled "Population genetic, chromosomal, and phylogenetic patterns associated with meiosis in Aspergillus. He ...
It has been also isolated from Solanum nigrum fungal endophyte Aspergillus flavus. It is a glycoalkaloid derived from the ...
Although brewers' yeast (Saccharomyces), fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces), and Aspergillus flavus have no detectable DNA ... "Bisulfite sequencing reveals that Aspergillus flavus holds a hollow in DNA methylation". PLOS ONE. 7 (1): e30349. Bibcode: ...
Bassir, O.; Adekunle, A. A. (1972). "Production of aflatoxin B1 from defined natural cultures of Aspergillus flavus (link)". ... 1972 Production of aflatoxin B 1 from defined natural cultures of Aspergillus flavus (Link). "New Scientist: The professor's ...
"Hydrolytic enzymes secreted by Paecilomyces lilacinus cultured on sclerotia of Aspergillus flavus" (PDF). Applied Microbiology ...
Ghana is home to a significant number of fungi species including: Aspergillus flavus; Athelia rolfsii; Auricularia auricula- ...
"Keratitis due to Aspergillus flavus successfully treated with thiabendazole". Br J Ophthalmol. 64 (1): 30-2. doi:10.1136/bjo. ...
Scott, Gene E.; Zummo, Natale (January 1, 1988). "Sources of Resistance in Maize to Kernel Infection by Aspergillus flavus in ...
Note: Fungal endophthalmitis is extremely rare) Filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus fumigatus Fusarium spp. ... Florida in US regularly reports cases of fungal keratitis, with Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. as the most common causes. The ... is most common then Aspergillus spp. and thirdly Dematitious fungi causing fungal keratitis in India. The precipitating event ...
Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium ... "Extracellular biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus flavus NJP08: a mechanism perspective ... 2011) indicated that silver nanoparticle synthesis for A. flavus occurs initially by a "33kDa" protein followed by a protein ( ... Bhainsa, KC; D'Sousa SF (2006). "Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus fumigatas". ...
Fungi responsible for fungal sinusitis are Aspergillus fumigatus (90%), Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger. Fungal ...
... unlike the closely related Aspergillus flavus.[15] To date, there have been only several reported cases of animals (e.g. ... Kōji-kin (Aspergillus oryzae) spores are another important component of sake. Kōji-kin is an enzyme-secreting fungus.[15] In ... Bamforth (2005) places the probable origin of true sake (which is made from rice, water, and kōji mold (麹, Aspergillus oryzae) ... "Aspergillus oryzae - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved August 8, 2019.. ...
a Erandiks on näiteks kerahallik Aspergillus candidus. ^b Mõned loomaliigid, näiteks liblikad tiibades, sisaldavad küll ... ladina sõnast flavus 'kollane'). Kui leiti, et sarnase ehitusega on ka paljud taimedes sisalduvad ained, mis on teist värvi ( ...
The enzyme quercitrinase can be found in Aspergillus flavus.[14] This enzyme hydrolyzes the glycoside quercitrin to release ...
Aspergillus candidus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus flavus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus melleus semialkalna proteinaza, ... Aspergillus serin proteinaza, Aspergillus sydowi alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus soya alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus melleus ... Aspergillus oryzae alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus parasiticus alkalna proteinaza, ... Orizin (EC 3.4.21.63, Aspergillus alkaline proteinaza, aspergilopeptidaza B, API 21, aspergilopepsin B, aspergilopepsin F, ...
Dietary exposure to the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1, commonly produced by growth of the fungus Aspergillus flavus on improperly ... The five most common genera of indoor molds are Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Trichoderma. ... Molds that are often found on meat and poultry include members of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, ... Opportunistic infection by molds[25] such as Penicillium marneffei and Aspergillus fumigatus is a common cause of illness and ...
Limax flavus (Limacus flavus) slimák pestrý sialové kyseliny [16] LTL (LTA1) Lotus tetragonolobus (Tetragonolobus purpureus) ... Aspergillus oryzae - α-L-Fuc-(1-6) vázaná na jádro N-vázaného oligosacharidu, méně pak α-L-Fuc-(1-2,3,4) [7] ... Binding Determinants of the Sialic Acid-specific Lectin from the Slug Limax flavus"; Knibbs RN, Osborne SE, Glick GD, Goldstein ... "Carbohydrate binding specificity of a fucose-specific lectin from Aspergillus oryzae: a novel probe for core Fuchse" Matsumura ...
Other producers of aspergillomarasmine A include Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and ... In addition to Aspergillus versicolor, aspergillomarasmine A is also produced by the ascomycete Pyrenophora teres where it acts ... Aspergillomarasmine A is an polyamino acid naturally produced by the mold Aspergillus versicolor. The substance has been ...
... որոնք արտադրվում են Aspergillus flavus սնկերի (անունն առաջացել է A. flavus թույնից ) և A. parasiticus-ի կողմից։ Սննդի ախտոտումը ...
... სხვა ფილამენტური სოკოებიდან იშვიათად გვხვდება Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nidulans, Exophiala dermatitidis და Scedosporium ... მათ შორისაა ბრონქოპულმონარული ასპერგილოზი, როდესაც ორგანიზმის საპასუხო რეაქცია სოკო Aspergillus fumigatus-ის მიმართ იწვევს ... CF პაციენტების ჰაერგამტარი გზები ასევე შეიძლება იყოს კოლონიზებული ფილამენტური სოკოთი (როგორიცაა Aspergillus fumigatus, ... Scedosporium apiospermum, Aspergillus terreus) და/ან საფუარები (როგორიცაა Candida albicans); ...
... gene in Aspergillus flavus decreases fungal growth and aflatoxin production in maize kernels". Planta. 247 (6): 1465-1473. doi: ... RNAi silencing of alpha-amylase have also been used to decrease Aspergillus flavus fungal growth in maize which would have ...
Aflatoxin B1, which is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus growing on stored grains, nuts and peanut butter, is an ...
Aspergillus flavus mutant strain 241, blocked in aflatoxin biosynthesis, does not accumulate aflR transcript. Matthew P. Brown ...
Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic chemicals produced by molds such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The mold ...
Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium species.[6] A study by the National Human Genome Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus fumigatus.[24] It can also inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori.[25] So important ...
... e tüved peatada aflatoksiini tootvate ning maapähkleid ja maisi koloniseerivate kerahallikute Aspergillus flavus ja Aspergillus ...
The fungi Aspergillus flavus,[108] Aspergillus fumigatus,[108] Aspergillus niger,[108] Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ... tamarii, Aspergillus sulphureus, Aspergillus repens, Mucor hiemalis (not a human pathogen), Penicillium chrysogenum, ... Oven treatment killed conidia of A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger, and did not degrade the active component of marijuana, ... Penicillium italicum and Rhizopus nigrans have been found in moldy cannabis.[107] Aspergillus mold species can infect the lungs ...
... B1 is considered the most toxic and is produced by both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin M1 ... Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens and mutagens that are produced by certain molds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ... Aflatoxins are produced by both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are common forms of 'weedy' molds ... "The phylogenetics of mycotoxin and sclerotium production in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae". Fungal Genetics and ...
Aspergillus clavatus. Aspergillus deflectus. Aspergillus egyptiacus. Aspergillus fischerianus. Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus ... Aspergillus glaucus. Aspergillus lentulus. Aspergillus nidulans. Aspergillus niger. Aspergillus ochraceus. Aspergillus oryzae. ... Aspergillus restrictus. Aspergillus sojae. Aspergillus sydowii. Aspergillus tamari. Aspergillus terreus. Aspergillus ustus. ... Aspergillus aculeatus. Aspergillus alliaceus. Aspergillus caesiellus. Aspergillus caespitosus. Aspergillus candidus. ...
Steinbrut - Aspergillus flavus (Schimmelpilze). *Nosemose (früher Nosematose) - Nosema apis (Mikrosporidien)[16]. *Kalkbrut - ...
... s can also be contaminated with Aflatoxin producing Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nomius.[ ...
Stonebrood (aspergillosis larvae apium) is a fungal disease caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and ... Aspergillus niger. It causes mummification of the brood of a honey bee colony. The fungi are common soil inhabitants and are ...
Although brewers' yeast (Saccharomyces), fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces), and Aspergillus flavus[71] have no detectable DNA ... "Bisulfite sequencing reveals that Aspergillus flavus holds a hollow in DNA methylation". PLOS One. 7 (1): e30349. doi:10.1371/ ...
Aspergillus flavus, which grows on peanuts and other hosts, generates aflatoxin, which damages the liver and is highly ... In Asia, Aspergillus oryzae is added to a pulp of soaked soya beans to make soy sauce, and is used to break down starch in rice ... Most famously, Neurospora crassa, several species of yeasts, and Aspergillus species are used in many genetics and cell biology ... Sexual and asexual isolates of the same species commonly carry different binomial species names, as, for example, Aspergillus ...
Aflatoxin B1 (from Aspergillus flavus mold) rat, oral 480 µg/kg 0.00048 [71]. ...
Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic chemicals produced by molds such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The mold ... Doster and Michailides (1994). "Aspergillus Moulds and Aflatoxins in Pistachio Nuts in California". Phytopathology. 84 (6): 583 ...
Aspergillus flavus, which grows on peanuts and other hosts, generates aflatoxin, which damages the liver and is highly ... In Asia, Aspergillus oryzae is added to a pulp of soaked soya beans to make soy sauce, and is used to break down starch in rice ... Most famously, Neurospora crassa, several species of yeasts, and Aspergillus species are used in many genetics and cell biology ... Examples of ascomycetes that can cause infections in humans include Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and several tens of ...
"Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus flavus". Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13 (1): 466-476. doi: ...
Aspergillus fumigatus da aspergilosi askoren eragilea, baina Aspergillus flavus eta Aspergillus nigerren garrantzia ere ... Aspergillus onddoaren aurrean sortzen den alergia mota bat da. Asma, errinitisa, sukarra, eta eztula dira sintoma nagusiak. ... Horregatik aipatzen da Aspergillus onddo oportunista bat dela. Aspergilosi guztiek arnas aparatua eta birikak kaltetzen dituzte ... Aspergillusen esporak inhalatzerakoan harrapatu ohi dira aspergilosiak. Onddoa nonahikoa denez (lur-zoruan, hautsean, ...
In Kenya, Aspergillus flavus is the most prevalent and has been associated with several acute and chronic aflatoxin outbreaks ... A. flavus was not isolated from soils under sugarcane cultivation. Distribution of the two bacterial species varied across the ... Aspergillus spp. were first isolated from soils before the identification and determination of their aflatoxigenicity. Further ... In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of A. flavus in soils from two agro-ecological regions with contrasting climatic ...
p. 924 Aspergillus flavus Genome Sequencing Project Aspergillus flavus research. ... 1] The yeast successfully competes with A. flavus for space and nutrients, ultimately limiting its growth. Aspergillus flavus ... flavus. Nonaflatoxin spore dispersal is aided by wind and insects. Aspergillus flavus infections will not always reduce crop ... Aspergillus flavus is complex in its morphology and can be classified into two groups based on the size of sclerotia produced. ...
Aspergillus flavus ATCC ® 204304™ Designation: MCV-C#1 Application: Susceptibility testing Antifungal susceptibity testing Ref ... Fungi, Dikarya, Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina, Eurotiomycetes, Eurotiomycetidae, Eurotiales, Aspergillaceae, Aspergillus Strain ...
Aspergillus flavus ATCC ® 204304™ Designation: MCV-C#1 Application: Susceptibility testing Antifungal susceptibity testing Ref ... Aspergillus flavus Link (ATCC® 204304™) Strain Designations: MCV-C#1 / Product Format: frozen ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Aspergillus flavus AF36 on cotton consistent with the Experimental Use Permit 69224-EUP-1, which will now allow for application ... Aspergillus flavus AF36.. Aspergillus flavus AF36 is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a tolerance in or on cotton. ... Residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 or its metabolites are likely to be removed from cotton seed oil during this processing. ... Aspergillus flavus AF36; Amendment, Temporary Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance. A Rule by the Environmental ...
Contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link, has severe health and ... Genome-Wide Association Mapping of and Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance in Maize. Crop Science. 55(5): 11 p ... Genome-Wide Association Mapping of and Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance in Maize ... flavus in multilocation, replicated field trials. Results uncovered 107 SNPs associated with aflatoxin accumulation in one or ...
... for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 on pistachio when applied/used to reduce aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. ... The exemption from tolerance of Aspergillus flavus AF36, a non-aflatoxin-producing strain of Aspergillus flavus, on cotton was ... for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 on pistachio when applied/used to reduce aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. ... Aspergillus flavus AF36 Use on Pistachio (U.S. EPA Memorandum... Minor correction: company NOF NOF PP1E7830-AF36 proposed use ...
Alteration of cell wall composition leads to amphotericin B resistance in Aspergillus flavus.. Seo K1, Akiyoshi H, Ohnishi Y. ... An amphotericin B (AmB)-resistant mutant was isolated from a wild-type AmB-susceptible strain of Aspergillus flavus by serial ...
S. Krishnan, E. K. Manavathu, and P. H. Chandrasekar, "Aspergillus flavus: an emerging non-fumigatus Aspergillus species of ... "Effect of specific amino acids on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus in defined ... "Control of aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus using RNA silencing technology by targeting ... A. M. Fakhoury and C. P. Woloshuk, "Inhibition of growth of Aspergillus flavus and fungal α-amylases by a lectin-like protein ...
Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important producers of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops, and the effect of water activity ... RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in response to water activity.. Zhang F1, Guo Z2, ... RNA-Seq-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Response to Water Activity ... RNA-Seq-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Response to Water Activity ...
The uniquely mapped reads to A. flavus reference genome in the libraries of af_R and af_S at T2 and T3 were subjected to ... In total, 67.46 Gb of high-quality bases were generated for A. flavus-resistant (af_R) and -susceptible peanut (af_S) at one ( ... To comprehensively understand the molecular mechanism of A. flavus interaction with peanut, RNA-seq was used for global ... flavus mycelia more easily penetrate and produce much more aflatoxin in susceptible than in resistant peanut. Our results serve ...
Aflatoxins are produced by several species of Aspergillus, in particular Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin ... Aspergillus fumigatus still accounts for most cases of aspergillosis, with A. flavus and A. niger being the other more common ... The most important toxigenic Aspergillus species in foods are the aflatoxigenic molds, A. flavus and A. parasiticus, along with ... Aspergillus heads of the anamorphic state. Aspergillus is one of the most important genera in the spoilage of foods and animal ...
We investigated whether DNA methylation plays a role in the development and secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, ... We investigated whether DNA methylation plays a role in the development and secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, ... The DmtA methyltransferase contributes to Aspergillus flavus conidiation, sclerotial production, aflatoxin biosynthesis and ... The A. flavus dmtA null mutant lines produced white fluffy mycelium in liquid medium, and displayed a slightly flavescent ...
Figs in an orchard were inoculated with an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain in two ways by spore injection or by dusting ... Figs in an orchard were inoculated with an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain in two ways by spore injection or by dusting ...
Aspergillus flavus,/i, and occurs naturally in maize, ,i,Zea mays,/i, L. Growing maize hybrids with genetic resistance to ... The side-needle technique is a widely used inoculation technique: an ,i,A. flavus,/i, conidial suspension is injected ... flavus,/i, into plant whorls at 35 and 49 days after planting. Results showed that although the side-needle technique produced ... flavus,/i, infection or aflatoxin accumulation as a basis to define resistance. ...
Aspergillus flavus) - conidiophore (fruiting structure) producing conidia (asexual conidia). Aspergillus flavus is a wide ... It is one of the Aspergillus species which causes aspergillosis, commonly in the tropics. Aspergillosis is a respiratory lung ... The toxins may contaminate stored food (particularly carbohydrates). A. flavus has also been reported to be allergenic and its ... Aspergillus flavus) - conidiophore (fruiting structure) producing conidia (asexual conidia). Aspergillus flavus is a wide ...
Aspergillus flavus co-cultured with the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomalawas examined using several viability stains. Both the ... Hua SST, Baker JL, Flores-Espiritu M. Interactions of saprophytic yeasts with a nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus. Appl Environ ... Fluorescent Viability Stains to Probe the Metabolic Status of Aflatoxigenic Fungus in Dual Culture of Aspergillus flavus and ... The metabolic activity of the aflatoxigenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus co-cultured with the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala ...
Main conclusion Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus ... S1 Aspergillus flavus amy1 RNAi vector diagram. a amy1 nucleotide sequence showing RNAi target region. b Conserved domains in ... Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus and pathogen to several important food and feed crops, including maize. Once the ... RNA interference-based silencing of the alpha-amylase (amy1) gene in Aspergillus flavus decreases fungal growth and aflatoxin ...
... flavus system have been established. The two novel regulators of mycotoxins are promising targets for future plant breeding and ... flavus system have been established. The two novel regulators of mycotoxins are promising targets for future plant breeding and ... flavus. Loss of AfRafA not only dramatically suppressed aflatoxin cluster expression, subsequently reducing toxin synthesis ... flavus. Loss of AfRafA not only dramatically suppressed aflatoxin cluster expression, subsequently reducing toxin synthesis ...
Virulence and Cultural Characteristics of Two Aspergillus flavus Strains Pathogenic on Cotton. P. J. Cotty, Research Plant ... Seventy Aspergillus flavus isolates from Arizona desert valleys were sorted into two distinct strains on the basis of ...
... flavus, A. oryzae, A. parasiticus and A. nomius) was studied at 30 degrees C at ten water activities (aw) between 0.995 and ... Growth of four species belonging to Aspergillus Section Flavi (A. ... Predicting fungal growth: the effect of water activity on Aspergillus flavus and related species Int J Food Microbiol. 1994 Nov ... Growth of four species belonging to Aspergillus Section Flavi (A. flavus, A. oryzae, A. parasiticus and A. nomius) was studied ...
Malignant Aspergillus flavus Otitis Externa with Jugular Thrombosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(4):830-832. doi: ... We report a case of malignant otitis externa with jugular vein thrombosis caused by Aspergillus flavus. Magnetic resonance ... Moniot M, Montava M, Ranque S, Scemama U, Cassagne C, Arthur V. Malignant Aspergillus flavus Otitis Externa with Jugular ... Moniot, M., Montava, M., Ranque, S., Scemama, U., Cassagne, C., & Arthur, V. (2019). Malignant Aspergillus flavus Otitis ...
... Public Deposited ... The effect of cycling temperatures on production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus (V3734-10) when grown upon various ... On rice and nutmeat substrates, A. flavus was completely overgrown by members of the natural flora; even when A. flavus spores ... A. flavus was found to be a poor competitor when grown with the natural fimgal flora isolated from moldy nut meats. ...
Aflatoxins were detected and Aspergillus flavus was identified from water from a cold water storage tank. This is the first ... Aflatoxins were detected and Aspergillus flavus was identified from water from a cold water storage tank. This is the first ...
Aspergillus flavus NRRL3357. Definition Aspergillus flavus NRRL3357 chromosome segregation protein Cse1, putative (AFLA_055800 ... AFLA_055800 ( XM_002378283.1 ) cDNA ORF clone, Aspergillus flavus NRRL3357 -, XP_002378324.1 Aspergillus flavus NRRL3357 ... Genome Sequence of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357, a Strain That Causes Aflatoxin Contamination of Food and Feed.. Nierman WC, Yu ... Aspergillus flavus NRRL3357 chromosome segregation protein Cse1, putative (AFLA_055800), partial mRNA.. pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or ...
Caffeine induced germination abnormality in Aspergillus flavus. S Debnath1, A. Tanti1, I Phukan1, B Barthakur1 ... Please note: The Aspergillus Website does not accept advertisments. , all content is published on merit. BB.com. Site Sponsors ... Aspergillus Website Newsletters. Our most recent newsletters (since August 2018) can be found here. ... Results:It ws observed that caffeine reduced biomass production of A.flavus which increased with increasing concentration of ...
You can Browse ORF cDNA clones by species Aspergillus flavus NRRL3357, page 1 ... Aspergillus flavus NRRL3357 Browse by Chromosome, Pathway. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X ...
sp,B8N3P7,GET3_ASPFN ATPase get3 OS=Aspergillus flavus (strain ATCC 200026 / FGSC A1120 / NRRL 3357 / JCM 12722 / SRRC 167) OX= ... Aspergillus flavus (strain ATCC 200026 / FGSC A1120 / NRRL 3357 / JCM 12722 / SRRC 167). ... Aspergillus flavus (strain ATCC 200026 / FGSC A1120 / NRRL 3357 / JCM 12722 / SRRC 167) ...
Regulation of Aspergillus flavus aflatoxin biosynthesis and development, p 183-203. In Appel M, Kendra DF, Trucksess MW (ed), ... Differentiation of Aspergillus flavus from A. parasiticus and other closely related species. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 91:99-108. ... NsdC and NsdD Affect Aspergillus flavus Morphogenesis and Aflatoxin Production. Jeffrey W. Cary, Pamela Y. Harris-Coward, ... NsdC and NsdD Affect Aspergillus flavus Morphogenesis and Aflatoxin Production. Jeffrey W. Cary, Pamela Y. Harris-Coward, ...
  • Aspergillus fumigatus still accounts for most cases of aspergillosis, with A. flavus and A. niger being the other more common pathogenic species worldwide. (asmscience.org)
  • Early events in macrophage killing of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia: new flow cytometric viability assay. (springer.com)
  • The 3 leading species, by decreasing frequency, are A. fumigatus , A. flavus , and A. niger ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • LaeA is a global regulator of secondary metabolite production in aspergilli, regulating the same set of metabolites as VeA in A. nidulans and A. flavus ( 2 , 21 ), as well as dozens of putative toxins in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Orthologues of A. flavus was observed in A. fumigatus , A. niger, A. terreus , A. oryzae, etc. (springer.com)
  • Prevalence and mechanism of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus in a referral chest hospital in Delhi, India and an update of the situation in Asia. (springer.com)
  • In parts of the Middle East and India, A. flavus surpasses A. fumigatus as a cause of invasive aspergillosis and is a significant cause of cutaneous, sinus, nasal and nail infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous airborne mold found in soil, air, food, and decaying organic material. (onehundredeggs.com)
  • Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger, in that order, are the most common aspergilli that cause human disease. (onehundredeggs.com)
  • Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen and ubiquitous in the environment. (onehundredeggs.com)
  • Primary cutaneous disease is rare and is most commonly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus.Rare cutaneous infections have been reported with Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus ustus. (onehundredeggs.com)
  • The 3 leading species, 4 months of treatment with intravenous ceftazidime, oral by decreasing frequency, are A. fumigatus , A. flavus , and ciprofloxacin, and topical neomycin, polymyxin B, dexa- A. niger ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Aspergillus Mix with NDC 22840-9628 is a a non-standardized allergenic label product labeled by Greer Laboratories, Inc.. The generic name of Aspergillus Mix is aspergillus amstelodami, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus niger. (ndclist.com)
  • Most commonly, Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus . (cdc.gov)
  • Aspergillus fumigatus ( A. fumigatus ) that is resistant to all azole antifungal medications, including voriconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole, is emerging in the U.S. 1, 2, 3 making infections with this strain even harder to treat. (cdc.gov)
  • Aflatoxins are carcinogenic chemical metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. (mdpi.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important producers of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops, and the effect of water activity (a(w)) on growth and aflatoxin production of A. flavus has been previously studied. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxins were detected and Aspergillus flavus was identified from water from a cold water storage tank. (ovid.com)
  • The filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus produces a number of secondary metabolites, including the toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs). (asm.org)
  • Allameh, A., Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M., Shams-Gahahfarokhi, M., Rezzar, M.B. and Jaimand, K. (2001) Effects of neem leaf extract on production of aflatoxins and activities of fatty acid synthetase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase in Aspergillus parasiticus. (scirp.org)
  • Aflatoxins (produced by Aspergillus spp) are hepatotoxic, teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. (vetstream.com)
  • Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by members of the genus Aspergillus , most notably A. flavus . (springer.com)
  • Non-aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus are commonly used for biocontrol of the aflatoxigenic strains to reduce aflatoxins in corn, cotton, peanuts and tree nuts. (springer.com)
  • We recently reported the genome and transcriptome sequencing of A. flavus WRRL 1519, a strain isolated from almond that does not produce aflatoxins or cyclopiazonic acid due to deletions in the biosynthetic gene clusters. (springer.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen and may produce aflatoxins in maize, one of the most important crops in Argentina. (usda.gov)
  • However, aflatoxin-producing potential varies widely among A. flavus genotypes with many producing no aflatoxins. (arizona.edu)
  • Gene deletions and presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in aflatoxin biosynthesis genes are often associated with A. flavus inability to produce aflatoxins. (arizona.edu)
  • Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and a few other closely related species of Aspergillus. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • Field application of nonaflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus to compete against aflatoxigenic strains has emerged as one of the best management practices for reducing aflatoxins contamination, yielding successful commercial products for corn, cotton seed, and peanuts. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • However, the atoxigenic A. flavus strain WRRL 1519 had deletions, or low shared identity, for many genes in the clusters required for aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) synthesis. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • The most effective method for preventing contamination of crops with aflatoxins is through use of atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus to alter the population structure of this species and reduce incidences of aflatoxin producers. (telomerescience.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus is one of the major storage fungi producing aflatoxins, which is highly toxic, carcinogenic and shows ill-effects on human and animal health. (jetir.org)
  • Inhibitory effect of Cinnamon cassia oil against the mycelial growth and aflatoxins production by A. flavus has been studied in this investigation. (jetir.org)
  • While toxicity of its products, aflatoxins, are explored throughout this article, Aspergillus flavus itself also exerts pathogenic effects through aspergillosis, or infection with the mold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Aspergillus flavus is known for its capability of production of aflatoxins in food grains in the tropics. (cnki.net)
  • These bacterial species have long been associated with biological control of several plant pathogens including Aspergillus spp. (mdpi.com)
  • In practice, Aspergillus species are identified mainly on the basis of phenotypic characteristics of the anamorph. (asmscience.org)
  • Several Aspergillus species also produce mycotoxins which are harmful to humans and animals when ingested. (asmscience.org)
  • There has also been an increase in reports demonstrating the recovery of previously recognized Aspergillus species, such as A. udagawae and A. viridinutans , from human infections. (asmscience.org)
  • It is one of the Aspergillus species which causes aspergillosis, commonly in the tropics. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Conidial viability assay for rapid susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species. (springer.com)
  • Growth of four species belonging to Aspergillus Section Flavi (A. flavus, A. oryzae, A. parasiticus and A. nomius) was studied at 30 degrees C at ten water activities (aw) between 0.995 and 0.810 adjusted with equal mixtures of glucose and fructose. (nih.gov)
  • A mycotoxin is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by fungi, one species being Aspergillus f lavus . (uwlax.edu)
  • Not all species of Aspergillus produce mycotoxins but A. flavus is among those who do. (uwlax.edu)
  • sequenced to date, whereas farC is limited to a subset of species where it is inserted in an otherwise colinear region in Aspergillus genomes. (g3journal.org)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that lipid metabolism is an important component of seed infection by A. flavus and possibly other Aspergillus species. (g3journal.org)
  • Two proteins, VeA and LaeA, known to form a nuclear complex in Aspergillus nidulans have been found to positively regulate developmental processes in several Aspergillus species. (asm.org)
  • Recently, a heterotrimeric nuclear complex composed of three proteins, LaeA, VeA, and VelB, has been found to regulate sporulation and secondary metabolism in the related species Aspergillus nidulans ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Of particular interest are a family of oxylipin-producing oxygenases (encoded by ppo and lox genes) which have been shown to balance ascospore and conidial production in A. nidulans ( 40 , 41 ) and sclerotial and conidial production in A. flavus ( 19 ), as well as secondary metabolite production in both species ( 19 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • A total of 416 proteins were identified from UniProt Aspergillus species database. (springer.com)
  • Overall, the data present a catalogue of proteins/enzymes involved in the germination of A. flavus conidia and could also be applied to other Aspergillus species. (springer.com)
  • Differences and similarities amongst pathogenic Aspergillus species. (springer.com)
  • A single MAT1-1 or MAT1-2 gene was detected in the genomes of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which is consistent with a potential heterothallic organization of MAT genes in these species. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Phylogenic analysis using partial β-tubulin and calmodulin sequencing confirmed two of these as A. minisclerotigenes, while the third could not be differentiated from A. flavus and related species within Aspergillus section flavi . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results of this study have important implications for biological control strategies that aim to reduce aflatoxin by the introduction of non-toxigenic strains, as potentially any strain of A. flavus, and closely related species like A. minisclerotigenes , might be capable of human infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 8 ] reported the cultural characteristics and mycotoxin profiles of a set of 55 clinical and environmental isolates from Iran belonging to the A. flavus species complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2005). Aspergillus species are ubiquitous thermotolerant molds that produce numerous conidia 2â 4 µm in diameter. (onehundredeggs.com)
  • Thirty one isolates collected from different parts of major groundnut growing areas of Karnataka and one from ICRISAT were identified as Aspergillus flavus by molecular technique using species specific primers. (scitechnol.com)
  • In this context, species specific primers used for accurate identification and the different components of integrated management (chemicals, botanicals and biocontrol agents) were screened under in vitro against A. flavus and most effective ones were further tested in the field by applying each component as individually as well as integrated manner. (scitechnol.com)
  • These results suggested that A. oxyphylla might be infected by some species of Aspergillus during storage. (springeropen.com)
  • Unlike many mold species, Aspergillus flavus prefers hot and dry conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. (elsevier.com)
  • C. P. Woloshuk, J. R. Cavaletto, and T. E. Cleveland, "Inducers of aflatoxin biosynthesis from colonized maize kernels are generated by an amylase activity from Aspergillus flavus ," Phytopathology , vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 164-169, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • DEGs associated with mycelial growth, conidial development and aflatoxin biosynthesis were up-regulated in af_S compared with af_R, implying that A. flavus mycelia more easily penetrate and produce much more aflatoxin in susceptible than in resistant peanut. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, our findings suggest that DmtA, apart from being a C-5 cytosine methyltransferase in A. flavus, contributes to asexual development, aflatoxin biosynthesis, sclerotial production and virulence. (nih.gov)
  • Some encode siderophores (small, high-affinity iron-chelating compounds) which are necessary for iron transport, while others have been identified as encoding genes involved in biosynthesis of known A. flavus toxins (see below). (onehundredeggs.com)
  • These results provide insight into the transcriptome of A. flavus in response to resveratrol and a new clew for further study in regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. flavus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • An available whole genome sequence for Aspergillus flavus provides the opportunity to characterize factors involved in pathogenicity and to elucidate the regulatory networks involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Method for monitoring deletions in the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene cluster of Aspergillus flavus with multiplex PCR. (telomerescience.com)
  • The report presents a rapid, inexpensive and simple method for monitoring indels with influence on aflatoxin biosynthesis within Aspergillus flavus populations. (telomerescience.com)
  • The present work was carried out with a view to examine silver nanoparticle biosynthesis potential of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus flavus. (scitechnol.com)
  • Schematic of the aflatoxin biosynthesis ( dark grey ) and sugar clusters ( light grey ) from 35 non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus genotypes. (springeropen.com)
  • The results suggest that the ATP-generating system in A. flavus was inactivated as the ratio of yeasts to fungi increased in the dual culture. (springer.com)
  • Fungal development and secondary metabolite production are known to be coregulated in many filamentous fungi, including A. flavus ( 9 , 14 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • This study was carried out using cassava peels as substrate for the production of α - amylase from three fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum) selected from twelve microbial isolates obtained from biodegrading cassava peels. (ajol.info)
  • Resveratrol has been reported as a natural phytoalexin that inhibits infection or the growth of certain fungi including Aspergillus flavus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Maize seed is a crop well known to be attacked by fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and reduce its nutrients. (scicell.org)
  • A. flavus was found dominant fungi during maize grain storage. (jetir.org)
  • Cinnamon cassia oil has fungi toxic potential against Aspergillus flavus. (jetir.org)
  • In the storage of Alpinia oxyphylla , growth of mildew (especially toxic fungi, such as Aspergillus flavus ) is a potential safety risk. (springeropen.com)
  • The fungi included A. flavus (Raper and Fennel), Stenocarpella maydis (Berk. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • This test also detects a component in the cell wall of Aspergillus spp, as well as other fungi. (cdc.gov)
  • These conidia are said to be the primary inoculum for A. flavus. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a secondary inoculum for A. flavus, which is conidia on leaf parts and leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • An amphotericin B (AmB)-resistant mutant was isolated from a wild-type AmB-susceptible strain of Aspergillus flavus by serial transfer of conidia on agar plates containing stepwise increased concentrations of AmB up to 100 microg ml-1. (nih.gov)
  • Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Green mould (Aspergillus flavus) - conidiophore (fruiting structure) producing conidia (asexual conidia). (sciencephoto.com)
  • A. flavus occurs as a saprophyte in soils and normally reproduces clonally by means of conidia (asexual spores), although recent evidence suggests that sexual recombination is possible in A. flavus ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Infestations of A. flavus in crops are sustained by production and dissemination of airborne conidia or sclerotia (reproductive bodies formed from mycelia that are capable of resisting unfavorable environmental conditions). (asm.org)
  • A. flavus is a rapidly growing fungus, producing large numbers of microscopic asexual conidia that are readily dispersed and are the infectious propagule. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Resveratrol can affect the expression of A. flavus genes that are related to developmental and secondary metabolic processes, resulting in decreased aflatoxin production and conidia formation and could also cause abnormal mycelia development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, resveratrol affected mycelial morphologic characteristics and inhibited conidia formation of A. flavus in medium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • R. A. Wilson, A. M. Calvo, P.-K. Chang, and N. P. Keller, "Characterization of the Aspergillus parasiticus Δ12-desaturase gene: a role for lipid metabolism in the Aspergillus-seed interaction," Microbiology , vol. 150, no. 9, pp. 2881-2888, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • P.-K. Chang, R. A. Wilson, N. P. Keller, and T. E. Cleveland, "Deletion of the Δ12-oleic acid desaturase gene of a nonaflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus field isolate affects conidiation and sclerotial development," Journal of Applied Microbiology , vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 1178-1184, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • H. Ma, N. Zhang, L. Sun, and D. Qi, "Effects of different substrates and oils on aflatoxin B 1 production by Aspergillus parasiticus ," European Food Research and Technology , vol. 240, no. 3, pp. 627-634, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • N. D. Davis and U. L. Diener, "Growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus from various carbon sources," Applied Microbiology , vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 158-159, 1968. (hindawi.com)
  • The ability to reproduce sexually has now been demonstrated in both A. flavus and A. parasiticus ( 25 , 26 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Bhatnagar, D. and McCormick, S.P. (1988) The inhibitory effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf Extracts on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. (scirp.org)
  • Zeringue, H.J. and Bhatnagar, D. (1994) Effects of neem leaf volatiles on submerged cultures of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus. (scirp.org)
  • Bright greenish yellow (BGYF) and blue white (BWF) fluorescences were associated with A. flavus and A. parasiticus infected maize. (eurekamag.com)
  • A. flavus and other aspergilli, such as Aspergillus parasiticus , can produce the polyketide-derived carcinogenic secondary metabolite aflatoxin ( 25 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • VeA is required for cleistothecial production in A. nidulans ( 24 ) and sclerotial production in both A. parasiticus ( 6 ) and A. flavus ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition, the VeA gene regulates the expression of sterigmatocystin (a precursor of aflatoxin) and penicillin genes in A. nidulans ( 22 ) and aflatoxin genes in A. parasiticus ( 6 ) and A. flavus ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Characterization and population analysis of the mating-type genes in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We characterize the mating-type genes in Aspergillus flavus,Aspergillus parasiticus and Petromyces alliaceus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Of late aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus flavus Link Ex Fries and Aspergillus parasiticus Speare has become a serious problem in groundnut since it affects the quality of produce [ 1 ]. (scitechnol.com)
  • Aflatoxin B1 is an aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in response to water activity. (nih.gov)
  • Figs in an orchard were inoculated with an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain in two ways by spore injection or by dusting at three maturation stages: firm ripe, shrivelled, and dried. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The metabolic activity of the aflatoxigenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus co-cultured with the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala was examined using several viability stains. (springer.com)
  • These play central roles in the synthesis of mycotoxins including aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid, and fungal development and are consequently central to the pathogenicity of the aflatoxigenic A. flavus . (frontiersin.org)
  • Future experimentation and continued bioinformatics analyses will potentially illuminate causes of the differences and may reveal whether transposon activity in A. flavus can lead to random natural occurrences of non-aflatoxigenic strains. (springer.com)
  • In order to identify mechanisms of non-aflatoxigenicity in non-aflatoxigenic genotypes of value in aflatoxin biocontrol, complete cluster sequences of 35 A. flavus genotypes from Africa and North America were analyzed. (arizona.edu)
  • In this study, we sequenced the genome and transcriptome of atoxigenic (does not produce aflatoxin or cyclopiazonic acid) A. flavus strain WRRL 1519 isolated from a tree nut orchard to define the genetic characteristics of the strain in relation to aflatoxigenic and other nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • A. flavus is more frequently involved in MOE than is A. niger ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 81.830, 0.982 Units/mg protein and 85.784, 0.686 Units/mg protein for A. flavus, A. niger and P. expansum respectively. (ajol.info)
  • Twenty Aspergillus niger strains were isolated from peanuts and 14 strains were able to completely inhibit AFB1 production with co-cultivation. (usda.gov)
  • By using a Spin-X centrifuge system, it was confirmed that there are some soluble signal molecules or antibiotics involved in the inhibition by A. niger, although they are absent during the initial 24h of A. flavus growth when it is sensitive to inhibition. (usda.gov)
  • In A. flavus, 19 of 20 aflatoxin biosynthetic genes were down-regulated by A. niger. (usda.gov)
  • oryzae, aspergillus niger var. (nih.gov)
  • MOLD MIX 1 (alternaria alternata, aspergillus niger var. (nih.gov)
  • Search Results for aspergillus niger var. (nih.gov)
  • A-21 (alternaria alternata, aspergillus niger var. (nih.gov)
  • ASPERSAN (aspergillus niger var. (nih.gov)
  • CANDIDA (ammoniac, aspergillus niger var. (nih.gov)
  • Se estudia la actividad celulolítica de cepas de aspergillus niger y a. flavus aisladas de suelo del sur de la provincia de Santa Fe, sembrado con trigo y tratado con metsulfurón-metil+ dicamba . (bvsalud.org)
  • Se trabajó con tres cepas de a. niger y dos de a. flavus . (bvsalud.org)
  • En a. niger , no hubo una correlación clara entre frecuencia y actividad enzimática, sólo se obserbó que las cepas de a. niger de mayor frecuencia (superior al 50 porciento) tuvieron también mayor actividad. (bvsalud.org)
  • The effect of salt stress on protease production was evaluated on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. (scirp.org)
  • For Aspergillus niger, the optimum culture conditions for alkaline protease production were corn starch 4%, yeast extract 1%, pH 6 at 40°C with maximum enzymatic activities of 5.99 mM/min/mg protein, 3.85 mM/min/mg protein, 6.18 mM/min/mg protein, and 3.72 mM/min/mg protein, respectively. (scirp.org)
  • While lactose 4%, yeast extract 1%, pH 6 at 50°C were the best culture conditions for acid protease production by Aspergillus niger with maximum enzymatic activities of 4.81 mM/min/mg protein, 0.93 mM/min/mg protein, 5.71 mM/min/mg protein, and 3.34 mM/min/mg protein, respectively. (scirp.org)
  • For the western region, A. flavus was detected in 4 locations (66.7%) that were previously under maize cultivation with the isolates showing low aflatoxigenicity. (mdpi.com)
  • Contamination of maize ( Zea mays L.) with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link, has severe health and economic consequences. (usda.gov)
  • N. P. Keller, R. A. E. Butchko, B. Sarr, and T. D. Phillips, "A visual pattern of mycotoxin production in maize kernels by Aspergillus spp. (hindawi.com)
  • Aflatoxin, the most potent carcinogen found in nature, is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus and occurs naturally in maize, Zea mays L. Growing maize hybrids with genetic resistance to aflatoxin contamination are generally considered a highly desirable way to reduce losses to aflatoxin. (hindawi.com)
  • Developing resistant hybrids requires reliable inoculation methods for screening maize germplasm for resistance to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. (hindawi.com)
  • Aflatoxin is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus and occurs naturally in maize, Zea mays L. Aflatoxin, the most potent carcinogen found in nature, is toxic to both humans and animals [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Identification and release of maize germplasm with high levels of resistance to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation and associated molecular markers are essential to the efficient production of resistant maize hybrids. (hindawi.com)
  • The USDA-ARS Corn Host Plant Resistance Research Unit at Mississippi State, Mississippi, has been at the forefront in developing techniques for evaluating maize germplasm for resistance to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. (hindawi.com)
  • Because natural infection by A. flavus and subsequent aflatoxin production are sporadic from one growing season to the next, artificial inoculation techniques were developed to uniformly infect developing maize ears with the fungus [ 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus resulted in suppression of alpha-amylase ( amy1 ) gene expression and decreased fungal growth during in situ infection resulting in decreased aflatoxin production. (springer.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus and pathogen to several important food and feed crops, including maize. (springer.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that maize inbred B104 expressing an RNAi construct targeting the A. flavus alpha-amylase gene amy1 effectively reduces amy1 gene expression resulting in decreased fungal colonization and aflatoxin accumulation in kernels. (springer.com)
  • Supplementary material 2 (PNG 11 kb) Supplemental Fig. S2 Quantitative PCR analysis showing the relative expression levels of the A. flavus beta-tubulin gene normalized to the maize ribosomal protein L10 gene, GRMZM2G024838. (springer.com)
  • The results indicate that maize lines expressing the amy1 RNAi construct, lines 1-3, 2-2, and 3-4, have reduced levels of detectable A. flavus beta-tubulin compared to the isogenic control maize line not expressing the amy1 RNAi construct. (springer.com)
  • The ribosomal structural gene from maize and A. flavus beta - tubulin gene showed no reaction could be detected by SYBR qPCR when amplification was attempted using A. flavus - GFP and maize cDNA, respectively (data not shown). (springer.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic plant pathogen that causes disease both pre- and postharvest on oil-rich seed crops, such as maize, peanuts, tree nuts, and cottonseed ( Amare and Keller 2014 ). (g3journal.org)
  • A fluorescence of maize kernels visually similar to BGYF but not associated with Aspergillus infection or aflatoxin contamination was also investigated. (eurekamag.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus , a mycotoxigenic filamentous fungus, colonizes several important agricultural crops, such as maize and peanuts. (asm.org)
  • Aspergillus flavus , an opportunistic pathogen of oil seeds, occurs as a saprophyte in soils worldwide and colonizes several important agricultural crops, such as maize, peanut, and cottonseed, before and after harvest ( 25 , 29 , 44 ). (asm.org)
  • Stimulation by Hyphopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains. (asm.org)
  • Aspergillus flavus was grown on maize and rice extract agars and on irradiated viable cracked maize and rice grains, either in pure culture or in dual culture with wild strains of either Hyphopichia burtonii or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. (asm.org)
  • Aflatoxin production by A. flavus and its growth and interactions with the other microorganisms were studied at three water activities (aw) (0.98, 0.95, and 0.90) and two temperatures (25 and 16 degrees C). Both H. burtonii and B. amyloliquefaciens markedly stimulated growth and aflatoxin production by A. flavus on cracked maize, especially at 25 degrees C and 0.95 and 0.98 aw. (asm.org)
  • The morphological interactions among A. flavus, H. burtonii, and B. amyloliquefaciens were also examined on maize and rice extract agars under similar controlled conditions. (asm.org)
  • Understanding the role of phytohormone auxin in defense responses is one of the vital tools for plant breeders to develop maize germplasm lines that exhibit high resistance to Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin accumulation. (msstate.edu)
  • This study intends to isolate and morphologically identify the Aspergillus flavus from maize seeds from Abuja, Nigeria. (scicell.org)
  • Phenotypic characterization of mycotoxins resistant maize inbred families and regional hybrids under Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides infestation. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • In the second experiment, S3:4 families, which were derived from three way crosses among, A. flavus and F. verticillioides resistant maize families, were artificially inoculated with A. flavus and F. verticillioides. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Phenotypic characterization study revealed a significant variability among the mycotoxins resistant maize inbred families for resistance to Aspergillus ear rot, Fusarium ear rot and other selected secondary traits except husk cover, insect damage and days to mid maturity. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • A. L. Astoreca, A. M. Dalcero, V. F. Pinto, and G. Vaamonde, "A survey on distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi in poultry feeds," International Journal of Food Microbiology , vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 38-43, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • A. flavus is also an opportunistic human and animal pathogen, causing aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. flavus is considered to be a weak pathogen, and most of the early inoculation techniques focused on wounding kernel and cob tissue [ 21 - 26 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • An opportunistic human pathogen on the fly: strains of Aspergillus flavus vary in virulence in Drosophila melanogaster. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Aspergillus flavus is intensively studied for its role in infecting crop plants and contaminating produce with aflatoxin, but its role as a human pathogen is less well understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mitchell S.V. Aspergillus flavus is a common fungal pathogen of plants, animals and humans. (onehundredeggs.com)
  • To study emerging diseases, I employed a model pathogen-host system involving infections of insect larvae with the opportunistic fungus Aspergillus flavus, providing insight into three mechanisms ofpathogen evolution namely de novo mutation, genome decay, and virulence factoracquisition In Chapter 2 as a foundational experiment, A. flavus was serially propagated through insects to study the evolution of an opportunistic pathogen during repeated exposure to a single host. (brocku.ca)
  • While A. flavus displayed de novo phenotypic alterations, namely decreased saprobic capacity, analysis of genotypic variation in Chapter 3 signified a host-imposed bottleneck on the pathogen population, emphasizing the host's role in shaping pathogen population structure. (brocku.ca)
  • Described in Chapter 4, the serial passage scheme enabled the isolation of an A. flavus cysteine/methionine auxotroph with characteristics reminiscent of an obligate insect pathogen, suggesting that lost biosynthetic capacity may restrict host range based on nutrient availability and provide selection pressure for further evolution. (brocku.ca)
  • Presence and functionality of mating type genes in the supposedly asexual filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The oxylipin-producing Ppo oxygenases impact virulence in both A. flavus and A. nidulans . (g3journal.org)
  • LaeA is also necessary for sclerotial formation in A. flavus ( 21 ) and affects cleistothecial development in A. nidulans (J. W. Bok and N. P. Keller, unpublished data). (asm.org)
  • Northern analysis shows that VeA and LaeA negatively regulate each other at the transcript level in A. nidulans ( 1 ) and LaeA negatively regulates veA in A. flavus ( 21 ), leading to the concept of a feedback mechanism maintaining morphological and secondary metabolite differentiation in the aspergilli. (asm.org)
  • We also compared the phleomycin system with one based on complementation for uracil auxotrophy which was confirmed by uracil and 5-fluoroorotic acid selection and via transformation with the pyr4 gene from Neurospora crassa and pyrG gene from A. nidulans in A. flavus NRRL 3357. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Another way that A. flavus can harm animals is by aspergillosis , continue on to learn more about this disease. (uwlax.edu)
  • Aspergillus flavus is the second most leading cause of aspergillosis. (springer.com)
  • The incubation period for aspergillosis is unclear and likely varies depending on the dose of Aspergillus and the host immune response. (cdc.gov)
  • flavus strain ATCC 16883, a new strain, showed the zone of hydrolysis surrounding the fungal growth on the inulin medium plate. (elsevier.com)
  • Solid state fermentation of A. flavus ATCC 16883 using Saccharum arundinaceum showed a maximum inulinase activity of 3.48U/gds after 96 h. (elsevier.com)
  • Derived from A. flavus ATCC 20047. (nsilabsolutions.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of A. flavus in soils from two agro-ecological regions with contrasting climatic conditions, aflatoxin contamination histories and cropping systems. (mdpi.com)
  • In the Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus )-peanut pathosystem, development and metabolism of the fungus directly influence aflatoxin contamination. (mdpi.com)
  • Our results serve as a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms of aflatoxin production differences between A. flavus -R and -S peanut, and offer new clues to manage aflatoxin contamination in crops. (mdpi.com)
  • The pre-harvest control of A. flavus contamination and aflatoxin production is an area of intense research, which includes breeding strategies, biological control, and the use of genetically-modified crops. (springer.com)
  • This work contributes to the development of a promising technology for reducing the negative economic and health impacts of A. flavus growth and aflatoxin contamination in food and feed crops. (springer.com)
  • Genome Sequence of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357, a Strain That Causes Aflatoxin Contamination of Food and Feed. (genscript.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus causes aflatoxin contamination in both cottonseed and corn. (apsnet.org)
  • Very few cases of vascular prosthesis infection by Aspergillus have been reported, mainly in immunocompetent patients and often caused by contamination of the prosthesis during surgery. (radiolopolis.com)
  • To develop effective means of combating aflatoxin contamination, it is of vital importance to investigate the molecular mechanisms of development and secondary metabolism in A. flavus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus is the most common causal agent of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed. (arizona.edu)
  • ESSENTIAL oils from Cinnamomum verum (Cinnamon), Lavandula angustifoli (Lavender), Lepidium virginicum (Peppergrass oil), Zingiber officinale (Ginger) and Cinnamomum camphora (Camphor) have been investigated for their antifungal and antibacterial activities against 6 fungal isolates of Aspergillus flavus and 25 bacterial isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. (ekb.eg)
  • The identification and characterization of molecules necessary for A. flavus conidial, sclerotial, and aflatoxin production are critical to develop rational control strategies. (asm.org)
  • Ranganathswamy M, Naik ST, Adiver SS (2016) Molecular Characterization and Management of Aspergillus flavus Link Ex Fries in Groundnut. (scitechnol.com)
  • The present paper will through the light on the molecular characterization and management of Aspergillus flavus producing aflatoxin in groundnut. (scitechnol.com)
  • Aspergillus terreus infection can lead to superficial infections in humans. (onehundredeggs.com)
  • 10⁻⁵) with known gene sequences, and another 6767 novel unigenes were obtained by comparison to the current genome annotation of A. flavus. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, the roles of peroxisomal protein importer AflPex5 were investigated in Aspergillus flavus with the application of gene disruption. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • Degeneration of aflatoxin gene clusters in Aspergillus flavus from Africa and North America. (arizona.edu)
  • Comparative analyses of aflatoxin gene clusters provides insight into the diversity of mechanisms of non-aflatoxigenicity in A. flavus genotypes used as biological control agents. (arizona.edu)
  • Transformation of A. flavus with the ble gene for resistance to phleomycin resulted in stable transformants when selected on 100 μg/ml phleomycin. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Further, we demonstrated that this transformation protocol could be used for directed gene disruption in A. flavus . (beds.ac.uk)
  • This work will be of interest to those working on molecular biology of aflatoxin metabolism in A. flavus , especially for functional analysis using gene deletion and gene expression. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The bottom figure shows the aflatoxin gene cluster from A. flavus AF13 (Ehrlich et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus is an efficient producer of mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxin B1, probably the most hepatocarcinogenic naturally-occurring compound. (sequentiabiotech.com)
  • Optimization of inulinase production by a newly isolated strain Aspergillus flavus var. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Optimization of inulinase production by a newly isolated strain Aspergillus flavus var. (elsevier.com)
  • Genome sequence and comparative analyses of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus WRRL 1519. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • Seventy Aspergillus flavus isolates from Arizona desert valleys were sorted into two distinct strains on the basis of sclerotial size, cultural characteristics, and virulence to cotton. (apsnet.org)
  • The lack of correlation between pathogenic aggression and aflatoxin production in vivo suggests aflatoxin does not enhance virulence in the cotton- A. flavus interaction. (apsnet.org)
  • consequently, there is great interest in identifying the virulence factors of A. flavus . (g3journal.org)
  • Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between virulence, AF production, and ability to metabolize lipids in A. flavus . (g3journal.org)
  • Its specific name flavus derives from the Latin meaning yellow, a reference to the frequently observed colour of the spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus flavus colonies are commonly powdery masses of yellowish-green spores on the upper surface and reddish-gold on the lower surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conidiospores are asexual spores produced by A. flavus during reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • even when A. flavus spores were present in superior numbers. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The effectiveness of neem (Azadiracta indica) oil on the growth, morphology, sporulation, viability of spores, aflatoxin B1 and B2 production by A. flavus on Yeast Extract-Sucrose medium was determined. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, sterilized A. oxyphylla samples were contaminated by artificial inoculation of A. flavus spores. (springeropen.com)
  • Using a trans-culturing approach, sterilized A. oxyphylla was artificially inoculated with A. flavus spores for cultivation. (springeropen.com)
  • Materials and methods: In this current investigation a same defined growth medium with potassium nitrate as nitrogen source was inoculated with spore suspensions of approximately 7x10 5 spores per ml of Aspergillus flavus. (cnki.net)
  • We investigated whether DNA methylation plays a role in the development and secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, identified the DmtA methyltransferase from A. flavus, and produced a dmtA knock-out mutant by replacing the dmtA coding sequence with the pyrG selectable marker. (nih.gov)
  • Upon infection of its host, A. flavus synthesizes the polyketide secondary metabolite aflatoxin (AF). (g3journal.org)
  • However, how resveratrol affects the development and secondary metabolism of A. flavus remains unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the secondary screening, only Aspergillus flavus var. (elsevier.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus, notorious for its production of the toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin, is also capable of affecting human health through infection and pathogenic growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 ). Etest antifungal susceptibility testing (bioMérieux, https://www.biomerieux.com ) showed that the A. flavus strain was sensitive to voriconazole (MIC 0.380 mg/L) and resistant to amphotericin B (MIC 12 mg/L). We stopped administration of auricular drops, continued intravenous ceftazidime (1.5 g/d) and oral ciprofloxacin (1.5 g/d), and started voriconazole therapy (6 mg/kg/12 h intravenously, followed by 400 mg/d orally). (cdc.gov)
  • Based on epidemiological cut-off values, the A. minisclerotigens and A. flavus isolates tested were susceptible to commonly used antifungal drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cinnamon cassia oil showed significant antifungal activity against A. flavus when evaluated by agar well diffusion method. (jetir.org)
  • This is the first report of detection of a large number of putative retrotransposons in any A. flavus strain, initially suggesting that retrotransposons may contribute to the natural occurrence of genetic variation and biocontrol strains. (springer.com)
  • Since the ability to grow on target crop is an important attribute for a successful biocontrol agent, these results indicate that the nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strain WRRL 1519 would be a good candidate as a biocontrol agent for reducing aflatoxin and CPA accumulation in high-value nut crops. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • The uniquely mapped reads to A. flavus reference genome in the libraries of af_R and af_S at T2 and T3 were subjected to further analysis, with more than 72% of all obtained genes expressed in the eight libraries. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, the results of antioxidant enzyme activities and the lipid oxidation levels coupled with RNA-Seq data of antioxidant genes indicated that gallic acid may reduce oxidative stress through the glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent systems in A. flavus . (preprints.org)
  • In total, 366 and 87 genes of A. flavus were significantly up- and down- regulated, respectively, when the fungus was treated with resveratrol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes cluster (#54) did not show a significant change when A. flavus was treated with resveratrol, but 23 of the 30 genes in the #54 cluster were down-regulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lass-Flörl C, Nagl M, Speth C, Ulmer H, Dierich MP, Würzner R. Studies of in vitro activities of Voriconazole and Itraconazole against Aspergillus hyphae using viability staining. (springer.com)
  • Results:It ws observed that caffeine reduced biomass production of A.flavus which increased with increasing concentration of caffeine.Caffeinf exerted considerable inhibitory influence on conidial germination of A.flavus accompanied by swelling of germ tubes and repeated curling of germ tube hyphae.At 1000 ppm caffeine caused increased growth abnormality of reproductive structures(vesicles and conidiophores)and significant reduction of spore production. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of CAPP generated by diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge on hyphae of Aspergillus flavus. (deepdyve.com)
  • The 3-6 μm diameter hyphae of Aspergillus have a regular contour with parallel walls, regularly distributed septa, and 45° angle dichotomous branching. (onehundredeggs.com)
  • Similar to microscopy, Aspergillus appears as septated hyphae with acute angle branching and can be mistaken for other filamentous molds. (cdc.gov)
  • Hua SST, Baker JL, Flores-Espiritu M. Interactions of saprophytic yeasts with a nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus . (springer.com)
  • Aspergillus is a saprophytic fungus that helps remove environmental carbon and nitrogen from the earthâ s atmosphere. (onehundredeggs.com)
  • A. flavus was not isolated from soils under sugarcane cultivation. (mdpi.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus is found globally as a saprophyte in soils and causes disease on many important agriculture crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A. flavus dmtA null mutant lines produced white fluffy mycelium in liquid medium, and displayed a slightly flavescent conidial pigmentation compared with the normal yellow of the wild-type strain when grown on agar. (nih.gov)
  • The side-needle technique is a widely used inoculation technique: an A. flavus conidial suspension is injected underneath the husks into the side of the ear. (hindawi.com)
  • Supplementary Table S1 (B) List of proteins identified in Aspergillus flavus grown on Sabouraud dextrose media for 7 h (germinating conidial stage). (springer.com)
  • Unique to the S strains is the production of aflatoxin G1 and G2 which typically are not produced by A. flavus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of cycling temperatures on production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus (V3734-10) when grown upon various substrates was studied. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The focus of this research was to determine the effect of exogenous auxin on A. flavus growth and production of aflatoxin in growth media. (msstate.edu)
  • To understand the molecular mechanism of the A. flavus response to resveratrol treatment, the high-throughput paired-end RNA-Seq was applied to analyze the transcriptomic profiles of A. flavus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each of the inbred parents of the testcrossed hybrids was genotyped by sequencing to generate 261,184 robust single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and the entire panel was phenotyped for aflatoxin accumulation following inoculation with A. flavus in multilocation, replicated field trials. (usda.gov)
  • In total, 67.46 Gb of high-quality bases were generated for A. flavus -resistant (af_R) and -susceptible peanut (af_S) at one (T1), three (T2) and seven (T3) days post-inoculation. (mdpi.com)
  • In this investigation, the side-needle technique was compared with a second inoculation method that involved dispensing wheat kernels infected with A. flavus into plant whorls at 35 and 49 days after planting. (hindawi.com)
  • Results showed that although the side-needle technique produced higher levels of aflatoxin accumulation, differences in A. flavus biomass produced by the two inoculation techniques were not significant. (hindawi.com)
  • Both inoculation techniques were effective in differentiating resistant and susceptible single cross hybrids irrespective of the use of A. flavus infection or aflatoxin accumulation as a basis to define resistance. (hindawi.com)
  • Inoculation of the tapped branches of A. senegal with a suspension of A. flavus alone or in combination with P. pseudoalcaligenes , resulted in highly significant gum yield as compared to the control. (ajol.info)
  • Later a field experiment was conducted at two locations under artificial inoculation and natural infection conditions for the pre-harvest management of A. flavus incidence and thereby aflatoxin. (scitechnol.com)
  • Under artificial inoculation conditions T-7 recorded minimum incidence of A. flavus (1.00 per cent) and aflatoxin content (2.40 µg/kg) with higher benefit to cost ratio (2.86 ) as compared to control (25.90%, 19.90 µg/kg). (scitechnol.com)
  • The incidence of A. flavus infection increases in the presence of insects and any type of stress on the host in the field as a result of damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was no significant difference in the incidence of A. flavus strain S on corncobs and soil. (apsnet.org)
  • Clinical isolates of A. flavus from Iran are not distinct from Australian isolates, indicating local environmental, climatic or host features, rather than fungal features, govern the high incidence of A. flavus infection in this region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is an increased incidence of A. flavus infection in the presence of insects and any type of stress on the host in the field as a result of damaged crops. (meddic.jp)
  • The results indicated that all the treatments are effective in reducing the A. flavus incidence and there by aflatoxin level in the produce. (scitechnol.com)
  • In natural conditions also T-7 recorded lowest A. flavus incidence (1.40 per cent) and aflatoxin content (0.0 µg/kg) with highest benefit to cost ratio (2.77). (scitechnol.com)
  • Genetic isolation among sympatric vegetative compatibility groups of the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A. M. Fakhoury and C. P. Woloshuk, "Inhibition of growth of Aspergillus flavus and fungal α -amylases by a lectin-like protein from Lablab purpureus ," Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions , vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 955-961, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Effect of water activity on A. flavus growth and aflatoxin production. (nih.gov)
  • A decrease in hyphal membrane potential and esterase activity was substantiated by the combined stains of DiBAC 4 (5) and CDFA-AM. Reduced metabolic function in conjunction with cell wall damage of A. flavus hindered the growth and biomass production of this fungus. (springer.com)
  • AFs are polyketide-derived compounds produced by A. flavus during growth on crops such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • High humidity and high temperatures during growth, harvest, transport and storage favor the growth of A. flavus and toxin production. (vetstream.com)
  • We find that the antioxidant gallic acid inhibits aflatoxin formation and growth in A. flavus in a dose-dependent manner. (preprints.org)
  • Therefore, the aim of this work was to study Aspergillus flavus (Af) and Fusarium verticillioides (Fv) co-occurrence in vitro in order to collect quantitative data on the effect of fungal interaction on growth and mycotoxin production and develop functions for their description. (unicatt.it)
  • Hence, the aims of the present study were to (1) determine the ideal storage conditions (including temperature and humidity) for A. oxyphylla to prevent A. flavus infection and (2) to evaluate the impact of mold growth on A. oxyphylla quality. (springeropen.com)
  • Conclusion: All the carbon compounds used in this investigation will support industrial production of α-amylase by Aspergillus flavus with starch and maltose being most supportive when potassium nitrate is used as a source of nitrogen for growth and development at 30 o C. However, Aspergillus flavus poses a danger as a potential biomarker in bioterrorism. (cnki.net)
  • Alteration of cell wall composition leads to amphotericin B resistance in Aspergillus flavus. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that alterations in the cell wall components of mycelia, especially 1,3-alpha-glucan and protein complex in the outermost wall layer, lead to AmB resistance in A. flavus. (nih.gov)
  • A complete understanding of the auxin mechanism in resistance could lead the production of corn hybrids with resistance to A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. (msstate.edu)
  • We employed phleomycin resistance as a new positive selectable marker for genetic transformation of A. flavus . (beds.ac.uk)
  • The taxonomy of Aspergillus has been in flux, and this genus has now been subdivided into subgenera and sections. (asmscience.org)
  • The genus Aspergillus . (springer.com)
  • To comprehensively understand the molecular mechanism of A. flavus interaction with peanut, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of A. flavus during interaction with resistant and susceptible peanut genotypes. (mdpi.com)
  • thus, in order to gain insight into A. flavus molecular adaptation while germination, protein profile of A. flavus was obtained. (springer.com)
  • Molecular identification of isolates of Aspergillus sp. (scitechnol.com)
  • For uncovering the molecular determinants that drive A. flavus in challenging oxidative stress conditions, we have evaluated a wide spectrum of several different parameters, ranging from metabolic (ROS and oxylipin profile) to transcriptional analysis (RNA-seq). (sequentiabiotech.com)
  • Metabolism of fatty acids is a critical requirement for the pathogenesis of oil seed pathogens including the fungus Aspergillus flavus . (g3journal.org)
  • Contribution of peroxisomal protein importer AflPex5 to development and pathogenesis in the fungus Aspergillus flavus. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • These results indicate that the PTS1 pathway mediated by AflPex5 serves as an important role in the development, metabolism, and pathogenesis of A. flavus. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • Our results support previous studies showing that there is a strong association between conidiophore and sclerotium development and aflatoxin production in A. flavus. (asm.org)
  • In summary, two global transcriptional regulators for fungal development, mycotoxin production, and seed pathogenicity of the A. flavus system have been established. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides interaction: modeling the impact on mycotoxin production. (unicatt.it)
  • Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennel) and Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • The results revealed five principal components contributing more than 69% of the total variation and the traits responsible to this variation are Fusarium ear rot, Aspergillus ear rot, plant height, ear height, days to mid maturity, husk cover, insect damage and primary tassel branches. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Aspergillus flavus is a saprotrophic and pathogenic fungus with a cosmopolitan distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zeringue, H.J. and Bhatnagar, D. (1990) Inhibition of aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus infected cotton bolls after treatment with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extracts. (scirp.org)
  • Global expression analysis (RNA-Seq) of gallic acid treated A. flavus showed that 0.8% (w/v) gallic acid revealed two possible routes of aflatoxin inhibition. (preprints.org)