Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Sterigmatocystin: A carcinogenic mycotoxin produced in high yields by strains of the common molds, Aspergillus versicolor, A. nidulans, and an unidentified species of Bipolaris. It causes necrosis of the liver and kidney and has an inhibitory effect on orotic acid incorporation into nuclear RNA.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Urate Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.TriazolesPulmonary Aspergillosis: Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.Cottonseed Oil: Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.Eurotiales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA characterized by the presence of well defined peridia and cleistothecial asci. Notable anamorphs (mitosporic forms) of Eurotiales include PENICILLIUM and ASPERGILLUS.Anethum graveolens: Anethum graveolens L. is a plant species of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are considered as a spice (SPICES).Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Cassia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Many species of this genus, including the medicinal C. senna and C. angustifolia, have been reclassified into the Senna genus (SENNA PLANT) and some to CHAMAECRISTA.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Echinocandins: Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Microscopy, Ultraviolet: Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Aflatoxin M1: A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Azetidinecarboxylic Acid: A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes: A vocabulary database of universal identifiers for laboratory and clinical test results. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of results for clinical care, outcomes management, and research. It is produced by the Regenstrief Institute. (LOINC and RELMA [Internet]. Indianapolis: The Regenstrief Institute; c1995-2001 [cited 2002 Apr 2]. Available from http://www.regenstrief.org/loinc)

Inhibition of plant-pathogenic fungi by a corn trypsin inhibitor overexpressed in Escherichia coli. (1/348)

The cDNA of a 14-kDa trypsin inhibitor (TI) from corn was subcloned into an Escherichia coli overexpression vector. The overexpressed TI was purified based on its insolubility in urea and then refolded into the active form in vitro. This recombinant TI inhibited both conidium germination and hyphal growth of all nine plant pathogenic fungi studied, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Fusarium moniliforme. The calculated 50% inhibitory concentration of TI for conidium germination ranged from 70 to more than 300 microgram/ml, and that for fungal growth ranged from 33 to 124 microgram/ml depending on the fungal species. It also inhibited A. flavus and F. moniliforme simultaneously when they were tested together. The results suggest that the corn 14-kDa TI may function in host resistance against a variety of fungal pathogens of crops.  (+info)

Production of specific monoclonal antibodies to Aspergillus species and their use in immunohistochemical identification of aspergillosis. (2/348)

Two anti-Aspergillus murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated 164G and 611F, have been produced; both specifically recognize cytoplasmic antigens of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs can identify Aspergillus spp. both in frozen sections by immunofluorescence and in paraffin-embedded clinical specimens by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining.  (+info)

Regional differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by soil isolates of aspergillus flavus along a transect within the United States. (3/348)

Soil isolates of Aspergillus flavus from a transect extending from eastern New Mexico through Georgia to eastern Virginia were examined for production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid in a liquid medium. Peanut fields from major peanut-growing regions (western Texas; central Texas; Georgia and Alabama; and Virginia and North Carolina) were sampled, and fields with other crops were sampled in regions where peanuts are not commonly grown. The A. flavus isolates were identified as members of either the L strain (n = 774), which produces sclerotia that are >400 micrometer in diameter, or the S strain (n = 309), which produces numerous small sclerotia that are <400 micrometer in diameter. The S-strain isolates generally produced high levels of aflatoxin B1, whereas the L-strain isolates were more variable in aflatoxin production; variation in cyclopiazonic acid production also was greater in the L strain than in the S strain. There was a positive correlation between aflatoxin B1 production and cyclopiazonic acid production in both strains, although 12% of the L-strain isolates produced only cyclopiazonic acid. Significant differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by the L-strain isolates were detected among regions. In the western half of Texas and the peanut-growing region of Georgia and Alabama, 62 to 94% of the isolates produced >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml. The percentages of isolates producing >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml ranged from 0 to 52% in the remaining regions of the transect; other isolates were often nonaflatoxigenic. A total of 53 of the 126 L-strain isolates that did not produce aflatoxin B1 or cyclopiazonic acid were placed in 17 vegetative compatibility groups. Several of these groups contained isolates from widely separated regions of the transect.  (+info)

Divergence of West African and North American communities of Aspergillus section Flavi. (4/348)

West African Aspergillus flavus S isolates differed from North American isolates. Both produced aflatoxin B1. However, 40 and 100% of West African isolates also produced aflatoxin G1 in NH4 medium and urea medium, respectively. No North American S strain isolate produced aflatoxin G1. This geographical and physiological divergence may influence aflatoxin management.  (+info)

Interactions of saprophytic yeasts with a nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus. (5/348)

The nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus has a defective norsolorinic acid reductase, and thus the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway is blocked, resulting in the accumulation of norsolorinic acid, a bright red-orange pigment. We developed a visual agar plate assay to monitor yeast strains for their ability to inhibit aflatoxin production by visually scoring the accumulation of this pigment of the nor mutant. We identified yeast strains that reduced the red-orange pigment accumulation in the nor mutant. These yeasts also reduced aflatoxin accumulation by a toxigenic strain of A. flavus. These yeasts may be useful for reducing aflatoxin contamination of food commodities.  (+info)

Aspirochlorine: a highly selective and potent inhibitor of fungal protein synthesis. (6/348)

Aspirochlorine, a compound belonging to the gliotoxin family of compounds, exhibits antifungal and antibacterial activity but its mechanism of action remains unknown. In this study we show that aspirochlorine inhibits the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans by acting on fungal protein synthesis. The compound selectively inhibits cell-free protein synthesis when using a C. albicans system, but does not inhibit this synthesis in vitro when tested with bacterial and mammalian systems. Moreover, in intact C. albicans cells, aspirochlorine inhibits protein synthesis but does not inhibit chitin, DNA or glucan synthesis though at high concentrations some inhibition of RNA synthesis is observed. By contrast, in intact Bacillus subtilis cells, aspirochlorine did not inhibit protein, DNA, or cell wall synthesis though it significantly inhibited RNA synthesis. Furthermore, using heterologous systems (mammalian ribosomes and C. albicans cytosolic factors) the data suggest that the inhibitory action of aspirochlorine is not exerted through a direct interaction with C. albicans EF-1 or EF-2.  (+info)

Sporogenic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on development of Aspergillus spp. (7/348)

Aspergillus spp. are frequently occurring seed-colonizing fungi that complete their disease cycles through the development of asexual spores, which function as inocula, and through the formation of cleistothecia and sclerotia. We found that development of all three of these structures in Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus parasiticus is affected by linoleic acid and light. The specific morphological effects of linoleic acid include induction of precocious and increased asexual spore development in A. flavus and A. parasiticus strains and altered sclerotium production in some A. flavus strains in which sclerotium production decreases in the light but increases in the dark. In A. nidulans, both asexual spore production and sexual spore production were altered by linoleic acid. Spore development was induced in all three species by hydroperoxylinoleic acids, which are linoleic acid derivatives that are produced during fungal colonization of seeds. The sporogenic effects of these linoleic compounds on A. nidulans are similar to the sporogenic effects of A. nidulans psi factor, an endogenous mixture of hydroxylinoleic acid moieties. Light treatments also significantly increased asexual spore production in all three species. The sporogenic effects of light, linoleic acid, and linoleic acid derivatives on A. nidulans required an intact veA gene. The sporogenic effects of light and linoleic acid on Aspergillus spp., as well as members of other fungal genera, suggest that these factors may be significant environmental signals for fungal development.  (+info)

A highly conserved sequence is a novel gene involved in de novo vitamin B6 biosynthesis. (8/348)

The Cercospora nicotianae SOR1 (singlet oxygen resistance) gene was identified previously as a gene involved in resistance of this fungus to singlet-oxygen-generating phototoxins. Although homologues to SOR1 occur in organisms in four kingdoms and encode one of the most highly conserved proteins yet identified, the precise function of this protein has, until now, remained unknown. We show that SOR1 is essential in pyridoxine (vitamin B6) synthesis in C. nicotianae and Aspergillus flavus, although it shows no homology to previously identified pyridoxine synthesis genes identified in Escherichia coli. Sequence database analysis demonstrated that organisms encode either SOR1 or E. coli pyridoxine biosynthesis genes, but not both, suggesting that there are two divergent pathways for de novo pyridoxine biosynthesis in nature. Pathway divergence appears to have occurred during the evolution of the eubacteria. We also present data showing that pyridoxine quenches singlet oxygen at a rate comparable to that of vitamins C and E, two of the most highly efficient biological antioxidants, suggesting a previously unknown role for pyridoxine in active oxygen resistance.  (+info)

Figs in an orchard were inoculated with an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain in two ways by spore injection or by dusting at three maturation stages: firm ripe, shrivelled, and dried. Fruits were individually examined for fungal development and
Light-induced delayed luminescence (DL) of living organisms contains information on the quality of the living state of these organisms. Employing a LS-55 Luminescence Spectrometer, the changes of DL spectra of rice with Aspergillus flavus treating different time were observed. Rice with Aspergillus flavus treatment for a shorter time had a stronger intensity of DL. The polluted degree of Aspergillus showed a negative correlation with the intensity of DL. Comparing with the intensity of DL, we found that the concentration of aflatoxin in different polluted degree rice had negative correlation with the intensity of DL. We believe DL technique may be helpful in elaborating a fast, holistic, and non-invasive method for the rapid evaluation the polluted degree of rice by Aspergillus flavus.. © 2005 Chinese Optics Letters. PDF Article ...
Many projects have identified candidate genes for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation or Aspergillus flavus infection and growth in maize using genetic mapping, genomics, transcriptomics and/or proteomics studies. However, only a small percentage of these candidates have been validated in field conditions, and their relative contribution to resistance, if any, is unknown. This study presents a consolidated list of candidate genes identified in past studies or in-house studies, with descriptive data including genetic location, gene annotation, known protein identifiers, and associated pathway information, if known. A candidate gene pipeline to test the phenotypic effect of any maize DNA sequence on aflatoxin accumulation resistance was used in this study to determine any measurable effect on polymorphisms within or linked to the candidate gene sequences, and the results are published here.
Aspergillus flavus ATCC ® 204304™ Designation: MCV-C#1 Application: Susceptibility testing Antifungal susceptibity testing Ref Ref Biomedical Research and Development Material Reference strain for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI)-developed Antifungal Susceptibility Testing
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Green mould (Aspergillus flavus) - conidiophore (fruiting structure) producing conidia (asexual conidia). Aspergillus flavus is a wide spread saprophyte found in soil, seeds, fruits and decaying vegetation. It is also found indoors on water damaged carpets and building materials. It is one of the Aspergillus species which causes aspergillosis, commonly in the tropics. Aspergillosis is a respiratory lung infection in people with weakened lungs or that are immune deficient (especially AIDS patients). This fungus produces aflatoxin, a group of virulent mycotoxins that are known animal carcinogens. These mycotoxins are can induce liver cancer in humans. The toxins may contaminate stored food (particularly carbohydrates). A. flavus has also been reported to be allergenic and its presence is associated with asthma. Magnification: x220 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0238
Cyclopiazonic acid (α-cyclopiazonic acid, α-CPA) is an indole-hydrindane-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by various fungal species, including the notorious food and feed contaminant Aspergillus flavus. Despite its discovery in A. flavus cultures approximately 40 years ago, its contribution to the A. flavus mycotoxin burden is consistently minimized by our focus on the more potent carcinogenic aflatoxins also produced by this fungus. Here, we report the screening and identification of several CPA-type alkaloids not previously found in A. flavus cultures. Our identifications of these CPA-type alkaloids are based on a dereplication strategy involving accurate mass high resolution mass spectrometry data and a careful study of the α-CPA fragmentation pattern. In total, 22 CPA-type alkaloids were identified in extracts from the A. flavus strains examined. Of these metabolites, 13 have been previously reported in other fungi, though this is the first report of their existence in A. flavus. Two of our
Resveratrol has been reported as a natural phytoalexin that inhibits infection or the growth of certain fungi including Aspergillus flavus. Our previous research revealed that aflatoxin production in A. flavus was reduced in medium with resveratrol. To understand the molecular mechanism of the A. flavus response to resveratrol treatment, the high-throughput paired-end RNA-Seq was applied to analyze the transcriptomic profiles of A. flavus. In total, 366 and 87 genes of A. flavus were significantly up- and down- regulated, respectively, when the fungus was treated with resveratrol. Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis revealed that 48 significantly differentially expressed genes were involved in 6 different terms. Most genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes cluster (#54) did not show a significant change when A. flavus was treated with resveratrol, but 23 of the 30 genes in the #54 cluster were down-regulated. The transcription of aflA and aflB was significantly suppressed under
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen and may produce aflatoxins in maize, one of the most important crops in Argentina. A promising strategy to reduce aflatoxin accumulation is the biological control based on competitive exclusion. In order to select potential biocontrol agents among isolates from the maize growing region in Argentina, a total of 512 A. flavus strains were isolated from ...
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen and may produce aflatoxins in maize, one of the most important crops in Argentina. A promising strategy to reduce aflatoxin accumulation is the biological control based on competitive exclusion. In order to select potential biocontrol agents among isolates from the maize growing region in Argentina, a total of 512 A. flavus strains were isolated from ...
Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins, and as a result, threaten human health, food security and farmers income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the effectiveness of atoxigenic isolates in mitigating aflatoxin contamination. However, such information has not been used to facilitate selection and deployment of atoxigenic isolates. A total of 35 isolates of A. flavus isolated from maize samples collected from three agroecological zones of Nigeria were used in this study. Ecophysiological characteristics, distribution and genetic diversity of the isolates were determined to identify vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). The generated data were used to inform selection and deployment of native atoxigenic isolates to mitigate aflatoxin contamination in maize. In co-inoculation with toxigenic isolates, atoxigenic isolates reduced aflatoxin ...
per fungal biomass dry weight/colony size has rarely been reported. For this reason, the objective of the present study was to model the kinetics of mycotoxin production under the assumption of existing both no-growth-associated and growth-associated production. Aspergillus flavus was chosen as a model mycotoxigenic microorganism, and it was grown in maize agar medium and maize grain at 0.90 and 0.99 aw at 25 °C. A significant positive correlation (p , 0.05) was observed among the biomass responses (colony radius and biomass dry weight) in agar medium and colony radius in maize at both aw levels assayed. The Luedeking-Piret model was used to model AFB1 production and reasonable percentages of variability were explained. Moreover, AFB1 production was in general slightly better predicted through colony area. As conclusion, aflatoxin production may follow a mixed-growth associated trend, confirming that toxin formation does not present a clear delay in relation to growth under certain conditions ...
LOINC Code 51529-6 Mold Allergen Mix 4 (Aspergillus fumigatus+Aspergillus niger+Aspergillus terreus+Aspergillus flavus) IgE Ab [Presence] in Serum by Multidisk
Primary laryngeal aspergillosis due to Aspergillus flavus in an elderly immunocompetent patient- a rare presentation-AGEMS-Print ISSN No:-2348-7348 Online ISSN No:-2348-7240Article DOI No:-10.18231,Annals of Geriatric Education and Medical Sciences-IP Innovative Publication Pvt Limited, Medical Journals Publication,
BioAssay record AID 1094518 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus flavus at 500 ppm after 72 to 96 hr by disk diffusion method.
Citation: MAHONEY, N.E., MOLYNEUX, R.J., CAMPBELL, B.C., CARY, J.W. WALNUT CONSTITUENTS INHIBIT AFLATOXIN FORMATION BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS. AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MICROBIOLOGY ANNUAL MEETING. 2004. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Tree nuts are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination and therefore subject to regulatory restrictions both domestically and abroad. In order to identify natural sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation, tree nuts were screened for their ability to support aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus using agar-based media composed of almond, pistachio, or walnut cultivars. A. flavus grown on walnut cultivars produced significantly less aflatoxin than on pistachio or almond cultivars. Walnut cultivars were not uniform in their ability to inhibit aflatoxin; Tulare completely inhibited the production of aflatoxin, while Chico was the most susceptible. The aflatoxin inhibiting property of Tulare kernels was found to reside in the seed coat and ...
DOBOLYI Cs, F SEBŐK, J VARGA, S KOCSUBÉ, G SZIGETI, N BARANYI, Á SZÉCSI, B TÓTH, M VARGA, B KRISZT, S SZOBOSZLAY, C KRIFATON, J KUKOLYA: Occurence of Aflatoxin producing Aspergillus flavus isolates in maize kernel in Hungary, ACTA ALIMENTARIA HUNGARICA 42: (3) pp. 451-459. pp. 451-459 ...
Citation: Cary, J.W., Rajasekaran, K., Bennett, C. 2003. A proteomics approach for the isolation of seed coat-specific genes from cotton. Plant Molecular Biology International Conference Proceedings. S5-90:93. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketide secondary metabolites produced by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus during growth on crops such as corn, cottonseed, peanuts, and treenuts. Efforts are underway in our lab to develop transgenic cotton expressing genes for antifungal proteins and peptides that inhibit the ability of A. flavus to infect cottonseed and produce aflatoxins. We are interested in identifying novel promoter sequences of cotton genes that will control expression of these antifungal genes in a tissue-specific manner. We have shown that during invasion of cottonseed, A. flavus most often enters the seed at the chalazal end and ramifies along the inner seed coat prior to colonizing the lipid acid-rich cotyledons. Based ...
These images dont show differences that distinguish A. flavus and A. parasiticus. An oil immersion magnification of the spores may be useful, but the aflatoxin profile is the best information to determine species.. Was this fungus isolated from a person with an Aspergillosis infection?. Only about 50% of A. flavus isolates have been found to make aflatoxin while nearly all A. parasiticus isolates have been found to make aflatoxins. ...
Aflatoxins are naturally-occurring mycotoxins produced by the fungi species Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are a major concern to the dairy and pig industries.
Aflatoxins are naturally-occurring mycotoxins produced by the fungi species Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are a major concern to the dairy and pig industries.
Moraes, A. M. L., M. Corrado, V. L. Holanda, G. L. Costa, M. Ziccardi, R. de Lourenço-de-Oliveira & P. C. Oliveira. Aspergillus from Brazilian mosquitoes - I. Genera Aedes and Culex from Rio de Janiero State, Mycotaxon 78: 413-422. 2001.. ABSTRACT: As part of an ongoing survey of potential biological control fungi from insects in Brazil. aspergilli were isolated from 625 mosquitoes belonging to 17 species in the genera Aedes and Culex. Two hundred and fifteen isolates belonging to 17 Aspergillus species were found. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nidulans were the most frequently isolated species. Two other species, Aspoergillus fischerianus and Aspergillus heteromorphus were new records for insects. The macro- and microcharacteristics of the Brazilian isolates are compared to those in previously published descriptions. The habitat and geographical distribution of these fungi in Brazil is reviewed.. KEYWORDS: biological control, taxonomy, entomogenous fungi. NOMENCLATURAL ...
B. subtilis asustab risosfääri ja kuna on leitud, et ta soodustab taimekasvu, on tema spoore lisatud bioväetiste koostisesse, kuid on kasutusel ka biofungitsiidina ja bakteriaalsete taimehaiguste vastu.[9][10] Näiteks, suudavad mõned B. subtilise tüved peatada aflatoksiini tootvate ning maapähkleid ja maisi koloniseerivate kerahallikute Aspergillus flavus ja Aspergillus parasiticus kasvu ning isegi inhibeerida aflatoksiini tootmist.[11]. Kahjuritõrjes on olulisel kohal putukate (peamiselt liblikaliste, kuid ka mardikaliste, kahetiivaliste ja kiletiivaliste) patogeen B. thuringiensis, mis toodab spooride moodustamise ajal protoksiinikristalle ehk Cry-valke, mis putuka soolestikus lagunevad δ-endotoksiiniks (tuntud ka Bt-toksiini nime all). Toksiin hävitab putukavastse kõhtu sattudes tema soolestiku, mistõttu putukas hukkub. Toksiin on biolagunev ning selgroogsetele ja taimedele ohutu, seetõttu kasutatakse seda tüve laialdaselt bioloogilise pestitsiidina.[12] Insektitsiidseid ...
Aflatoxicosis in Poultry Aflatoxins are the most commonly occurring and economically important mycotoxins, produced largely by a fungi called Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxicosis is associated with grains and other feed sources such as maize, soyabeans, peanuts and millet.
Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, Aspergillus Flavus, Production, Isoflavones, Power, Conidia, Gene, Genes, Fungus, Proteins, Concentrations, Water, Anthocyanin, Antioxidant Effects, Color, Genotypes, Hydroxyl, Hydroxyl Radical, Phenol
Aspergillus flavus) will produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, zearaleone, fumonisin, ochratoxin, etc of which aflatoxin B1 is probably the most toxic. , 1995). , 1994). Levels as low as 20 ppm of fumonisin can be toxic to shrimps. Antinutritional Factors (ANF) from Vegetable Ingredients Antinutritional factors (ANF) in vegetable ingredients are rather complex as there is a vast array of toxic substances (Tacon, 1985, 1987). Insoluble fibres, soluble fibres, enzyme inhibitors, saponins, lectins, tennins, phytic acid and gossypol are the most important anti-inhibitors factors and are transmitted via the feed (Krogdahl, 1989). Then suitable quality agricultural lime are added according to soil acidity. Five tons per ha of chicken manure and 35 kg per ha of 14-14-14 (NPK) are added subsequently. The prepared area is covered with a 5 cm thickness of rice straw. Cuttings are then planted at 30 cm intervals. (iv) Poisoning Predators and Pests Before shrimp PL/juveniles are stocked, eggs and larvae of ...
Interestingly, the ethyl acetate extract was even more effective at destroying the bacteria than the drug chloramphenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat several infections, including infections of the respiratory tract, brain, eye and ear.. Next, the research team turned their attention to the effects of the different extracts on fungus, including Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigates.. As with the bacteria, the ethyl acetate extract once again came out on top as the most potent antifungal. Yet again, the chloroform extract had only a mild effect against the fungi, whereas the ethyl acetates effects were comparable to the chemical medicine nystatin, an antifungal medication that prevents fungus growing on the skin, and is often used in the treatment of oral thrush.. The research team concluded that the ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest antimicrobial properties, and as such should be investigated further. They also indicated their belief that phenolic and flavonoid ...
ID B8N000_ASPFN Unreviewed; 499 AA. AC B8N000; DT 03-MAR-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 03-MAR-2009, sequence version 1. DT 05-JUL-2017, entry version 55. DE RecName: Full=Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP] {ECO:0000256,PIRNR:PIRNR000108}; DE EC=1.1.1.42 {ECO:0000256,PIRNR:PIRNR000108}; GN ORFNames=AFLA_086400 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EED57942.1}; OS Aspergillus flavus (strain ATCC 200026 / FGSC A1120 / NRRL 3357 / JCM OS 12722 / SRRC 167). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; Eurotiomycetes; OC Eurotiomycetidae; Eurotiales; Aspergillaceae; Aspergillus. OX NCBI_TaxID=332952 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EED57942.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001875}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EED57942.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001875} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC 200026 / FGSC A1120 / NRRL 3357 / JCM 12722 / SRRC 167 RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001875}; RX PubMed=25883274; DOI=10.1128/genomeA.00168-15; RA Nierman W.C., Yu J., Fedorova-Abrams N.D., Losada L., ...
When seven immunocompromised patients developed invasive aspergillosis during construction at a hospital, new methods were performed to compare fungal isolates and a case-control study was conducted to determine risks for infection. Typing of Aspergillus flavus with the use of restriction endonuclease analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism using random amplified polymorphic DNA reactions to generate DNA probes revealed different patterns between isolates from two patients and a similar pattern among those from one patient, a health care worker, and an environmental source.… Read more. ...
The polysaccharide of peach gum, prepared by a partial acid hydrolysis, was degraded by a mixture of extracellular glacanohydrolases of Aspergillus flavus. This way obtained polysaccharide differed from the original one especially by a higher content of D-mannose and a lower content of D-galactose bound by (1 3) glycosidic bonds. The obtained results are discussed from the standpoint of composition of the main and side chains of the native polysaccharide.. ...
[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/IXXXX/I-5101-1.pdf]Ferritin Conjugated Limax flavus
Espinhos dorsais (total): 1; Raios dorsais moles (total): 5-7; Raios anais moles: 18 - 21; Vértebras: 36 - 37. Distal half of anterior edge of pectoral spine serrated; body depth at anus 14.3-17.3% SL; dorsal fin without black margin; eye diameter 27.4-34.9% HL; and length of adipose-fin base 10.6-14.4% SL. ...
الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 1; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 5-7; أشعه شرجية لينه: 18 - 21; فقرات: 36 - 37. Distal half of anterior edge of pectoral spine serrated; body depth at anus 14.3-17.3% SL; dorsal fin without black margin; eye diameter 27.4-34.9% HL; and length of adipose-fin base 10.6-14.4% SL. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus in a child. T2 - A rare complication after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. AU - Beluffi, Giampiero. AU - Bernardo, Maria Ester. AU - Meloni, Giulia. AU - Spinazzola, Angelo. AU - Locatelli, Franco. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI.. AB - We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI.. KW - Aspergillus. KW - Child. KW - Complication. KW - ...
Zea mays L. is one of the worlds most important and widely grown crops and is susceptible to a wide range of plant pathogens. One fungal pathogen of particular concern is Aspergillus flavus Link, which is capable of producing the secondary metabolite aflatoxin. Aflatoxin poses serious health concerns when consumed by humans and animals and when consumed in large doses can lead to abdominal pain, liver damage, and death. While regulated in the United States, many underdeveloped countries do not have the resources to monitor aflatoxin accumulation in maize and, thus, developing low aflatoxin accumulation commercial maize lines would be of great benefit. The objective of this project was to identify genotypic and phenotypic predictors of low aflatoxin accumulation that could help maize breeders develop a low aflatoxin accumulating line. The results of this work reveal the potential impact the maternal parental plant has on low aflatoxin accumulation through the movement of carbohydrates into ...
The effect of cycling temperatures on production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus (V3734-10) when grown upon various substrates was studied. The parameters of temperature and time were selected to simulate environmental conditions in Oregon during harvest of filberts and walnuts. The heat input required for aflatoxin synthesis in terms of degree hours per day were calculated and may be used as an index to predict potential danger of aflatoxin contamination. Conditions which generated less than 208 hours per day did not receive sufficient heat to induce growth and metabolism. When heat input ranged between 208 and 270 hours per day, growth and metabolism occurred with the development of a yellow pigment. There was not sufficient heat input, however, to induce the idiophase, sporulation and subsequent aflatoxin synthesis. Above 270 hours per day the culture entered the idiophase, sporulation occurred and aflatoxin was produced. The heat requirements for aflatoxin production was compared to the ...
Considerable progress has been achieved in reducing aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products [47-52] since the discovery that aflatoxin is extremely toxic to humans and animals [2, 53]. Many inhibitors [9, 54] have been demonstrated to have an inhibitory effect on aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. flavus. Among them, plant-derived metabolites are of special interest. Non-host plant metabolites, such as onion, garlic extracts, eugenol [55-57], khellin, visnagin [58], caffeine, and piperlongumine [59] inhibit A. flavus growth and/or aflatoxin production. At the same time, host plant-derived metabolites including luteolin [60], eriodictyol [61], and tanning acids [62] also inhibit A. flavus development and/or aflatoxin production. However, most of these compounds can hardly be applied in practice because their biosynthesis pathway and the related biochemical steps are not well understood.. Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin, could protect plants from fungal infection and improve the defense ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aspergillus colonization and aflatoxin contamination in peanut genotypes with reduced linoleic acid composition. AU - Holbrook, C. Corley. AU - Wilson, David M.. AU - Matheron, Michael E. AU - Hunter, John E.. AU - Knauft, David A.. AU - Gorbet, Daniel W.. PY - 2000/2. Y1 - 2000/2. N2 - Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus can contaminate several agricultural crops with the toxic fungal metabolite aflatoxin. Previous research has indicated that resistance may be conferred by altering the fatty acid composition of these crops. Recently, peanut breeding lines with reduced linoleic acid content have been developed. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reduced linoleic acid composition on preharvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut. Seven breeding lines with relatively low linoleic acid and two check genotypes were grown in a randomized complete block design with 10 replicates for 4 years in Georgia and for 3 years in Arizona. The plots were inoculated with a ...
Literature Cited. 1. Abbas, H. K., ed. 2003. Special issue: Aflatoxin and food safety Part 1. J. of Toxicol, Toxin Rev. 22:139- 459.. 2. Abbas, H. K., Zablotowicz, R. M., and Locke, M. A. 2004. Spatial variability of Aspergillus flavus soil populations under different crops and corn grain colonization and aflatoxins. Can. J. Bot. 82:1768-1775. 3. Abbas, H. K., Cartwright, R. D., Xie, W., and Shier, W. T. 2006. Aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of corn (maize, Zea mays) hybrids in Arkansas. Crop Prot. 25:1-9. 4. Abbas, H. K., Zablotowicz, R. M., Bruns, H. A., and Abel, C. A. 2006. Biocontrol of aflatoxin in corn by inoculation with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates. Biocontrol Sci. Tech. 16:437-449.. 5. Ahmad, M., Majerczak, D. R., Pile, S., Hoyas, M. E., Novacky, A., and Coplin, D. L. 2001. Biological activity of harpin produced by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii. Molec. Plant-Microbe Interact. 14:1223-1234.. 6. Baker, C. J., Orlandi, E. W., and Mock, N. M. 1993. Harpin, an ...
When asked about taking groups to West Africa on culinary tours, I have been hesitant to undertake such a project due to issues of food safety and quality control. A serious problem surrounding peanut and maize production in Africa, for example, is the prevalence of mycotoxins, types of fungi that can contaminate food before, during or after it is harvested/processed. Since the 1960s there has been a new recognition of the health and other impacts of one group of mycotoxins known as aflatoxins (in particular, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus) in Africa. According to the most recent quarterly newsletter of the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) (04, Oct. 2009-Jan 2010) "These toxins are potent causes of cancer and suppress the immune system causing greater susceptibility of humans and animals to diseases. . . High levels of aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products also affect international trade since agricultural products that have more than permissible levels of ...
1. Introduction. Mycotoxins are natural contaminants in food and feed. Aflatoxins (AFs) are classified as mycotoxins, which refer to a variety of seriously toxic components and the group of difuranocoumarins and classified in two broad groups according to their chemical structures; the difurocoumarocyclopentenone series (AFB, AFM and aflatoxicol) and the difurocoumarolactone series (AFG and AFB3). The aflatoxins fluoresce strongly in ultraviolet light (ca. 365 nm); B1 and B2 produce a blue fluorescence where as G1 and G2 produce green fluorescence. The toxins are generated by moulds of genera Aspergillus (specifically by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus), Penicillium and Fusarium [1] .. The agent is mainly found in warm and wet climates [2] . They are threat to agricultural products and cereal grain in particular. The products might be contaminated during pre-harvest, harvest, processing and handling stages [3] [4] . In this regard, season, humidity, daily variation, and storage ...
Orizin (EC 3.4.21.63, Aspergillus alkaline proteinaza, aspergilopeptidaza B, API 21, aspergilopepsin B, aspergilopepsin F, Aspergillus candidus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus flavus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus melleus semialkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus oryzae alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus parasiticus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus serin proteinaza, Aspergillus sydowi alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus soya alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus melleus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus sulphureus alkalna proteinaza, prozim, P 5380, kiorinaza, seaproza S, semi-alkalna proteaza, sumizim MP, prozim 10, onoproza, onoproza SA, proteaza P, promelaza) je enzim.[1][2][3][4][5] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju. ...
Study was conducted on different cereals (wheat, rice, sorghum) and oil seeds (sunflowerseed, cottonseed, groundnut) to correlate bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) of the seeds under longwave (366 nm) ultraviolet light with aflatoxin presence. Correlation between BGYF, aflatoxin and kojic acid contents and peroxidase units indicated that samples showing BGYF were not always contaminated with aflatoxins but those which contained aflatoxins, always exhibited BGYF. It was further noticed that all the samples, that showed BGY fluorescence and aflatoxin presence were loaded with spores of Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin positive samples also had high moisture contents. Storage of the BGYF and aflatoxin positive samples showed that storage in the dark increased the aflatoxin content and in the light, the aflatoxin content was reduced. Some varieties of cereals and oil seeds were contaminated with toxic strain of A. flavus. Results showed positive relationship between BGYF and aflatoxin ...
Infection with the fungus Aspergillus, seen especially in people with a deficient immune system. The clinical features of aspergillosis can include invasive lung infection and disseminated disease, usually with fever, cough, spitting up blood, and chest pain. Aspergillosis may mimic asthma with cough and inspiratory stridor (noise on breathing in) or sinusitis with fever, localized pain. Aspergillosis is due most often to Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus and less commonly A. niger, A. terreus, or A. nidulans. These fungi frequently colonize the upper respiratory tract and are among the most common in the environment. At elevated risk for aspergillosis are people with a blood malignancy or lymphoma, anyone who has had a transplant or is taking high-dose corticosteroids and, rarely, people with HIV infection. Diagnosis may be difficult. It usually requires a biopsy. The advent of effective, less toxic antifungal drugs (such as itraconazole) has improved therapy. The prognosis (outlook) ...
Feedstuffs known to be contaminated by A. flavus include: groundnut cakes, maize, sorghum, sunflower, cottonseed cakes, copra, and cassava. To produce aflatoxin, however, A. flavus must be present alone in a practically pure culture. The presence of other fungi, yeast, or bacteria seems to interfere with aflatoxin production. Crops such as peanuts, cottonseed, and copra are high aflatoxin risks precisely because A. flavus often infest them as a practically pure culture with few or no other microflora. In addition, the fungus produces the toxin in these crops at relatively low moisture levels, 9 to 10 percent, compared with 17 to 18 percent moisture for most feed grains. Feed grains such as maize and sorghum grown in the tropics, therefore, also pose high risk. 3.2.2 Heating and moisture increase Mould growth in feedstuffs is accompanied by rising temperatures and moisture content. Aspergillus glaucus, which has a minimum moisture requirement of 14.5 percent, is the first significant species ...
Aflavinine, a novel indole-​mevalonate metabolite from tremorgen-​producing Aspergillus flavus species. Gallagher, Rex T.; McCabe, Terrence; Hirotsu, Ken; Clardy, Jon; Nicholson, Judith; Wilson, Benjamin J. (Dep. Chem., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA). Tetrahedron Lett., 21(3), 243-6 (English) 1980. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from brazil nuts. Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C. PLoS One (2012), 7(8), e42480. Three new aflavinines from the sclerotia of ...
Since the 1993-1994 unusual outbreak of pulmonary hemorrhage (lung breeding) in infants in Cleveland, Ohio, that was then thought to be due to exposure to Stachybotrys, the health effects associated with this mold have remained controversial. Frequently referred to as the Black Mold by the general public, Stachybotrys has probably caused more economic and psychological agony than ill-health. The mold has resulted in multimillion dollar remediations and litigations.. Stachybotrys was first associated with death of horses in Eastern Europe in the 1930s. Horses fed with hay contaminated with Stachybotrys were reported to surfer from a disease characherized by irritation of the mouth, throat, and nose; shock; dermal necrosis; a decrease in leukocytes; hemorrhage; nervous disorder; and death.. While Stachybotrys is so much feared the number of cases where it was the cause of ill-health or death are insignificant compared to some other toxigenic molds such as Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus ...
seeking plant-based alternatives to conventional antimicrobial drugs.. The aromatic herb has a long legacy in traditional medicine from Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. Hippocrates recommended it as an antiseptic and a treatment for gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments.. Biochemical analysis shows the various species making up the Origanum genus to be among the worlds richest plants in phenolic and flavonoid compounds. A spate of recent research from labs all over the world is underscoring the antibacterial and antifungal potential of essential oils distilled from oregano.. A team at Kumaun University, Uttarakhand, India, showed that essential oil of Origanum vulgare was able to inhibit Aspergillus flavus and A. niger. The former, known for its lethal aflatoxin, is a major contaminant in peanuts. The investigators identified monoterpenes like p-Cymene and thymol as the key antifungal compounds among the 33 identified biochemical constituents of the essential oil (Bisht D, et al. ...
Tóth, Beáta and Török, Orsolya and Kótai, Éva and Varga, Mónika and Toldiné Tóth, Éva and Varga, János and Mesterházy, Ákos (2013) Aspergillus fajok szerepe a kukorica szántóföldi gomba és mikotoxin szennyeződésében. In: 59. Növényvédelmi Tudományos Napok, 19-20 Feb 2013, Budapest. Mesterházy, Ákos and Varga, Mónika and Tóth, Beáta and Lehoczki-Krsjak, Szabolcs and Toldiné Tóth, Éva (2013) Az Aspergillus flavus mint a kukorica új nemesítési problémája. In: XIX. Növénynemesítési Tudományos Nap, 2013. március 7., Keszthely, Hungary. Mesterházy, Ákos and Tóth, Beáta and Szabó-Hevér, Ágnes and Varga, Mónika and Toldiné Tóth, Éva (2013) Breeding strategies and results against Fusarium head blight in bread wheat. In: 2nd Conference of Biotechnology and Breeding, 5-7 Nov 2013, Budapest. Szabó, Balázs and Toldiné Tóth, Éva and Tóth, Beáta and Varga, Mónika and Mesterházy, Ákos (2013) Examination of resistance level of maize hybrids against ...
Two cases of aflatoxicosis in broilers were characterised, unusually, by trembling, ataxia, paralysis of legs and wings and lameness. Histopathology showed severe degeneration of hepatocytes, bile duct proliferation and depletion of lymphocytes in the lymphoid organs. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from the feed and litter. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in one sample at a concentration of 2.4 mg/kg. ...
Novel 1,1-(5,5-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-aryl-1H-pyrazole-5,1-(4H,5H)-diyl))diethanones 7-12 were tested for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion and twofold serial dilution method against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. Compounds 7 against Micrococcus luteus, 8 against β-Heamolytic streptococcus, M. luteus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Microsporum gypseum, 9 against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Vibreo cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor indicus, 10 against Salmonella typhii, S. flexneri, M. gypseum, 11 against K. pneumonia, M. gypseum, 12 against K. pneumonia, and M. gypseum show superior zone of inhibitions and exhibited excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities at a MIC value of 6.25 μg/mL. Moreover, all the tested compounds 7-12 revealed promising antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and INH-resistant M. tuberculosis. Compounds 8 against M. tuberculosis and 11 against INH-resistant M. tuberculosis exhibited the
Endopleura uchi (Huber) Cuatrec. is an Amazon species traditionally used as treatment for inflammations and female disorders. Bergenin was isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of bark of E. uchi by using column chromatography over sephadex LH-20 and then silica gel 60 flash. Its structure was identified on the basis of its NMR spectra. The antimicrobial activity of bergenin and fractions of methanol extract of E. uchi were evaluated against ATCC microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, Aspergillus flavus, A. nidulans). Clinically isolated strains of all of these microorganisms, along with C. tropicalis, A. niger, Shigella sonnei, Serratia marcenses and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also evaluated. The growth inhibition caused by bergenin, extracts and fractions of E. uchi against ATCC microorganisms were similar to the inhibition to microorganisms clinically isolated. The ...
Table 4: Estimated costs and returns budget for vendors (wholesalers) under the following assumptions. (1) Vendors purchased nonsorted peanut and do no sort before marketing. (2) Vendors purchased nonsorted peanut and sort before marketing. (3) Vendors purchased sorted peanut at a higher price and do not sort before marketing ...
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The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria.
A. parasiticus is employed to hydroxylate 2-hydroxyterphenyl compounds to terphenyltriols, which can be used to form branched polycarbonates. The hydroxylation reaction is enhanced by maintaining a sufficient amount of a carbon source in the culture medium-reaction medium to maintain the ammonium level below 300 ppm. during the bioconversion phase. Employment of a mutant strain of A. parasiticus which was isolated following ultraviolet light mutagenesis to reduce its tendency to produce aflatoxins is preferred.
Farmer-led evaluation of the effect of double row planting pattern and crop residue incorporation on yield, mould prevalence and aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts
Aflatoxin contamination is not an uncommon problem in pet food. Its expensive to detect cuz all the grains would have to be checked, entire shipments, everytime they arrived, to avoid the possibility. Natures Recipe had it go through their food, dogs and cats died, they ended up being bought out by Heinz cuz they couldnt come back from the loss. The last one I know of to have that happen was Innova and Cal. Nat., they have survived but it cost them a whole lot of money in vet bills and such. I doubt it will do much harm to this company being so huge ...
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Abstract These days it is widely believed by experts that most cancers are caused by environmental factors. The epidemiology of most of these suspected factors is still equivocal. One such factor which has been widely studied is aflatoxin, a chemical produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Because of the widespread distribution of this agent, its known toxicity, and its frequent ingestion by humans, aflatoxin may well be a significant cause of cancer worldwide. This paper attempts to summarize some of the historical and epidemiological evidence regarding aflatoxins and disease.
In microorganisms, Ion Torrent sequencing technology has been proved to be useful in whole-genome sequencing of bacterial genomes (5 Mbp). In our study, for the first time we used this technology to perform a resequencing approach in a whole fungal genome (36 Mbp), a non-ochratoxin A producing strain of Aspergillus carbonarius. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin which is found mainly in cereals and their products, but it also occurs in a variety of common foods and beverages. Due to the fact that this strain does not produce OTA, we focused some of the bioinformatics analyses in genes involved in OTA biosynthesis, using a reference genome of an OTA producing strain of the same species. This study revealed that in the atoxigenic strain there is a high accumulation of nonsense and missense mutations in several genes. Importantly, a two fold increase in gene mutation ratio was observed in PKS and NRPS encoding genes which are suggested to be involved in OTA biosynthesis. ...
A. flavus isolated from Terai and inner Terai produced aflatoxin B1 & B2 at the concentration of 6 gm/kg and 0.9 mg/kg respectively (Table 5). This finding has indicated that A. flavus isolated from hills/mountain and Kathmandu region seem to have lower potency of aflatoxin production. Two strains from Kathmandu Valley produced all four aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. However, two strains from Terai, one from Kathmandu Valley and one from mountain areas did not produce aflatoxin. A. flavus isolated from terse produced the highest amount of aflatoxin compared to valley and other hills/mountainous region.. This result shows that there is a need of precautionary post-harvest measures to minimise the possible aflatoxin hazards. In short, aflatoxin can become a big menace in Terai area where temperature is relatively high and the humidity is also favourable for the growth of A. flavus. However, a careful strategy needs to be initiated to determine the extent of damage caused by A. flavus along the ...
This paper reports the contamination of ready-to-use food thickeners, collected from the South-East geo-political zone in Nigeria, by aflatoxigenic form of Aspergillus species. A total of 150 samples from different open markets were observed for fungal contamination by using serial dilution-spread plate method. Although, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were the most frequently isolated fungi, Aspergillus species were found to be the most prevalent in all the samples. Furthermore, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus produced aflatoxin on yeast extract sucrose (YES) media incubated for 10 to 15 days at 27°C in a CO2 incubator. Aspergillus niger showed no sign of any secondary metabolite on the media, set at similar conditions. Although, light microscopy was used to identify these fungi, based on colony morphology, PCR method was used to confirm genetic variation among the Aspergillus group, using ITS set
Aflatoxin Accumulation in Developing Kernels of Eight Maize Single Crosses After Inoculation with Aspergillus flavus. D. L. Thompson, J. O. Rawlings, M. S. Zuber, G. A. Payne, and E. B. Lillehoj. Pages: 465-467 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Overwintering and Survival of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Symptom Development in Peach Trees. Elke Endert, David F. Ritchie. Pages: 468-470 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Occurrence, Impact, and Fungicidal Control of Girdling Stem Cankers Caused by Cylindrocladium scoparium on Eucalyptus Seedlings in a South Florida Nursery. E. L. Barnard. Pages: 471-473 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Control of Globodera rostochiensis by Solar Heat. J. A. LaMondia, B. B. Brodie. Pages: 474-476 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Control of Criconemella xenoplax and Meloidogyne incognita and Improved Peach Tree Survival Following Multiple Fall Applications of Fenamiphos. David F. Ritchie. Pages: 477-480 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Evaluation of the Tree-Row-Volume Concept ...
A survey was conducted in Nairobi, Nyanza and Western provinces in Kenya between March and July 2009 with 1263 peanut products sampled out of which 705 samples underwent microbial analysis. The study aimed at determining the incidence of fungal species - emphasis on Aspergillus section Flavi - associated with peanut products. A 0.5kg representative sample was obtained from each surveyed vendor and the colony forming units (CFU) of fungal species determined. The samples were also analyzed for total aflatoxin level while isolates of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were screened for production of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. Eight fungal species were detected in the samples and were in decreasing order of CFU/g of sample: A. flavus S-strain (467), A. flavus L-strain (341), Penicillium spp. (326), A. niger (156), A. tamari (27), A. alliaceus (21), A. parasiticus (10), and A. caelatus (5). The overall incidence of A. flavus S-strain in samples from Nairobi was 92 and 1425% higher than samples from ...
Define aflatoxin. aflatoxin synonyms, aflatoxin pronunciation, aflatoxin translation, English dictionary definition of aflatoxin. n. Any of a group of toxic compounds produced by certain molds, especially Aspergillus flavus, that contaminate stored food supplies such as animal feed and...
Introduction: Due to the prevalence of otomycosis in the north of Iran, which has a humid climate, this study aimed to examine the recurrence rate of otomycosis in Iranian patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in all patients suspected of otomycosis referred to the Otorhinolaryngology Clinic of Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital of Babol. Demographic and clinical data of patients as well as their symptoms were collected in a checklist at referral time and also 14 days after referral. Results: The results showed that 11 (7.3%) cases had a recurrence of otomycosis. There was no significant relationship between the incidence of otomycosis and age or sex (P=0.86 and 0.88, respectively). Septate mycelium was the most observed element on direct examination. Aspergillus flavus was the most common pathogenic agent in culture media, followed by Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Conclusion: Based on the results of this research in Babol, the recurrence of otomycosis was 7.3%
Rhizopus oligosporus is a fungus of the family Mucoraceae and is a widely used starter culture for the production of tempeh at home and industrially. As the mold grows it produces fluffy, white mycelia, binding the beans together to create an edible "cake" of partly catabolized soybeans. The domestication of the microbe is thought to have occurred in Indonesia several centuries ago. R. oligosporus is the preferred starter culture for tempeh production for several reasons. It grows effectively at high temperatures (30-40 °C) which are typical of the Indonesian islands, it exhibits strong lipolytic and proteolytic activity that create desirable properties in tempeh and it produces metabolites that allows it to inhibit and thus outcompete other molds and gram-positive bacteria, including the potentially harmful Aspergillus flavus and Staphylococcus aureus. R. oligosporus is at present considered to be a domesticated form of Rhizopus microsporus and its proper taxonomic position is thus Rhizopus ...
Aflatoxins are a potent carcinogenic mycotoxin and has become a research model of fungal secondary metabolism (SM). Via systematically investigating the APSES transcription factors (TFs), two APSES proteins were identified: AfRafA and AfStuA. These play central roles in the synthesis of mycotoxins including aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid, and fungal development and are consequently central to the pathogenicity of the aflatoxigenic A. flavus. Loss of AfRafA not only dramatically suppressed aflatoxin cluster expression, subsequently reducing toxin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo, but also impaired conidia and sclerotia development. More importantly, aflatoxin biosynthesis as well as conidia and sclerotia development were fully blocked in ΔAfStuA. In addition, our results supported that AfStuA regulated the aflatoxin synthesis in an AflR-dependent manner. Intriguingly, it was revealed that AfRafA and AfStuA exert an antagonistic role in the regulation of biosynthesis of cyclopiazonic acid. In
TY - JOUR. T1 - Posttraumatic invasive Aspergillus fumigatus wound infection. AU - Gettleman, Lynn K.. AU - Shetty, Avinash K.. AU - Prober, Charles G.. PY - 1999/8/1. Y1 - 1999/8/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0032782329&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0032782329&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1097/00006454-199908000-00026. DO - 10.1097/00006454-199908000-00026. M3 - Article. C2 - 10462356. AN - SCOPUS:0032782329. VL - 18. SP - 745. EP - 747. JO - Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. JF - Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. SN - 0891-3668. IS - 8. ER - ...
Purpose To record the clinical profile of patients with keratitis due to and to elaborate on differences in the aflatoxin-producing potential of keratitis strains versus environmental strains of were isolated in culture from corneal scrape or biopsy material of patients who presented with suppurative keratitis (clinical isolates). culture filtrate or mycelial homogenate samples of the clinical isolates (mean concentration: 366.7125.4 parts per billion [ppb]) but in only eight (40%) of 20 samples of environmental isolates (mean concentration: 306.6125.4 ppb). Seven of the eight aflatoxin-producing clinical isolates and two of the four aflatoxin-producing environmental isolates formed sclerotia (>400 m) and a beige ring in culture. Conclusions Aflatoxin B1 was detected in a significantly higher percentage of growth samples of clinical isolates (80%) than growth samples of environmental isolates (40%) (2=6.667; p=0.0098); the therapeutic implications of this finding require further study. The ...
Aspergili (lat. Aspergillus) ali glavičaste plesni so rod ubikvitarnih (povsod razširjenih) plesni iz debla Ascomycota z značilnim konidijem.[2] Glive iz rodu Aspergillus so stalno prisotne v človekovem okolju. Najpogosteje gre za A. fumigatus, pogostejši so še A. flavus, A. terreus in A. niger. Spore gliv najdemo v gozdovih v kupih odpadlega listja, kompostih na vrtu, skladiščih žit, na gnijoči zelenjavi, v vlažnih kleteh stanovanjskih hiš, v iztrebkih ptic in tam, kjer potekajo kakršnakoli gradbena in vzdrževalna dela.[3] ...
Druggability technologies was developing DRGT 30 for the prophylaxis of invasive aspergillus and candida infections. DRGT 30 was designed using the companys
ammoniation idiophanism coequality preharvest Lehi itchingly Phalaenae wheretosoever magician thyrse hymenotomy nonformal cacotrophia oblately monsieurship rifeness kneadingly supersensualistic unsay unfertilized uncontinent dyphone [email protected] ...
Studies conducted in Benin, in which the main staple foods are maize, cassava, groundnuts and yams, showed high levels of aflatoxin residues in blood of the exposed population. The natural contamination with fungi and aflatoxins in cassava chips sold at markets in Benin, West Africa was investigated. A total of sixty samples were sampled from open markets in 11 districts of 3 agroecological zones and analyzed for the presence of mycoflora and aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. Fourteen genera of fungi were associated with marketed dried cassava chips. Within these, twenty- two isolates were identified to species level, whereas four were identified only to genus. The dominating fungal species isolated were Rhizopus oryzae, Nigrospora oryzae, Chrysonilia sitophila, Cladosporium resinae, Cladosporium herbarum, Apergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Fifty-four out of sixty samples were contaminated with A. flavus. The rate of occurrence in CFU/g of A. flavus fungi was lower than for all other fungal ...
Introduction Aflatoxins are generally produced in animal feeds by toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and the rare Aspergillus nomius (Kamkar, et al 2011). They are both acutely and chronically toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic compounds for animal and human (Deshpande, 2002; Ghazani, 2009; Maktabi et al., 2011 and Mohamadi Sani et al., 2012). Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principle hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 which is transformed at the hepatic level by means of cytochrome p450 enzymes and excreted into the milk in the mammary glands of both human and lactating animal after ingestion by the animal of pellets and forage contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (Oveisi et al., 2007; Prandini et al., 2009; Hampikyan et al., 2010; Ayoub et al., 2011). It has been reported that there is a linear relationship between AFM1 in milk and AFB1 in the feed consumed by the animals with approximately 1% to 6% of the ingested AFB1 appearing as AFM1 in milk (Dragacci ...
Oryzin (EC 3.4.21.63, Aspergillus alkaline proteinase, aspergillopeptidase B, API 21, aspergillopepsin B, aspergillopepsin F, Aspergillus candidus alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus flavus alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus melleus semi-alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus oryzae alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus parasiticus alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus serine proteinase, Aspergillus sydowi alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus soya alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus melleus alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus sulphureus alkaline proteinase, prozyme, P 5380, kyorinase, seaprose S, semi-alkaline protease, sumizyme MP, prozyme 10, onoprose, onoprose SA, protease P, promelase) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Hydrolysis of proteins with broad specificity, and of Bz-Arg-OEt > Ac-Tyr-OEt. Does not hydrolyse peptide amides This enzyme is a predominant extracellular alkaline endopeptidase of the mold Aspergillus oryzae. Nakagawa, Y. (1970). "Alkaline proteinases from Aspergillus". ...
A detailed and comprehensive genome annotation can be considered a prerequisite for the analysis and interpretation of omics data. GO provides a framework for functional annotation and has been proven to be a valuable tool for omics data analysis, especially in combination with enrichment statistics. Currently, the GO reference genome project [23] provides the most comprehensive manually curated GO annotation for twelve model organisms and is intended to serve as a reference for automated mapping of GO annotation to organisms other than these major models. From the reference genome projects, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are most closely related to the genus Aspergillus.. A. nidulans has so far been the only Aspergillus species with comprehensive genome scale GO annotation based on both orthology mapping to S. cerevisiae and extensive manual curation [9] of gene-specific literature. We have thus mapped the A. nidulans GO annotation to all other Aspergillus species (see ...
β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase (GH20) from the filamentous fungus Talaromyces flavus, previously identified as a prominent enzyme in the biosynthesis of modified glycosides, lacks a high resolution three-dimensional structure so far. Despite of high sequence identity to previously reported Aspergillus oryzae and Penicilluim oxalicum β-N-acetylhexosaminidases, this enzyme tolerates significantly better substrate modification. Understanding of key structural features, prediction of effective mutants and potential substrate characteristics prior to their synthesis are of general interest. Computational methods including homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations were applied to shad light on the structure-activity relationship in the enzyme. Primary sequence analysis revealed some variable regions able to influence difference in substrate affinity of hexosaminidases. Moreover, docking in combination with consequent molecular dynamics simulations of C-6 modified glycosides enabled us to identify the
Wilson (1955) - (1) Segment VI of the maxillary palp distinctly longer than segment V. (2) Scape long, always surpassing the occipital border by a considerable margin, the SI-HW regression zone well above those of the majority of series of other Cautolasius with the exception of the northern Eurasian population of Lasius flavus. (3) Eyes small relative to head size, ommatidium number usually 9 to 17, but still averaging larger than in Lasius talpa. (4) Differing from the sympatric eastern North American population of flavus by a number of other distinctive characters which break down in the allopatric western North American and Eurasian populations of flavus. PW range 0.45-0.64 mm., maximum intranidal size variation 0.45-0.58 mm. (Gibraltar Island, Ohio; M. Amstutz leg.; Talbot Coll.). Apparently the least size-variable and most monomorphic of the four better known Cautolasius species. Mandibular dentition showing part of the variation seen in flavus: two well-developed teeth present and often a ...
This introductory article provides an overview of preharvest food safety activities and initiatives for the past 15 years. The section on traditional areas of preharvest food safety focuses on significant scientific advancements that are a culmination of collaborative efforts (both public health and agriculture) and significant research results. The highlighted advancements provide the foundation for exploring future preharvest areas and for improving and focusing on more specific intervention/control/prevention strategies. Examples include Escherichia coli and cattle, Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry, and interventions and prevention and control programs. The section on
Cantharellus phasmatis M.J. Foltz & T.J. Volk (phasmatis meaning ghostly) is distinguished morphologically by having a white stalk and white hymenium (the fertile surface on the underside of the cap) and a pink spore deposit (Fig. 1a). Cantharellus flavus M.J. Foltz & T.J. Volk (flavus meaning yellow) is distinguished morphologically by having a yellow stalk and yellow hymenium, and a slightly more slender form than C. phasmatis (Fig. 1b). It also has a bright yellow spore deposit. Cantharellus spectaculus M.J. Foltz & T.J. Volk (spectaculus meaning spectacular) has a smaller and more slender form than both the aforementioned taxa, and has an orange stalk and an orange-salmon colored hymenium that occasionally has a purple tinge to it (Fig. 1c). The spores of this species are pink in deposit, but differ from C. phasmatis spores in that they are larger and a slightly different shape.. All three newly described taxa are mycorrhizal symbionts growing in association with hardwood trees, particularly ...
The University of Minnesota is one of the most comprehensive public universities in the United States and ranks among the most prestigious. It is both the state land-grant university, with a strong tradition of education and public service, and the states primary research university, with faculty of national and international reputation.
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Klich, Maren A. - Identification of Common Aspergillus Species. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9789070351465
... is a medical condition in which a parasitic twin head with an undeveloped (or underdeveloped) body is attached
This is the fourth puzzle of our Aflatoxin Challenge; now players may insert and delete residues in solutions from the previous Round 3 puzzle. Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. In this puzzle, players are challenged to redesign an enzyme that could break down aflatoxin molecules. The majority of the protein is frozen, with the aflatoxin ligand fixed in a binding pocket. Surrounding the binding pocket are a number of loops that might be redesigned without affecting the folding stability of the protein. In these loops, players may manipulate the protein backbone and mutate the residue sidechains. Players may add up to 20 additional residues within these loops, at a cost of 16 points per residue. Players may load in solutions from Puzzle 1450 ...
/PRNewswire/ -- Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced a new protocol for the development and registration of antimicrobial treatments for...
We are a globally operating filter manufacturer and world market leader for filtration technology in the marine and engine construction sectors. BOLL & KIRCH ...
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of Fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes Immunosuppression in Animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed Meal, corn, and other Grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to Aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal Monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites Aflatoxin M1 and Q1 ...
0048]In a preferred embodiment the esterase is a lipolytic enzyme, more preferably, a lipase. As used herein, "lipolytic enzymes" refers to lipases and phospholipases (including lyso-phospholipases). The lipolytic enzyme is preferably of microbial origin, in particular of bacterial, fungal or yeast origin. The lipolytic enzyme used may be derived from any source, including, for example, a strain of Absidia, in particular Absidia blakesleena and Absidia corymbifera, a strain of Achromobacter, in particular Achromobacter iophagus, a strain of Aeromonas, a strain of Alternaria, in particular Alternaria brassiciola, a strain of Aspergillus, in particular Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus, a strain of Achromobacter, in particular Achromobacter iophagus, a strain of Aureobasidium, in particular Aureobasidium puliulans, a strain of Bacillus, in particular Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus strearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis, a strain of Beauveria, a strain of Brochothtix, in particular ...
Fungal allergens have been found to be one of the most prevalent aeroallergens in India. Knowledge of shared/unique components among different fungi is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment of patients allergic to fungi. In the present study, crude extracts (CE) of 11 common fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Asp. fumigatus, Asp. niger, Asp. tamarii, Asp. versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Curvularia lunata, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium citrinum, and Fusarium solani) were characterized by isoelectric focusing (IEF), SDS-PAGE, and immunoblot. On IEF (pI 3-9), the number of protein bands was found to be greatest (46) in M. hiemalis extract. SDS-PAGE exhibited a varied number of bands, generally 18-40, with mol. mass ranging from 14 to 100 kDa. IgG-specific immunoprint using rabbit anti-F. solani CF antibodies demonstrated a mol. mass distribution of shared antigenic proteins of 14-100 kDa in most of the fungi. Shared allergenicity was observed in a number of allergenic proteins ...
Yu, J.H. and T.J. Leonard. 1998. Culture conditions control expression of the genes for alfatoxin and sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nidulans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 2275-2277.. Yu, J.H., R. Butchko, M. Fernandes, N. Keller, T.J. Leonard, T.H. Adams. 1996. Conservation of structure and function of the aflatoxin regulatory gene aflR from Aspergillus nidulans and A. flavus. Current Genetics 29:549-555.. Brown, D.W., J.H. Yu, H.S. Kelkar, M. Fernandes, T.C. Nesbit, T.C. Keller, N.P. Adams and T.J. Leonard. 1996. Twenty-five co-regulated transcripts define a secondary metabolism gene cluster in Asperfillus nidulans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 93:1418-1422.. Feng, G.H. and T.J. Leonard. 1995. Characterization of the polyketide synthase gene (pksLi) required for aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus nidulans. J. Bact. 177: 6246-6254.. Yu, J.H. and T.J. Leonard. 1995. Sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in Aspergillus nidulans requires a novel type I ...
Citation. Rokas, A., Payne, G., Fedorova, N. D., Baker, S. E., Machida, M., Yu, J., Georgianna, D. R., Dean, R. A., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., Wortman, J. R., Maiti, R., Joardar, V., Amedeo, P., Denning, D. W., Nierman, W. C.. What Can Comparative Genomics Tell Us About Species Concepts In the Genus Aspergillus?. Stud Mycol. 2007 Jan 01; 59: 11-7.. PubMed Citation. Abstract. Understanding the nature of species boundaries is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. The availability of genomes from several species of the genus Aspergillus allows us for the first time to examine the demarcation of fungal species at the whole-genome level. Here, we examine four case studies, two of which involve intraspecific comparisons, whereas the other two deal with interspecific genomic comparisons between closely related species. These four comparisons reveal significant variation in the nature of species boundaries across Aspergillus. For example, comparisons between A. fumigatus and Neosartorya ...
Glyphoglossus flavus is a species of frog in the family Microhylidae.[2][3][4] It is endemic to Borneo and is known from the Gunung Mulu National Park in Sarawak (Malaysia), Danum Valley Conservation Area in Sabah (Malaysia), and Ulu Temburong National Park in Brunei.[1] Common names Borneo squat frog[2] and yellow burrowing frog have been coined for it.[4] ...
Several mycotoxins are known to contaminate crop produce and processed forms but aflatoxins are the most common. They are mainly produced by fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. Cereals and their products which constitute the staples in most developing countries are particularly vulnerable to attack by aflatoxigenic fungi. Despite the potential health risk posed to animals and humans, many people in developing countries are oblivious of the ability of aflatoxins to cause cancer and other debilitating diseases. This review therefore examines the various types of aflatoxigenic fungi and toxins, their occurrence in foodstuffs, their harmful effects, economic losses caused, regulation including the tolerable limits set by various national and international agencies and how their effects can be minimized or eliminated. Since developing countries are less resourced, there is the need for their developed counterparts and international agencies to offer them financial and technical
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Aspergillus terreus ATCC ® 20542D-2™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Aspergillus terreus strain MF4845 (ATCC ® 20542™) Application:
Misdiagnosis of Malt Workers disease - Aspergillus spp. including hidden diseases, diagnosis mistakes, alternative diagnoses, differential diagnoses, and misdiagnosis.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kiyoshi Okano, Tsuneyoshi Tomita, Yuji Ohzu, Mitsuhiro Takai, Ayaka Ose, Akiko Kotsuka, Naoko Ikeda, Junko Sakata, Yuko Kumeda, Nobuya Nakamura, Masakatsu Ichinoe].
This is the third puzzle of our Aflatoxin Challenge, with the aflatoxin ligand now in a different orientation in the enzyme binding pocket. Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. In this puzzle, players are challenged to redesign an enzyme that could break down aflatoxin molecules. The majority of the protein is frozen, with the aflatoxin ligand fixed in a binding pocket. Surrounding the binding pocket are a number of loops that might be redesigned without affecting the folding stability of the protein. In these loops, players may manipulate the protein backbone and mutate the residue sidechains. To encourage interactions with the ligand, all ligand scores are doubled. Previous Aflatoxin Challenge designs are incompatible with this puzzle, so players will not be able to load work from previous puzzles ...
The biosynthesis of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been the subject of conflicting speculation and numerous reviews. The currently accepted scheme for the aflatoxin pathway is based on data obtained from feeding studies using ...
"Keratitis due to Aspergillus flavus successfully treated with thiabendazole". Br J Ophthalmol. 64 (1): 30-2. doi:10.1136/bjo. ...
Aspergillus flavus is a fungus of the Trichocomaceae family with a worldwide distribution. The mold lives in soil, surviving ... Aflatoxin B1 is an aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. It is an incredibly potent carcinogen with a ... The widespread death was later found to be caused by Aspergillus flavus contamination of peanut meal. Twelve patients died of ... Unlike many mold species, Aspergillus flavus prefers hot and dry conditions. Its optimal growth at 37 °C (99 °F) contributes to ...
"Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus flavus". Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13 (1): 466-476. doi: ...
Although brewers' yeast (Saccharomyces), fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces), and Aspergillus flavus[71] have no detectable DNA ... "Bisulfite sequencing reveals that Aspergillus flavus holds a hollow in DNA methylation". PLOS One. 7 (1): e30349. doi:10.1371/ ...
Examples of heterothallism are included for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium ... Horn BW, Moore GG, Carbone I (2009). "Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus". Mycologia. 101 (3): 423-9. doi:10.3852/09-011 ... Aspergillus fumigatus, is a heterothallic fungus. It is one of the most common Aspergillus species to cause disease in humans ... A. flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops worldwide. It is also an opportunistic human and animal ...
... B1 is considered the most toxic and is produced by both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin M1 ... Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens and mutagens that are produced by certain molds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ... Aflatoxins are produced by both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are common forms of 'weedy' molds ... "The phylogenetics of mycotoxin and sclerotium production in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae". Fungal Genetics and ...
Die fadenpilze, aspergillus flavus, niger u. fumigatus; eurotium repens (u. aspergillus glaucus) und ihre beziehungen zur ... Aspergillus flavus, niger and fumigatus; Eurotium repens (Aspergillus glaucus) and their relationships to otomycosis. Die ...
Thom, C; Church, MB (1921). "Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae and associated species". Amer. J. Bot. 8: 103-126. doi:10.2307/ ... She co-authored the first manual on Aspergillus with Charles Thom and worked with Thom on his treatise on Penicillium. She was ... Margaret Brooks Church (1889-1976) was an American mycologist who specialized in Aspergillus and other fungi involved in food ... and studied other Asian soy fermentations involving the fungus known as Aspergillus oryzae. This research culminated in her ...
Aflatoxin B1 (from Aspergillus flavus mold) rat, oral 480 µg/kg 0.00048 [71]. ...
Other producers of aspergillomarasmine A include Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and ... In addition to Aspergillus versicolor, aspergillomarasmine A is also produced by the ascomycete Pyrenophora teres where it acts ... Aspergillomarasmine A is an polyamino acid naturally produced by the mold Aspergillus versicolor. The substance has been ...
The enzyme can be found in Aspergillus flavus. It is an enzyme in the rutin catabolic pathway. "EC 3.2.1.66 - quercitrinase". ...
The enzyme quercitrinase can be found in Aspergillus flavus. This enzyme hydrolyzes the glycoside quercitrin to release ...
The enzyme quercitrinase can be found in Aspergillus flavus. It is an enzyme in the rutin catabolic pathway. Merck Index, 12th ...
Water Activity and Antifungal Agents on Growth of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus". Journal of Food Science. 48: 778-782 ... Aspergillus flavus, Blastomyces dermatitidus, Cladophialophora bantiana, Histoplasma capsulatum, Mucor sp., Sporothrix ... Infectious fungi known from killer whales include Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Saksenaea vasiformis. Fungal ...
Aspergillus flavus known to have termiticidal activity against O. assmuthi. "An annotated checklist of termites (Isoptera) from ...
The most common pathogenic species are Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxin ... Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus clavatus can cause allergic disease. Some Aspergillus species cause disease on grain ... The spores of Aspergillus fumigatus are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. A. fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen. It can cause ... Aspergillosis is the group of diseases caused by Aspergillus. The symptoms include fever, cough, chest pain or breathlessness. ...
Different Aspergillus strains are capable of making various hydroxypyrazine derivatives. Aspergillus flavus is used to produce ... In 1940 Edwin C. White and Justina H. Hill discovered that a fungal strain of Aspergillus flavus growing in a surface culture ... that aspergillic acid can also be derived from one molecule of L-leucine and one molecule of L-isoleucine in Aspergillus flavus ... most commonly known as an antibiotic and antifungal agent that is derived from certain strains of the fungus Aspergillus flavus ...
The first report on retting of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) by pectin lyase produced by Aspergillus flavus MTCC 7589 was ... "Purification and characterization of an alkaline pectin lyase from Aspergillus flavus". Process Biochem. 43 (5): 547-552. doi: ... Pickersgill R, Jenkins J (1997). "Two crystal structures of pectin lyase A from Aspergillus reveal a pH driven conformational ... a novel pectinolytic enzyme from Aspergillus niger". FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 120 (1-2): 63-68. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994. ...
on growth of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasitus and accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in groundnut' Also, There is an appendix on ... oncomensis and Rhizopus oligosporus reduce the aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus. However, aflatoxin-producing molds ( ... sanitation and hygiene are important to avoid contaminating the culture with bacteria or other fungi like Aspergillus flavus ( ... Aspergillus spp.) are often naturally present on peanut presscake. Furthermore, coconut presscake can harbor the very dangerous ...
He identified three species - Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium rubrum and Penicillium rugulosum. These fungi are known to ...
It has been also isolated from Solanum nigrum fungal endophyte Aspergillus flavus. It is a glycoalkaloid derived from the ...
The cDNA coding for rasburicase was cloned from a strain of Aspergillus flavus. Rasburicase is a tetrameric protein with ...
Ghana is home to a significant number of fungi species including: Aspergillus flavus; Athelia rolfsii; Auricularia auricula- ...
"Hydrolytic enzymes secreted by Paecilomyces lilacinus cultured on sclerotia of Aspergillus flavus" (PDF). Applied Microbiology ...
It was shown to be useful for acute sinopulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus flavus. Birch, Michael (19 September 2015 ... "Pharmacodynamics of the Novel Antifungal Agent F901318 for Acute Sinopulmonary Aspergillosis Caused by Aspergillus flavus". The ... while searching for a new drug for Aspergillus infection. The discovery was formally announced at the Interscience Conference ... 2017). "Pharmacodynamics of the Orotomides against Aspergillus fumigatus: New Opportunities for Treatment of Multidrug- ...
... unlike the closely related Aspergillus flavus.[15] To date, there have been only several reported cases of animals (e.g. ... Kōji-kin (Aspergillus oryzae) spores are another important component of sake. Kōji-kin is an enzyme-secreting fungus.[15] In ... Bamforth (2005) places the probable origin of true sake (which is made from rice, water, and kōji mold (麹, Aspergillus oryzae) ... "Aspergillus oryzae - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved August 8, 2019.. ...
In Kenya, Aspergillus flavus is the most prevalent and has been associated with several acute and chronic aflatoxin outbreaks ... A. flavus was not isolated from soils under sugarcane cultivation. Distribution of the two bacterial species varied across the ... Aspergillus spp. were first isolated from soils before the identification and determination of their aflatoxigenicity. Further ... In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of A. flavus in soils from two agro-ecological regions with contrasting climatic ...
p. 924 Aspergillus flavus Genome Sequencing Project Aspergillus flavus research. ... "Aspergillus flavus". Annual Review of Phytopathology. 49: 107-133. doi:10.1146/annurev-phyto-072910-095221. "Aspergillus ... Aspergillus flavus is a saprotrophic and pathogenic fungus with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is best known for its ... After Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus is the second-leading cause of aspergillosis. Primary infection is caused by the ...
Aspergillus flavus ATCC ® 204304™ Designation: MCV-C#1 Application: Susceptibility testing Antifungal susceptibity testing Ref ... Aspergillus flavus Link (ATCC® 204304™) Strain Designations: MCV-C#1 / Product Format: frozen ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Aspergillus flavus AF36 on cotton consistent with the Experimental Use Permit 69224-EUP-1, which will now allow for application ... Aspergillus flavus AF36.. Aspergillus flavus AF36 is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a tolerance in or on cotton. ... Residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 or its metabolites are likely to be removed from cotton seed oil during this processing. ... Aspergillus flavus AF36; Amendment, Temporary Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance. A Rule by the Environmental ...
Contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link, has severe health and ... Genome-Wide Association Mapping of and Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance in Maize. Crop Science. 55(5): 11 p ... Genome-Wide Association Mapping of and Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance in Maize ... flavus in multilocation, replicated field trials. Results uncovered 107 SNPs associated with aflatoxin accumulation in one or ...
AF2, Aspergillus flavus under investigation (JF683612), Aspergillus flavus laccase (XP_002382290), Ganoderma lucidum laccase ( ... The effect of copper on A. flavus was concentration dependent.. Key words: Aspergillus flavus ; laccase; copper induction; ... Aspergillus flavus laccase is not only constitutive but also inducible under low copper concentrations; spectral and metal ... Aspergillus flavus was isolated from soil and exhibited laccase activity under both constitutive and copper induced conditions ...
... for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 on pistachio when applied/used to reduce aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. ... The exemption from tolerance of Aspergillus flavus AF36, a non-aflatoxin-producing strain of Aspergillus flavus, on cotton was ... for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 on pistachio when applied/used to reduce aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. ... Aspergillus flavus AF36 Use on Pistachio (U.S. EPA Memorandum... Minor correction: company NOF NOF PP1E7830-AF36 proposed use ...
Alteration of cell wall composition leads to amphotericin B resistance in Aspergillus flavus.. Seo K1, Akiyoshi H, Ohnishi Y. ... An amphotericin B (AmB)-resistant mutant was isolated from a wild-type AmB-susceptible strain of Aspergillus flavus by serial ...
S. Krishnan, E. K. Manavathu, and P. H. Chandrasekar, "Aspergillus flavus: an emerging non-fumigatus Aspergillus species of ... "Effect of specific amino acids on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus in defined ... "Control of aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus using RNA silencing technology by targeting ... A. M. Fakhoury and C. P. Woloshuk, "Inhibition of growth of Aspergillus flavus and fungal α-amylases by a lectin-like protein ...
Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important producers of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops, and the effect of water activity ... RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in response to water activity.. Zhang F1, Guo Z2, ... RNA-Seq-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Response to Water Activity ... RNA-Seq-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Response to Water Activity ...
The uniquely mapped reads to A. flavus reference genome in the libraries of af_R and af_S at T2 and T3 were subjected to ... In total, 67.46 Gb of high-quality bases were generated for A. flavus-resistant (af_R) and -susceptible peanut (af_S) at one ( ... To comprehensively understand the molecular mechanism of A. flavus interaction with peanut, RNA-seq was used for global ... flavus mycelia more easily penetrate and produce much more aflatoxin in susceptible than in resistant peanut. Our results serve ...
Aflatoxins are produced by several species of Aspergillus, in particular Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin ... Aspergillus fumigatus still accounts for most cases of aspergillosis, with A. flavus and A. niger being the other more common ... The most important toxigenic Aspergillus species in foods are the aflatoxigenic molds, A. flavus and A. parasiticus, along with ... Aspergillus heads of the anamorphic state. Aspergillus is one of the most important genera in the spoilage of foods and animal ...
Figs in an orchard were inoculated with an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain in two ways by spore injection or by dusting ... Figs in an orchard were inoculated with an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain in two ways by spore injection or by dusting ...
Conservation of structure and function of the aflatoxin regulatory gene aflR from Aspergillus nidulans and A. flavus.. Yu JH1, ... a CX2CX6CX6CX2CX6CX2 zinc binuclear cluster DNA-binding protein that is related to the Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ... In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrated that induced expression of the A. flavus aflR gene in A. nidulans, under ... This result demonstrates that AflR function is conserved between Aspergillus spp. and that aflR expression is sufficient to ...
Aspergillus flavus,/i, and occurs naturally in maize, ,i,Zea mays,/i, L. Growing maize hybrids with genetic resistance to ... The side-needle technique is a widely used inoculation technique: an ,i,A. flavus,/i, conidial suspension is injected ... flavus,/i, into plant whorls at 35 and 49 days after planting. Results showed that although the side-needle technique produced ... flavus,/i, infection or aflatoxin accumulation as a basis to define resistance. ...
In this study, we characterized a novel homolog of the yeast methyltransferase DOT1 in A. flavus, and observed the roles of ... Furthermore, our data revealed that Dot1 is important for colonizing maize seeds in A. flavus. Our research indicates that Dot1 ... dot1 in A. flavus. Deletion of dot1 showed a significant decrease in conidiation, but an increase in sclerotia formation. A ... is involved in fungal development, aflatoxin biosynthesis and fungal virulence in A. flavus, which might provide a potential ...
Aspergillus flavus) - conidiophore (fruiting structure) producing conidia (asexual conidia). Aspergillus flavus is a wide ... It is one of the Aspergillus species which causes aspergillosis, commonly in the tropics. Aspergillosis is a respiratory lung ... The toxins may contaminate stored food (particularly carbohydrates). A. flavus has also been reported to be allergenic and its ... Aspergillus flavus) - conidiophore (fruiting structure) producing conidia (asexual conidia). Aspergillus flavus is a wide ...
Aspergillus flavus co-cultured with the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomalawas examined using several viability stains. Both the ... Hua SST, Baker JL, Flores-Espiritu M. Interactions of saprophytic yeasts with a nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus. Appl Environ ... Fluorescent Viability Stains to Probe the Metabolic Status of Aflatoxigenic Fungus in Dual Culture of Aspergillus flavus and ... The metabolic activity of the aflatoxigenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus co-cultured with the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala ...
Main conclusion Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus ... S1 Aspergillus flavus amy1 RNAi vector diagram. a amy1 nucleotide sequence showing RNAi target region. b Conserved domains in ... Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus and pathogen to several important food and feed crops, including maize. Once the ... RNA interference-based silencing of the alpha-amylase (amy1) gene in Aspergillus flavus decreases fungal growth and aflatoxin ...
In addition, A. flavus isolates that displayed high levels of pectinolytic activity in the plate assay produced high levels of ... Atoxigenic A. flavus isolates 19, 22, K49, AF36 (the latter two are biocontrol agents) and toxigenic AF13 produced copious ... A. flavus appears capable of producing these hydrolytic enzymes irrespective of aflatoxin production. This ability of ... The pectinolytic activity levels of the atoxigenic A. flavus 17 and NRRL 21882 isolates were significantly lower than the other ...
... Flávio ... longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged ... The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, ... A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in ...
The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal Agronomy are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s ...
... flavus system have been established. The two novel regulators of mycotoxins are promising targets for future plant breeding and ... flavus system have been established. The two novel regulators of mycotoxins are promising targets for future plant breeding and ... flavus. Loss of AfRafA not only dramatically suppressed aflatoxin cluster expression, subsequently reducing toxin synthesis ... flavus. Loss of AfRafA not only dramatically suppressed aflatoxin cluster expression, subsequently reducing toxin synthesis ...
Virulence and Cultural Characteristics of Two Aspergillus flavus Strains Pathogenic on Cotton. P. J. Cotty, Research Plant ... Seventy Aspergillus flavus isolates from Arizona desert valleys were sorted into two distinct strains on the basis of ...
  • abstract = "We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. (elsevier.com)
  • The uniquely mapped reads to A. flavus reference genome in the libraries of af_R and af_S at T2 and T3 were subjected to further analysis, with more than 72% of all obtained genes expressed in the eight libraries. (mdpi.com)
  • Quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to Aspergillus flavus and/or aflatoxin production can be quite large and are comprised of thousands of genes, thus making it difficult to determine which one(s) may be most relevant to pursue in breeding for improved resistance. (mdpi.com)
  • Many projects have identified candidate genes for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation or Aspergillus flavus infection and growth in maize using genetic mapping, genomics, transcriptomics and/or proteomics studies. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, the results of antioxidant enzyme activities and the lipid oxidation levels coupled with RNA-Seq data of antioxidant genes indicated that gallic acid may reduce oxidative stress through the glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent systems in A. flavus . (preprints.org)
  • In total, 366 and 87 genes of A. flavus were significantly up- and down- regulated, respectively, when the fungus was treated with resveratrol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes cluster (#54) did not show a significant change when A. flavus was treated with resveratrol, but 23 of the 30 genes in the #54 cluster were down-regulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Warburton ML, Williams WP, Hawkins L, Bridges S, Gresham C, Harper J, Ozkan S, Mylroie JE, Shan X. A Public Platform for the Verification of the Phenotypic Effect of Candidate Genes for Resistance to Aflatoxin Accumulation and Aspergillus flavus Infection in Maize. (mdpi.com)
  • Specifically, A. flavus infection causes ear rot in corn and yellow mold in peanuts either before or after harvest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, the aims of the present study were to (1) determine the ideal storage conditions (including temperature and humidity) for A. oxyphylla to prevent A. flavus infection and (2) to evaluate the impact of mold growth on A. oxyphylla quality. (springeropen.com)
  • Aspergillomarasmine A is an polyamino acid naturally produced by the mold Aspergillus versicolor. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. L. Astoreca, A. M. Dalcero, V. F. Pinto, and G. Vaamonde, "A survey on distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi in poultry feeds," International Journal of Food Microbiology , vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 38-43, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • The current study evaluated in field performances of two atoxigenic strains of A . flavus endemic to Italy in artificially inoculated maize ears and in naturally contaminated maize. (mdpi.com)
  • Interestingly, atoxigenic A. flavus JZ2 and GZ15 effectively degrade AFB1. (usda.gov)
  • Compared to previous techniques, the reported method allows for increased resolution, reduced cost, and greater speed in monitoring the stability of atoxigenic strains, incidences of indel mediated atoxigenicity and the structure of A. flavus populations. (telomerescience.com)
  • The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. (hindawi.com)
  • The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus . (hindawi.com)
  • 1 ). Etest antifungal susceptibility testing (bioMérieux, https://www.biomerieux.com ) showed that the A. flavus strain was sensitive to voriconazole (MIC 0.380 mg/L) and resistant to amphotericin B (MIC 12 mg/L). We stopped administration of auricular drops, continued intravenous ceftazidime (1.5 g/d) and oral ciprofloxacin (1.5 g/d), and started voriconazole therapy (6 mg/kg/12 h intravenously, followed by 400 mg/d orally). (cdc.gov)
  • The side-needle technique is a widely used inoculation technique: an A. flavus conidial suspension is injected underneath the husks into the side of the ear. (hindawi.com)
  • Supplementary Table S1 (B) List of proteins identified in Aspergillus flavus grown on Sabouraud dextrose media for 7 h (germinating conidial stage). (springer.com)
  • Of these tested strains, volatiles produced by B. megaterium KU143 and P. protegens AS15 markedly inhibited mycelial growth, sporulation, and conidial germination of A. flavus on agar medium and suppressed the fungal populations in rice grains. (bvsalud.org)
  • A. M. Fakhoury and C. P. Woloshuk, "Inhibition of growth of Aspergillus flavus and fungal α -amylases by a lectin-like protein from Lablab purpureus ," Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions , vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 955-961, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • To comprehensively understand the molecular mechanism of A. flavus interaction with peanut, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of A. flavus during interaction with resistant and susceptible peanut genotypes. (mdpi.com)
  • thus, in order to gain insight into A. flavus molecular adaptation while germination, protein profile of A. flavus was obtained. (springer.com)
  • To understand the molecular mechanism of the A. flavus response to resveratrol treatment, the high-throughput paired-end RNA-Seq was applied to analyze the transcriptomic profiles of A. flavus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • For uncovering the molecular determinants that drive A. flavus in challenging oxidative stress conditions, we have evaluated a wide spectrum of several different parameters, ranging from metabolic (ROS and oxylipin profile) to transcriptional analysis (RNA-seq). (sequentiabiotech.com)
  • Aspergillus : molecular biology and genomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. flavus is considered to be a weak pathogen, and most of the early inoculation techniques focused on wounding kernel and cob tissue [ 21 - 26 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus and pathogen to several important food and feed crops, including maize. (springer.com)
  • While A. flavus displayed de novo phenotypic alterations, namely decreased saprobic capacity, analysis of genotypic variation in Chapter 3 signified a host-imposed bottleneck on the pathogen population, emphasizing the host's role in shaping pathogen population structure. (brocku.ca)
  • Described in Chapter 4, the serial passage scheme enabled the isolation of an A. flavus cysteine/methionine auxotroph with characteristics reminiscent of an obligate insect pathogen, suggesting that lost biosynthetic capacity may restrict host range based on nutrient availability and provide selection pressure for further evolution. (brocku.ca)
  • Hua SST, Baker JL, Flores-Espiritu M. Interactions of saprophytic yeasts with a nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus . (springer.com)
  • Each of the inbred parents of the testcrossed hybrids was genotyped by sequencing to generate 261,184 robust single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and the entire panel was phenotyped for aflatoxin accumulation following inoculation with A. flavus in multilocation, replicated field trials. (usda.gov)
  • Results showed that although the side-needle technique produced higher levels of aflatoxin accumulation, differences in A. flavus biomass produced by the two inoculation techniques were not significant. (hindawi.com)
  • J. E. Mellon, M. K. Dowd, and P. J. Cotty, "Substrate utilization by Aspergillus flavus in inoculated whole corn kernels and isolated tissues," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 2351-2357, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • In this investigation, the side-needle technique was compared with a second inoculation method that involved dispensing wheat kernels infected with A. flavus into plant whorls at 35 and 49 days after planting. (hindawi.com)
  • These results indicate that the PTS1 pathway mediated by AflPex5 serves as an important role in the development, metabolism, and pathogenesis of A. flavus. (aspergillus.org.uk)