A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.
Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
A carcinogenic mycotoxin produced in high yields by strains of the common molds, Aspergillus versicolor, A. nidulans, and an unidentified species of Bipolaris. It causes necrosis of the liver and kidney and has an inhibitory effect on orotic acid incorporation into nuclear RNA.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA characterized by the presence of well defined peridia and cleistothecial asci. Notable anamorphs (mitosporic forms) of Eurotiales include PENICILLIUM and ASPERGILLUS.
Anethum graveolens L. is a plant species of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are considered as a spice (SPICES).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Many species of this genus, including the medicinal C. senna and C. angustifolia, have been reclassified into the Senna genus (SENNA PLANT) and some to CHAMAECRISTA.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Inhibition of plant-pathogenic fungi by a corn trypsin inhibitor overexpressed in Escherichia coli. (1/348)

The cDNA of a 14-kDa trypsin inhibitor (TI) from corn was subcloned into an Escherichia coli overexpression vector. The overexpressed TI was purified based on its insolubility in urea and then refolded into the active form in vitro. This recombinant TI inhibited both conidium germination and hyphal growth of all nine plant pathogenic fungi studied, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Fusarium moniliforme. The calculated 50% inhibitory concentration of TI for conidium germination ranged from 70 to more than 300 microgram/ml, and that for fungal growth ranged from 33 to 124 microgram/ml depending on the fungal species. It also inhibited A. flavus and F. moniliforme simultaneously when they were tested together. The results suggest that the corn 14-kDa TI may function in host resistance against a variety of fungal pathogens of crops.  (+info)

Production of specific monoclonal antibodies to Aspergillus species and their use in immunohistochemical identification of aspergillosis. (2/348)

Two anti-Aspergillus murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated 164G and 611F, have been produced; both specifically recognize cytoplasmic antigens of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs can identify Aspergillus spp. both in frozen sections by immunofluorescence and in paraffin-embedded clinical specimens by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining.  (+info)

Regional differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by soil isolates of aspergillus flavus along a transect within the United States. (3/348)

Soil isolates of Aspergillus flavus from a transect extending from eastern New Mexico through Georgia to eastern Virginia were examined for production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid in a liquid medium. Peanut fields from major peanut-growing regions (western Texas; central Texas; Georgia and Alabama; and Virginia and North Carolina) were sampled, and fields with other crops were sampled in regions where peanuts are not commonly grown. The A. flavus isolates were identified as members of either the L strain (n = 774), which produces sclerotia that are >400 micrometer in diameter, or the S strain (n = 309), which produces numerous small sclerotia that are <400 micrometer in diameter. The S-strain isolates generally produced high levels of aflatoxin B1, whereas the L-strain isolates were more variable in aflatoxin production; variation in cyclopiazonic acid production also was greater in the L strain than in the S strain. There was a positive correlation between aflatoxin B1 production and cyclopiazonic acid production in both strains, although 12% of the L-strain isolates produced only cyclopiazonic acid. Significant differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by the L-strain isolates were detected among regions. In the western half of Texas and the peanut-growing region of Georgia and Alabama, 62 to 94% of the isolates produced >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml. The percentages of isolates producing >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml ranged from 0 to 52% in the remaining regions of the transect; other isolates were often nonaflatoxigenic. A total of 53 of the 126 L-strain isolates that did not produce aflatoxin B1 or cyclopiazonic acid were placed in 17 vegetative compatibility groups. Several of these groups contained isolates from widely separated regions of the transect.  (+info)

Divergence of West African and North American communities of Aspergillus section Flavi. (4/348)

West African Aspergillus flavus S isolates differed from North American isolates. Both produced aflatoxin B1. However, 40 and 100% of West African isolates also produced aflatoxin G1 in NH4 medium and urea medium, respectively. No North American S strain isolate produced aflatoxin G1. This geographical and physiological divergence may influence aflatoxin management.  (+info)

Interactions of saprophytic yeasts with a nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus. (5/348)

The nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus has a defective norsolorinic acid reductase, and thus the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway is blocked, resulting in the accumulation of norsolorinic acid, a bright red-orange pigment. We developed a visual agar plate assay to monitor yeast strains for their ability to inhibit aflatoxin production by visually scoring the accumulation of this pigment of the nor mutant. We identified yeast strains that reduced the red-orange pigment accumulation in the nor mutant. These yeasts also reduced aflatoxin accumulation by a toxigenic strain of A. flavus. These yeasts may be useful for reducing aflatoxin contamination of food commodities.  (+info)

Aspirochlorine: a highly selective and potent inhibitor of fungal protein synthesis. (6/348)

Aspirochlorine, a compound belonging to the gliotoxin family of compounds, exhibits antifungal and antibacterial activity but its mechanism of action remains unknown. In this study we show that aspirochlorine inhibits the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans by acting on fungal protein synthesis. The compound selectively inhibits cell-free protein synthesis when using a C. albicans system, but does not inhibit this synthesis in vitro when tested with bacterial and mammalian systems. Moreover, in intact C. albicans cells, aspirochlorine inhibits protein synthesis but does not inhibit chitin, DNA or glucan synthesis though at high concentrations some inhibition of RNA synthesis is observed. By contrast, in intact Bacillus subtilis cells, aspirochlorine did not inhibit protein, DNA, or cell wall synthesis though it significantly inhibited RNA synthesis. Furthermore, using heterologous systems (mammalian ribosomes and C. albicans cytosolic factors) the data suggest that the inhibitory action of aspirochlorine is not exerted through a direct interaction with C. albicans EF-1 or EF-2.  (+info)

Sporogenic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on development of Aspergillus spp. (7/348)

Aspergillus spp. are frequently occurring seed-colonizing fungi that complete their disease cycles through the development of asexual spores, which function as inocula, and through the formation of cleistothecia and sclerotia. We found that development of all three of these structures in Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus parasiticus is affected by linoleic acid and light. The specific morphological effects of linoleic acid include induction of precocious and increased asexual spore development in A. flavus and A. parasiticus strains and altered sclerotium production in some A. flavus strains in which sclerotium production decreases in the light but increases in the dark. In A. nidulans, both asexual spore production and sexual spore production were altered by linoleic acid. Spore development was induced in all three species by hydroperoxylinoleic acids, which are linoleic acid derivatives that are produced during fungal colonization of seeds. The sporogenic effects of these linoleic compounds on A. nidulans are similar to the sporogenic effects of A. nidulans psi factor, an endogenous mixture of hydroxylinoleic acid moieties. Light treatments also significantly increased asexual spore production in all three species. The sporogenic effects of light, linoleic acid, and linoleic acid derivatives on A. nidulans required an intact veA gene. The sporogenic effects of light and linoleic acid on Aspergillus spp., as well as members of other fungal genera, suggest that these factors may be significant environmental signals for fungal development.  (+info)

A highly conserved sequence is a novel gene involved in de novo vitamin B6 biosynthesis. (8/348)

The Cercospora nicotianae SOR1 (singlet oxygen resistance) gene was identified previously as a gene involved in resistance of this fungus to singlet-oxygen-generating phototoxins. Although homologues to SOR1 occur in organisms in four kingdoms and encode one of the most highly conserved proteins yet identified, the precise function of this protein has, until now, remained unknown. We show that SOR1 is essential in pyridoxine (vitamin B6) synthesis in C. nicotianae and Aspergillus flavus, although it shows no homology to previously identified pyridoxine synthesis genes identified in Escherichia coli. Sequence database analysis demonstrated that organisms encode either SOR1 or E. coli pyridoxine biosynthesis genes, but not both, suggesting that there are two divergent pathways for de novo pyridoxine biosynthesis in nature. Pathway divergence appears to have occurred during the evolution of the eubacteria. We also present data showing that pyridoxine quenches singlet oxygen at a rate comparable to that of vitamins C and E, two of the most highly efficient biological antioxidants, suggesting a previously unknown role for pyridoxine in active oxygen resistance.  (+info)

Figs in an orchard were inoculated with an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain in two ways by spore injection or by dusting at three maturation stages: firm ripe, shrivelled, and dried. Fruits were individually examined for fungal development and
Light-induced delayed luminescence (DL) of living organisms contains information on the quality of the living state of these organisms. Employing a LS-55 Luminescence Spectrometer, the changes of DL spectra of rice with Aspergillus flavus treating different time were observed. Rice with Aspergillus flavus treatment for a shorter time had a stronger intensity of DL. The polluted degree of Aspergillus showed a negative correlation with the intensity of DL. Comparing with the intensity of DL, we found that the concentration of aflatoxin in different polluted degree rice had negative correlation with the intensity of DL. We believe DL technique may be helpful in elaborating a fast, holistic, and non-invasive method for the rapid evaluation the polluted degree of rice by Aspergillus flavus.. © 2005 Chinese Optics Letters. PDF Article ...
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a widely cultivated cereal in Serbia, with average production of approximately 4.3 t ha−1 in the period from 2015 to 2017 (Statistical Yearbook оf the Republic of Serbia, 2018). The main growing area for wheat production in Serbia is Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia), where average total production of wheat for the mentioned three-year period amounted to 1 526 425 t. In the recent years, an ancient wheat subspecies - spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. Thell) - has received growing production interest due to its superior nutritional and pro-health properties.. According to IARC classification, aflatoxins are in the first group as carcinogen compounds for humans and animals (IARC, 2002). Aspergillus flavus and associated toxins have occurred mainly on maize in temperate regions of Serbia when the weather conditions were dry and warm (Kos et al. , 2013; Janıć-Hajnal et al., 2017). However, a high incidence of A. flavus (45.8%) on wheat was recorded ...
Many projects have identified candidate genes for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation or Aspergillus flavus infection and growth in maize using genetic mapping, genomics, transcriptomics and/or proteomics studies. However, only a small percentage of these candidates have been validated in field conditions, and their relative contribution to resistance, if any, is unknown. This study presents a consolidated list of candidate genes identified in past studies or in-house studies, with descriptive data including genetic location, gene annotation, known protein identifiers, and associated pathway information, if known. A candidate gene pipeline to test the phenotypic effect of any maize DNA sequence on aflatoxin accumulation resistance was used in this study to determine any measurable effect on polymorphisms within or linked to the candidate gene sequences, and the results are published here.
Aspergillus flavus ATCC ® 204304™ Designation: MCV-C#1 Application: Susceptibility testing Antifungal susceptibity testing Ref Ref Biomedical Research and Development Material Reference strain for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI)-developed Antifungal Susceptibility Testing
Oilseed crops such as maize and peanut are staple food crops which are vital for global food security. The contamination of these crops with carcinogenic aflatoxins during infection by Aspergillus flavus under drought stress conditions is a serious threat to the safety of these commodities. In order to better understand the role of aflatoxin production in the biology of this pathogen under environmental stress, a collaborative transcriptome project was undertaken to examine the transcriptional responses of toxigenic and atoxigenic isolates of A. flavus to oxidative stress. Selected isolates were cultured in aflatoxin production-conducive and non-conducive media amended with varying levels of H2O2. Isolates which possessed greater tolerance to H2O2 stress and aflatoxin production capability exhibited fewer differentially expressed genes (DEGs) than those which possessed less tolerance and lower aflatoxin production. Primary metabolic mechanisms were also stimulated in response to stress along ...
Interpretive Summary: Aspergillus flavus (Link) accumulates carcinogenic aflatoxins in peanuts, mainly affecting immature kernels during drought. A. flavus can produce enzymes (laccases) able to degrade the mechanism of defense of peanut plants (phytoalexins). Though the genome of A. flavus is published, nothing is known about the possible role of A. flavus laccases on pathogenicity. In this work we used molecular tools (real-time PCR) to determine the regulation of A. flavus laccases in the presence of peanut kernels, peanut hulls and drought (low water potential). The fungal biomass was monitored as well as the phytoalexin content in peanut kernels. Some phytoalexins were identified as possible targets of A. flavus laccases. The significant up-regulation of expression of these enzymes under drought and in presence of sucrose could explain in part the higher incidence of carcinogenic aflatoxins in immature peanuts under drought conditions Technical Abstract: Aspergillus flavus (Link) ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Green mould (Aspergillus flavus) - conidiophore (fruiting structure) producing conidia (asexual conidia). Aspergillus flavus is a wide spread saprophyte found in soil, seeds, fruits and decaying vegetation. It is also found indoors on water damaged carpets and building materials. It is one of the Aspergillus species which causes aspergillosis, commonly in the tropics. Aspergillosis is a respiratory lung infection in people with weakened lungs or that are immune deficient (especially AIDS patients). This fungus produces aflatoxin, a group of virulent mycotoxins that are known animal carcinogens. These mycotoxins are can induce liver cancer in humans. The toxins may contaminate stored food (particularly carbohydrates). A. flavus has also been reported to be allergenic and its presence is associated with asthma. Magnification: x220 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0238
Cyclopiazonic acid (α-cyclopiazonic acid, α-CPA) is an indole-hydrindane-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by various fungal species, including the notorious food and feed contaminant Aspergillus flavus. Despite its discovery in A. flavus cultures approximately 40 years ago, its contribution to the A. flavus mycotoxin burden is consistently minimized by our focus on the more potent carcinogenic aflatoxins also produced by this fungus. Here, we report the screening and identification of several CPA-type alkaloids not previously found in A. flavus cultures. Our identifications of these CPA-type alkaloids are based on a dereplication strategy involving accurate mass high resolution mass spectrometry data and a careful study of the α-CPA fragmentation pattern. In total, 22 CPA-type alkaloids were identified in extracts from the A. flavus strains examined. Of these metabolites, 13 have been previously reported in other fungi, though this is the first report of their existence in A. flavus. Two of our
Resveratrol has been reported as a natural phytoalexin that inhibits infection or the growth of certain fungi including Aspergillus flavus. Our previous research revealed that aflatoxin production in A. flavus was reduced in medium with resveratrol. To understand the molecular mechanism of the A. flavus response to resveratrol treatment, the high-throughput paired-end RNA-Seq was applied to analyze the transcriptomic profiles of A. flavus. In total, 366 and 87 genes of A. flavus were significantly up- and down- regulated, respectively, when the fungus was treated with resveratrol. Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis revealed that 48 significantly differentially expressed genes were involved in 6 different terms. Most genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes cluster (#54) did not show a significant change when A. flavus was treated with resveratrol, but 23 of the 30 genes in the #54 cluster were down-regulated. The transcription of aflA and aflB was significantly suppressed under
The enzyme α-L-rhamnosidase [E.C.3.2.1.40] specifically cleaves terminal α-L-rhamnose from a large number of natural products containing glycosides. This property provides this enzyme an important biotechnological application including removal of bitterness from citrus fruit juices, enhancement of grape wine aroma, removal of hesperidin crystals from orange juices, tomato pulp digestion and also help in conversion of clinical important steroids. In this study, production of α-L-rhamnosidase in submerged state fermentation from Aspergillus flavus was optimized using Taguchi DOE methodology. This statistical method provide the study of interaction of a large number of factors at different levels settings with a small number of experimental runs which leads to considerable economy in time and cost for the process optimization. The objective of this research was to determine the significant parameters for the production of α-L-rhamnosidase by Aspergillus flavus in submerged
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen and may produce aflatoxins in maize, one of the most important crops in Argentina. A promising strategy to reduce aflatoxin accumulation is the biological control based on competitive exclusion. In order to select potential biocontrol agents among isolates from the maize growing region in Argentina, a total of 512 A. flavus strains were isolated from ...
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen and may produce aflatoxins in maize, one of the most important crops in Argentina. A promising strategy to reduce aflatoxin accumulation is the biological control based on competitive exclusion. In order to select potential biocontrol agents among isolates from the maize growing region in Argentina, a total of 512 A. flavus strains were isolated from ...
Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins, and as a result, threaten human health, food security and farmers income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the effectiveness of atoxigenic isolates in mitigating aflatoxin contamination. However, such information has not been used to facilitate selection and deployment of atoxigenic isolates. A total of 35 isolates of A. flavus isolated from maize samples collected from three agroecological zones of Nigeria were used in this study. Ecophysiological characteristics, distribution and genetic diversity of the isolates were determined to identify vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). The generated data were used to inform selection and deployment of native atoxigenic isolates to mitigate aflatoxin contamination in maize. In co-inoculation with toxigenic isolates, atoxigenic isolates reduced aflatoxin ...
Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The Corn Host Plant Resistance Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Mississippi State University is conducting a number of different types of studies to determine the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation in maize with the goal of developing resistant maize cell lines. Computational support for this research has provided scientists with improved methods for data access and retrieval, new methods to analyze the effects of environmental factors on aflatoxin accumulation in different cell lines, and tools to improve protein identification rates in proteomics studies and to support efficient and informative annotation of the proteome. An integrated database system with data management, data mining, and data modeling capabilities has been developed that provides a comprehensive view of the maize genetics research at MSU. The database archives raw data, derived data and metadata collected or generated by the ...
Understanding the role of phytohormone auxin in defense responses is one of the vital tools for plant breeders to develop maize germplasm lines that exhibit high resistance to Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin accumulation. Besides its critical role in different developmental processes throughout the life cycle of plants, auxin is also involved in the network of plant-pathogen interaction as demonstrated in previous studies. However, the actual mechanism for the auxin signaling pathway leading to resistance is unknown. Therefore, the critical gap in the knowledge base is a lack of understanding of the role of auxin signaling in pathogen resistance in maize. Continuation of this gap is an important problem because fungal resistance is a highly quantitative trait and breeding for resistance is a challenge. A complete understanding of the auxin mechanism in resistance could lead the production of corn hybrids with resistance to A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. The focus of this ...
per fungal biomass dry weight/colony size has rarely been reported. For this reason, the objective of the present study was to model the kinetics of mycotoxin production under the assumption of existing both no-growth-associated and growth-associated production. Aspergillus flavus was chosen as a model mycotoxigenic microorganism, and it was grown in maize agar medium and maize grain at 0.90 and 0.99 aw at 25 °C. A significant positive correlation (p , 0.05) was observed among the biomass responses (colony radius and biomass dry weight) in agar medium and colony radius in maize at both aw levels assayed. The Luedeking-Piret model was used to model AFB1 production and reasonable percentages of variability were explained. Moreover, AFB1 production was in general slightly better predicted through colony area. As conclusion, aflatoxin production may follow a mixed-growth associated trend, confirming that toxin formation does not present a clear delay in relation to growth under certain conditions ...
LOINC Code 51529-6 Mold Allergen Mix 4 (Aspergillus fumigatus+Aspergillus niger+Aspergillus terreus+Aspergillus flavus) IgE Ab [Presence] in Serum by Multidisk
Primary laryngeal aspergillosis due to Aspergillus flavus in an elderly immunocompetent patient- a rare presentation-AGEMS-Print ISSN No:-2348-7348 Online ISSN No:-2348-7240Article DOI No:-10.18231,Annals of Geriatric Education and Medical Sciences-IP Innovative Publication Pvt Limited, Medical Journals Publication,
BioAssay record AID 1094518 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus flavus at 500 ppm after 72 to 96 hr by disk diffusion method.
DOBOLYI Cs, F SEBŐK, J VARGA, S KOCSUBÉ, G SZIGETI, N BARANYI, Á SZÉCSI, B TÓTH, M VARGA, B KRISZT, S SZOBOSZLAY, C KRIFATON, J KUKOLYA: Occurence of Aflatoxin producing Aspergillus flavus isolates in maize kernel in Hungary, ACTA ALIMENTARIA HUNGARICA 42: (3) pp. 451-459. pp. 451-459 ...
The genus |em|Aspergillus|/em| contains diverse species and the identification is complicated. Vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and molecular mechanisms were deployed to study the species. The study was randomly conducted in four counties in Kenya based on the history of aflatoxicosis and maize cultivation. Thirty-seven |em|Aspergillus flavus|/em| isolates from Nandi, Kisumu, Homa Bay and Makueni were characterized to determine their taxonomic status based on their VCGs and genotypes. A phylogenetic analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of the isolates investigated revealed ITS primers discriminating some of the |em|A. flavus|/em| isolates as 100% sequence identity to the |em|RefSeq.|/em| Nit mutants complementation test revealed strong heterokaryon incompatibility between isolates of Nandi region (67%) and Makueni (33%). The trend based on VCGs and molecular findings showed high incidence of toxigenic |em|A. flavus|/em| in Makueni, which could be the reason why the region frequently experiences
These images dont show differences that distinguish A. flavus and A. parasiticus. An oil immersion magnification of the spores may be useful, but the aflatoxin profile is the best information to determine species.. Was this fungus isolated from a person with an Aspergillosis infection?. Only about 50% of A. flavus isolates have been found to make aflatoxin while nearly all A. parasiticus isolates have been found to make aflatoxins. ...
Aflatoxins are naturally-occurring mycotoxins produced by the fungi species Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are a major concern to the dairy and pig industries.
Aflatoxins are naturally-occurring mycotoxins produced by the fungi species Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are a major concern to the dairy and pig industries.
Moraes, A. M. L., M. Corrado, V. L. Holanda, G. L. Costa, M. Ziccardi, R. de Lourenço-de-Oliveira & P. C. Oliveira. Aspergillus from Brazilian mosquitoes - I. Genera Aedes and Culex from Rio de Janiero State, Mycotaxon 78: 413-422. 2001.. ABSTRACT: As part of an ongoing survey of potential biological control fungi from insects in Brazil. aspergilli were isolated from 625 mosquitoes belonging to 17 species in the genera Aedes and Culex. Two hundred and fifteen isolates belonging to 17 Aspergillus species were found. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nidulans were the most frequently isolated species. Two other species, Aspoergillus fischerianus and Aspergillus heteromorphus were new records for insects. The macro- and microcharacteristics of the Brazilian isolates are compared to those in previously published descriptions. The habitat and geographical distribution of these fungi in Brazil is reviewed.. KEYWORDS: biological control, taxonomy, entomogenous fungi. NOMENCLATURAL ...
زعفران از با ارزش‌ترین محصولات دارویی استان‌های خراسان-رضوی و جنوبی است که در تمام مراحل برداشت، انتقال و انبارداری ممکن است به گونه‌های مختلف قارچ Aspergillus آلوده گردد. یکی از توکسین-های ناشی از این آلودگی، آفلاتوکسینB1 است. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی تولید این توکسین توسط قارچ Aspergillus flavus در مراحل مختلف برداشت، انتقال و انبارداری زعفران صورت گرفت. بافت‌های خشک و مرطوب زعفران و بافت‌های برنج آغشته شده به عصاره زعفران، با A. flavusتلقیح گردیده و تولید آفلاتوکسین در آن‌ها به روش کروماتوگرافی TLC بررسی گردید. قارچ آسپرژیلوس توانست در شرایط مختلف این پژوهش، تمام
Background and Objective: Glucoamylase are inverting exo-acting starch hydrolases releasing β-glucose from the non-reducing ends and are used in the manufacture of glucose, fructose syrups and other industrial purposes. The purpose of the study was to optimize the preferable environmental condition for the production of glucoamylase and its characterization from Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) NSH9. Methodology: The effects of various parameters like carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, pH, incubation period and other supplements were investigated for the production of glucoamylase. One-way ANOVA and independent samples t-test were used to analyze the data. Results: The maximum production of glucoamylase was observed at 25°C with initial pH 5.0 after 5 days of incubation. Depending on the type and amount of carbon sources, 6% soluble starch was considered as best for the glucoamylase production followed 2% raw sago starch. Yeast extract was considered the best as organic and urea was as ...
B. subtilis asustab risosfääri ja kuna on leitud, et ta soodustab taimekasvu, on tema spoore lisatud bioväetiste koostisesse, kuid on kasutusel ka biofungitsiidina ja bakteriaalsete taimehaiguste vastu.[9][10] Näiteks, suudavad mõned B. subtilise tüved peatada aflatoksiini tootvate ning maapähkleid ja maisi koloniseerivate kerahallikute Aspergillus flavus ja Aspergillus parasiticus kasvu ning isegi inhibeerida aflatoksiini tootmist.[11]. Kahjuritõrjes on olulisel kohal putukate (peamiselt liblikaliste, kuid ka mardikaliste, kahetiivaliste ja kiletiivaliste) patogeen B. thuringiensis, mis toodab spooride moodustamise ajal protoksiinikristalle ehk Cry-valke, mis putuka soolestikus lagunevad δ-endotoksiiniks (tuntud ka Bt-toksiini nime all). Toksiin hävitab putukavastse kõhtu sattudes tema soolestiku, mistõttu putukas hukkub. Toksiin on biolagunev ning selgroogsetele ja taimedele ohutu, seetõttu kasutatakse seda tüve laialdaselt bioloogilise pestitsiidina.[12] Insektitsiidseid ...
Aflatoxicosis in Poultry Aflatoxins are the most commonly occurring and economically important mycotoxins, produced largely by a fungi called Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxicosis is associated with grains and other feed sources such as maize, soyabeans, peanuts and millet.
Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, Aspergillus Flavus, Production, Isoflavones, Power, Conidia, Gene, Genes, Fungus, Proteins, Concentrations, Water, Anthocyanin, Antioxidant Effects, Color, Genotypes, Hydroxyl, Hydroxyl Radical, Phenol
Aspergillus flavus) will produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, zearaleone, fumonisin, ochratoxin, etc of which aflatoxin B1 is probably the most toxic. , 1995). , 1994). Levels as low as 20 ppm of fumonisin can be toxic to shrimps. Antinutritional Factors (ANF) from Vegetable Ingredients Antinutritional factors (ANF) in vegetable ingredients are rather complex as there is a vast array of toxic substances (Tacon, 1985, 1987). Insoluble fibres, soluble fibres, enzyme inhibitors, saponins, lectins, tennins, phytic acid and gossypol are the most important anti-inhibitors factors and are transmitted via the feed (Krogdahl, 1989). Then suitable quality agricultural lime are added according to soil acidity. Five tons per ha of chicken manure and 35 kg per ha of 14-14-14 (NPK) are added subsequently. The prepared area is covered with a 5 cm thickness of rice straw. Cuttings are then planted at 30 cm intervals. (iv) Poisoning Predators and Pests Before shrimp PL/juveniles are stocked, eggs and larvae of ...
Interestingly, the ethyl acetate extract was even more effective at destroying the bacteria than the drug chloramphenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat several infections, including infections of the respiratory tract, brain, eye and ear.. Next, the research team turned their attention to the effects of the different extracts on fungus, including Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigates.. As with the bacteria, the ethyl acetate extract once again came out on top as the most potent antifungal. Yet again, the chloroform extract had only a mild effect against the fungi, whereas the ethyl acetates effects were comparable to the chemical medicine nystatin, an antifungal medication that prevents fungus growing on the skin, and is often used in the treatment of oral thrush.. The research team concluded that the ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest antimicrobial properties, and as such should be investigated further. They also indicated their belief that phenolic and flavonoid ...
ID B8N000_ASPFN Unreviewed; 499 AA. AC B8N000; DT 03-MAR-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 03-MAR-2009, sequence version 1. DT 05-JUL-2017, entry version 55. DE RecName: Full=Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP] {ECO:0000256,PIRNR:PIRNR000108}; DE EC=1.1.1.42 {ECO:0000256,PIRNR:PIRNR000108}; GN ORFNames=AFLA_086400 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EED57942.1}; OS Aspergillus flavus (strain ATCC 200026 / FGSC A1120 / NRRL 3357 / JCM OS 12722 / SRRC 167). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; Eurotiomycetes; OC Eurotiomycetidae; Eurotiales; Aspergillaceae; Aspergillus. OX NCBI_TaxID=332952 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EED57942.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001875}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EED57942.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001875} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC 200026 / FGSC A1120 / NRRL 3357 / JCM 12722 / SRRC 167 RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001875}; RX PubMed=25883274; DOI=10.1128/genomeA.00168-15; RA Nierman W.C., Yu J., Fedorova-Abrams N.D., Losada L., ...
When seven immunocompromised patients developed invasive aspergillosis during construction at a hospital, new methods were performed to compare fungal isolates and a case-control study was conducted to determine risks for infection. Typing of Aspergillus flavus with the use of restriction endonuclease analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism using random amplified polymorphic DNA reactions to generate DNA probes revealed different patterns between isolates from two patients and a similar pattern among those from one patient, a health care worker, and an environmental source.… Read more. ...
The polysaccharide of peach gum, prepared by a partial acid hydrolysis, was degraded by a mixture of extracellular glacanohydrolases of Aspergillus flavus. This way obtained polysaccharide differed from the original one especially by a higher content of D-mannose and a lower content of D-galactose bound by (1 3) glycosidic bonds. The obtained results are discussed from the standpoint of composition of the main and side chains of the native polysaccharide.. ...
[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/IXXXX/I-5101-1.pdf]Ferritin Conjugated Limax flavus
الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 1; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 5-7; أشعه شرجية لينه: 18 - 21; فقرات: 36 - 37. Distal half of anterior edge of pectoral spine serrated; body depth at anus 14.3-17.3% SL; dorsal fin without black margin; eye diameter 27.4-34.9% HL; and length of adipose-fin base 10.6-14.4% SL. ...
Espinhos dorsais (total): 1; Raios dorsais moles (total): 5-7; Raios anais moles: 18 - 21; Vértebras: 36 - 37. Distal half of anterior edge of pectoral spine serrated; body depth at anus 14.3-17.3% SL; dorsal fin without black margin; eye diameter 27.4-34.9% HL; and length of adipose-fin base 10.6-14.4% SL. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus in a child. T2 - A rare complication after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. AU - Beluffi, Giampiero. AU - Bernardo, Maria Ester. AU - Meloni, Giulia. AU - Spinazzola, Angelo. AU - Locatelli, Franco. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI.. AB - We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI.. KW - Aspergillus. KW - Child. KW - Complication. KW - ...
Zea mays L. is one of the worlds most important and widely grown crops and is susceptible to a wide range of plant pathogens. One fungal pathogen of particular concern is Aspergillus flavus Link, which is capable of producing the secondary metabolite aflatoxin. Aflatoxin poses serious health concerns when consumed by humans and animals and when consumed in large doses can lead to abdominal pain, liver damage, and death. While regulated in the United States, many underdeveloped countries do not have the resources to monitor aflatoxin accumulation in maize and, thus, developing low aflatoxin accumulation commercial maize lines would be of great benefit. The objective of this project was to identify genotypic and phenotypic predictors of low aflatoxin accumulation that could help maize breeders develop a low aflatoxin accumulating line. The results of this work reveal the potential impact the maternal parental plant has on low aflatoxin accumulation through the movement of carbohydrates into ...
Zea mays L. is one of the worlds most important and widely grown crops and is susceptible to a wide range of plant pathogens. One fungal pathogen of particular concern is Aspergillus flavus Link, which is capable of producing the secondary metabolite aflatoxin. Aflatoxin poses serious health concerns when consumed by humans and animals and when consumed in large doses can lead to abdominal pain, liver damage, and death. While regulated in the United States, many underdeveloped countries do not have the resources to monitor aflatoxin accumulation in maize and, thus, developing low aflatoxin accumulation commercial maize lines would be of great benefit. The objective of this project was to identify genotypic and phenotypic predictors of low aflatoxin accumulation that could help maize breeders develop a low aflatoxin accumulating line. The results of this work reveal the potential impact the maternal parental plant has on low aflatoxin accumulation through the movement of carbohydrates into ...
The effect of cycling temperatures on production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus (V3734-10) when grown upon various substrates was studied. The parameters of temperature and time were selected to simulate environmental conditions in Oregon during harvest of filberts and walnuts. The heat input required for aflatoxin synthesis in terms of degree hours per day were calculated and may be used as an index to predict potential danger of aflatoxin contamination. Conditions which generated less than 208 hours per day did not receive sufficient heat to induce growth and metabolism. When heat input ranged between 208 and 270 hours per day, growth and metabolism occurred with the development of a yellow pigment. There was not sufficient heat input, however, to induce the idiophase, sporulation and subsequent aflatoxin synthesis. Above 270 hours per day the culture entered the idiophase, sporulation occurred and aflatoxin was produced. The heat requirements for aflatoxin production was compared to the ...
Considerable progress has been achieved in reducing aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products [47-52] since the discovery that aflatoxin is extremely toxic to humans and animals [2, 53]. Many inhibitors [9, 54] have been demonstrated to have an inhibitory effect on aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. flavus. Among them, plant-derived metabolites are of special interest. Non-host plant metabolites, such as onion, garlic extracts, eugenol [55-57], khellin, visnagin [58], caffeine, and piperlongumine [59] inhibit A. flavus growth and/or aflatoxin production. At the same time, host plant-derived metabolites including luteolin [60], eriodictyol [61], and tanning acids [62] also inhibit A. flavus development and/or aflatoxin production. However, most of these compounds can hardly be applied in practice because their biosynthesis pathway and the related biochemical steps are not well understood.. Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin, could protect plants from fungal infection and improve the defense ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aspergillus colonization and aflatoxin contamination in peanut genotypes with reduced linoleic acid composition. AU - Holbrook, C. Corley. AU - Wilson, David M.. AU - Matheron, Michael E. AU - Hunter, John E.. AU - Knauft, David A.. AU - Gorbet, Daniel W.. PY - 2000/2. Y1 - 2000/2. N2 - Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus can contaminate several agricultural crops with the toxic fungal metabolite aflatoxin. Previous research has indicated that resistance may be conferred by altering the fatty acid composition of these crops. Recently, peanut breeding lines with reduced linoleic acid content have been developed. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reduced linoleic acid composition on preharvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut. Seven breeding lines with relatively low linoleic acid and two check genotypes were grown in a randomized complete block design with 10 replicates for 4 years in Georgia and for 3 years in Arizona. The plots were inoculated with a ...
Literature Cited. 1. Abbas, H. K., ed. 2003. Special issue: Aflatoxin and food safety Part 1. J. of Toxicol, Toxin Rev. 22:139- 459.. 2. Abbas, H. K., Zablotowicz, R. M., and Locke, M. A. 2004. Spatial variability of Aspergillus flavus soil populations under different crops and corn grain colonization and aflatoxins. Can. J. Bot. 82:1768-1775. 3. Abbas, H. K., Cartwright, R. D., Xie, W., and Shier, W. T. 2006. Aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of corn (maize, Zea mays) hybrids in Arkansas. Crop Prot. 25:1-9. 4. Abbas, H. K., Zablotowicz, R. M., Bruns, H. A., and Abel, C. A. 2006. Biocontrol of aflatoxin in corn by inoculation with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates. Biocontrol Sci. Tech. 16:437-449.. 5. Ahmad, M., Majerczak, D. R., Pile, S., Hoyas, M. E., Novacky, A., and Coplin, D. L. 2001. Biological activity of harpin produced by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii. Molec. Plant-Microbe Interact. 14:1223-1234.. 6. Baker, C. J., Orlandi, E. W., and Mock, N. M. 1993. Harpin, an ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce the synthesis of a myriad of secondary metabolites, including aflatoxins. It raises significant concern as it is a potent environmental contaminant. In Aspergillus flavus., antioxidant enzymes link ROS stress response with coordinated gene regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. In this study, we characterized the function of a core component of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CTA1) of A. flavus. Firstly, we verified the presence of cta1 corresponding protein (CTA1) by Western blot analysis and mass-spectrometry based analysis. Then, the functional study revealed that the growth, sporulation and sclerotia formation significantly increased, while aflatoxins production and virulence were decreased in the cta1 deletion mutant as compared with the WT and complementary strains. Furthermore, the absence of the cta1 gene resulted in a significant rise in the intracellular ROS level, which in turn added to the oxidative stress level of cells. A further quantitative ...
Maize is an important staple crop for the majority of the population in Uganda. However, in tropical and subtropical climates, maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins, a group of cancer-causing and immuno-suppressive mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus section Flavi fungi. In Uganda, there is limited knowledge about the causal agents of aflatoxin contamination. The current study determined both the aflatoxin levels in pre-harvest maize across Uganda and the structures of communities of aflatoxin-producing fungi associated with the maize. A total of 256 pre-harvest maize samples were collected from 23 major maize-growing districts in eight agro-ecological zones (AEZ). Maize aflatoxin content ranged from 0 to 3760 ng/g although only around 5% for Ugandan thresholds. For EU it is about 16% of the samples contained aflatoxin concentrations above tolerance thresholds. A total of 3105 Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were recovered and these were dominated by the A. flavus L morphotype ...
The saprophytic soil fungus infects crops and produces aflatoxin. (valine leucine and isoleucine) were considerably enriched in the down-regulated gene group while those connected with ribosome biogenesis translation and biosynthesis of α-amino acids had been over-represented among the up-regulated genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway evaluation uncovered that metabolic pathways adversely impacted among the down-regulated genes parallel to people energetic at 30 °C an ailment conducive to aflatoxin biosynthesis. On the other hand metabolic pathways favorably linked to the up-regulated gene group resembled those at 37 °C which mementos rapid fungal development and it is inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The outcomes demonstrated that 2-PE at a minimal level stimulated energetic development of but concomitantly rendered reduced actions in branched-chain amino acidity degradation. Since supplementary metabolism takes place after active development provides ceased ...
When asked about taking groups to West Africa on culinary tours, I have been hesitant to undertake such a project due to issues of food safety and quality control. A serious problem surrounding peanut and maize production in Africa, for example, is the prevalence of mycotoxins, types of fungi that can contaminate food before, during or after it is harvested/processed. Since the 1960s there has been a new recognition of the health and other impacts of one group of mycotoxins known as aflatoxins (in particular, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus) in Africa. According to the most recent quarterly newsletter of the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) (04, Oct. 2009-Jan 2010) These toxins are potent causes of cancer and suppress the immune system causing greater susceptibility of humans and animals to diseases. . . High levels of aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products also affect international trade since agricultural products that have more than permissible levels of ...
1. Introduction. Mycotoxins are natural contaminants in food and feed. Aflatoxins (AFs) are classified as mycotoxins, which refer to a variety of seriously toxic components and the group of difuranocoumarins and classified in two broad groups according to their chemical structures; the difurocoumarocyclopentenone series (AFB, AFM and aflatoxicol) and the difurocoumarolactone series (AFG and AFB3). The aflatoxins fluoresce strongly in ultraviolet light (ca. 365 nm); B1 and B2 produce a blue fluorescence where as G1 and G2 produce green fluorescence. The toxins are generated by moulds of genera Aspergillus (specifically by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus), Penicillium and Fusarium [1] .. The agent is mainly found in warm and wet climates [2] . They are threat to agricultural products and cereal grain in particular. The products might be contaminated during pre-harvest, harvest, processing and handling stages [3] [4] . In this regard, season, humidity, daily variation, and storage ...
Orizin (EC 3.4.21.63, Aspergillus alkaline proteinaza, aspergilopeptidaza B, API 21, aspergilopepsin B, aspergilopepsin F, Aspergillus candidus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus flavus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus melleus semialkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus oryzae alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus parasiticus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus serin proteinaza, Aspergillus sydowi alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus soya alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus melleus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus sulphureus alkalna proteinaza, prozim, P 5380, kiorinaza, seaproza S, semi-alkalna proteaza, sumizim MP, prozim 10, onoproza, onoproza SA, proteaza P, promelaza) je enzim.[1][2][3][4][5] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju. ...
Study was conducted on different cereals (wheat, rice, sorghum) and oil seeds (sunflowerseed, cottonseed, groundnut) to correlate bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) of the seeds under longwave (366 nm) ultraviolet light with aflatoxin presence. Correlation between BGYF, aflatoxin and kojic acid contents and peroxidase units indicated that samples showing BGYF were not always contaminated with aflatoxins but those which contained aflatoxins, always exhibited BGYF. It was further noticed that all the samples, that showed BGY fluorescence and aflatoxin presence were loaded with spores of Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin positive samples also had high moisture contents. Storage of the BGYF and aflatoxin positive samples showed that storage in the dark increased the aflatoxin content and in the light, the aflatoxin content was reduced. Some varieties of cereals and oil seeds were contaminated with toxic strain of A. flavus. Results showed positive relationship between BGYF and aflatoxin ...
Infection with the fungus Aspergillus, seen especially in people with a deficient immune system. The clinical features of aspergillosis can include invasive lung infection and disseminated disease, usually with fever, cough, spitting up blood, and chest pain. Aspergillosis may mimic asthma with cough and inspiratory stridor (noise on breathing in) or sinusitis with fever, localized pain. Aspergillosis is due most often to Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus and less commonly A. niger, A. terreus, or A. nidulans. These fungi frequently colonize the upper respiratory tract and are among the most common in the environment. At elevated risk for aspergillosis are people with a blood malignancy or lymphoma, anyone who has had a transplant or is taking high-dose corticosteroids and, rarely, people with HIV infection. Diagnosis may be difficult. It usually requires a biopsy. The advent of effective, less toxic antifungal drugs (such as itraconazole) has improved therapy. The prognosis (outlook) ...
Feedstuffs known to be contaminated by A. flavus include: groundnut cakes, maize, sorghum, sunflower, cottonseed cakes, copra, and cassava. To produce aflatoxin, however, A. flavus must be present alone in a practically pure culture. The presence of other fungi, yeast, or bacteria seems to interfere with aflatoxin production. Crops such as peanuts, cottonseed, and copra are high aflatoxin risks precisely because A. flavus often infest them as a practically pure culture with few or no other microflora. In addition, the fungus produces the toxin in these crops at relatively low moisture levels, 9 to 10 percent, compared with 17 to 18 percent moisture for most feed grains. Feed grains such as maize and sorghum grown in the tropics, therefore, also pose high risk. 3.2.2 Heating and moisture increase Mould growth in feedstuffs is accompanied by rising temperatures and moisture content. Aspergillus glaucus, which has a minimum moisture requirement of 14.5 percent, is the first significant species ...
Our data demonstrate that the observed rhythm in sclerotium formation in A. flavus strain 12S is under the control of an endogenous circadian oscillator. The rhythm persists in constant conditions, is entrained and reset by environmental signals, and is temperature compensated. However, although the canonical clock properties are present in the A. flavus clock, several features of the rhythm differ from those of other eukaryotes.. The FRP of the A. flavus developmental rhythm at 30°C is 33 h and thus is significantly longer than a typical circadian rhythm, which is usually close to 24 h. The longest documented circadian rhythms to date are 29 h in the bean plant Phaseolus (8) and ∼30 h for the rhythm of promoter activity of the Arabidopsis chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (cab2) in DD (27). It has generally been assumed that circadian clocks have FRPs close to 24 h in order to maintain a stable phase relationship to the earths 24-h rotational cycle; the inherent cycle cannot be too far away ...
Aflavinine, a novel indole-​mevalonate metabolite from tremorgen-​producing Aspergillus flavus species. Gallagher, Rex T.; McCabe, Terrence; Hirotsu, Ken; Clardy, Jon; Nicholson, Judith; Wilson, Benjamin J. (Dep. Chem., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA). Tetrahedron Lett., 21(3), 243-6 (English) 1980. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from brazil nuts. Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C. PLoS One (2012), 7(8), e42480. Three new aflavinines from the sclerotia of ...
Since the 1993-1994 unusual outbreak of pulmonary hemorrhage (lung breeding) in infants in Cleveland, Ohio, that was then thought to be due to exposure to Stachybotrys, the health effects associated with this mold have remained controversial. Frequently referred to as the Black Mold by the general public, Stachybotrys has probably caused more economic and psychological agony than ill-health. The mold has resulted in multimillion dollar remediations and litigations.. Stachybotrys was first associated with death of horses in Eastern Europe in the 1930s. Horses fed with hay contaminated with Stachybotrys were reported to surfer from a disease characherized by irritation of the mouth, throat, and nose; shock; dermal necrosis; a decrease in leukocytes; hemorrhage; nervous disorder; and death.. While Stachybotrys is so much feared the number of cases where it was the cause of ill-health or death are insignificant compared to some other toxigenic molds such as Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus ...
seeking plant-based alternatives to conventional antimicrobial drugs.. The aromatic herb has a long legacy in traditional medicine from Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. Hippocrates recommended it as an antiseptic and a treatment for gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments.. Biochemical analysis shows the various species making up the Origanum genus to be among the worlds richest plants in phenolic and flavonoid compounds. A spate of recent research from labs all over the world is underscoring the antibacterial and antifungal potential of essential oils distilled from oregano.. A team at Kumaun University, Uttarakhand, India, showed that essential oil of Origanum vulgare was able to inhibit Aspergillus flavus and A. niger. The former, known for its lethal aflatoxin, is a major contaminant in peanuts. The investigators identified monoterpenes like p-Cymene and thymol as the key antifungal compounds among the 33 identified biochemical constituents of the essential oil (Bisht D, et al. ...
Tóth, Beáta and Török, Orsolya and Kótai, Éva and Varga, Mónika and Toldiné Tóth, Éva and Varga, János and Mesterházy, Ákos (2013) Aspergillus fajok szerepe a kukorica szántóföldi gomba és mikotoxin szennyeződésében. In: 59. Növényvédelmi Tudományos Napok, 19-20 Feb 2013, Budapest. Mesterházy, Ákos and Varga, Mónika and Tóth, Beáta and Lehoczki-Krsjak, Szabolcs and Toldiné Tóth, Éva (2013) Az Aspergillus flavus mint a kukorica új nemesítési problémája. In: XIX. Növénynemesítési Tudományos Nap, 2013. március 7., Keszthely, Hungary. Mesterházy, Ákos and Tóth, Beáta and Szabó-Hevér, Ágnes and Varga, Mónika and Toldiné Tóth, Éva (2013) Breeding strategies and results against Fusarium head blight in bread wheat. In: 2nd Conference of Biotechnology and Breeding, 5-7 Nov 2013, Budapest. Szabó, Balázs and Toldiné Tóth, Éva and Tóth, Beáta and Varga, Mónika and Mesterházy, Ákos (2013) Examination of resistance level of maize hybrids against ...
Two cases of aflatoxicosis in broilers were characterised, unusually, by trembling, ataxia, paralysis of legs and wings and lameness. Histopathology showed severe degeneration of hepatocytes, bile duct proliferation and depletion of lymphocytes in the lymphoid organs. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from the feed and litter. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in one sample at a concentration of 2.4 mg/kg. ...
Novel 1,1-(5,5-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-aryl-1H-pyrazole-5,1-(4H,5H)-diyl))diethanones 7-12 were tested for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion and twofold serial dilution method against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. Compounds 7 against Micrococcus luteus, 8 against β-Heamolytic streptococcus, M. luteus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Microsporum gypseum, 9 against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Vibreo cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor indicus, 10 against Salmonella typhii, S. flexneri, M. gypseum, 11 against K. pneumonia, M. gypseum, 12 against K. pneumonia, and M. gypseum show superior zone of inhibitions and exhibited excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities at a MIC value of 6.25 μg/mL. Moreover, all the tested compounds 7-12 revealed promising antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and INH-resistant M. tuberculosis. Compounds 8 against M. tuberculosis and 11 against INH-resistant M. tuberculosis exhibited the
Endopleura uchi (Huber) Cuatrec. is an Amazon species traditionally used as treatment for inflammations and female disorders. Bergenin was isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of bark of E. uchi by using column chromatography over sephadex LH-20 and then silica gel 60 flash. Its structure was identified on the basis of its NMR spectra. The antimicrobial activity of bergenin and fractions of methanol extract of E. uchi were evaluated against ATCC microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, Aspergillus flavus, A. nidulans). Clinically isolated strains of all of these microorganisms, along with C. tropicalis, A. niger, Shigella sonnei, Serratia marcenses and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also evaluated. The growth inhibition caused by bergenin, extracts and fractions of E. uchi against ATCC microorganisms were similar to the inhibition to microorganisms clinically isolated. The ...
Table 4: Estimated costs and returns budget for vendors (wholesalers) under the following assumptions. (1) Vendors purchased nonsorted peanut and do no sort before marketing. (2) Vendors purchased nonsorted peanut and sort before marketing. (3) Vendors purchased sorted peanut at a higher price and do not sort before marketing ...
Greenmedinfo.com - Natural Health Resource - The worlds most widely referenced, open access, natural medicine database, with 30,000+ study abstracts and growing daily
The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria.
A. parasiticus is employed to hydroxylate 2-hydroxyterphenyl compounds to terphenyltriols, which can be used to form branched polycarbonates. The hydroxylation reaction is enhanced by maintaining a sufficient amount of a carbon source in the culture medium-reaction medium to maintain the ammonium level below 300 ppm. during the bioconversion phase. Employment of a mutant strain of A. parasiticus which was isolated following ultraviolet light mutagenesis to reduce its tendency to produce aflatoxins is preferred.
Farmer-led evaluation of the effect of double row planting pattern and crop residue incorporation on yield, mould prevalence and aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts
Aflatoxin contamination is not an uncommon problem in pet food. Its expensive to detect cuz all the grains would have to be checked, entire shipments, everytime they arrived, to avoid the possibility. Natures Recipe had it go through their food, dogs and cats died, they ended up being bought out by Heinz cuz they couldnt come back from the loss. The last one I know of to have that happen was Innova and Cal. Nat., they have survived but it cost them a whole lot of money in vet bills and such. I doubt it will do much harm to this company being so huge ...
Known as: 4H-3,15a-Epoxy-1-benzoxepino(6,7:6,7)indeno(1,2-b)indol-4-one, 9-(1,1-dimethyl-2-propenyl)-2,3,5b,6,7,7a,8,13,13b,13c,14,15-dodecahydro-5b-hydroxy-2,2,13b,13c-tetramethyl-, (3R-(3alpha,5balpha,7abeta,13balpha,13cbeta,15aalpha))- ...
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Aspergillus flavus is a fungus of the family Trichocomaceae with a worldwide distribution. The mold lives in soil, surviving ... Aflatoxin B1 is an aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. It is a very potent carcinogen with a TD50 3.2 ... "Aspergillus flavus :: Center for Integrated Fungal Research". www.cifr.ncsu.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-08. "Definition of ... The widespread death was later found to be caused by Aspergillus flavus contamination of peanut meal. Twelve patients died of ...
Thom, C; Church, MB (1921). "Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae and associated species". Am. J. Bot. 8: 103-126. doi:10.2307/2435149 ... She co-authored the first manual on Aspergillus with Charles Thom and worked with Thom on his treatise on Penicillium. She was ... Margaret Brooks Church (1889-1976) was an American mycologist who specialized in Aspergillus and other fungi involved in food ... and studied other Asian soy fermentations involving the fungus known as Aspergillus oryzae. This research culminated in her ...
The funguses Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium spp. have been recorded on the seeds of the plant in the Philippines. In the ...
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and the rare Aspergillus nomius - which contaminate plant and plant products. ... Aspergillus flavus produces only B-type aflatoxins. Aflatoxin M1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 and can be ... Aflatoxin M1 is a chemical compound of the aflatoxin class, a group of mycotoxins produced by three species of Aspergillus - ...
Die fadenpilze, aspergillus flavus, niger u. fumigatus; eurotium repens (u. aspergillus glaucus) und ihre beziehungen zur ... Aspergillus flavus, niger and fumigatus; Eurotium repens (Aspergillus glaucus) and their relationships to otomycosis. Die ...
The enzyme can be found in Aspergillus flavus. It is an enzyme in the rutin catabolic pathway. "EC 3.2.1.66 - quercitrinase". ...
Amare, MG; Keller, NP (May 2014). "Molecular mechanisms of Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolism and development". Fungal ... The proteins were first characterized in Aspergillus nidulans. Some proteins in the complex are light-sensitive, including the ...
The enzyme quercitrinase can be found in Aspergillus flavus. This enzyme hydrolyzes the glycoside quercitrin to release ...
Upadhyay MP, West EP, Sharma AP (January 1980). "Keratitis due to Aspergillus flavus successfully treated with thiabendazole". ...
"Antiinsectan aflavinine derivatives from the sclerotia of Aspergillus flavus". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 53 (23): 5457- ...
The enzyme quercitrinase can be found in Aspergillus flavus. It is an enzyme in the rutin catabolic pathway. Rutin is a citrus ...
Her Masters thesis, Production of antibiotic substances by aspergillus flavus and chaetomium cochliodes, looked to optimise the ... Production of antibiotic substances by aspergillus flavus and chaetomium cochliodes. Waksman, Selman A.; Bugie, Elizabeth (1943 ...
Water Activity and Antifungal Agents on Growth of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus". Journal of Food Science. 48 (3): 778- ... Aspergillus flavus, Blastomyces dermatitidus, Cladophialophora bantiana, Histoplasma capsulatum, Mucor sp., Sporothrix ... Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species, among others, can degrade high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons as well as assist ... Penicillium and Aspergillus species are the largest producers of antibacterial compounds among the marine fungi. Various deep- ...
Aspergillus flavus known to have termiticidal activity against O. assmuthi. "An annotated checklist of termites (Isoptera) from ...
Other species of Aspergillus include A. flavus and A. terreus. The major risk factors for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are ... Aspergillosis is an infection caused by fungi from the genus Aspergillus. The vast majority of cases are caused by Aspergillus ... Aspergillus can form single or multiple nodules which may or may not form a cavity. Whilst usually benign in nature, they can ... To confirm Aspergillus nodules as opposed to aspergilloma, these must be seen directly on imaging or confirmed by percutaneous ...
The most common pathogenic species are Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxin ... Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus clavatus can cause allergic disease. Some Aspergillus species cause disease on grain ... The spores of Aspergillus fumigatus are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. A. fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen. It can cause ... Aspergillosis is the group of diseases caused by Aspergillus. The symptoms include fever, cough, chest pain or breathlessness. ...
Different Aspergillus strains are capable of making various hydroxypyrazine derivatives. Aspergillus flavus is used to produce ... In 1940 Edwin C. White and Justina H. Hill discovered that a fungal strain of Aspergillus flavus growing in a surface culture ... "Aspergillic Acid: An Antibiotic Substance Produced by Aspergillus Flavus I. General Properties; Formation of Desoxyaspergillic ... that aspergillic acid can also be derived from one molecule of L-leucine and one molecule of L-isoleucine in Aspergillus flavus ...
The first report on retting of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) by pectin lyase produced by Aspergillus flavus MTCC 7589 was ... "Purification and characterization of an alkaline pectin lyase from Aspergillus flavus". Process Biochem. 43 (5): 547-552. doi: ... Pickersgill R, Jenkins J (1997). "Two crystal structures of pectin lyase A from Aspergillus reveal a pH driven conformational ... a novel pectinolytic enzyme from Aspergillus niger". FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 120 (1-2): 63-68. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994. ...
on growth of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus and accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in groundnut". Mycological Research. 93 (4 ... oncomensis and Rhizopus oligosporus reduce the aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus. However, aflatoxin-producing molds ( ... sanitation and hygiene are important to avoid contaminating the culture with bacteria or other fungi like Aspergillus flavus ( ... Aspergillus spp.) are often naturally present on peanut presscake. Furthermore, coconut presscake can harbor the very dangerous ...
Cryptic speciation and recombination in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. Proceedings of the National Academy ... His thesis was entitled "Population genetic, chromosomal, and phylogenetic patterns associated with meiosis in Aspergillus. He ...
It has been also isolated from Solanum nigrum fungal endophyte Aspergillus flavus. It is a glycoalkaloid derived from the ...
Although brewers' yeast (Saccharomyces), fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces), and Aspergillus flavus have no detectable DNA ... "Bisulfite sequencing reveals that Aspergillus flavus holds a hollow in DNA methylation". PLOS ONE. 7 (1): e30349. Bibcode: ...
Bassir, O.; Adekunle, A. A. (1972). "Production of aflatoxin B1 from defined natural cultures of Aspergillus flavus (link)". ... 1972 Production of aflatoxin B 1 from defined natural cultures of Aspergillus flavus (Link). "New Scientist: The professor's ...
"Hydrolytic enzymes secreted by Paecilomyces lilacinus cultured on sclerotia of Aspergillus flavus" (PDF). Applied Microbiology ...
Ghana is home to a significant number of fungi species including: Aspergillus flavus; Athelia rolfsii; Auricularia auricula- ...
Scott, Gene E.; Zummo, Natale (January 1, 1988). "Sources of Resistance in Maize to Kernel Infection by Aspergillus flavus in ...
Note: Fungal endophthalmitis is extremely rare) Filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus fumigatus Fusarium spp. ... Florida in US regularly reports cases of fungal keratitis, with Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. as the most common causes. The ... is most common then Aspergillus spp. and thirdly Dematitious fungi causing fungal keratitis in India. The precipitating event ...
Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium ... "Extracellular biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus flavus NJP08: a mechanism perspective ... 2011) indicated that silver nanoparticle synthesis for A. flavus occurs initially by a "33kDa" protein followed by a protein ( ... Bhainsa, KC; D'Sousa SF (2006). "Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus fumigatas". ...
Fungi responsible for fungal sinusitis are Aspergillus fumigatus (90%), Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger. Fungal ...
"Degradation of Ficus elastica rubber latex by Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus and Myceliophthora thermophila". ... a new cause of cross-reactivity with the Aspergillus galactomannan serum antigen assay". Medical Mycology. 49 (8): 883-6. doi: ... encoding extracellular laccase of Myceliophthora thermophila and analysis of the recombinant enzyme expressed in Aspergillus ...
Aspergillus flavus (yellow-green spores), Aspergillus ochraceus (yellow), Aureobasidium pullulans (black), Candida albicans ( ...
Schipper, M. A. A (1975). "On Mucor mucedo, Mucor flavus and related species". Studies in Mycology. 10: 1-33. Retrieved 14 ... although this requires further confirmatory studies as aflatoxins are mainly characteristic of Aspergillus species. The ability ...
Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic chemicals produced by molds such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The mold ... High shell-seal provides resistance against these Aspergillus species and so against the development of their toxins. After ...
Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium species. A study by the National Human Genome Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus fumigatus. It can also inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori. So important is its ...
The complementary DNA (cDNA) coding for rasburicase was cloned from a strain of Aspergillus flavus. Rasburicase (Q00511) is a ...
The aflatoxins are a group of chemicals produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus (the name comes from A. flavus toxin) and A. ...
Hedayati, M.T.; Pasqualotto, Warn; Bowyer, Denning (2007). "Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer ... Aspergillus terreus, also known as Aspergillus terrestris, is a fungus (mold) found worldwide in soil. Although thought to be ... Aspergillus terreus is not as common as other Aspergillus species to cause opportunistic infections in animals and humans. ... "ASPERGILLUS TERREUS" (PDF). IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria No. 1253. Retrieved 14 October 2013. "ASPERGILLUS TERREUS" ( ...
Examples of heterothallism are included for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium ... Horn BW, Moore GG, Carbone I (2009). "Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus". Mycologia. 101 (3): 423-9. doi:10.3852/09-011 ... Aspergillus fumigatus, is a heterothallic fungus. It is one of the most common Aspergillus species to cause disease in humans ... A. flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops worldwide. It is also an opportunistic human and animal ...
Hedayati, M.T.; Pasqualotto, Warn; Bowyer, Denning (2007). "Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer ... Aspergillus terreus, also known as Aspergillus terrestris, is a fungus (mold) found worldwide in soil. Although thought to be ... Aspergillus terreus is not as common as other Aspergillus species to cause opportunistic infections in animals and humans. ... "ASPERGILLUS TERREUS" (PDF). IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria No. 1253. Retrieved 14 October 2013. "ASPERGILLUS TERREUS" ( ...
The enzyme can be found in Aspergillus flavus. It is an enzyme in the rutin catabolic pathway. "EC 3.2.1.66 - quercitrinase". ...
Aspergillus flavus complex. Error message. Sorry, that is incorrect. Please try again. ... Comment: Aspergillus fumigatus complex is truly a cosmopolitan mould and has been found almost everywhere on every conceivable ... Unknown 41 = Aspergillus fumigatus complex. Direct microscopy: Aspergillosis of the lung. Methenamine silver stained tissue ...
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bass, Hordeum, BCG Vaccine, sipuleucel-T (APC8015), Carica, Brassica napus, Yeasts, ...
Field Assessment of Non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus Strain K49 in Competitive Displacement of Toxigenic Isolates (Abstract ...
Infection by Aspergillus species, mainly A. fumigatus, A. flavus group, A. terreus group ...
Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries. Synonym names: Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries var. columnaris Raper & Fennell. Aspergillus ... Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus (Mich. Saito & Tsuruta) Frisvad & Samson. Aspergillus subolivaceus Raper & Fennell. Aspergillus ...
Species Aspergillus flavus [TaxId:5059] [55635] (71 PDB entries). *. Domain d1xy3b1: 1xy3 B:1-136 [122443]. automatically ... PDB Description: urate oxidase from aspergillus flavus complexed with guanine. PDB Compounds: (B:) Uricase. SCOPe Domain ... d1xy3b1 d.96.1.4 (B:1-136) Urate oxidase (uricase) {Aspergillus flavus [TaxId: 5059]} ...
7.1 %), Aspergillus flavus (8.6 %), Aspergillus fumigatu (5.7 %), Aspergillus niger (40.0 %), Fusarium sp. (14.3 %), ...
Lab studies have shown some ancient mummies carried mold, including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus, which can cause ...
Other Aspergillus species, including Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger, can also cause acute sinusitis in healthy immune ... Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common fungus associated with fungal sinusitis. It is responsible for both acute fungal ... Fungal genuses associated with allergic fungal sinusitis include Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Chrysosporium, Drechslera ...
It is produced by certain strains of the molds Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, and exists in four principle types B1, B2 ...
Lipids in Aspergillus flavus-maize interaction. Scarpari, M., Punelli, M., Scala, V., Zaccaria, M., Nobili, C., Ludovici, M., ... Modulation of antioxidant defense in Aspergillus parasiticus is involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis: A role for the ApyapA gene ... Lipoperoxidation affects ochratoxin A biosynthesis in Aspergillus ochraceus and its interaction with wheat seeds. Reverberi, M. ...
Any of a group of toxic compounds produced by certain molds, especially Aspergillus flavus, that contaminate stored food ... New Latin A(spergillus) flā(vus), species name (ASPERGILLUS + Latin flāvus, yellow; see FLAVO-) + TOXIN.] ...
Comparative mapping of aflatoxin pathway gene clusters in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Appl Environ ... As early as 1960, animal poisoning incidents happened in England due to a toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus, and this toxin ... Bisulfite sequencing reveals that Aspergillus flavus holds a hollow in DNA methylation. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7: e30349. Ref.: https ... Genome sequence of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357, a strain that causes aflatoxin contamination of food and feed. Genome Announc ...
Aspergillus flavus. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterium. Salmonella enterica. Botulism is a disease caused by the ...
Aspergillus Flavus. Asulam. Atrazine. Aureobasidium Pullulans. Aviglycine. Azadirachtin. Azinphos-Methyl. Azoxystrobin. ...
Fungal protease (Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae). 110 mg (44,200 FCC HUT). Bacterial protease (Bacillus subtilis). 10 mg (4800 ... Lactase (beta-galactosidase) (Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae). 11 mg (580 FCC ALU). ... Maltase (malt diastase) (Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae). 20 mg (60 FCC DP). ...
Biogenesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Marine- Derived Fungus Aspergillus flavus from Bhavnagar Coast, Gulf of Khambhat, India. ...
Aspergillus flavus derived from ATCC® 9643™ Epower™ CRM Mean Assay Value: 1.0-9.9E+04 CFU per pellet ... Aspergillus niger, ATCC 16888 Gehalt garantiert 1.0 bis 9.9 E04 KBE pro Pellet. Epower™ CRM Mean Assay Value: 1.0-9.9E+04 CFU ...
Identification and characterization of natural concurrent avian leukosis virus subgroup J and Aspergillus flavus infection in ... Identifikacija i karakterizacija virusa leukoze peradi podskupine J i plijesni Aspergillus flavus kod istodobne prirodne ...
Aspergillus flavus (13). *Enterobacteriaceae (13). *fungi (12). *PIGS (12). *mites (11). *arthropods (9) ...
PRODUCTION OF PROTEASE BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS IN SOLID ...Read More » 42 pages , 1-5 chapters ...
PRODUCTION OF PROTEASE BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS IN SOLID ...Read More » 42 pages , 1-5 chapters ...
Enzyme Blend: Lipase (Aspergillus Niger) 7.2 FCC LU, Protease (Aspergillus flavus var. Oryzae, Aspergillus Niger) 800 FCC ... Aspergillus Niger) 1.9 FCC FTU, Lactase (Aspergillus Flavus var. Oryzae) 57 FCC ALU, Papain (Carica Papaya Fruit) 26665 ... Aspergillus Niger) 71.5 FCC HCU, Bromelain (Ananas Comosus  stem) 21420 FCC PU. ... HUT, beta-Glucanase (Trichoderma Longibrachaitum) 0.95 FCC BGU, Cellulase (Aspergillus Niger) 69 FCC CU, Phytase ( ...
  • Aspergillus fumigatus complex is truly a cosmopolitan mould and has been found almost everywhere on every conceivable type of substrate, especially soil and decaying organic debris. (edu.au)
  • In this paper, we reviewed current status of the researches on the characterized structural genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis and their roles in aflatoxin-producing fungi, especially in A. flavus and A. parasiticus , which will improve our understanding of the mechanism of aflatoxin biosynthesis and regulation and provide reference for further study. (heighpubs.org)
  • EtiologyAspergillosis is the result of infection by one of several different species of the saprophytic fungi of the genus Aspergillus. (avmi.net)
  • Known scientifically as the "Aspergillus flavus" and "Fusarium moniliforme", these fungi have been documented as harmful pests to commercial agricultural production and food security throughout the world, and more specifically, in developing countries, including Ghana. (thepressradio.com)
  • It is produced by certain strains of the molds Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, and exists in four principle types B1, B2, G1 and G2. (neogen.com)
  • A. parasiticus and A. flavus are two major aflatoxin producers, and their aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes are highly homologus and orders are similar [4]. (heighpubs.org)
  • In this paper, on the basis of previous reviews and research papers [5-9], we mainly focus on the characterizations and roles of structural genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. flavus and A. parasiticus and provide reference for more in-depth studies. (heighpubs.org)
  • For example, A. flavus mainly produces B-group aflatoxins, while A. parasiticus produces both B- and G-group aflatoxins. (heighpubs.org)
  • Aflatoxin (AFT) yog bisfuran toxoid tsim los ntawm qee yam kab mob xws li Aspergillus flavus thiab Aspergillus parasiticus. (ballyabio.com)
  • Aflatoxin B1 yog yog aflatoxin tsim los ntawm Aspergillus flavus thiab Aspergillus parasiticus. (ballyabio.com)
  • Kev kis tus kab mob Aspergillus flavus thiab aflatoxin tshwm sim tsis yog tsuas yog thaum cog cov txiv laum huab xeeb, tab sis kuj tseem ua thaum ua. (ballyabio.com)
  • This fungus is readily distinguished from the other species of Aspergillus by its cinnamon-brown colony colouration and its production of aleurioconidia. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. terreus is a thermotolerant species since it has optimal growth in temperatures between 35-40 °C (95-104 °F), and maximum growth within 45-48 °C (113-118 °F). Aspergillus terreus, like other species of Aspergillus, produces spores that disperse efficiently in the air over a range of distances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus terreus is not as common as other Aspergillus species to cause opportunistic infections in animals and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lab studies have shown some ancient mummies carried mold, including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus , which can cause congestion or bleeding in the lungs. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus spp. (heighpubs.org)
  • As early as 1960, animal poisoning incidents happened in England due to a toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus, and this toxin is called aflatoxins (AFs) later. (heighpubs.org)
  • Less obvious, but no less important, are the long-term effects of mutagenic and cancerogenic mycotoxins, such as the aflatoxins of Aspergillus flavus, which can lead to lung carcinoma or liver cirrhosis. (gesundheitsindustrie-bw.de)
  • Aspergillus terreus can cause opportunistic infection in people with deficient immune systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus terreus, also known as Aspergillus terrestris, is a fungus (mold) found worldwide in soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus terreus also produces aspterric acid and 6-hydroxymellein, inhibitors of pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus terreus is brownish in colour and gets darker as it ages on culture media. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus terreus has conidial heads that are compact, biseriate, and densely columnar, reaching 500 × 30-50 μm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the incidence of A. terreus infection is increasing more rapidly than any other Aspergillus and for this reason it is considered an emerging agent of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of a group of toxic compounds produced by certain molds, especially Aspergillus flavus, that contaminate stored food supplies such as animal feed and peanuts. (ahdictionary.com)
  • In a statement on monday, the government said it has identified an animal toxin from a corn mold, aspergillus flavus, that in. (rileymorrisonauthor.com)