A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.
Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
A carcinogenic mycotoxin produced in high yields by strains of the common molds, Aspergillus versicolor, A. nidulans, and an unidentified species of Bipolaris. It causes necrosis of the liver and kidney and has an inhibitory effect on orotic acid incorporation into nuclear RNA.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Triazoles are a class of antifungal drugs that contain a triazole ring in their chemical structure and work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of the membrane.
Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA characterized by the presence of well defined peridia and cleistothecial asci. Notable anamorphs (mitosporic forms) of Eurotiales include PENICILLIUM and ASPERGILLUS.
Anethum graveolens L. is a plant species of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are considered as a spice (SPICES).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Many species of this genus, including the medicinal C. senna and C. angustifolia, have been reclassified into the Senna genus (SENNA PLANT) and some to CHAMAECRISTA.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Inhibition of plant-pathogenic fungi by a corn trypsin inhibitor overexpressed in Escherichia coli. (1/348)

The cDNA of a 14-kDa trypsin inhibitor (TI) from corn was subcloned into an Escherichia coli overexpression vector. The overexpressed TI was purified based on its insolubility in urea and then refolded into the active form in vitro. This recombinant TI inhibited both conidium germination and hyphal growth of all nine plant pathogenic fungi studied, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Fusarium moniliforme. The calculated 50% inhibitory concentration of TI for conidium germination ranged from 70 to more than 300 microgram/ml, and that for fungal growth ranged from 33 to 124 microgram/ml depending on the fungal species. It also inhibited A. flavus and F. moniliforme simultaneously when they were tested together. The results suggest that the corn 14-kDa TI may function in host resistance against a variety of fungal pathogens of crops.  (+info)

Production of specific monoclonal antibodies to Aspergillus species and their use in immunohistochemical identification of aspergillosis. (2/348)

Two anti-Aspergillus murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated 164G and 611F, have been produced; both specifically recognize cytoplasmic antigens of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs can identify Aspergillus spp. both in frozen sections by immunofluorescence and in paraffin-embedded clinical specimens by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining.  (+info)

Regional differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by soil isolates of aspergillus flavus along a transect within the United States. (3/348)

Soil isolates of Aspergillus flavus from a transect extending from eastern New Mexico through Georgia to eastern Virginia were examined for production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid in a liquid medium. Peanut fields from major peanut-growing regions (western Texas; central Texas; Georgia and Alabama; and Virginia and North Carolina) were sampled, and fields with other crops were sampled in regions where peanuts are not commonly grown. The A. flavus isolates were identified as members of either the L strain (n = 774), which produces sclerotia that are >400 micrometer in diameter, or the S strain (n = 309), which produces numerous small sclerotia that are <400 micrometer in diameter. The S-strain isolates generally produced high levels of aflatoxin B1, whereas the L-strain isolates were more variable in aflatoxin production; variation in cyclopiazonic acid production also was greater in the L strain than in the S strain. There was a positive correlation between aflatoxin B1 production and cyclopiazonic acid production in both strains, although 12% of the L-strain isolates produced only cyclopiazonic acid. Significant differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by the L-strain isolates were detected among regions. In the western half of Texas and the peanut-growing region of Georgia and Alabama, 62 to 94% of the isolates produced >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml. The percentages of isolates producing >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml ranged from 0 to 52% in the remaining regions of the transect; other isolates were often nonaflatoxigenic. A total of 53 of the 126 L-strain isolates that did not produce aflatoxin B1 or cyclopiazonic acid were placed in 17 vegetative compatibility groups. Several of these groups contained isolates from widely separated regions of the transect.  (+info)

Divergence of West African and North American communities of Aspergillus section Flavi. (4/348)

West African Aspergillus flavus S isolates differed from North American isolates. Both produced aflatoxin B1. However, 40 and 100% of West African isolates also produced aflatoxin G1 in NH4 medium and urea medium, respectively. No North American S strain isolate produced aflatoxin G1. This geographical and physiological divergence may influence aflatoxin management.  (+info)

Interactions of saprophytic yeasts with a nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus. (5/348)

The nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus has a defective norsolorinic acid reductase, and thus the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway is blocked, resulting in the accumulation of norsolorinic acid, a bright red-orange pigment. We developed a visual agar plate assay to monitor yeast strains for their ability to inhibit aflatoxin production by visually scoring the accumulation of this pigment of the nor mutant. We identified yeast strains that reduced the red-orange pigment accumulation in the nor mutant. These yeasts also reduced aflatoxin accumulation by a toxigenic strain of A. flavus. These yeasts may be useful for reducing aflatoxin contamination of food commodities.  (+info)

Aspirochlorine: a highly selective and potent inhibitor of fungal protein synthesis. (6/348)

Aspirochlorine, a compound belonging to the gliotoxin family of compounds, exhibits antifungal and antibacterial activity but its mechanism of action remains unknown. In this study we show that aspirochlorine inhibits the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans by acting on fungal protein synthesis. The compound selectively inhibits cell-free protein synthesis when using a C. albicans system, but does not inhibit this synthesis in vitro when tested with bacterial and mammalian systems. Moreover, in intact C. albicans cells, aspirochlorine inhibits protein synthesis but does not inhibit chitin, DNA or glucan synthesis though at high concentrations some inhibition of RNA synthesis is observed. By contrast, in intact Bacillus subtilis cells, aspirochlorine did not inhibit protein, DNA, or cell wall synthesis though it significantly inhibited RNA synthesis. Furthermore, using heterologous systems (mammalian ribosomes and C. albicans cytosolic factors) the data suggest that the inhibitory action of aspirochlorine is not exerted through a direct interaction with C. albicans EF-1 or EF-2.  (+info)

Sporogenic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on development of Aspergillus spp. (7/348)

Aspergillus spp. are frequently occurring seed-colonizing fungi that complete their disease cycles through the development of asexual spores, which function as inocula, and through the formation of cleistothecia and sclerotia. We found that development of all three of these structures in Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus parasiticus is affected by linoleic acid and light. The specific morphological effects of linoleic acid include induction of precocious and increased asexual spore development in A. flavus and A. parasiticus strains and altered sclerotium production in some A. flavus strains in which sclerotium production decreases in the light but increases in the dark. In A. nidulans, both asexual spore production and sexual spore production were altered by linoleic acid. Spore development was induced in all three species by hydroperoxylinoleic acids, which are linoleic acid derivatives that are produced during fungal colonization of seeds. The sporogenic effects of these linoleic compounds on A. nidulans are similar to the sporogenic effects of A. nidulans psi factor, an endogenous mixture of hydroxylinoleic acid moieties. Light treatments also significantly increased asexual spore production in all three species. The sporogenic effects of light, linoleic acid, and linoleic acid derivatives on A. nidulans required an intact veA gene. The sporogenic effects of light and linoleic acid on Aspergillus spp., as well as members of other fungal genera, suggest that these factors may be significant environmental signals for fungal development.  (+info)

A highly conserved sequence is a novel gene involved in de novo vitamin B6 biosynthesis. (8/348)

The Cercospora nicotianae SOR1 (singlet oxygen resistance) gene was identified previously as a gene involved in resistance of this fungus to singlet-oxygen-generating phototoxins. Although homologues to SOR1 occur in organisms in four kingdoms and encode one of the most highly conserved proteins yet identified, the precise function of this protein has, until now, remained unknown. We show that SOR1 is essential in pyridoxine (vitamin B6) synthesis in C. nicotianae and Aspergillus flavus, although it shows no homology to previously identified pyridoxine synthesis genes identified in Escherichia coli. Sequence database analysis demonstrated that organisms encode either SOR1 or E. coli pyridoxine biosynthesis genes, but not both, suggesting that there are two divergent pathways for de novo pyridoxine biosynthesis in nature. Pathway divergence appears to have occurred during the evolution of the eubacteria. We also present data showing that pyridoxine quenches singlet oxygen at a rate comparable to that of vitamins C and E, two of the most highly efficient biological antioxidants, suggesting a previously unknown role for pyridoxine in active oxygen resistance.  (+info)

'Aspergillus flavus' is a species of fungi that belongs to the genus Aspergillus. It is commonly found in soil, decaying vegetation, and other organic matter. This fungus is known for its ability to produce aflatoxins, which are highly toxic compounds that can contaminate food crops such as corn, peanuts, and cottonseed.

Aflatoxins produced by A. flavus are among the most potent carcinogens known to humans and can cause liver damage and cancer with prolonged exposure. The fungus can also cause invasive aspergillosis, a serious infection that primarily affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or organ transplantation.

In addition to its medical importance, A. flavus is also used in biotechnology for the production of industrial enzymes and other products.

"Aspergillus" is a genus of filamentous fungi (molds) that are widely distributed in the environment. These molds are commonly found in decaying organic matter such as leaf litter, compost piles, and rotting vegetation. They can also be found in indoor environments like air conditioning systems, dust, and building materials.

The medical relevance of Aspergillus comes from the fact that some species can cause a range of diseases in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying lung conditions. The most common disease caused by Aspergillus is called aspergillosis, which can manifest as allergic reactions, lung infections (like pneumonia), and invasive infections that can spread to other parts of the body.

Aspergillus species produce small, airborne spores called conidia, which can be inhaled into the lungs and cause infection. The severity of aspergillosis depends on various factors, including the individual's immune status, the specific Aspergillus species involved, and the extent of fungal invasion in the body.

Common Aspergillus species that can cause human disease include A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus. Preventing exposure to Aspergillus spores and maintaining a healthy immune system are crucial steps in minimizing the risk of aspergillosis.

Aflatoxins are toxic compounds produced by certain types of mold (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) that grow on crops such as grains, nuts, and spices. These toxins can contaminate food and animal feed, posing a serious health risk to both humans and animals. Aflatoxin exposure has been linked to various health problems, including liver damage, cancer, immune system suppression, and growth impairment in children. Regular monitoring and control measures are necessary to prevent aflatoxin contamination in food and feed supplies.

'Aspergillus fumigatus' is a species of fungi that belongs to the genus Aspergillus. It is a ubiquitous mold that is commonly found in decaying organic matter, such as leaf litter, compost, and rotting vegetation. This fungus is also known to be present in indoor environments, including air conditioning systems, dust, and water-damaged buildings.

Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it can cause infections in people with weakened immune systems. It can lead to a range of conditions known as aspergillosis, including allergic reactions, lung infections, and invasive infections that can spread to other parts of the body.

The fungus produces small, airborne spores that can be inhaled into the lungs, where they can cause infection. In healthy individuals, the immune system is usually able to eliminate the spores before they can cause harm. However, in people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or organ transplantation, or those with certain underlying medical conditions like asthma or cystic fibrosis, the fungus can establish an infection.

Infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus can be difficult to treat, and treatment options may include antifungal medications, surgery, or a combination of both. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes in people with aspergillosis.

'Aspergillus nidulans' is a species of filamentous fungi that belongs to the genus Aspergillus. It is commonly found in soil, decaying vegetation, and indoor environments such as air conditioning systems and damp buildings. This fungus can produce spores that become airborne and can be inhaled, which can cause respiratory infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Aspergillus nidulans' is also a widely used model organism in scientific research, particularly in the fields of genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Its genetic tractability, short life cycle, and ability to grow at a wide range of temperatures make it an ideal system for studying fundamental biological processes such as DNA repair, cell division, and metabolism. Additionally, this fungus is known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, including pigments, antibiotics, and mycotoxins, which have potential applications in medicine and industry.

'Aspergillus niger' is a species of fungi that belongs to the genus Aspergillus. It is a ubiquitous microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, decaying vegetation, and indoor air. 'Aspergillus niger' is a black-colored mold that produces spores that are easily dispersed in the air.

This fungus is well known for its ability to produce a variety of enzymes and metabolites, some of which have industrial applications. For example, it is used in the production of citric acid, which is widely used as a food additive and preservative.

However, 'Aspergillus niger' can also cause health problems in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying lung conditions. It can cause allergic reactions, respiratory symptoms, and invasive aspergillosis, a serious infection that can spread to other organs in the body.

In addition, 'Aspergillus niger' can produce mycotoxins, which are toxic compounds that can contaminate food and feed and cause various health effects in humans and animals. Therefore, it is important to prevent the growth and proliferation of this fungus in indoor environments and food production facilities.

Aspergillosis is a medical condition that is caused by the infection of the Aspergillus fungi. This fungus is commonly found in decaying organic matter, such as leaf litter and compost piles, and can also be found in some indoor environments like air conditioning systems and old buildings with water damage.

There are several types of aspergillosis, including:

1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA): This type of aspergillosis occurs when a person's immune system overreacts to the Aspergillus fungi, causing inflammation in the airways and lungs. ABPA is often seen in people with asthma or cystic fibrosis.
2. Invasive aspergillosis: This is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the Aspergillus fungi invade the bloodstream and spread to other organs, such as the brain, heart, or kidneys. Invasive aspergillosis typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or organ transplantation.
3. Aspergilloma: Also known as a "fungus ball," an aspergilloma is a growth of the Aspergillus fungi that forms in a preexisting lung cavity, such as one caused by previous lung disease or injury. While an aspergilloma itself is not typically harmful, it can cause symptoms like coughing up blood or chest pain if it grows too large or becomes infected.

Symptoms of aspergillosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the infection. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery to remove the fungal growth, or management of underlying conditions that increase the risk of infection.

'Arachis hypogaea' is the scientific name for the peanut plant. It is a legume crop that grows underground, which is why it is also known as a groundnut. The peanut plant produces flowers above ground, and when the flowers are pollinated, the ovary of the flower elongates and grows downwards into the soil where the peanut eventually forms and matures.

The peanut is not only an important food crop worldwide but also has various industrial uses, including the production of biodiesel, plastics, and animal feed. The plant is native to South America and was domesticated by indigenous peoples in what is now Brazil and Peru thousands of years ago. Today, peanuts are grown in many countries around the world, with China, India, and the United States being the largest producers.

Condiments are typically tangy or flavorful substances that are used to add taste and flavor to food. They can be in the form of sauces, pastes, spreads, or powders. Examples include ketchup, mustard, mayonnaise, soy sauce, vinegar, hot sauce, salt, pepper, and herbs & spices. Some condiments can also provide additional benefits such as added nutrients or potential health properties. However, it's important to note that some condiments can also be high in sugar, sodium, or unhealthy fats, so they should be used in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

Fungal spores are defined as the reproductive units of fungi that are produced by specialized structures called hyphae. These spores are typically single-celled and can exist in various shapes such as round, oval, or ellipsoidal. They are highly resistant to extreme environmental conditions like heat, cold, and dryness, which allows them to survive for long periods until they find a suitable environment to germinate and grow into a new fungal organism. Fungal spores can be found in the air, water, soil, and on various surfaces, making them easily dispersible and capable of causing infections in humans, animals, and plants.

Aflatoxin B1 is a toxic metabolite produced by certain strains of the fungus Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It is a potent carcinogen and is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Aflatoxin B1 contamination can occur in a variety of agricultural products, including grains, nuts, spices, and dried fruits, and is a particular concern in regions with hot and humid climates. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 can occur through the consumption of contaminated food and has been linked to various health effects, including liver cancer, immune suppression, and stunted growth in children.

Sterigmatocystin is a mycotoxin, which is a toxic compound produced by certain types of fungi. It is a secondary metabolite produced by some species of Aspergillus, a genus of mold that is commonly found in soil, decaying vegetation, and other organic matter.

Sterigmatocystin has structural similarities to aflatoxins, which are another group of mycotoxins produced by some species of Aspergillus that are known to be highly toxic and carcinogenic. Sterigmatocystin is considered to be less potent than aflatoxins, but it is still thought to have harmful effects on human health.

Exposure to sterigmatocystin can occur through the ingestion of contaminated food or feed, as well as through inhalation of contaminated air. It has been shown to have genotoxic and carcinogenic effects in various animal studies, and it is classified as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

It's important to note that sterigmatocystin contamination can occur in a variety of food products, including cereals, nuts, spices, and dried fruits. Proper storage and handling of these foods can help prevent contamination and reduce the risk of exposure.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

"Penicillium" is not a medical term per se, but it is a genus of mold that is widely used in the field of medicine, specifically in the production of antibiotics. Here's a scientific definition:

Penicillium is a genus of ascomycete fungi that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil, decaying vegetation, and food. Many species of Penicillium produce penicillin, a group of antibiotics with activity against gram-positive bacteria. The discovery and isolation of penicillin from Penicillium notatum by Alexander Fleming in 1928 revolutionized the field of medicine and led to the development of modern antibiotic therapy. Since then, various species of Penicillium have been used in the industrial production of penicillin and other antibiotics, as well as in the production of enzymes, organic acids, and other industrial products.

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain types of fungi (molds) that can contaminate food and feed crops, both during growth and storage. These toxins can cause a variety of adverse health effects in humans and animals, ranging from acute poisoning to long-term chronic exposure, which may lead to immune suppression, cancer, and other diseases. Mycotoxin-producing fungi mainly belong to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Alternaria. Common mycotoxins include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone, patulin, and citrinin. The presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is a significant public health concern and requires stringent monitoring and control measures to ensure safety.

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Fungal DNA refers to the genetic material present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The DNA of fungi, like that of all living organisms, is made up of nucleotides that are arranged in a double helix structure.

Fungal DNA contains the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of fungi. This includes the instructions for making proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of cells, as well as other important molecules such as enzymes and nucleic acids.

Studying fungal DNA can provide valuable insights into the biology and evolution of fungi, as well as their potential uses in medicine, agriculture, and industry. For example, researchers have used genetic engineering techniques to modify the DNA of fungi to produce drugs, biofuels, and other useful products. Additionally, understanding the genetic makeup of pathogenic fungi can help scientists develop new strategies for preventing and treating fungal infections.

Urate oxidase, also known as uricase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to allantoin. This reaction is an essential part of purine metabolism in many organisms, as allantoin is more soluble and easier to excrete than uric acid. In humans, urate oxidase is non-functional due to mutations in the gene encoding it, which leads to the accumulation of uric acid and predisposes to gout and kidney stones. Urate oxidase is found in some bacteria, fungi, and plants, and can be used as a therapeutic agent in humans to lower serum uric acid levels in conditions such as tumor lysis syndrome and gout.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

Itraconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections, including blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a vital component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of these membranes. Itraconazole is available in oral and intravenous forms for systemic use and as a topical solution or cream for localized fungal infections.

Medical Definition:
Itraconazole (i-tra-KON-a-zole): A synthetic triazole antifungal agent used to treat various fungal infections, such as blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis. It inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes, leading to disruption of their integrity and function. Itraconazole is available in oral (capsule and solution) and intravenous forms for systemic use and as a topical solution or cream for localized fungal infections.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Triazoles are a class of antifungal medications that have broad-spectrum activity against various fungi, including yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and disruption of fungal growth. Triazoles are commonly used in both systemic and topical formulations for the treatment of various fungal infections, such as candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and dermatophytoses. Some examples of triazole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole.

Pulmonary aspergillosis is a respiratory infection caused by the fungus Aspergillus. It mainly affects the lungs, but it can also spread to other parts of the body. There are several forms of pulmonary aspergillosis, including:

1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA): This form occurs in people with asthma or cystic fibrosis. The immune system overreacts to the presence of Aspergillus, causing inflammation and damage to the airways.
2. Aspergilloma: Also known as a fungus ball, this is a growth of Aspergillus that develops in a preexisting lung cavity, usually caused by old tuberculosis or scarring from previous lung infections.
3. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA): This is the most severe form and occurs when the fungus invades the lung tissue, blood vessels, and other organs. It primarily affects people with weakened immune systems due to conditions like cancer, HIV/AIDS, organ transplants, or long-term use of corticosteroids.

Symptoms of pulmonary aspergillosis can vary depending on the form and severity of the infection. They may include cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and bloody sputum. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests like chest X-rays or CT scans, along with laboratory tests to detect Aspergillus antigens or DNA in blood or respiratory samples. Treatment options include antifungal medications, surgery to remove fungal growths, and management of underlying conditions that weaken the immune system.

Fungal genes refer to the genetic material present in fungi, which are eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The genetic material of fungi is composed of DNA, just like in other eukaryotes, and is organized into chromosomes located in the nucleus of the cell.

Fungal genes are segments of DNA that contain the information necessary to produce proteins and RNA molecules required for various cellular functions. These genes are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, which are then translated into proteins by ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

Fungal genomes have been sequenced for many species, revealing a diverse range of genes that encode proteins involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and regulation. Comparative genomic analyses have also provided insights into the evolutionary relationships among different fungal lineages and have helped to identify unique genetic features that distinguish fungi from other eukaryotes.

Understanding fungal genes and their functions is essential for advancing our knowledge of fungal biology, as well as for developing new strategies to control fungal pathogens that can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

Fungal proteins are a type of protein that is specifically produced and present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds. These proteins play various roles in the growth, development, and survival of fungi. They can be involved in the structure and function of fungal cells, metabolism, pathogenesis, and other cellular processes. Some fungal proteins can also have important implications for human health, both in terms of their potential use as therapeutic targets and as allergens or toxins that can cause disease.

Fungal proteins can be classified into different categories based on their functions, such as enzymes, structural proteins, signaling proteins, and toxins. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in fungal cells, while structural proteins provide support and protection for the cell. Signaling proteins are involved in communication between cells and regulation of various cellular processes, and toxins are proteins that can cause harm to other organisms, including humans.

Understanding the structure and function of fungal proteins is important for developing new treatments for fungal infections, as well as for understanding the basic biology of fungi. Research on fungal proteins has led to the development of several antifungal drugs that target specific fungal enzymes or other proteins, providing effective treatment options for a range of fungal diseases. Additionally, further study of fungal proteins may reveal new targets for drug development and help improve our ability to diagnose and treat fungal infections.

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and often life-threatening fungal infections. It works by binding to the ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to the loss of essential cell components and ultimately cell death.

The medical definition of Amphotericin B is:

A polyene antifungal agent derived from Streptomyces nodosus, with a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Amphotericin B is used to treat systemic fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis, among others. It may be administered intravenously or topically, depending on the formulation and the site of infection.

Adverse effects associated with Amphotericin B include infusion-related reactions (such as fever, chills, and hypotension), nephrotoxicity, electrolyte imbalances, and anemia. These side effects are often dose-dependent and may be managed through careful monitoring and adjustment of the dosing regimen.

In a medical context, "nuts" are typically referred to as a type of food that comes from dry fruits with one seed in them. They are often high in healthy fats, fiber, protein, and various essential nutrients. Examples include almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, cashews, pistachios, and pecans. However, it's important to note that some people may have allergies to certain types of nuts, which can cause serious health problems.

Cottonseed oil is a type of vegetable oil that is extracted from the seeds of cotton plants. It is commonly used in cooking and food manufacturing due to its mild flavor, high smoke point, and long shelf life. Cottonseed oil is also used in the production of soaps, cosmetics, and industrial lubricants.

In a medical context, cottonseed oil is not typically used as a treatment or therapy. However, it does contain various nutrients and compounds that may have potential health benefits. For example, cottonseed oil is a good source of vitamin E, which has antioxidant properties that can help protect cells from damage. It also contains essential fatty acids like linoleic acid, which are important for maintaining heart health and reducing inflammation.

It's worth noting that cottonseed oil does contain small amounts of gossypol, a naturally occurring toxin found in cotton plants. While the levels of gossypol in cottonseed oil are generally considered safe for human consumption, high doses or long-term exposure can be harmful. Therefore, it's important to consume cottonseed oil in moderation and as part of a balanced diet.

Eurotiales is an order of fungi that belongs to the class Eurotiomycetes and division Ascomycota. This group includes several important genera of filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium, among others. Many species in this order are saprophytic, meaning they live on dead or decaying organic matter, while some can be pathogenic and cause diseases in plants, animals, and humans.

The fungi in Eurotiales typically produce asexual spores called conidia that are produced in structures called conidiophores. These spores are often dispersed by air and can cause allergies or infections when inhaled. Some species of Aspergillus, for example, can cause severe lung infections in immunocompromised individuals.

Overall, Eurotiales is a diverse and ecologically important group of fungi that have significant impacts on human health, agriculture, and industry.

'Anethum graveolens' is the medical term for a plant species more commonly known as dill. Dill is an herb that belongs to the Apiaceae family and is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has been used in traditional medicine for its carminative, antispasmodic, and sedative properties. The seeds and leaves of dill are used in cooking to add flavor to various dishes, and they are also used to make essential oils and extracts.

In a medical context, dill is sometimes used as a natural remedy for digestive issues such as bloating, gas, and indigestion. It may also have antibacterial and antifungal properties, although more research is needed to confirm these effects. Dill should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Mycelium is not a specifically medical term, but it is a biological term used in fungi and other organisms. Medically, it might be relevant in certain contexts such as discussing fungal infections. Here's the general definition:

Mycelium (my-SEE-lee-um) is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. It is the underground portion of the fungus that supports the growth of the organism and is often responsible for the decomposition of organic material. Mycelium can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and dead or living organisms.

Polygalacturonase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glycosidic linkages in polygalacturonic acid, which is a major component of pectin in plant cell walls. This enzyme is involved in various processes such as fruit ripening, plant defense response, and pathogenesis by breaking down the pectin, leading to softening and breakdown of plant tissues. It is also used in industrial applications for fruit juice extraction, tea fermentation, and textile processing.

'Cassia' is a botanical term that refers to several species of plants in the family Fabaceae, which is also known as the legume family. The most well-known species is Cinnamomum cassia, which is commonly called Chinese cinnamon or cassia cinnamon. This tree is native to China and other parts of Asia, and its bark is used to make a type of cinnamon that is less expensive and has a stronger flavor than Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

Other species of Cassia include Senna obtusifolia, also known as coffee senna or sicklepod, which is a plant native to Africa that is used in traditional medicine, and Cassia fistula, also known as the golden shower tree, which is a tropical tree with large, yellow flowers.

It's worth noting that while some species of Cassia have medicinal uses, others can be toxic if ingested in large quantities. Therefore, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant or herbal remedy for medical purposes.

"Fusarium" is a genus of fungi that are widely distributed in the environment, particularly in soil, water, and on plants. They are known to cause a variety of diseases in animals, including humans, as well as in plants. In humans, Fusarium species can cause localized and systemic infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. These infections often manifest as keratitis (eye infection), onychomycosis (nail infection), and invasive fusariosis, which can affect various organs such as the lungs, brain, and bloodstream. Fusarium species produce a variety of toxins that can contaminate crops and pose a threat to food safety and human health.

A fruiting body, in the context of mycology (the study of fungi), refers to the part of a fungus that produces spores for sexual or asexual reproduction. These structures are often what we typically think of as mushrooms or toadstools, although not all fungal fruiting bodies resemble these familiar forms.

Fungal fruiting bodies can vary greatly in size, shape, and color, depending on the species of fungus. They may be aboveground, like the caps and stalks of mushrooms, or underground, like the tiny, thread-like structures known as "corals" in some species.

The primary function of a fruiting body is to produce and disperse spores, which can give rise to new individuals when they germinate under favorable conditions. The development of a fruiting body is often triggered by environmental factors such as moisture, temperature, and nutrient availability.

Echinocandins are a class of antifungal medications that inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-β-D-glucan, a key component of the fungal cell wall. This results in osmotic instability and ultimately leads to fungal cell death. Echinocandins are commonly used to treat invasive fungal infections caused by Candida species and Aspergillus species. The three drugs in this class that are approved for use in humans are caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.

Here's a brief overview of each drug:

1. Caspofungin (Cancidas, Cancidas-W): This is the first echinocandin to be approved for use in humans. It is indicated for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, including candidemia, acute disseminated candidiasis, and other forms of Candida infections. Caspofungin is also approved for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
2. Micafungin (Mycamine): This echinocandin is approved for the treatment of candidemia, esophageal candidiasis, and other forms of Candida infections. It is also used for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
3. Anidulafungin (Eraxis): This echinocandin is approved for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis and candidemia, as well as other forms of Candida infections. It is also used for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Echinocandins have a broad spectrum of activity against many fungal species, including those that are resistant to other classes of antifungal medications. They are generally well-tolerated and have a low incidence of drug interactions. However, they should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment, as their metabolism may be affected by liver dysfunction.

Dermatomycoses are a group of fungal infections that affect the skin, hair, and nails. These infections are caused by various types of fungi, including dermatophytes, yeasts, and molds. Dermatophyte infections, also known as tinea, are the most common type of dermatomycoses and can affect different areas of the body, such as the scalp (tinea capitis), beard (tinea barbae), body (tinea corporis), feet (tinea pedis or athlete's foot), hands (tinea manuum), and nails (tinea unguium or onychomycosis). Yeast infections, such as those caused by Candida albicans, can lead to conditions like candidal intertrigo, vulvovaginitis, and balanitis. Mold infections are less common but can cause skin disorders like scalded skin syndrome and phaeohyphomycosis. Dermatomycoses are typically treated with topical or oral antifungal medications.

"Gossypium" is the scientific name for the cotton plant. It belongs to the Malvaceae family and is native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The cotton plant produces soft, fluffy fibers that are used to make a wide variety of textiles, including clothing, bedding, and other household items.

The medical community may use the term "Gossypium" in certain contexts, such as when discussing allergic reactions or sensitivities to cotton products. However, it is more commonly used in botany and agriculture than in medical terminology.

Air microbiology is the study of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, that are present in the air. These microorganisms can be suspended in the air as particles or carried within droplets of liquid, such as those produced when a person coughs or sneezes.

Air microbiology is an important field of study because it helps us understand how these microorganisms are transmitted and how they may affect human health. For example, certain airborne bacteria and fungi can cause respiratory infections, while airborne viruses can cause diseases such as the common cold and influenza.

Air microbiology involves various techniques for collecting and analyzing air samples, including culturing microorganisms on growth media, using molecular biology methods to identify specific types of microorganisms, and measuring the concentration of microorganisms in the air. This information can be used to develop strategies for controlling the spread of airborne pathogens and protecting public health.

Gene expression regulation in fungi refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins and other functional gene products in response to various internal and external stimuli. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and adaptation of fungal cells to changing environmental conditions.

In fungi, gene expression is regulated at multiple levels, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational modifications. Key regulatory mechanisms include:

1. Transcription factors (TFs): These proteins bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes and either activate or repress their transcription. Fungi have a diverse array of TFs that respond to various signals, such as nutrient availability, stress, developmental cues, and quorum sensing.
2. Chromatin remodeling: The organization and compaction of DNA into chromatin can influence gene expression. Fungi utilize ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifying enzymes to alter chromatin structure, thereby facilitating or inhibiting the access of transcriptional machinery to genes.
3. Non-coding RNAs: Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) play a role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in fungi. These sncRNAs can guide RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complexes to specific target loci, leading to the repression of gene expression through histone modifications and DNA methylation.
4. Alternative splicing: Fungi employ alternative splicing mechanisms to generate multiple mRNA isoforms from a single gene, thereby increasing proteome diversity. This process can be regulated by RNA-binding proteins that recognize specific sequence motifs in pre-mRNAs and promote or inhibit splicing events.
5. Protein stability and activity: Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, can influence their stability, localization, and activity. These PTMs play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including signal transduction, stress response, and cell cycle progression.

Understanding the complex interplay between these regulatory mechanisms is essential for elucidating the molecular basis of fungal development, pathogenesis, and drug resistance. This knowledge can be harnessed to develop novel strategies for combating fungal infections and improving agricultural productivity.

Ultraviolet microscopy (UV microscopy) is a type of microscopy that uses ultraviolet light to visualize specimens. In this technique, ultraviolet radiation is used as the illumination source, and a special objective lens and filter are used to detect the resulting fluorescence emitted by the specimen.

The sample is usually stained with a fluorescent dye that absorbs the ultraviolet light and re-emits it at a longer wavelength, which can then be detected by the microscope's detector system. This technique allows for the visualization of structures or components within the specimen that may not be visible using traditional brightfield microscopy.

UV microscopy is commonly used in biological research to study the structure and function of cells, tissues, and proteins. It can also be used in forensic science to analyze evidence such as fingerprints, fibers, and other trace materials. However, it's important to note that UV radiation can be harmful to living tissue, so special precautions must be taken when using this technique.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

... Genome Sequencing Project Aspergillus flavus research (CS1 maint: archived copy as title, Articles with ... flavus. Nonaflatoxin spore dispersal is aided by wind and insects. Aspergillus flavus infections will not always reduce crop ... Aspergillus flavus is complex in its morphology and can be classified into two groups based on the size of sclerotia produced. ... Aspergillus flavus colonies are commonly powdery masses of yellowish-green spores on the upper surface and reddish-gold on the ...
Aspergillus flavus is a fungus of the family Trichocomaceae with a worldwide distribution. The mold lives in soil, surviving ... Aflatoxin B1 is an aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. It is a very potent carcinogen with a TD50 3.2 ... "Aspergillus flavus :: Center for Integrated Fungal Research". www.cifr.ncsu.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-08. "Definition of ... The widespread death was later found to be caused by Aspergillus flavus contamination of peanut meal. Twelve patients died of ...
Aspergillus Flavus-Oryzae Group". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 29 (9): 282- ...
In March 2010, Aspergillus covered 837 species of fungi. Notable species placed in Aspergillus include: Aspergillus flavus is a ... The genomes of some Aspergillus species, such as A. flavus and A. oryzae, are more rich and around 20% larger than others, such ... TIGR, now renamed the J. Craig Venter Institute, is currently spearheading a project on the A. flavus genome. Aspergillus is ... Horn BW, Moore GG, Carbone I (2009). "Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus". Mycologia. 101 (3): 423-9. doi:10.3852/09-011 ...
... flavus called Aspergillus flavus subsp. parasiticus (Speare) due to its strong resemblance to A. flavus. Indeed, this fungus is ... "Anti-aspergillus Properties of Phytochemicals Against Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus". ... "Characterization and population analysis of the mating-type genes in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus". Fungal ... "Inhibitory Effects of Thai Essential Oils on Potentially Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus". ...
Thom, C; Church, MB (1921). "Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae and associated species". Am. J. Bot. 8 (2): 103-126. doi:10.2307/ ... She co-authored the first manual on Aspergillus with Charles Thom and worked with Thom on his treatise on Penicillium. She was ... Margaret Brooks Church (1889-1976) was an American mycologist who specialized in Aspergillus and other fungi involved in food ... and studied other Asian soy fermentations involving the fungus known as Aspergillus oryzae. This research culminated in her ...
Aflatoxin B1, a polyketide from Aspergillus flavus. Ciclosporin, a non-ribosomal cyclic peptide from Tolypocladium inflatum. ...
The funguses Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium spp. have been recorded on the seeds of the plant in the Philippines. In the ...
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and the rare Aspergillus nomius - which contaminate plant and plant products. ... Aspergillus flavus produces only B-type aflatoxins. Aflatoxin M1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 and can be ... Aflatoxin M1 is a chemical compound of the aflatoxin class, a group of mycotoxins produced by three species of Aspergillus - ...
Die fadenpilze, aspergillus flavus, niger u. fumigatus; eurotium repens (u. aspergillus glaucus) und ihre beziehungen zur ... Aspergillus flavus, niger and fumigatus; Eurotium repens (Aspergillus glaucus) and their relationships to otomycosis. Die ...
"Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer". Journal of Medical Microbiology. 153 (6): 1677-1692. doi: ... Aspergillus terreus, also known as Aspergillus terrestris, is a fungus (mold) found worldwide in soil. Although thought to be ... Aspergillus terreus is not as common as other Aspergillus species to cause opportunistic infections in animals and humans. ... "ASPERGILLUS TERREUS" (PDF). IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria No. 1253. Retrieved 14 October 2013. "ASPERGILLUS TERREUS" ( ...
The enzyme can be found in Aspergillus flavus. It is an enzyme in the rutin catabolic pathway. "EC 3.2.1.66 - quercitrinase". ...
Amare, MG; Keller, NP (May 2014). "Molecular mechanisms of Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolism and development". Fungal ... The proteins were first characterized in Aspergillus nidulans. Some proteins in the complex are light-sensitive, including the ...
Chang PK, Ehrlich KC, Fujii I (December 2009). "Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae". ... Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus versicolor. CPA only appears to be toxic in high concentrations. Ingestion of CPA causes ... Cyclopiazonic acid (α-CPA), a mycotoxin and a fungal neurotoxin, is made by the molds Aspergillus and Penicillium. It is an ... Liu X, Walsh CT (September 2009). "Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis in Aspergillus sp.: characterization of a reductase-like R* ...
The enzyme quercitrinase can be found in Aspergillus flavus. This enzyme hydrolyzes the glycoside quercitrin to release ...
The essential oils inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus. The United States Food and Drug Administration regards that foods ...
Upadhyay MP, West EP, Sharma AP (January 1980). "Keratitis due to Aspergillus flavus successfully treated with thiabendazole". ...
"Antiinsectan aflavinine derivatives from the sclerotia of Aspergillus flavus". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 53 (23): 5457- ...
Her master's thesis, Production of antibiotic substances by aspergillus flavus and chaetomium cochliodes, looked to optimise ... Production of antibiotic substances by aspergillus flavus and chaetomium cochliodes. Waksman, Selman A.; Bugie, Elizabeth (1943 ...
Water Activity and Antifungal Agents on Growth of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus". Journal of Food Science. 48 (3): 778- ... Aspergillus flavus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cladophialophora bantiana, Histoplasma capsulatum, Mucor sp., Sporothrix ... Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species, among others, can degrade high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons as well as assist ... Penicillium and Aspergillus species are the largest producers of antibacterial compounds among the marine fungi. Various deep- ...
Aspergillus flavus known to have termiticidal activity against O. assmuthi. "An annotated checklist of termites (Isoptera) from ...
Other species of Aspergillus include A. flavus and A. terreus. The major risk factors for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are ... Aspergillosis is an infection caused by fungi from the genus Aspergillus. The vast majority of cases are caused by Aspergillus ... Aspergillus can form single or multiple nodules which may or may not form a cavity. Whilst usually benign in nature, they can ... To confirm Aspergillus nodules as opposed to aspergilloma, these must be seen directly on imaging or confirmed by percutaneous ...
The most common pathogenic species are Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxin ... Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus clavatus can cause allergic disease. Some Aspergillus species cause disease on grain ... The spores of Aspergillus fumigatus are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. A. fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen. It can cause ... Aspergillosis is the group of diseases caused by Aspergillus. The symptoms include fever, cough, chest pain or breathlessness. ...
Different Aspergillus strains are capable of making various hydroxypyrazine derivatives. Aspergillus flavus is used to produce ... In 1940 Edwin C. White and Justina H. Hill discovered that a fungal strain of Aspergillus flavus growing in a surface culture ... Scientists have since been working with the Aspergillus flavus strain to produce various types of antibacterial substances. The ... "Aspergillic Acid: An Antibiotic Substance Produced by Aspergillus flavus I. General Properties; Formation of Desoxyaspergillic ...
The first report on retting of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) by pectin lyase produced by Aspergillus flavus MTCC 7589 was ... "Purification and characterization of an alkaline pectin lyase from Aspergillus flavus". Process Biochem. 43 (5): 547-552. doi: ... Pickersgill R, Jenkins J (1997). "Two crystal structures of pectin lyase A from Aspergillus reveal a pH driven conformational ... a novel pectinolytic enzyme from Aspergillus niger". FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 120 (1-2): 63-68. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994. ...
on growth of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus and accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in groundnut". Mycological Research. 93 (4 ... oncomensis and Rhizopus oligosporus reduce the aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus. However, aflatoxin-producing molds ( ... sanitation and hygiene are important to avoid contaminating the culture with bacteria or other fungi like Aspergillus flavus ( ... Aspergillus spp.) are often naturally present on peanut presscake. Furthermore, coconut presscake can harbor the very dangerous ...
Cryptic speciation and recombination in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. Proceedings of the National Academy ... His thesis was entitled "Population genetic, chromosomal, and phylogenetic patterns associated with meiosis in Aspergillus. He ...
It has been also isolated from Solanum nigrum fungal endophyte Aspergillus flavus. It is a glycoalkaloid derived from the ...
Aspergillus flavus (Aspergillus ear rot) is a documented pest of Unonopsis guatterioides.[citation needed] U. guatterioides is ...
Bassir, O.; Adekunle, A. A. (1972). "Production of aflatoxin B1 from defined natural cultures of Aspergillus flavus (link)". ... 1972 Production of aflatoxin B 1 from defined natural cultures of Aspergillus flavus (Link). "New Scientist: The professor's ...
Aspergillus flavus Genome Sequencing Project Aspergillus flavus research (CS1 maint: archived copy as title, Articles with ... flavus. Nonaflatoxin spore dispersal is aided by wind and insects. Aspergillus flavus infections will not always reduce crop ... Aspergillus flavus is complex in its morphology and can be classified into two groups based on the size of sclerotia produced. ... Aspergillus flavus colonies are commonly powdery masses of yellowish-green spores on the upper surface and reddish-gold on the ...
Aspergillus flavus Link, anamorph Synonyms. Aspergillus fasciculatus Batista et Maia, anamorph Depositors. PJ Cotty Type of ... To download a certificate of origin for Aspergillus flavus Link (MYA-382), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your ... To download a certificate of analysis for Aspergillus flavus Link (MYA-382), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your ... The certificate of analysis for that lot of Aspergillus flavus Link (MYA-382) is not currently available online. Complete this ...
Immunodiffusion (Precipitin Aspergillus Flavus IgG). Related Tests. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: Immunoglobulin E ... Aspergillus polyvalent mix (M1), Aspergilllus fumagatus #6 (ASPF6), Aspergillus fumagatus specific IgE (RM3), Aspergillus ...
Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus that infects corn, peanuts, tree nuts and other agriculturally important crops. Once ... Whole genome comparison of Aspergillus flavus L-morphotype strain NRRL 3357 (type) and S-morphotype strain AF70. Gilbert MK, ... Within A. flavus, two morphotypes exist: the S strains (small sclerotia) and L strains (large sclerotia). Significant ... Here we report the first full genome sequence of an A. flavus S morphotype, strain AF70. We provide a comprehensive comparison ...
Antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus flavus ATCC 15517 after 48 hr by broth micro dilution assay. ...
Aspergillus flavus. A rapidly growing fungus that produces a yellow-green colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF ...
Aspergillus flavus is more common in air than A. fumigatus, for unclear reasons. After A. fumigatus, A. flavus is the second ... The genome of the highly related Aspergillus oryzae is completed and available; that of A. flavus in the final stages of ... Accurate species identification within Aspergillus flavus complex remains difficult due to overlapping morphological and ... The flavus complex currently includes 23 species or varieties, including two sexual species, Petromyces alliaceus and P. ...
Antigen Species: Aspergillus flavus. Depositor Notes: glycoprotein. Functional effects: The antibody has been used ... Immunogen: PBS cell surface washings (5 ml) of a plate culture of Aspergillus flavus isolate 93803 ... quantitatively, by plate and tube ELISA to determine the levels of infection of Aspergillus and Penicillium in grape berries. ... AF-CA2 mouse Aspergillus flavus isolate 93803 antibody ... Aspergillus flavus isolate 93803. Epitope Location or Sequence ...
Figure 5 shows the amount of AFB1 produced by the AF+ strains of Aspergillus flavus, including AKR8−, ARV17+, ARV18+, ARV20+, ... Growth Rates of Aspergillus flavus on Malt Extract Agar. The diametric growth rates of AF+ and AF− strains on MEA after a 7 d ... Inhibitory effects of Thai essential oils on potentially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. ... Moore, G.G.; Mack, B.M.; Beltz, S.B. Testing the efficacy of eGFP-transformed Aspergillus flavus as biocontrol strains. Food ...
Aflatoxin contamination caused by the opportunistic pathogen A. flavus is a major concern in maize production prior to harvest ... flavus infection. However, little is known about induced resistance nor about defense gene expression and regulation in ... flavus challenge. Inoculated kernels were incubated 72 h via the laboratory-based Kernel Screening Assay (KSA), which ...
Teena M, Manickavasagan A, Al-Sadi AM, Al-Yahyai R, Deadman M, Al-Ismaili A. Near infrared imaging to detect Aspergillus flavus ... Near infrared imaging to detect Aspergillus flavus infection in three varieties of dates. / Teena, M.; Manickavasagan, A.; Al- ... keywords = "Aspergillus flavus, Date fruits, Fungal infection, Near infrared imaging",. author = "M. Teena and A. ... Near infrared imaging to detect Aspergillus flavus infection in three varieties of dates. في: Engineering in Agriculture, ...
Aspergillus flavus is a major problem globally due to the production of acutely toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins. Louisiana ... The purpose of this study was to determine the specific ability of different strains of A. flavus to infect corn. Five soil ... Further understanding of virulence of A. flavus is important for the development of a better biocontrol against toxigenic A. ... Six hundred twelve and 255 A. flavus colonies were isolated from the corn and soil samples, respectively. Isolates were ...
... Ben Miri, ... A total of 387 fungal species were isolated from Couscous samples, with Aspergillus flavus BN (20) which is identified as the ... The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of M. pulegium and M. communis EOs against the toxigenic strain of A. flavus BN (20 ... flavus contamination indicating their efficacy as sustainable fumigant in food systems ...
Identification of a clonal population of Aspergillus flavus by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry using deep learning *Anne-Cécile ...
Antifungal activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Agaricus bisporus were determined in vitro against Aspergillus flavus ... the maximum effect of ethanolic extract against Aspergillus flavus growth was achieved at concentration 10 mg/ml, the growth ... The antifungal activity of aqueous and alcoholic extract of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) against Aspergillus flavus Download640 ... The antifungal activity of aqueous and alcoholic extract of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) against Aspergillus flavus IMDC-SDSP. ...
Aspergillus candidus eumycetoma with review of literature. J Mycol Med. 2021 Sep. 31 (3):101135. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
The Solvent Dimethyl Sulfoxide Affects Physiology, Transcriptome and Secondary Metabolism of Aspergillus flavus. *Vous ètes ici ... The Solvent Dimethyl Sulfoxide Affects Physiology, Transcriptome and Secondary Metabolism of Aspergillus flavus. 1,20 € Costes ... The Solvent Dimethyl Sulfoxide Affects Physiology, Transcriptome and Secondary Metabolism of Aspergillus flavus ...
The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of carvacrol as an active compound against the growth of Aspergillus flavus ... Twelve fungal samples of A. flavus were used and the antimicrobial activity of carvacrol was tested against them using the ... Together the results demonstrated that carvacrol not only exhibited antimicrobial activity against A. flavus but also reduced ... flavus, respectively. The RT-PCR result indicated that the expression level of aflR gene had decreased to 33% in the presence ...
Most commonly, Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus. Less common species include A. terreus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. ... Note that Aspergillus fungi can sometimes be found in the lung airways of patients who do not have an Aspergillus infection (a ... Testing for Aspergillus in Patients with Severe Lung Infections. Several types of tests may be helpful in diagnosing ... Beta-d-glucan assay: This test also detects a component in the cell wall of Aspergillus spp, as well as other fungi. The ...
Tsimikas S, Hollingsworth HM, Nash G. Aspergillus brain abscess complicating allergic Aspergillus sinusitis. J Allergy Clin ... Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993 Sep. 119(9):1042-3. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Tsimikas et al report a single case of an Aspergillus frontal lobe abscess that occurred following surgical treatment of ...
Peanut seeds are susceptible to Aspergillus flavus infection, which has a severe impact on the peanut industry and human health ... Aflatoxinas; Transcriptoma; Humanos; Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo; Arachis/genética; Arachis/metabolismo; Ácido alfa- ... Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Analyses of the Response of Resistant Peanut Seeds to Aspergillus flavus Infection. ... These results can be used to further elucidate the molecular mechanism of peanut resistance to A. flavus infection and provide ...
RNA-seq analysis revealed that 3,808 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found in A. flavus CCTCC AF 2023038 treated by ... Overall, TFE exhibited excellent antioxidant ability and fungal inhibition against A. flavus CCTCC AF 2023038 due to its ... and 2-ketobutyric acid exhibited antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavusCCTCC AF 2023038. The antifungal mechanism of 2- ... flower extract and insights into its antifungal susceptibilities of Aspergillus flavus ...
Amoeba Nosodes 30X, 60X, 200X, Aspergillus Flavus 4CH, Aspergillus Niger 3CH, ATP 5X, Bacillinum Nosodes 12X, 30X, 60X, ... Shop / Product Ingredients / Amoeba Nosodes 30X, 60X, 200X, Aspergillus Flavus 4CH, Aspergillus Niger 3CH, ATP 5X, Bacillinum ...
Aspergillus species of fungi have been known to be one of the most prevalent aeroallergens. One important A flavus allergen ( ... Characterization of a Novel Allergen, a Major Ige-Binding Protein from Aspergillus Flavus, as an Alkaline Serine Protease. ... mold allergens;IgE-binding activity;alkaline serine protease;Aspergillus flavus;CDNA CLONE;FUMIGATUS. ... The IgE binding capacity of rAsp fi 1 was tested by immunoblotting using a serum pool of Aspergillus-allergic patients. ...
... com o objetivo de investigar a atividade fungicida desses derivados contra os fungos Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus ... resultados mostraram que a quitosana substituída com grupos propil exibiu uma baixa inibição contra o fungo Aspergillus flavus ... Resultados similares foram obtidos no estudo de inibição do fungo Aspergillus parasiticus ... estudo in vitro contra os fungos Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus parasiticus. 2013. 75 f. Dissertação (mestrado) - ...
Some 2S albumin from peanut seeds exhibits inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, ...
Comparison of aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus at different temperatures and media: Proteome analysis based on TMT. ... Comparison of aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus at different temperatures and media: Proteome analysis based on TMT. ... Aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus is affected by abiotic factors such as temperature, water activity, oxidative stress ... A. flavus produces more aflatoxin at 28 °C compared to 37 °C. Our study also found that A. flavus cultured on solid media ...
Peer Review History: In vivo Efficacy of Posaconazole (POS) against Voriconazole Resistant (VCZ-R) Aspergillus flavus in an ...
Of the 20 there are six strains were identified as Aspergillus species. Among the Six strains Aspergillus flavus showed maximum ... Factors influencing the ramie cellulase synthesis in aspergillus flavus by assessment of decortication and degumming Author: ... Aspergillus flavus showed the production of higher activity of cellulase enzyme consisting of endoglucanase yielded higher ... In the present study deals with the isolation and screening of freshly isolated potent fungal strain as Aspergillus flavus for ...
  • Aflatoxins (AFs) are predominantly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Yin HB, Chen CH, Kollanoor-Johny A, Darre MJ, Venkitanarayanan K. Controlling Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production in poultry feed using carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde. (ac.ir)
  • Scherm B, Palomba M, Serra D, Marcello A, Migheli Q. Detection of transcripts of the aflatoxin genes aflD, aflO, and aflP by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction allows differentiation of aflatoxin-producing and non-producing isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. (ac.ir)
  • Yin H-B, Chen C-H, Kollanoor-Johny A, Darre MJ, Venkitanarayanan K. Controlling Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production in poultry feed using carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde. (ac.ir)
  • No presente trabalho foram sintetizados e caracterizados derivados de quitosana contendo grupos quaternários de amônio com proporções crescentes de grupos hidrofóbicos com o objetivo de investigar a atividade fungicida desses derivados contra os fungos Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus parasiticus que são um problema na contaminação do amendoim e outros grãos. (unesp.br)
  • In this study were synthesized and characterized chitosan derivatives containing quaternary ammonium groups with increasing proportions of hydrophobic groups in order to investigate the antifungal activity of these derivatives against the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that are a problem in the contamination of peanuts and other grains. (unesp.br)
  • Le aflatossine sono micotossine prodotte da due specie di Aspergillus section Flavi, Aspergillus flavus e A. parasiticus. (unicatt.it)
  • The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. (hindawi.com)
  • Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (hindawi.com)
  • The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus . (hindawi.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are two of the most important toxigenic moulds [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The identification of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus isolates was confirmed by Regional Center of the Fungi and their Applications, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. (hindawi.com)
  • Aflatoxins are natural secondary metabolites produced by the fungal mold Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. (usda.gov)
  • Aflatoxin is produced by two different types of fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus , and is an extremely potent liver carcinogen. (salon.com)
  • Unique to the S strains is the production of aflatoxin G1 and G2 which typically are not produced by A. flavus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within A. flavus, two morphotypes exist: the S strains (small sclerotia) and L strains (large sclerotia). (jcvi.org)
  • The pre-harvest biocontrol approach currently used includes laboratory inoculations using non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the specific ability of different strains of A. flavus to infect corn. (lsu.edu)
  • Of the 20 there are six strains were identified as Aspergillus species. (journalcra.com)
  • Among the Six strains Aspergillus flavus showed maximum colony count at 72 hours of incubation. (journalcra.com)
  • New insights on Aspergillus flavus population in maize crops to boost the application of biocontrol with atoxigenic strains in Europe", Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, XXXV ciclo, a.a. 2021/22, Piacenza, [http://hdl.handle.net/10280/146607]. (unicatt.it)
  • The use of atoxigenic strains of A.flavus has been demonstrated as an effective tool to consistently reduce aflatoxin content in different crops. (unicatt.it)
  • Extraction of EO-JC was performed by use of hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and the EOs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antifungal activity of EO-JC was evaluated by the use of solid-state diffusion (disc method) and microdilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), against three strains of fungus, Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus flavus, and Fusarium oxysporum . (hindawi.com)
  • Several strains of Aspergillus fungi produce aflatoxins, which are complex, harmful pathogens that attack several crops, including field corn. (farmprogress.com)
  • Some strains of the A. flavus fungus produce aflatoxins, but others do not. (farmprogress.com)
  • Damann said some strains of A. flavus are actually nontoxic and can stop toxic strains from producing aflatoxins when the two infect the same grain. (farmprogress.com)
  • To identify which strains effectively prevent the production of aflatoxins, Damann and Zhi-Yuan Chen, AgCenter plant biologist, are sorting through the multitude of A. flavus strains to determine which are the 'bad guys. (farmprogress.com)
  • Eventually, it could be used in conjunction with nontoxic A. flavus strains in a spray to reduce aflatoxins in grain. (farmprogress.com)
  • We want to have not just one strain of these organisms for biocontrol, but multiple ones that cover the spectrum of damaging A. flavus strains in the field,' Damann said. (farmprogress.com)
  • This test also detects a component in the cell wall of Aspergillus spp, as well as other fungi. (cdc.gov)
  • Aspergillus species of fungi have been known to be one of the most prevalent aeroallergens. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • Aflatoxins are a family of compounds naturally produced by certain fungi, most often mold from the Aspergillus Flavus species. (msu.edu)
  • Aspergillus species are the most common environmental fungi, being prolific saprophytes in soil and decaying vegetation. (medscape.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that infects peanuts, cotton, corn and tree nuts. (lsu.edu)
  • A total of 387 fungal species were isolated from Couscous samples, with Aspergillus flavus BN (20) which is identified as the highest aflatoxin producer. (uvigo.es)
  • Twelve fungal samples of A. flavus were used and the antimicrobial activity of carvacrol was tested against them using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) according to the broth microdilution procedure. (ac.ir)
  • In the present study deals with the isolation and screening of freshly isolated potent fungal strain as Aspergillus flavus for the production of cellulase enzyme consisting of the endoglucanase. (journalcra.com)
  • the application of AF-X1 promotes the creation of these safer Aspergillus populations, with no significant effects on the total fungal communities. (unicatt.it)
  • The aflatoxins are a group of chemically similar toxic fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) produced by genus Aspergillus . (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, A. flavus produces aflatoxins, the most toxic and potent hepatocarcinogenic natural compounds ever characterized. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Aspergillus flavus is a major problem globally due to the production of acutely toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins. (lsu.edu)
  • It's important to note that the presence of Aspergillus Flavus on a crop does not automatically mean that the crop's contaminated with aflatoxins. (msu.edu)
  • The 3 leading species, 4 months of treatment with intravenous ceftazidime, oral by decreasing frequency, are A. fumigatus , A. flavus , and ciprofloxacin, and topical neomycin, polymyxin B, dexa- A. niger ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, most of the studies have focused on Aspergillus fumigatus , the most prevalent species in the genus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Accurate species identification within Aspergillus flavus complex remains difficult due to overlapping morphological and biochemical characteristics, and much taxonomic and population genetics work is necessary to better understand the species and related species. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Pathogenic Aspergillus species recovered from a hospital water system: a 3-year prospective study. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Four new species of Aspergillus from Ivory Coast Soil. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • from the Aspergillus Flavus species ( 1 , 2 ). (msu.edu)
  • In order to study the relationship between the distribution and aflatoxin production capacity of Aspergillus species and soil types, 35 soil samples were collected from the main peanut planting areas in Xiangyang, which has 19.7 thousand square kilometers and is located in a special area with different soil types. (mdpi.com)
  • More than 160 species and variants of Aspergillus organisms have been discovered, although only 10 are pathogenic in humans. (medscape.com)
  • Orofacial lesions caused by Aspergillus species include antral aspergilloma, invasive aspergillosis of the antrum, indolent chronic sinusitis, allergic sinusitis, and oral lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus is a saprotrophic and pathogenic fungus with a cosmopolitan distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus that infects corn, peanuts, tree nuts and other agriculturally important crops. (jcvi.org)
  • The antifungal activity of deacetylated chitosan and their derivatives was tested by varying the concentration of the polymers 0.1 to 1.0 g/L. The results showed that chitosan substituted with propyl groups exhibited a low inhibition against the fungus Aspergillus flavus, a result similar to that obtained with chitosan deacetylated. (unesp.br)
  • Aspergillus flavus is a significant fungus that poses a threat to food safety by producing mycotoxins in various crops. (usda.gov)
  • Aspergillus flavus is a soil-borne fungus that is ubiquitous,' Damann said. (farmprogress.com)
  • Aspergillosis is an opportunistic infection that usually affects the lower respiratory tract and is caused by inhaling spores of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus , commonly present in the environment. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. (amrita.edu)
  • Magnetic that the A. flavus strain was sensitive to voriconazole resonance imaging revealed an unusual ink smudge pat- (MIC 0.380 mg/L) and resistant to amphotericin B (MIC tern deep in a cervical abscess. (cdc.gov)
  • Whole genome comparison of Aspergillus flavus L-morphotype strain NRRL 3357 (type) and S-morphotype strain AF70. (jcvi.org)
  • Here we report the first full genome sequence of an A. flavus S morphotype, strain AF70. (jcvi.org)
  • We provide a comprehensive comparison of the A. flavus S-morphotype genome sequence with a previously sequenced genome of an L-morphotype strain (NRRL 3357), including an in-depth analysis of secondary metabolic clusters and the identification SNPs within their aflatoxin gene clusters. (jcvi.org)
  • The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of M. pulegium and M. communis EOs against the toxigenic strain of A. flavus BN (20) determined to be 4.00 μL/mL, whereas the MIC of M. piperita was 3.50 μL/mL. (uvigo.es)
  • AF-X1 is a commercial aflatoxin biocontrol product containing the non-aflatoxigenic (AF-) strain of Aspergillus flavus MUCL54911 (VCG IT006) endemic to Italy, as an active ingredient. (unicatt.it)
  • View of Biocontrol of toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus isolated from the root tubers of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. (ansfoundation.org)
  • A. flavus is also an opportunistic human and animal pathogen, causing aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aflatoxin contamination caused by the opportunistic pathogen A. flavus is a major concern in maize production prior to harvest and through storage. (iita.org)
  • as well as to estimate the presence and absence of the PCR products corresponding to amplification of aflD , aflM , aflP , aflR , and aflS genes in aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates isolated from stored cashew. (hindawi.com)
  • Further understanding of virulence of A. flavus is important for the development of a better biocontrol against toxigenic A. flavus and possibly more resistant hybrids of corn. (lsu.edu)
  • Furthermore, our research also revealed aflatoxin synthesis is a complex process that is affected by a variety of factors such as nutrient uptake, oxidative stress, sclerotia development, G protein signaling pathways and valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation, and a speculative model summarizing the regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. flavus is presented. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • Comprehensive analysis of aflatoxin B biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus via transcriptome-wide mA methylome response to cycloleucine. (cdc.gov)
  • Maize is frequently contaminated with multiple mycotoxins, especially those produced by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. (usda.gov)
  • After A. fumigatus , A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis and it is the most common cause of superficial infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Particularly common clinical syndromes associated with A. flavus include chronic granulomatous sinusitis, keratitis, cutaneous aspergillosis, wound infections and osteomyelitis following trauma and inoculation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The incubation period for aspergillosis is unclear and likely varies depending on the dose of Aspergillus and the host immune response. (cdc.gov)
  • As mycotoxin contamination is a critical factor that destabilizes global food safety, the current review provides an updated overview of the (co-)occurrence of A. flavus and F. verticillioides and (co-)contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) in maize. (usda.gov)
  • Specifically, A. flavus infection causes ear rot in corn and yellow mold in peanuts either before or after harvest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence of A. flavus infection increases in the presence of insects and any type of stress on the host in the field as a result of damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus flavus -infection of a pacemaker wire: continuing evidence for active management of infected pacemakers. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Functional effects: The antibody has been used quantitatively, by plate and tube ELISA to determine the levels of infection of Aspergillus and Penicillium in grape berries. (uiowa.edu)
  • Previous studies have highlighted the constitutive production of proteins involved in maize kernel resistance against A. flavus' infection. (iita.org)
  • Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Analyses of the Response of Resistant Peanut Seeds to Aspergillus flavus Infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Peanut seeds are susceptible to Aspergillus flavus infection , which has a severe impact on the peanut industry and human health . (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differential metabolites during A. flavus infection between Zhonghua 6 and Yuanza 9102 by transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis . (bvsalud.org)
  • These results can be used to further elucidate the molecular mechanism of peanut resistance to A. flavus infection and provide directions for early detection of infection and for breeding peanut varieties resistant to aflatoxin contamination . (bvsalud.org)
  • Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection. (amrita.edu)
  • To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and Aspergillus infecting joints. (amrita.edu)
  • We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (amrita.edu)
  • Protease ( Aspergillus flavus var. (lifestylemarkets.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus, isolated from spoiled sample of casein produced 1.6 U of extracellular protease/g of solid substrate in 10 days of incubation period. (niscpr.res.in)
  • Studies of the genomics, taxonomy, population genetics, pathogenicity, allergenicity and antifungal susceptibility of A. flavus are all required. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Schlosser I, Prange A. Antifungal activity of selected natural preservatives against the foodborne molds Penicillium verrucosum and Aspergillus westerdijkiae . (ac.ir)
  • Cashew nut ( Anacardium occidentale L.) is characterized by the high percentage of carbohydrates and lipids which facilitates attacking them by moulds, specifically Penicillium and Aspergillus [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The results of MIC and MFC tests showed that carvacrol at 0.8 μg/ml and 3.5 μg/ml concentrations displayed antimicrobial activities on A. flavus , respectively. (ac.ir)
  • Together the results demonstrated that carvacrol not only exhibited antimicrobial activity against A. flavus but also reduced its gene expression level. (ac.ir)
  • In this study, maize oligonucleotide arrays and a pair of closely-related maize lines varying in aflatoxin accumulation were used to reveal the gene expression network in imbibed mature kernels in response to A. flavus' challenge. (iita.org)
  • Comparisons between the resistant and susceptible lines indicate differences in the gene expression network which may enhance our understanding of the maize-A. flavus interaction. (iita.org)
  • Carvacrol and thymol as potential preservatives against Aspergillus in maize grains. (ac.ir)
  • Aflatoxin was determined in liquid media at 28 °C, solid media at 28 °C and solid media at 37 °C. The proteomic method was used to elucidate the mechanism of aflatoxin production in A. flavus in liquid media at 28 °C, solid media at 28 °C and solid media at 37 °C. Potential factors affecting aflatoxin production were found by GO and KEGG analysis. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus genomics will help our understanding in the mechanism of aflatoxin formation for devising strategies to reduce or eliminate aflatoxin contamination of food and feed. (usda.gov)
  • En principe, la contamination par les mycotoxines pourrait être diminuée chez les hybrides commerciaux de maïs par des saisons de croissance plus courtes en plantant à des dates qui minimisent le stress sur les plantes au moment de la période critique du remplissage des grains. (erudit.org)
  • De même, la contamination supérieure aux niveaux légalement acceptés a été moindre en 2005 et dans l'ensemble pour les semis de la mi-avril. (erudit.org)
  • In order to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination of food and feed, Aspergillus flavus genomics programs have been initiated in collaboration with national and international research institutions. (usda.gov)
  • One important A flavus allergen (Asp fl 1) was identified by means of immunoblotting with a serum pool of allergic patients on a two-dimensional electrophoretic gel. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • Recombinant Asp fl 1 (rAsp fl 1) was cloned into vector pQE-30 and expressed in E. coli M15 as a histidine-tag fusion protein and purified to homogeneity, The IgE binding capacity of rAsp fi 1 was tested by immunoblotting using a serum pool of Aspergillus-allergic patients. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • Some 2S albumin from peanut seeds exhibits inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus. (sci-hub.st)
  • Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a secondary metabolite produced primarily by the genus Aspergillus sp. (usda.gov)
  • Recombinant allergen cross- reacted strongly with IgE specific for natural Asp fl 1 and Pen c 1, indicating that common IgE epitopes may exist between allergens of A. flavus and P. citrinum. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • Experimental invasive infections in mice show A. flavus to be 100-fold more virulent than A. fumigatus in terms of inoculum required. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A flavus is the most virulent. (medscape.com)
  • Generally, excessive moisture conditions and high temperatures of storage grains and legumes increase the occurrence of A. flavus aflatoxin production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus flavus colonies are commonly powdery masses of yellowish-green spores on the upper surface and reddish-gold on the lower surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most commonly, Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus . (cdc.gov)
  • Six hundred twelve and 255 A. flavus colonies were isolated from the corn and soil samples, respectively. (lsu.edu)
  • A. flavus has the potential to infect seedlings by sporulation on injured seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses further confirmed that peanuts infected with A. flavus activates various defense mechanisms , and the response to A. flavus is more rapid in resistant materials. (bvsalud.org)
  • Prevalence of airborne Aspergillus flavus in Khartoum (Sudan) airspora with reference to dusty weather and inoculum survival in simulated summer conditions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The presence of aflatoxin in corn and corn dust during relatively normal years and the increased risk of Aspergillus flavus infestation during drought conditions suggest that airborne agricultur al exposures should be of considerable concern. (cdc.gov)
  • Aspergillus flavus is found globally as a saprophyte in soils and causes disease on many important agriculture crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • These conidia are said to be the primary inoculum for A. flavus. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a secondary inoculum for A. flavus, which is conidia on leaf parts and leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. flavus produces more aflatoxin at 28 °C compared to 37 °C. Our study also found that A. flavus cultured on solid media produced more aflatoxin than in liquid media. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • Aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus is affected by abiotic factors such as temperature, water activity, oxidative stress, etc. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus showed the production of higher activity of cellulase enzyme consisting of endoglucanase yielded higher cellulase enzyme activity. (journalcra.com)
  • Its specific name flavus derives from the Latin meaning yellow, a reference to the frequently observed colour of the spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conidiospores are asexual spores produced by A. flavus during reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linkage disequilibrium analysis indicated asexual reproduction and clonal evolution of A. flavus resident in Europe. (unicatt.it)