Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.
Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).
Lung infections with the invasive forms of ASPERGILLUS, usually after surgery, transplantation, prolonged NEUTROPENIA or treatment with high-doses of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can progress to CHRONIC NECROTIZING PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS or hematogenous spread to other organs.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.
A metabolite of BROMHEXINE that stimulates mucociliary action and clears the air passages in the respiratory tract. It is usually administered as the hydrochloride.
A mitosporic fungal genus including both saprophytes and plant parasites.
Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
A developmental anomaly in which a mass of nonfunctioning lung tissue lacks normal connection with the tracheobroncheal tree and receives an anomalous blood supply originating from the descending thoracic or abdominal aorta. The mass may be extralobar, i.e., completely separated from normally connected lung, or intralobar, i.e., partly surrounded by normal lung.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Infections of the nervous system caused by fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS, most commonly ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS. Aspergillus infections may occur in immunocompetent hosts, but are more prevalent in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. The organism may spread to the nervous system from focal infections in the lung, mastoid region, sinuses, inner ear, bones, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. Sinus infections may be locally invasive and enter the intracranial compartment, producing MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; cranial neuropathies; and abscesses in the frontal lobes of the brain. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch 27, pp62-3)
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Triazoles are a class of antifungal drugs that contain a triazole ring in their chemical structure and work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of the membrane.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.
A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.

In vitro and in vivo activities of NS-718, a new lipid nanosphere incorporating amphotericin B, against Aspergillus fumigatus. (1/194)

We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo potencies of a new lipid nanosphere that incorporates amphotericin B (AmB), NS-718, against Aspergillus fumigatus. The in vitro activity of NS-718 (the MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MIC90], 0.25 microgram/ml) against 18 isolates of A. fumigatus was similar to that of deoxycholate AmB (D-AmB; Fungizone; MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml), but NS-718 was more potent than liposomal AmB (L-AmB; AmBi-some; MIC90, 1.0 microgram/ml). The in vivo efficacy of NS-718 in a rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was compared with those of D-AmB and L-AmB. A low dose (1 mg/kg of body weight) of L-AmB was ineffective (survival rate, 0%), although equivalent doses of D-AmB and NS-718 were more effective (survival rate, 17%). However, a higher dose of NS-718 (3 mg/kg) was more effective (survival rate, 100%) than equivalent doses of D-AmB and L-AmB (survival rate, 0%). To explain these differences, pharmacokinetic studies showed higher concentrations of AmB in the plasma of rats treated with NS-718 than in the plasma of those treated with D-AmB. Our results suggest that NS-718, a new preparation of AmB, is a promising antifungal agent with activity against pulmonary aspergillosis.  (+info)

Conformational and linear B-cell epitopes of Asp f 2, a major allergen of Aspergillus fumigatus, bind differently to immunoglobulin E antibody in the sera of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis patients. (2/194)

Asp f 2 is a major Aspergillus fumigatus allergen involved in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Knowledge of the B-cell epitopes may contribute to the understanding of immunoregulation and immunodiagnosis. To elucidate the immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding epitopes in the linear sequence of Asp f 2, we synthesized decamer peptides spanning the whole molecule of Asp f 2 on derivatized cellulose membranes and evaluated IgE binding in ABPA patient and control sera. Peptides three to five amino acids long were synthesized based on amino acid sequences within the IgE binding regions and evaluated for the specificity of epitope antibody interactions. Nine IgE binding regions were recognized in this protein of 268 amino acid residues. Of the nine epitopes, seven (ATQRRQI, RKYFG, HWR, YTTRR, DHFAD, ALEAYA, and THEGGQ) are present in the hydrophilic regions of Asp f 2. Immunologic evaluation of the three recombinant fragments, Asp f 2A encompassing the N-terminal epitope region, Asp f 2B without N- and C-terminal regions of the protein, and Asp f 2C representing C-terminal epitopes, revealed that either the N- or C-terminal region of the protein is essential for the correct folding and conformation for IgE antibody binding.  (+info)

Zinc-regulated biosynthesis of immunodominant antigens from Aspergillus spp. (3/194)

ASPND1 and ASPF2 are immunodominant antigens from Aspergillus nidulans and A. fumigatus, respectively, that are readily synthesized in infections in the human host, as demonstrated by their reactivity with more than 80% of sera from patients with aspergilloma or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. We demonstrate here that both antigens are exclusively produced under situations of low bioavailability of free Zn2+. Addition of micromolar concentrations of Zn2+ to the culture medium strongly stimulated Aspergillus growth but totally inhibited ASPND1 or ASPF2 production. This effect was specific, since other divalent metals had no effect. Removal of endogenous Zn2+ by a chelator also stimulated ASPND1 production, and the effect was specifically reversed by Zn2+. These results suggest a possible role of these antigens in the survival of the fungus in the lungs.  (+info)

Immunomodulatory role of C10 chemokine in a murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. (4/194)

The immunomodulatory role of the chemokine C10 was explored in allergic airway responses during experimental allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The intratracheal delivery of Asperigillus fumigatus Ag into A. fumigatus-sensitized mice resulted in significantly increased levels of C10 within the bronchoalveolar lavage, and these levels peaked at 48 h after A. fumigatus challenge. In addition, C10 levels in BAL samples were greater than 5-fold higher than levels of other chemokines such as monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1, eotaxin, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha. From in vitro studies, it was evident that major pulmonary sources of C10 may have included alveolar macrophages, lung fibroblasts, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Experimental ABPA was associated with severe peribronchial eosinophilia, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and augmented IL-13 and IgE levels. The immunoneutralization of C10 with polyclonal anti-C10 antiserum 2 h before the intratracheal A. fumigatus challenge significantly reduced the airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in this model of ABPA, but had no effect on IL-10 nor IgE levels. Taken together, these data suggest that C10 has a unique role in the progression of experimental ABPA.  (+info)

Specific IgG subclass antibody pattern to Aspergillus fumigatus in patients with cystic fibrosis with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). (5/194)

BACKGROUND: IgG and IgG subclass antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus (A fumigatus) were measured in a large population of patients with cystic fibrosis to elucidate a putative antibody pattern specific for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). METHODS: An ELISA technique using water soluble somatic hyphal (WSSH) A fumigatus antigens and subclass specific monoclonal antibodies was used for cross sectional quantification of IgG and IgG1-4 subclass antibody levels in the serum of 238 patients with cystic fibrosis and 107 healthy controls. RESULTS: In patients with cystic fibrosis persistently colonised with A fumigatus the subclass antibody levels were significantly increased compared with patients with cystic fibrosis never or rarely colonised (p < 0.001). The group of patients persistently colonised with A fumigatus with ABPA (+Af+ABPA) had significantly increased levels of IgG antibodies to A fumigatus (Af-IgG) (median 69 ELISA units (EU) versus 31) and of subclasses Af-IgG1 (91 versus 27), Af-IgG2 (143 versus 56), and Af-IgG4 antibodies (72 versus 20), but not of IgG3 (17 versus 15), compared with the colonised patients without ABPA (+Af-ABPA). Patients with cystic fibrosis with no or only rare isolates of A fumigatus without ABPA (-Af-ABPA) also had significantly increased subclass antibody levels (Af-IgG1 9 versus 3, Af-IgG2 28 versus 5, Af-IgG4 16 versus 4; p < 0.001) compared with healthy controls. Low, although detectable, levels of antibodies were demonstrated in healthy controls. ABPA seemed to occur independently of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Using diagnostic cut off levels for ABPA, sensitivity and specificity were calculated. The highest specificity was found for IgG4 (88%); sensitivity was between 65% and 73%. The positive predictive values (PPV) were moderate, whereas the negative predictive values (NPV) were high (96% in all subclasses except IgG3 with 94%). PPV increased to 50% if IgG1 as well as IgG2 and IgG4 were included. CONCLUSIONS: In a large number of unselected patients with cystic fibrosis significantly increased levels of Af-specific antibodies belonging to total IgG and all four subclasses were found in all groups of patients compared with healthy controls. In patients persistently colonised with A fumigatus these levels were significantly higher than in non-colonised patients, and the significantly highest levels (with the exception of IgG3) were found in patients with ABPA. Using a sensitive ELISA technique, measurements of IgG and IgG subclass antibodies to A fumigatus might be of importance in the management of ABPA, especially as a screening test to exclude the presence of ABPA; other tests are needed to confirm the diagnosis.  (+info)

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger without bronchial asthma. (6/194)

A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a dry cough and pulmonary infiltrates. Chest radiograph and CT revealed mucoid impaction and consolidations. Peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE were observed. Aspergillus niger was cultured repeatedly from her sputum, but A. fumigatus was not detected. Immediate skin test and specific IgE (RAST) to Aspergillus antigen were positive. Precipitating antibodies were confirmed against A. niger antigen, but not against A. fumigatus antigen. She had no asthmatic symptoms, and showed no bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine. Thus, this case was diagnosed as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) without bronchial asthma due to A. niger, an organism rarely found in ABPA. The administration of prednisone improved the symptoms and corrected the abnormal laboratory findings.  (+info)

Bronchocentric granulomatosis as a first clinical manifestation in an adult patient with p67phox deficiency. (7/194)

We report on a case of adult chronic granulomatous disease which first manifested as a pulmonary mass, and was histologically diagnosed as bronchocentric granulomatosis associated with aspergillosis in a patient with a deficiency of p67phox and a low oxidative response. Antifungal treatment was required for clinical resolution.  (+info)

Determinants of chronic infection with Staphylococcus aureus in patients with bronchiectasis. (8/194)

Staphylococcus aureus is an uncommon pathogen in bronchiectasis not caused by cystic fibrosis (CF). The object of this study was to identify characteristics that cause patients to be prone to infection with S. aureus. The study population consisted of patients with bronchiectasis attending the authors' unit, excluding those with a diagnosis of overt CF. All patients had a high resolution computer tomographic scan (HRCT) of the thorax which demonstrated bronchiectasis. Cases that were currently chronically infected with S. aureus (isolated consecutively on more than two occasions >3 months apart) were identified (n = 12) and compared with 74 control patients who had not been chronically infected with S. aureus. Patients were carefully evaluated to determine the aetiology of their disease. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as measures of the association between disease characteristics and chronic infection with S. aureus were calculated. The results for patients chronically infected by S. aureus demonstrated significant associations with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA; OR = 8.8, 95% CI 1.8-41.9), atypical variants of CF (OR = 12.0, 95% CI 1.8-81.7) or equivocal sweat sodium values (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 1.0-15.3). The associations persisted when the analysis was based on cases (n = 28) in whom S. aureus had ever been isolated from sputum. In the latter analysis there was also a significant association with predominant upper zone disease on HRCT. These results suggest that patients with bronchiectasis in whom S. aureus is isolated from sputum should be carefully evaluated to exclude allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or atypical cystic fibrosis.  (+info)

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a medical condition characterized by an hypersensitivity reaction to the fungus Aspergillus species, most commonly A. fumigatus. It primarily affects the airways and lung tissue. The immune system overreacts to the presence of the fungus, leading to inflammation and damage in the lungs.

The main symptoms of ABPA include wheezing, coughing, production of thick mucus, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. These symptoms are similar to those seen in asthma and other respiratory conditions. Some people with ABPA may also experience fever, weight loss, and fatigue.

Diagnosis of ABPA typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as chest X-rays or CT scans), and laboratory tests (such as blood tests or sputum cultures) to detect the presence of Aspergillus species and elevated levels of certain antibodies.

Treatment for ABPA usually involves a combination of corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and antifungal medications to eradicate the Aspergillus infection. In some cases, immunomodulatory therapies may also be used to help regulate the immune system's response to the fungus.

It is important to note that ABPA can lead to serious complications if left untreated, including bronchiectasis (permanent enlargement of the airways), pulmonary fibrosis (scarring of the lung tissue), and respiratory failure. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing this condition.

Aspergillosis is a medical condition that is caused by the infection of the Aspergillus fungi. This fungus is commonly found in decaying organic matter, such as leaf litter and compost piles, and can also be found in some indoor environments like air conditioning systems and old buildings with water damage.

There are several types of aspergillosis, including:

1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA): This type of aspergillosis occurs when a person's immune system overreacts to the Aspergillus fungi, causing inflammation in the airways and lungs. ABPA is often seen in people with asthma or cystic fibrosis.
2. Invasive aspergillosis: This is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the Aspergillus fungi invade the bloodstream and spread to other organs, such as the brain, heart, or kidneys. Invasive aspergillosis typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or organ transplantation.
3. Aspergilloma: Also known as a "fungus ball," an aspergilloma is a growth of the Aspergillus fungi that forms in a preexisting lung cavity, such as one caused by previous lung disease or injury. While an aspergilloma itself is not typically harmful, it can cause symptoms like coughing up blood or chest pain if it grows too large or becomes infected.

Symptoms of aspergillosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the infection. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery to remove the fungal growth, or management of underlying conditions that increase the risk of infection.

'Aspergillus fumigatus' is a species of fungi that belongs to the genus Aspergillus. It is a ubiquitous mold that is commonly found in decaying organic matter, such as leaf litter, compost, and rotting vegetation. This fungus is also known to be present in indoor environments, including air conditioning systems, dust, and water-damaged buildings.

Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it can cause infections in people with weakened immune systems. It can lead to a range of conditions known as aspergillosis, including allergic reactions, lung infections, and invasive infections that can spread to other parts of the body.

The fungus produces small, airborne spores that can be inhaled into the lungs, where they can cause infection. In healthy individuals, the immune system is usually able to eliminate the spores before they can cause harm. However, in people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or organ transplantation, or those with certain underlying medical conditions like asthma or cystic fibrosis, the fungus can establish an infection.

Infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus can be difficult to treat, and treatment options may include antifungal medications, surgery, or a combination of both. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes in people with aspergillosis.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that primarily affects premature infants. It is defined as the need for supplemental oxygen at 28 days of life or beyond, due to abnormal development and injury to the lungs.

The condition was first described in the 1960s, following the introduction of mechanical ventilation and high concentrations of oxygen therapy for premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). These treatments, while lifesaving, can also cause damage to the delicate lung tissue, leading to BPD.

The pathogenesis of BPD is complex and involves an interplay between genetic factors, prenatal exposures, and postnatal injury from mechanical ventilation and oxygen toxicity. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and impaired lung development contribute to the development of BPD.

Infants with BPD typically have abnormalities in their airways, alveoli (air sacs), and blood vessels in the lungs. These changes can lead to symptoms such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and poor growth. Treatment may include oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, diuretics, and other medications to support lung function and minimize complications.

The prognosis for infants with BPD varies depending on the severity of the disease and associated medical conditions. While some infants recover completely, others may have long-term respiratory problems that require ongoing management.

Fungal lung diseases, also known as fungal pneumonia or mycoses, refer to a group of respiratory disorders caused by the infection of fungi in the lungs. These fungi are commonly found in the environment, such as soil, decaying organic matter, and contaminated materials. People can develop lung diseases from fungi after inhaling spores or particles that contain fungi.

There are several types of fungal lung diseases, including:

1. Aspergillosis: This is caused by the Aspergillus fungus and can affect people with weakened immune systems. It can cause allergic reactions, lung infections, or invasive aspergillosis, which can spread to other organs.
2. Cryptococcosis: This is caused by the Cryptococcus fungus and is usually found in soil contaminated with bird droppings. It can cause pneumonia, meningitis, or skin lesions.
3. Histoplasmosis: This is caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus and is commonly found in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated histoplasmosis, which can spread to other organs.
4. Blastomycosis: This is caused by the Blastomyces dermatitidis fungus and is commonly found in the southeastern and south-central United States. It can cause pneumonia, skin lesions, or disseminated blastomycosis, which can spread to other organs.
5. Coccidioidomycosis: This is caused by the Coccidioides immitis fungus and is commonly found in the southwestern United States. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated coccidioidomycosis, which can spread to other organs.

Fungal lung diseases can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of fungus and the person's immune system. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery, or supportive care. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to contaminated soil or dust, wearing protective masks in high-risk areas, and promptly seeking medical attention if symptoms develop.

Pulmonary aspergillosis is a respiratory infection caused by the fungus Aspergillus. It mainly affects the lungs, but it can also spread to other parts of the body. There are several forms of pulmonary aspergillosis, including:

1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA): This form occurs in people with asthma or cystic fibrosis. The immune system overreacts to the presence of Aspergillus, causing inflammation and damage to the airways.
2. Aspergilloma: Also known as a fungus ball, this is a growth of Aspergillus that develops in a preexisting lung cavity, usually caused by old tuberculosis or scarring from previous lung infections.
3. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA): This is the most severe form and occurs when the fungus invades the lung tissue, blood vessels, and other organs. It primarily affects people with weakened immune systems due to conditions like cancer, HIV/AIDS, organ transplants, or long-term use of corticosteroids.

Symptoms of pulmonary aspergillosis can vary depending on the form and severity of the infection. They may include cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and bloody sputum. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests like chest X-rays or CT scans, along with laboratory tests to detect Aspergillus antigens or DNA in blood or respiratory samples. Treatment options include antifungal medications, surgery to remove fungal growths, and management of underlying conditions that weaken the immune system.

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a severe and often life-threatening fungal infection caused by the mold Aspergillus fumigatus or other Aspergillus species. It primarily affects immunocompromised individuals, such as those with hematologic malignancies, solid organ transplant recipients, or those receiving high-dose corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive therapies.

In IPA, the fungal hyphae invade the pulmonary blood vessels and surrounding lung tissue, leading to the formation of nodular lesions, infarcts, and cavities in the lungs. The infection can also spread to other organs, causing disseminated aspergillosis.

Symptoms of IPA include fever, cough, chest pain, hemoptysis (coughing up blood), and shortness of breath. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of radiologic imaging, such as computed tomography (CT) scans, and microbiological or molecular testing of respiratory specimens, blood, or tissue samples.

Treatment usually includes systemic antifungal therapy with agents such as voriconazole, isavuconazole, or liposomal amphotericin B. The prognosis of IPA is generally poor, with high mortality rates ranging from 30% to 90%, depending on the underlying condition and severity of the infection.

Fungal antibodies are a type of protein called immunoglobulins that are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of fungi in the body. These antibodies are specifically designed to recognize and bind to antigens on the surface of fungal cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

There are several types of fungal antibodies, including IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE, each with a specific role in the immune response. For example, IgG antibodies are the most common type of antibody found in the blood and provide long-term immunity to fungi, while IgE antibodies are associated with allergic reactions to fungi.

Fungal antibodies can be measured in the blood or other bodily fluids to help diagnose fungal infections, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, or assess immune function in individuals who are at risk for fungal infections, such as those with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation.

Fungal antigens are substances found on or produced by fungi that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. They can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system. Fungal antigens can be used in diagnostic tests to identify fungal infections, and they can also be targets of immune responses during fungal infections. In some cases, fungal antigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of fungal diseases by inducing inflammatory or allergic reactions. Examples of fungal antigens include the cell wall components of Candida albicans and the extracellular polysaccharide galactomannan produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.

Bronchiectasis is a medical condition characterized by permanent, abnormal widening and thickening of the walls of the bronchi (the airways leading to the lungs). This can lead to recurrent respiratory infections, coughing, and the production of large amounts of sputum. The damage to the airways is usually irreversible and can be caused by various factors such as bacterial or viral infections, genetic disorders, immune deficiencies, or exposure to environmental pollutants. In some cases, the cause may remain unknown. Treatment typically includes chest physiotherapy, bronchodilators, antibiotics, and sometimes surgery.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

"Aspergillus" is a genus of filamentous fungi (molds) that are widely distributed in the environment. These molds are commonly found in decaying organic matter such as leaf litter, compost piles, and rotting vegetation. They can also be found in indoor environments like air conditioning systems, dust, and building materials.

The medical relevance of Aspergillus comes from the fact that some species can cause a range of diseases in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying lung conditions. The most common disease caused by Aspergillus is called aspergillosis, which can manifest as allergic reactions, lung infections (like pneumonia), and invasive infections that can spread to other parts of the body.

Aspergillus species produce small, airborne spores called conidia, which can be inhaled into the lungs and cause infection. The severity of aspergillosis depends on various factors, including the individual's immune status, the specific Aspergillus species involved, and the extent of fungal invasion in the body.

Common Aspergillus species that can cause human disease include A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus. Preventing exposure to Aspergillus spores and maintaining a healthy immune system are crucial steps in minimizing the risk of aspergillosis.

Itraconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections, including blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a vital component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of these membranes. Itraconazole is available in oral and intravenous forms for systemic use and as a topical solution or cream for localized fungal infections.

Medical Definition:
Itraconazole (i-tra-KON-a-zole): A synthetic triazole antifungal agent used to treat various fungal infections, such as blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis. It inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes, leading to disruption of their integrity and function. Itraconazole is available in oral (capsule and solution) and intravenous forms for systemic use and as a topical solution or cream for localized fungal infections.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the lungs and digestive system. It is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which regulates the movement of salt and water in and out of cells. When this gene is not functioning properly, thick, sticky mucus builds up in various organs, leading to a range of symptoms.

In the lungs, this mucus can clog the airways, making it difficult to breathe and increasing the risk of lung infections. Over time, lung damage can occur, which may lead to respiratory failure. In the digestive system, the thick mucus can prevent the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas, impairing nutrient absorption and leading to malnutrition. CF can also affect the reproductive system, liver, and other organs.

Symptoms of cystic fibrosis may include persistent coughing, wheezing, lung infections, difficulty gaining weight, greasy stools, and frequent greasy diarrhea. The severity of the disease can vary significantly among individuals, depending on the specific genetic mutations they have inherited.

Currently, there is no cure for cystic fibrosis, but treatments are available to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include airway clearance techniques, medications to thin mucus, antibiotics to treat infections, enzyme replacement therapy, and a high-calorie, high-fat diet. Lung transplantation is an option for some individuals with advanced lung disease.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

A Radioallergosorbent Test (RAST) is a type of blood test used in the diagnosis of allergies. It measures the presence and levels of specific antibodies, called immunoglobulin E (IgE), produced by the immune system in response to certain allergens. In this test, a small amount of blood is taken from the patient and then mixed with various allergens. If the patient has developed IgE antibodies against any of these allergens, they will bind to them, forming an antigen-antibody complex.

The mixture is then passed over a solid phase, such as a paper or plastic surface, which has been coated with allergen-specific antibodies. These antibodies will capture the antigen-antibody complexes formed in the previous step. A radioactive label is attached to a different type of antibody (called anti-IgE), which then binds to the IgE antibodies captured on the solid phase. The amount of radioactivity detected is proportional to the quantity of IgE antibodies present, providing an indication of the patient's sensitivity to that specific allergen.

While RAST tests have been largely replaced by more modern and sensitive techniques, such as fluorescence enzyme immunoassays (FEIA), they still provide valuable information in diagnosing allergies and guiding treatment plans.

Ambroxol is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as mucolytic agents or expectorants. It works by thinning and loosening mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up and clear the airways. This can help reduce symptoms such as chest congestion and shortness of breath in conditions such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.

Ambroxol also has some additional properties that make it useful in treating respiratory conditions. It can help to reduce inflammation in the airways, reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (which can damage cells), and increase the activity of certain immune cells that help to fight infection. These effects may contribute to the overall benefits of ambroxol in managing respiratory diseases.

It is important to note that ambroxol should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and interactions with other medications. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on various factors, including the underlying condition being treated, the patient's age and overall health status, and any other medical conditions or medications they may be taking.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Helminthosporium" is not typically used as a medical term. It is a genus of fungi that are commonly found in decaying plant material and cause various plant diseases. The misconception might arise from the fact that some fungi can cause mycoses (fungal infections) in humans, but "Helminthosporium" itself is not a medically significant fungal genus in this context. If you have any further questions or need clarification on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask!

Bronchography is a medical imaging technique that involves the injection of a contrast material into the airways (bronchi) of the lungs, followed by X-ray imaging to produce detailed pictures of the bronchial tree. This diagnostic procedure was commonly used in the past to identify abnormalities such as narrowing, blockages, or inflammation in the airways, but it has largely been replaced by newer, less invasive techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans and bronchoscopy.

The process of bronchography involves the following steps:

1. The patient is sedated or given a local anesthetic to minimize discomfort during the procedure.
2. A radiopaque contrast material is introduced into the bronchi through a catheter that is inserted into the trachea, either via a nostril or through a small incision in the neck.
3. Once the contrast material has been distributed throughout the bronchial tree, X-ray images are taken from various angles to capture detailed views of the airways.
4. The images are then analyzed by a radiologist to identify any abnormalities or irregularities in the structure and function of the bronchi.

Although bronchography is considered a relatively safe procedure, it does carry some risks, including allergic reactions to the contrast material, infection, and bleeding. Additionally, the use of ionizing radiation during X-ray imaging should be carefully weighed against the potential benefits of the procedure.

Pulmonary eosinophilia is a condition characterized by an increased number of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the lungs or pulmonary tissues. Eosinophils play a role in the body's immune response to parasites and allergens, but an overabundance can contribute to inflammation and damage in the lungs.

The condition may be associated with various underlying causes, such as:

1. Asthma or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)
2. Eosinophilic lung diseases, like eosinophilic pneumonia or idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome
3. Parasitic infections, such as ascariasis or strongyloidiasis
4. Drug reactions, including certain antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs
5. Connective tissue disorders, like rheumatoid arthritis or Churg-Strauss syndrome
6. Malignancies, such as lymphoma or leukemia
7. Other less common conditions, like tropical pulmonary eosinophilia or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

Symptoms of pulmonary eosinophilia can vary but often include cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest discomfort. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, such as complete blood count (CBC) with differential, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), or lung biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include corticosteroids, antibiotics, or antiparasitic medications.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is commonly used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Prednisolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, leading to changes in gene expression that reduce the production of substances involved in inflammation, such as cytokines and prostaglandins.

Prednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, syrups, and injectable solutions. It can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, skin conditions, and certain types of cancer.

Like other steroid medications, prednisolone can have significant side effects if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diabetes, and adrenal suppression. As a result, the use of prednisolone should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

Bronchopulmonary sequestration is a rare birth defect of the lungs, in which a mass of abnormal lung tissue develops that doesn't function and isn't connected to the tracheobronchial tree (the airways that lead to the lungs). This means that the abnormal tissue receives its blood supply from an anomalous systemic artery instead of the normal pulmonary circulation. The mass may be located within the lung (intralobar sequestration) or outside the lung (extralobar sequestration), and it can occur on either side of the chest.

Intralobar sequestrations are more common than extralobar sequestrations, accounting for about 75% of cases. They are usually found in adults and are located within a normal lung tissue. Extralobar sequestrations, on the other hand, are typically detected earlier in life (often as an incidental finding during prenatal ultrasound) and are surrounded by their own pleural lining, which can make them appear separate from the normal lung tissue.

Symptoms of bronchopulmonary sequestration may include recurrent respiratory infections, coughing up blood (hemoptysis), shortness of breath, or chest pain. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the abnormal tissue to prevent complications such as infection, bleeding, or the development of malignancy.

Sputum is defined as a mixture of saliva and phlegm that is expelled from the respiratory tract during coughing, sneezing or deep breathing. It can be clear, mucoid, or purulent (containing pus) depending on the underlying cause of the respiratory issue. Examination of sputum can help diagnose various respiratory conditions such as infections, inflammation, or other lung diseases.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Neuroaspergillosis is a rare and serious invasive fungal infection caused by the Aspergillus species, which primarily affects the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord. This condition is often seen in individuals with weakened immune systems due to underlying medical conditions such as hematological malignancies, solid organ transplantation, or advanced HIV infection.

The infection can occur through various routes, including direct extension from the paranasal sinuses, hematogenous dissemination, or direct inoculation during neurosurgical procedures. Neuroaspergillosis may present with a wide range of symptoms, such as headache, altered mental status, seizures, focal neurologic deficits, and signs of increased intracranial pressure.

Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies (MRI or CT scans), cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and sometimes tissue biopsy to detect the presence of Aspergillus hyphae or DNA. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antifungal medications, such as voriconazole or isavuconazole, and surgical debridement when possible. The prognosis for neuroaspergillosis is generally poor due to the difficulty in treating CNS infections and the underlying immunocompromised state of affected individuals.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

Respiratory hypersensitivity, also known as respiratory allergies or hypersensitive pneumonitis, refers to an exaggerated immune response in the lungs to inhaled substances or allergens. This condition occurs when the body's immune system overreacts to harmless particles, leading to inflammation and damage in the airways and alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.

There are two types of respiratory hypersensitivity: immediate and delayed. Immediate hypersensitivity, also known as type I hypersensitivity, is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and results in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and asthma-like symptoms within minutes to hours of exposure to the allergen. Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type III or type IV hypersensitivity, is mediated by other immune mechanisms and can take several hours to days to develop after exposure to the allergen.

Common causes of respiratory hypersensitivity include mold spores, animal dander, dust mites, pollen, and chemicals found in certain occupations. Symptoms may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves avoiding the allergen, if possible, and using medications such as corticosteroids, bronchodilators, or antihistamines to manage symptoms. In severe cases, immunotherapy (allergy shots) may be recommended to help desensitize the immune system to the allergen.

Mannans are a type of complex carbohydrate, specifically a heteropolysaccharide, that are found in the cell walls of certain plants, algae, and fungi. They consist of chains of mannose sugars linked together, often with other sugar molecules such as glucose or galactose.

Mannans have various biological functions, including serving as a source of energy for microorganisms that can break them down. In some cases, mannans can also play a role in the immune response and are used as a component of vaccines to stimulate an immune response.

In the context of medicine, mannans may be relevant in certain conditions such as gut dysbiosis or allergic reactions to foods containing mannans. Additionally, some research has explored the potential use of mannans as a delivery vehicle for drugs or other therapeutic agents.

Eosinophilia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high concentration of eosinophils in the circulating blood. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in fighting off parasitic infections and regulating allergic reactions. However, when their numbers become excessively high, they can contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.

Eosinophilia is typically defined as a count of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood. Mild eosinophilia (up to 1,500 cells/μL) may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered during routine blood tests. However, higher levels of eosinophilia can lead to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, skin rashes, and organ damage, depending on the underlying cause.

The causes of eosinophilia are varied and can include allergic reactions, parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, certain medications, and some types of cancer. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilia require identification and management of the underlying cause.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. They may face various health challenges because their organs are not fully developed. The earlier a baby is born, the higher the risk of complications. Prematurity can lead to short-term and long-term health issues, such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, infections, hearing problems, vision problems, developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. Intensive medical care and support are often necessary for premature infants to ensure their survival and optimal growth and development.

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and often life-threatening fungal infections. It works by binding to the ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to the loss of essential cell components and ultimately cell death.

The medical definition of Amphotericin B is:

A polyene antifungal agent derived from Streptomyces nodosus, with a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Amphotericin B is used to treat systemic fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis, among others. It may be administered intravenously or topically, depending on the formulation and the site of infection.

Adverse effects associated with Amphotericin B include infusion-related reactions (such as fever, chills, and hypotension), nephrotoxicity, electrolyte imbalances, and anemia. These side effects are often dose-dependent and may be managed through careful monitoring and adjustment of the dosing regimen.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Triazoles are a class of antifungal medications that have broad-spectrum activity against various fungi, including yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and disruption of fungal growth. Triazoles are commonly used in both systemic and topical formulations for the treatment of various fungal infections, such as candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and dermatophytoses. Some examples of triazole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole.

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the body's immune response. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they can travel to different tissues and organs throughout the body. Eosinophils are characterized by their granules, which contain various proteins and enzymes that are toxic to parasites and can contribute to inflammation.

Eosinophils are typically associated with allergic reactions, asthma, and other inflammatory conditions. They can also be involved in the body's response to certain infections, particularly those caused by parasites such as worms. In some cases, elevated levels of eosinophils in the blood or tissues (a condition called eosinophilia) can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as a parasitic infection, autoimmune disorder, or cancer.

Eosinophils are named for their staining properties - they readily take up eosin dye, which is why they appear pink or red under the microscope. They make up only about 1-6% of circulating white blood cells in healthy individuals, but their numbers can increase significantly in response to certain triggers.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

A very low birth weight (VLBW) infant is a baby born weighing less than 1500 grams (3 pounds, 5 ounces). This category includes babies who are extremely preterm (born at or before 28 weeks of gestation) and/or have intrauterine growth restriction. VLBW infants often face significant health challenges, including respiratory distress syndrome, brain bleeds, infections, and feeding difficulties. They may require extended hospital stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and have a higher risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairments compared to infants with normal birth weights.

Echinocandins are a class of antifungal medications that inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-β-D-glucan, a key component of the fungal cell wall. This results in osmotic instability and ultimately leads to fungal cell death. Echinocandins are commonly used to treat invasive fungal infections caused by Candida species and Aspergillus species. The three drugs in this class that are approved for use in humans are caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.

Here's a brief overview of each drug:

1. Caspofungin (Cancidas, Cancidas-W): This is the first echinocandin to be approved for use in humans. It is indicated for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, including candidemia, acute disseminated candidiasis, and other forms of Candida infections. Caspofungin is also approved for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
2. Micafungin (Mycamine): This echinocandin is approved for the treatment of candidemia, esophageal candidiasis, and other forms of Candida infections. It is also used for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
3. Anidulafungin (Eraxis): This echinocandin is approved for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis and candidemia, as well as other forms of Candida infections. It is also used for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Echinocandins have a broad spectrum of activity against many fungal species, including those that are resistant to other classes of antifungal medications. They are generally well-tolerated and have a low incidence of drug interactions. However, they should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment, as their metabolism may be affected by liver dysfunction.

'Aspergillus flavus' is a species of fungi that belongs to the genus Aspergillus. It is commonly found in soil, decaying vegetation, and other organic matter. This fungus is known for its ability to produce aflatoxins, which are highly toxic compounds that can contaminate food crops such as corn, peanuts, and cottonseed.

Aflatoxins produced by A. flavus are among the most potent carcinogens known to humans and can cause liver damage and cancer with prolonged exposure. The fungus can also cause invasive aspergillosis, a serious infection that primarily affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or organ transplantation.

In addition to its medical importance, A. flavus is also used in biotechnology for the production of industrial enzymes and other products.

An immunocompromised host refers to an individual who has a weakened or impaired immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and decreased ability to fight off pathogens. This condition can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developed during one's lifetime).

Acquired immunocompromised states may result from various factors such as medical treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunosuppressive drugs), infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS), chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, malnutrition, liver disease), or aging.

Immunocompromised hosts are at a higher risk for developing severe and life-threatening infections due to their reduced immune response. Therefore, they require special consideration when it comes to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

Hogan, Celia; Denning, David (December 2011). "Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis and Related Allergic Syndromes". ... "Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis". StatPearls Publishing. PMID 31194469. Retrieved October 14, 2023. "Aspergillosis ... "Global burden of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with asthma and its complication chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in ... Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a condition characterised by an exaggerated response of the immune system (a ...
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an inflammatory disease caused by hypersensitivity to the fungus Aspergillus ... "Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. In Practice. 2 (6): 703-8. doi: ... "Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: review of literature and proposal of new diagnostic and classification criteria". ...
A disease named allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, has been found to be caused due to the antigenic effects of ... Novey, HS; Wells, ID (November 1978). "Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus ochraceus". American ...
Slavin R, Hutcheson P, Chauhan B, Bellone C (2004). "An overview of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with some new ... DRB1*1503 is associated with Chaga's cardiomyopathy, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, multiple sclerosis, cervical ... allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, cervical cancer (human ...
They termed it "mycotic pseudotuberculosis", now known as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Dieulafoy's lesion: the ...
It acts as one of the differential to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. WCS is a deficiency of the bronchial cartilage ... There are not enough studies to prove if bronchopulmonary hygiene, physical therapy, mucolytics, inhaled hyperosmolar agents, ...
It causes allergic bronchopulmonary disease and chronic lung lesions that resemble aspergillosis. Infections can also occur in ...
Zirbes JM, Milla CE (June 2008). "Steroid-sparing effect of omalizumab for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and cystic ... more common in those with weakened immune systems such as AIDS or chemotherapy patients Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis ... Aspergillosis of the air passages is also frequently reported in birds, and certain species of Aspergillus have been known to ... "Aspergillosis". MedScape. Archived from the original on 2014-02-23. Retrieved 2014-06-29. Wilson WR, Sande MA, Drew WL, eds. ( ...
Among these is allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, in which the body's response to the common fungus Aspergillus fumigatus ... Rapaka RR, Kolls JK (2009). "Pathogenesis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis: current understanding ... as often happens with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis - the most common fungal disease in the context of CF, involving ...
2015-09-02). "High-Attenuation Mucus Impaction in Patients With Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: Objective Criteria on ... "Radiologic Criteria for the Diagnosis of High-Attenuation Mucus in Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis". Chest. 149 (4): ...
Allergic reactions, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis Invasive mold infections (mycosis) Toxicity (poisoning by ... Hypersensitivity may also be a reaction toward an established fungal infection in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. ... allergic alveolitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and allergic fungal sinusitis. A person's reaction to mold depends on their ... It is predicted that about 5% of people have some airway symptoms due to allergic reactions to molds in their lifetimes. ...
Additionally, A. fumigatus can cause chronic pulmonary infections, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or allergic disease ... from woodland soil Slide of an infected turkey brain 2012 US meningitis outbreak Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis ... Segal BH (April 2009). "Aspergillosis". The New England Journal of Medicine. 360 (18): 1870-84. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0808853. PMID ... Neutrophils are essential for aspergillosis resistance, as demonstrated in neutropenic individuals, and are capable of ...
... is thought to affect more than 14 million people worldwide, with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, > ... aspergillosis occurs in the form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), aspergilloma, or allergic bronchopulmonary ... For the less aggressive allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, findings suggest the use of oral steroids for a prolonged ... Aspergillosis, MedlinePlus, US National Library of Medicine Aspergillus & Aspergillosis Website National Aspergillosis Centre, ...
Also the most frequent cause of Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, which often occurs in patients with Cystic fibrosis as ...
Types of aspergillosis include allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), allergic aspergillus sinusitis, azole-resistant ... Aspergillosis is a fungal infection caused by spores of indoor and outdoor Aspergillus mold species. Due to the ubiquitous ... Aspergillosis is particularly frequent among horticultural workers who often inhale peat dust, which can be rich in Aspergillus ... Aspergillosis information, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services A. niger ATCC ...
... allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, asthma, or lung cancer. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis as a term encompasses a number ... If chronic pulmonary aspergillosis has progressed to subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, there must be a degree of ... When chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis is left untreated, it can progress to a form of aspergillosis known as chronic ... Also known as subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, this form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis leads to progressive ...
... allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergillosis, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and ... allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and asthma. When casts are very large with many branches, an abnormal communication or ...
van der Ent CK, Hoekstra H, Rijkers GT (March 2007). "Successful treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with ... and a spectrum of relatively less prevalent allergic or non-allergic diseases or conditions, such as allergic bronchopulmonary ... This is now thought to be the fundamental mechanism for omalizumab's effects on allergic and non-allergic diseases involving ... and other allergic diseases, have helped define the role of IgE in the pathogenesis of these prevalent allergic diseases. For ...
... the Department of Pulmonary Medicine at PGIMER Chandigarh having research interests in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis ...
... allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypogammaglobulinemia, idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis, lung abscesses, and ...
... may refer to: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, a condition characterised by an exaggerated response of the immune ...
This includes: Asthma Environmental allergic reaction Granulomatosis with polyangiitis Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis ... and drugs of abuse such as inhaled heroin and cocaine may trigger an allergic response which results in eosinophilic pneumonia ...
... aspergillosis, allergic bronchopulmonary MeSH C01.703.078.537 - neuroaspergillosis MeSH C01.703.160.165 - candidiasis, chronic ... aspergillosis, allergic bronchopulmonary MeSH C01.703.534.700 - pneumonia, pneumocystis MeSH C01.703.617.300 - ...
... allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, and Kimura's disease. Certain types of food allergy ... Allergic disorders Asthma Hay fever Drug allergies Allergic skin diseases Pemphigus Dermatitis herpetiformis IgG4-related ... During an allergic reaction, the release of histamine from mast cells causes vasodilation which allows eosinophils to migrate ... Allergic reactions to drugs are a common cause of eosinophilia, with manifestations ranging from diffuse maculopapular rash, to ...
... aspergillosis, allergic bronchopulmonary MeSH C08.381.472.700 - pneumonia, pneumocystis MeSH C08.381.483.125 - alveolitis, ... aspergillosis, allergic bronchopulmonary MeSH C08.730.435.700 - pneumonia, pneumocystis MeSH C08.730.450.314 - echinococcosis, ... allergic, perennial MeSH C08.460.799.633 - rhinitis, allergic, seasonal MeSH C08.460.799.649 - rhinitis, atrophic MeSH C08.460. ... extrinsic allergic MeSH C08.381.483.125.125 - bird fancier's lung MeSH C08.381.483.125.365 - farmer's lung MeSH C08.381.483.187 ...
... aspergillosis, allergic bronchopulmonary MeSH C20.543.480.680.095 - asthma MeSH C20.543.480.680.095.110 - asthma, exercise- ... extrinsic allergic MeSH C20.543.480.680.075.125 - bird fancier's lung MeSH C20.543.480.680.075.365 - farmer's lung MeSH C20.543 ... allergic cutaneous MeSH C20.673.430.500 - IgA deficiency MeSH C20.673.430.750 - IgG deficiency MeSH C20.673.480.040 - acquired ... allergic MeSH C20.543.480.343 - dermatitis, atopic MeSH C20.543.480.370 - food hypersensitivity MeSH C20.543.480.370.150 - egg ...
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis Aspergillus bronchitis and invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis Invasive (pulmonary) ... aspergillosis Disseminated aspergillosis Though all four disease outcomes can impose a great health risk to humans; invasive ... In fact, invasive aspergillosis has been named as the leading cause of death in leukemia and stem cell transplantation patients ... "Aspergillosis". Retrieved 10 November 2013. Louis, B; Roy P.; Sayanika D.; Talukdar N (2013). "Aspergillus terreus Thom a new ...
McLeod syndrome Allergic angiitis Allergic autoimmune thyroiditis Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis Allergic ... extrinsic allergic Alves Dos Santos Castello syndrome Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease, early-onset Alzheimer's disease ... Ascariasis Ascher's syndrome Aseptic meningitis Asherman's syndrome Ashman phenomenon Aspartylglycosaminuria Aspergillosis ...
... allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, Kimura's disease, polyarteritis nodosa, eosinophilic ... Allergic and autoimmune diseases: non-specific treatment regimens used for these diseases may be useful in place of a simple ... Allergic and autoimmune diseases such as severe asthma, rhinitis, or urticarial, chronic sinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated ... or other allergic disorder. Cardiac manifestations of eosinophilic myocarditis range from none to life-threatening conditions ...
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis Aspiration syndromes Bronchiectasis Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis obliterans Chronic ... The simple explanation for allergic inflammation in asthma begins with the development of a predominantly helper T2 lymphocyte- ... therefore asthma is not under good control Coming in contact with asthma triggers Allergies or severe allergic reactions Not ...
Hogan, Celia; Denning, David (December 2011). "Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis and Related Allergic Syndromes". ... "Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis". StatPearls Publishing. PMID 31194469. Retrieved October 14, 2023. "Aspergillosis ... "Global burden of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with asthma and its complication chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in ... Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a condition characterised by an exaggerated response of the immune system (a ...
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The pathogenesis of ABPA involves allergic reactions to Aspergillus species. Patients ... In contrast, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), aspergilloma, and invasive aspergillosis syndrome involve mycelial ... 1] Noninvasive disease usually manifests as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma, and allergic sinusitis, ... Jat KR, Walia DK, Khairwa A. Anti-IgE therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis. ...
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD ... see table Stages of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Stages of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis* ). ... Diagnostic Criteria for Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Diagnostic Criteria for Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis ... Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis develops when airways of patients with asthma Asthma Asthma is a disease of diffuse ...
Type of Aspergillosis. Examples. Recommended Treatment. Allergic aspergillosis. *Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) ... People with severe cases of aspergillosis may need surgery.. Expert guidance is needed for infections not responding to ... Treatment for invasive and cutaneous aspergillosis: When possible, immunosuppressive medications should be discontinued or ... here to see the Infectious Diseases Society of Americas Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Aspergillosis. ...
Types of aspergillosis. *Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA): Occurs when Aspergillus causes inflammation in the ... Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: review of literature and proposal of new diagnostic and classification criteria ... What is aspergillosis?. Aspergillosis is a disease caused by Aspergillus, a common mold (a type of fungus) that lives indoors ... Cutaneous aspergillosis can also occur if invasive aspergillosis spreads to the skin from somewhere else in the body, such as ...
... such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Confounding illness, such as atopic dermatitis, may also result in high IgE ... such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or Churg-Strauss syndrome. ... Description of the allergic response. The allergic response in the airway is the result of a complex interaction of mast cells ... encoded search term (Allergic and Environmental Asthma) and Allergic and Environmental Asthma What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. *Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). *Chronic bronchitis and ...
Workup for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, cystic fibrosis and α1-antitrypsin deficiency ruled out these diagnoses. We ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease affecting premature neonates, is defined ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very low birth weight subjects and lung function in late adolescence. Pediatrics 2006;118:108-13. ... Genetics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the age of genomics. Curr Opin Pediatr 2010;22:134-8. ...
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis see Aspergillosis * Allergic Rhinitis see Allergy; Hay Fever * Allergy ...
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. 3. 3. 0.10. Haemophillus influenza. 3. 24. 0.13. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. 0. 5. 0.22 ...
Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study Zeng Y, Xue X, ... The Difference in All-Cause Mortality Between Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis with and without Chronic Obstructive ... Association of Allergic Sensitivity and Pollination in Allergic Respiratory Disease: The Role of Pollution Pavón-Romero GF, ... Gut Microbiome and Metabolomics Profiles of Allergic and Non-Allergic Childhood Asthma Zheng P, Zhang K, Lv X, Liu C, Wang Q, ...
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis; Aspergillosis - acute invasive; Aspergillosis - allergic bronchopulmonary; Fungus ball ... Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Paperback: 90 Pages (2010-09-13) list price: US$43.00 -- used & new: US$41.43 (price ... Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: An entry from Gales ,i,Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.,/i,. by Rebecca, PhD ... Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis --1995 publication.. by various. Hardcover: Pages (1995-01-01) Asin: B003F85KT0. Canada ...
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. *Rheumatoid arthritis. *Sjogrens syndrome. *Inflammatory bowel disease. * ... Affected persons have recurrent bronchopulmonary infection; coughing; producing of copious amounts of foul-smelling, purulent ...
Elevated serum IgE concentrations occur in allergic bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA). Total serum IgE is recommended to ... As adjunctive laboratory testing for disease activity of allergic bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) and certain parasitic ... 1 Allergic bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis is an inflammatory disease of the lungs distinguished by severe asthma, sputum ... Allergic bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA), 2) Select immunodeficiency syndromes, such as hyper-IgE, 3) Eczematous ...
Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection complicated by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in a non-asthmatic patient ...
Categories: Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain ...
Shah, A., Panchal, N. & Agarwal, A. K. (2001). Concomitant allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and allergic Aspergillus ... Safirstein, B. H. (1976). Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with obstruction of the upper respiratory tract. Chest, 70(6 ... Allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and sinusitis * Allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and sinusitis ... Manning, S. C. & Holman, M. (1998). Further evidence for allergic pathophysiology in allergic fungal sinusitis. Laryngoscope, ...
Bronchiectasis with or without allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. *Nasal polyps ...
However, in people with compromised immune systems, there is a high risk of developing aspergillosis due to inhalation of ... Aspergillosis is a condition caused by Aspergillus, an infectious mold. Aspergillus is a type of fungus found abundantly around ... allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and invasive aspergillosis. The majority of these are characterized by ... Aspergillosis is categorized into various types such as allergic Aspergillus sinusitis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, ...
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis. *Atypical Mycobacterial infection. *Bronchiectasis. *Chronic Lung Infections. *Cystic ...
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis ABPA. Suspects / Symptoms Suspect in asthma pt with pulmonary infiltrates or are ...
Total IgE levels are elevated in atopic eczema, allergic asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, invasive ... The level of IgE does not correlate well with the severity of allergic symptoms ...
Allergic broncho - pulmonary aspergillosis is a very serious lung disease that needs prompt and thorough investigation and ... The ability to be allergic can be inherited but is very complex. One can also see allergic kids in families that have no ... The worst thing that happen from an allergic reaction is death. This most serious allergic reaction is called anaphylaxis and ... Is there any risk of allergic reaction with collagen fillers? how do i find out if im allergic?. ...
... of the 4+ A-fumigatus reactors sensitized monkey skin while the serum of a patient with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis ... NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Fungi; Allergic-reactions; Agricultural-workers ...
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunological pulmonary disorder caused by hypersensitivity to Aspergillus ... Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a complex hypersensitivity reaction in response to colonization of the ...
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction to ... Morrissey B, Louie S. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: an evolving challenge in asthma. Gershwin M, Albertson T, eds. ... Bronchopulmonary sequestration is a congenital abnormality classified as either intralobar or extralobar and results in chronic ... Improvement in health status following bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy in patients with bronchiectasis. Respir Med. ...
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) Dilara Fatma KOCACIK UYGUN, Serkan FİLİZ, Ayşen BİNGÖL ... Current treatment differences before 2003 and in 2009 in seasonal allergic rhinitis ...
... and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS). DNA was extracted from ... and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS). DNA was extracted from ... and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS). DNA was extracted from ... and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS). DNA was extracted from ...
Of 54 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), 15 (28%) showed IgE binding to rAsp f 10 in ELISA. Of 35 A. ...
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a condition characterised by an exaggerated response of the immune system (a hypersensitivity response) to the fungus Aspergillus (most commonly Aspergillus fumigatus). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), aspergilloma, and invasive aspergillosis syndrome involve mycelial growth in the body of the host. (medscape.com)
  • The pathogenesis of ABPA involves allergic reactions to Aspergillus species. (medscape.com)
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus species (generally A. fumigatus ) that occurs almost exclusively in patients with asthma or, less commonly, cystic fibrosis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Aspergillosis is categorized into various types such as allergic Aspergillus sinusitis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma (also known as "fungus ball"), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and invasive aspergillosis. (news-medical.net)
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunological pulmonary disorder caused by hypersensitivity to Aspergillus which colonizes the airways of patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. (drnarangshospital.com)
  • We address the relative frequency of deficient genotypes, the relationship between serum level and genotype and both age and disease manifestations in patients with chronic pulmonary (CPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS). (manchester.ac.uk)
  • One hundred and eight patients were evaluated, 70 (65%) with CPA, 38 (35%) with allergic disease (ABPA, SAFS or undefined) and 13 (12%) had both CPA and ABPA. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Of 54 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), 15 (28%) showed IgE binding to rAsp f 10 in ELISA. (allergen.org)
  • Aspergillus fumigatus is the etiologic agent of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), has been associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and is a primary cause of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals [3] . (cdc.gov)
  • Allergic disease (eg, allergic sinusitis , asthma , alveolitis) occurs following repeated exposure to Aspergillus conidia or antigens in patients without mycelial colonization or invasion. (medscape.com)
  • Probable cases of invasive aspergillosis have been defined to include those with a clinically documented site of infection, and a culture from this site positive for Aspergillus species. (medscape.com)
  • Aspergillosis Aspergillosis is an opportunistic infection that usually affects the lower respiratory tract and is caused by inhaling spores of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus , commonly present in. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Aspergillosis is a disease caused by Aspergillus , a common mold (a type of fungus) that lives indoors and outdoors. (cdc.gov)
  • Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response caused by the fungus Aspergillus. (geometry.net)
  • Aspergillus conidia are widely dispersed in the environment and can easily reach human lungs and/or paranasal sinuses: most people inhale Aspergillosis spores every day! (geometry.net)
  • Aspergillosis is a condition caused by Aspergillus, an infectious mold. (news-medical.net)
  • However, in people with compromised immune systems, there is a high risk of developing aspergillosis due to inhalation of Aspergillus. (news-medical.net)
  • Black mold fungi Aspergillus which produce aflatoxins and cause pulmonary infection aspergillosis. (news-medical.net)
  • Reacción de hipersensibilidad (REACCIÓN ALÉRGICA) al hongo ASPERGILLUS en individuos con ASMA BRONQUIAL de larga duración. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conidia from the genus Aspergillus have been associated with allergic sensitization as well as exacerbation of allergy and asthma in otherwise healthy individuals [2] , [3] . (cdc.gov)
  • Noninvasive aspergillosis is usually seen in immunocompetent individuals, whereas invasive aspergillosis is seen in immunocompromised patients. (medscape.com)
  • The histopathologic/cytopathologic view of invasive aspergillosis from a needle aspiration or biopsy demonstrates septate acutely branching hyphae or spherule formation (filamentous fungi without yeast forms), with evidence of associated tissue damage (either microscopically or unequivocally by imaging). (medscape.com)
  • Possible invasive aspergillosis is defined as a clinically documented infection with undetermined microbiological etiology that did not respond to antibacterial therapy during persistent neutropenia. (medscape.com)
  • Invasive aspergillosis most commonly affects the lungs, but it can also spread to other parts of the body. (cdc.gov)
  • Cutaneous aspergillosis can also occur if invasive aspergillosis spreads to the skin from somewhere else in the body, such as the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • For instance, invasive Aspergillosis typically affects severely immunocompromised patients such as those with prolonged neutropenia or receiving therapy with steroids. (geometry.net)
  • Invasive aspergillosis is typically observed in individuals with compromised immunity. (news-medical.net)
  • Total IgE levels are elevated in atopic eczema, allergic asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, invasive heleminthiasis and some forms of immunodeficiency. (leedsth.nhs.uk)
  • Rarely, other fungi, such as Penicillium , Candida , Curvularia , Helminthosporium , and Drechslera , cause an identical syndrome called allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis in the absence of underlying asthma or cystic fibrosis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Causes or triggers of asthma can be divided into allergic and nonallergic etiologies. (medscape.com)
  • Co-morbidities of asthma include sinusitis, nasal polyposis, gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and allergic rhinitis. (medscape.com)
  • Risk factors for asthma include a family history of allergic disease, the presence of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), viral respiratory illnesses , exposure to aeroallergens , cigarette smoke, obesity , and lower socioeconomic status. (medscape.com)
  • The prevalence of asthma and allergic sensitization was 4 and 6 times lower in the Amish population, with higher median endotoxin levels in house dust. (medscape.com)
  • On the other hand, allergic forms of Aspergillosis cause exuberant clinical syndromes that mostly affect patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. (geometry.net)
  • In patients with chronic cystic fibrosis or asthma, the mold spores are likely to trigger an allergic response. (news-medical.net)
  • Clinical and economic impact of a one-year treatment with omalizumab in patients with severe allergic asthma within a drug programme in Poland. (medscape.com)
  • Further evidence for allergic pathophysiology in allergic fungal sinusitis. (allergy.org.au)
  • Denning DW, Riniotis K, Dobrashian R, Sambatakou H. Chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis: case series, proposed nomenclature change, and review external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • Coexisting pulmonary conditions may further add to the odds of developing aspergillosis. (news-medical.net)
  • Patients with other lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) also often develop chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. (news-medical.net)
  • Workup for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, cystic fibrosis and α 1 -antitrypsin deficiency ruled out these diagnoses. (cmaj.ca)
  • Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection complicated by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in a non-asthmatic patient. (nih.gov)
  • Physicians treat the aspergillosis patients on an individual basis, taking into account their medical history, comorbidities, and the type and severity of their infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Markers of disease severity and socioeconomic factors in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. (allergy.org.au)
  • It has been suggested that the extrusion of root canal obturation materials into the maxillary sinus may predispose a patient to noninvasive aspergillosis 2 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Classification of Hypersensitivity Reactions Allergic (including atopic) and other hypersensitivity disorders are inappropriate or exaggerated immune reactions to foreign antigens. (msdmanuals.com)
  • abstract = "Several studies suggest mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency is associated with various manifestations of aspergillosis. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Similarly, patients in the advanced stages of AIDS are also an easy target for opportunistic infections like aspergillosis. (news-medical.net)
  • A. fumigatus is responsible for a spectrum of lung diseases known as aspergilloses. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in patients with certain vascular disorders such as chronic granulomatous disease, and some inherited genetic conditions that cause defects in lymphocyte function, the risk of developing aspergillosis rises substantially. (news-medical.net)
  • None of the sera of the 4+ A-fumigatus reactors sensitized monkey skin while the serum of a patient with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis did sensitize. (cdc.gov)
  • MBL genotype and serum level modulate progression of aspergillosis. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • If you are a healthcare provider, click here to see the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Aspergillosis . (cdc.gov)
  • The fact that unlike many other microbial infections, aspergillosis is non-contagious, prevents this serious ailment from becoming an epidemic disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Treatment options for types of Aspergillosis. (cdc.gov)
  • There are different types of aspergillosis. (cdc.gov)
  • One undesirable sequela of root canal treatment is the overextension of endodontic material into the maxillary sinus, which may represent a risk factor for maxillary sinus aspergillosis (MSA). (bvsalud.org)
  • One possible unpleasant occurrence after root canal treatment is the overextension of endodontic materials (sealer, gutta-percha) into the maxillary sinus, a factor that may cause maxillary sinus aspergillosis (MSA) 1-5 . (bvsalud.org)
  • The label Aspergillosis is used for several diverse clinical conditions. (geometry.net)
  • The Aspergillosis Guidelines Pocketcard provides all tha is needed to make accurate clinical decisions at the point of care. (geometry.net)
  • Diverse clinical presentations of aspergillosis have been reported and they vary depending on the immune status of the host. (bvsalud.org)
  • Written by internationally respected authors, the information presented in this book adds for a better understanding of Aspergillosis by providing a comprehensive and clear overview of all aspects associated with this complex disease. (geometry.net)
  • A case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis successfully treated with mepolizumab. (medscape.com)
  • Two cases of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Induced sputum eosinophils and neutrophils and bronchiectasis severity in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. (nih.gov)
  • This reaction Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. (netlify.app)
  • A very serious allergic reaction to this product is rare. (webmd.com)
  • Others interrupt the allergic reaction that triggers symptoms. (rlmiller-plant.co.uk)
  • Classification of Hypersensitivity Reactions Allergic (including atopic) and other hypersensitivity disorders are inappropriate or exaggerated immune reactions to foreign antigens. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Symptoms are most common in mid-summer to early fall, but since molds grow both indoors and out, allergic reactions can occur all year. (healthmatters.io)
  • In addition to causing allergic reactions, molds can lead to infections along with toxic reactions. (healthmatters.io)
  • Allergic reactions to mould are common and include itchy eyes, sneezing, and skin rashes. (envirovent.com)
  • It decreases your immune system 's response to various diseases to reduce symptoms such as swelling and allergic-type reactions. (webmd.com)
  • This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. (webmd.com)
  • 5. [Clinical features and reasons for missed diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis]. (nih.gov)
  • 6. A retrospective study of patients with a delayed diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis/allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis develops progressively. (netlify.app)
  • 11. [Analysis of clinical features and allergic status of asthmatic patients with positive serum mycosis-specific IgE]. (nih.gov)
  • A. fumigatus is the causal agent of allergic and infectious diseases affecting dozens of millions of people globally. (blallab.com)
  • There are significant geographical influences regarding the most prevalent causes of hypereosinophilia, with reported parasitic infectious in tropical settings and allergic diseases in more developed and occidental countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lirentelimab for severe and chronic forms of allergic conjunctivitis. (abai.org)
  • A small percentage of asthmatics with inhaled mold allergy can also develop allergic urticaria (aka hives) when they eat or drink anything containing yeast or mold. (healthmatters.io)
  • Number of children in the household influences respiratory morbidities in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the outpatient setting. (stanford.edu)
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a common complication of prematurity, is associated with outpatient morbidities, including respiratory exacerbations. (stanford.edu)
  • Respiratory Outcomes for Ventilator-Dependent Children With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. (stanford.edu)
  • Illnesses caused by A. fumigatus Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. (netlify.app)
  • Exposure to chitin, a structural polysaccharide of the fungal cell wall, induces innate allergic inflammation and may promote sensitization to fungal allergens. (nih.gov)
  • CSS has also been shown to be a pathological syndrome of angiitis and allergic granulomatosis [2]. (who.int)
  • 12. [Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: report of 3 cases]. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, complement-deficient mice were not protected against chitin-induced innate allergic inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Long term exposure to mould can result in chronic illness including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis which will both require medical treatment. (envirovent.com)
  • Revised radiologic classification of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis based on findings on a high-resolution computed tomography of the chest. (medscape.com)
  • The condition involves both an allergic and inflammatory response to mold, and symptoms may include severe wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, fever, weakness/malaise, and cough producing brown flecks or bloody mucus. (healthmatters.io)
  • There are many types of aspergillosis, ranging from mild to serious disease. (nih.gov)
  • There are several different types of aspergillosis. (netlify.app)
  • Before retiring, she was medication accupril going through school she found it difficult to watch my hero, the man I have witnessed the most important people in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. (rlmiller-plant.co.uk)
  • How do you treat bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. (theskip.org)
  • Skin tests in a primate model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. (cdc.gov)
  • I suggest reading a report by Dr. David Denning from Manchester UK, Dierctor of the Aspergillosis Center. (mayoclinic.org)